Complicity: Association with or participation in an act that is, or is perceived to be, criminal or immoral. One is complicitous when one promotes or unduly benefits from practices or institutions that are morally or legally suspect.Research Embryo Creation: The creation of embryos specifically for research purposes.Stem Cell Research: Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.Los AngelesExhibitionsRhizome: Root-like underground horizontal stem of plants that produces shoots above and roots below. Distinguished from true roots which don't have buds and nodes. Similar to true roots in being underground and thickened by storage deposits.Economic Recession: Significant decline in economic activity spread across the economy, lasting more than a few months, normally visible in real gross domestic product, real income, employment, industrial production, and wholesale-retail sales. (National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc,, accessed 4/23/2009)Exhibits as Topic: Discussions, descriptions or catalogs of public displays or items representative of a given subject.MuseumsEl SalvadorProtestantism: The name given to all Christian denominations, sects, or groups rising out of the Reformation. Protestant churches generally agree that the principle of authority should be the Scriptures rather than the institutional church or the pope. (from W.L. Reese, Dictionary of Philosophy and Religion, 1999)Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Hospitals, Religious: Private hospitals that are owned or sponsored by religious organizations.Clergy: Persons ordained for religious duties, who serve as leaders and perform religious services.Christianity: The religion stemming from the life, teachings, and death of Jesus Christ: the religion that believes in God as the Father Almighty who works redemptively through the Holy Spirit for men's salvation and that affirms Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior who proclaimed to man the gospel of salvation. (From Webster, 3d ed)BooksVideo Games: A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.DelawareDecision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Documentaries and Factual FilmsIranScleroderma, Localized: A term used to describe a variety of localized asymmetrical SKIN thickening that is similar to those of SYSTEMIC SCLERODERMA but without the disease features in the multiple internal organs and BLOOD VESSELS. Lesions may be characterized as patches or plaques (morphea), bands (linear), or nodules.Great BritainCOUP Transcription Factor I: A COUP transcription factor that was originally identified as a homodimer that binds to a direct repeat regulatory element in the chicken albumin promoter. It is a transcription factor that plays an important role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Child Custody: The formally authorized guardianship or care of a CHILD.Police: Agents of the law charged with the responsibility of maintaining and enforcing law and order among the citizenry.Political Systems: The units based on political theory and chosen by countries under which their governmental power is organized and administered to their citizens.Racism: Differential treatment or unequal access to opportunities, based on group membership such as origin or ethnicity.Prejudice: A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.Hares: The genus Lepus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Hares are born above ground, fully furred, and with their eyes and ears open. In contrast with RABBITS, hares have 24 chromosome pairs.Torture: The intentional infliction of physical or mental suffering upon an individual or individuals, including the torture of animals.IsraelArabs: Members of a Semitic people inhabiting the Arabian peninsula or other countries of the Middle East and North Africa. The term may be used with reference to ancient, medieval, or modern ethnic or cultural groups. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Middle East: The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Jehovah's Witnesses: Members of a religious denomination founded in the United States during the late 19th century in which active evangelism is practiced, the imminent approach of the millennium is preached, and war and organized government authority in matters of conscience are strongly opposed (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). Jehovah's Witnesses generally refuse blood transfusions and other blood-based treatments based on religious belief.Imagination: A new pattern of perceptual or ideational material derived from past experience.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Motor Skills: Performance of complex motor acts.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Dictionaries, ChemicalCrime: A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.Plagiarism: Passing off as one's own the work of another without credit.Partnership Practice, Dental: A voluntary contract between two or more dentists who may or may not share responsibility for the care of patients, with proportional sharing of profits and losses.ArchivesRadio: The transmission and reception of electric impulses or signals by means of electric waves without a connecting wire, or the use of these waves for the wireless transmission of electric impulses into which sound is converted. (From Webster's 3d)Bulimia: Eating an excess amount of food in a short period of time, as seen in the disorder of BULIMIA NERVOSA. It is caused by an abnormal craving for food, or insatiable hunger also known as "ox hunger".

Should doctors intentionally do less than the best? (1/20)

The papers of Burley and Harris, and Draper and Chadwick, in this issue, raise a problem: what should doctors do when patients request an option which is not the best available? This commentary argues that doctors have a duty to offer that option which will result in the individual affected by that choice enjoying the highest level of wellbeing. Doctors can deviate from this duty and submaximise--bring about an outcome that is less than the best--only if there are good reasons to do so. The desire to have a child which is genetically related provides little, if any, reason to submaximise. The implication for cloning, preimplantation diagnosis and embryo transfer is that doctors should only produce a clone or transfer embryos expected to enjoy a level of wellbeing which is less than that enjoyed by other children the couple could have, if there is a good reason to employ that technology. This paper sketches what might constitute a good reason to submaximise.  (+info)

A reply to Joseph Bernstein. (2/20)

Dr. Bernstein suggests that anti-vivisectionists should be able to fill in a directive requesting that they receive no medical treatment developed through work on animals. It is replied that this would only be reasonable if research not using animals had long been funded as adequately and its results were currently available.  (+info)

American physicians and dual loyalty obligations in the "war on terror". (3/20)

BACKGROUND: Post-September 11, 2001, the U.S. government has labeled thousands of Afghan war detainees "unlawful combatants". This label effectively deprives these detainees of the protection they would receive as "prisoners of war" under international humanitarian law. Reports have emerged that indicate that thousands of detainees being held in secret military facilities outside the United States are being subjected to questionable "stress and duress" interrogation tactics by U.S. authorities. If true, American military physicians could be inadvertently becoming complicit in detainee abuse. Moreover, the American government's openly negative views towards such detainees could result in military physicians not wanting to provide reasonable care to detainees, despite it being their ethical duty to do so. DISCUSSION: This paper assesses the physician's obligations to treat war detainees in the light of relevant instruments of international humanitarian law and medical ethics. It briefly outlines how detainee abuse flourished in apartheid South Africa when state physicians became morally detached from the interests of their detainee patients. I caution U.S physicians not to let the same mindset befall them. I urge the U.S. medical community to advocate for detainee rights in the U.S, regardless of the political culture the detainee emerged from. I offer recommendations to U.S physicians facing dual loyalty conflicts of interest in the "war on terror". SUMMARY: If U.S. physicians are faced with a conflict of interest between following national policies or international principles of humanitarian law and medical ethics, they should opt to adhere to the latter when treating war detainees. It is important for the U.S. medical community to speak out against possible detainee abuse by the U.S. government.  (+info)

A proposed stem cell research policy. (4/20)

The aspirations of scientists and patients for human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research in the U.S. motivate attention to the nitty-gritty of law and regulation and its confluence with such moral consensus as lies within our reach. Federal law and regulation form a tangle. Analysis yields several conclusions not widely appreciated. A legislative enactment is the rate-limiting step of federally funded research, the restriction of research imposed by the previous administration's policy as reprised in current proposals fails to achieve its objective of avoiding complicity in embryo sacrifice, the current administration's policy is another failed noncomplicity scheme under which research cannot be expanded without demolishing its putative justification, and the Food and Drug Administration has already effectively interdicted procreative cloning. While it is not plausible to deny complicity in embryo sacrifice when performing or funding hESC research, one can justify sacrifice of some embryos by an argument whose premises are consistent with a wide range of moral and religious views. This paper proposes a rule of public policy providing for the use of donated embryos barred from the womb. This rule would optimize research while manifesting its moral justification. The rule is suitable for implementation by any government that funds hESC research. The rule's justification provides a cogent argument for such incremental steps toward its implementation as become politically feasible from time to time.  (+info)

Fetal tissue transplantation: can it be morally insulated from abortion? (5/20)

Ethical controversy over transplantation of human fetal tissue has arisen because the source of tissue is induced abortions. Opposition to such transplants has been based on various arguments, including the following: rightful informed consent cannot be obtained for use of fetal tissue from induced abortions, and fetal tissue transplantation might result in an increase in the number of abortions. These arguments were not accepted by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Human Fetal Tissue Transplantation Research Panel. The majority opinion of the panel stated that abortion and fetal tissue use are entirely separate issues, and that tissue use is ethically acceptable because it can be morally insulated from the issue of abortion. In support of this view, panel members and others have replied to the arguments put forward by opponents of fetal tissue use. However, replies to the two arguments mentioned above have been unsatisfactory, and the shortcomings of those replies are identified herein. Examination of the arguments pro and con suggests that fetal tissue use cannot be completely insulated from the issue of abortion. Thus, in seeking an ethical justification for fetal tissue transplantation we must consider reasons other than those put forward by the NIH panel. In this paper it is argued that whatever wrong is involved in using fetal tissue from induced abortions must be balanced against the benefits for patients, and it is on this basis that fetal tissue transplantation can be ethically justified.  (+info)

Degrading and non-degrading sex in popular music: a content analysis. (6/20)

OBJECTIVES: Those exposed to more degrading sexual references in popular music are more likely to initiate intercourse at a younger age. The purpose of this study was to perform a content analysis of contemporary popular music with particular attention paid to the prevalence of degrading and non-degrading sexual references. We also aimed to determine if sexual references of each subtype were associated with other song characteristics and/or content. METHODS: We used Billboard magazine to identify the top popular songs in 2005. Two independent coders each analyzed all of these songs (n = 279) for degrading and non-degrading sexual references. As measured with Cohen's kappa scores, inter-rater agreement on degrading vs. non-degrading sex was substantial. Mentions of substance use, violence, and weapon carrying were also coded. RESULTS: Of the 279 songs identified, 103 (36.9%) contained references to sexual activity. Songs with references to degrading sex were more common than songs with references to non-degrading sex (67 [65.0%] vs. 36 [35.0%], p < 0.001). Songs with degrading sex were most commonly Rap (64.2%), whereas songs with non-degrading sex were most likely Country (44.5%) or Rhythm & Blues/Hip-Hop (27.8%). Compared with songs that had no mention of sexual activity, songs with degrading sex were more likely to contain references to substance use, violence, and weapon carrying. Songs with non-degrading sex were no more likely to mention these other risk behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: References to sexual activity are common in popular music, and degrading sexual references are more prevalent than non-degrading references. References to degrading sex also frequently appear with references to other risky behaviors.  (+info)

The prevalence of academic dishonesty in Texas dental hygiene programs. (7/20)

The media has given much attention to the academic cheating crisis in America. A majority of college students believe that, in today's global environment, it is necessary to cheat in order to get ahead and to compete with their peers. The prevalence and attitudes concerning academic dishonesty of health professions students, including those in medical, dental, and nursing schools, have been extensively researched. No such studies exist in the discipline of dental hygiene. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of cheating in Texas dental hygiene programs. Four hundred surveys were mailed to twenty Texas dental hygiene schools for graduating students to complete. A total of 289 usable surveys was returned for a response rate of 72.25 percent. Data were analyzed using SPSS with frequencies and chi-square tests. Findings from this study reveal that 86.5 percent of graduating Texas dental hygiene students have cheated a minimum of one time during matriculation. Students identified the demands of what they considered academic overload as the primary justification for cheating behavior.  (+info)

Open doorway to truth: legacy of the Minnesota tobacco trial. (8/20)


  • The report, and the data which shall be transmitted therein, will provide an important tool to end corporate complicity in Israel's prolonged occupation of the Occupied Palestinian Territory (OPT). (
  • The database, along with the increased worldwide focus on business complicity in Israel's occupation, comes alongside other global developments in the field of business and human rights. (
  • But the complicity of these countries in torture, a crime under international law, was not mentioned once in the courtroom. (
  • The European Court of Human Rights has already ruled in a civil case against Poland for complicity in the enforced disappearance and torture of CIA detainees Mohammed al-Nashiri and Abu Zubaydah, both of whom are still in Guantánamo. (
  • More than 18 months after FIDH and LDH filed a complaint before the Prosecutor of the Paris Court denouncing the alleged implication of French companies, in particular Qosmos, in the selling of surveillance material to Bachar El Assad's regime, FIDH and LDH welcome today's decision to open a judicial investigation for complicity of acts of torture in Syria. (
  • This new development follows the opening, in May 2012, of another judicial investigation into the alleged implication of the French company Amesys for complicity to acts of torture in Libya. (
  • We will also continue with our campaign to highlight the plight of Palestinian women in Israeli prisons and in particular Lena Jarboni, and specifically G4S complicity in their torture and suffering. (
  • Almost half of European Union (EU) member states have flouted an EU-wide suspension on arms transfers to Egypt, risking complicity in a wave of unlawful killings, enforced disappearances and torture, Amnesty International said today. (
  • EU states transferring arms and policing equipment to Egyptian forces carrying out enforced disappearances, torture and arbitrary arrests on a mass scale are acting recklessly and are risking complicity in these serious violations. (
  • Moral Complicity at Court: Who Decides? (
  • Here, the government relied on a different, dangerous argument focused on the "substantial burden" component of the RFRA test: the Little Sisters are not "substantially burdened" by the HHS Mandate because their religious beliefs are wrong-specifically, their religious theory of moral complicity. (
  • In response, the government argued that the Little Sisters' sincere religious beliefs are wrong because the HHS forms place enough paperwork between the nuns and the abortifacient drugs to "wash their hands" of any moral complicity. (
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  • Complicity is the participation in a completed criminal act of an accomplice, a partner in the crime who aids or encourages (abets) other perpetrators of that crime, and who shared with them an intent to act to complete the crime. (
  • First Degree Murder and Complicity-Conditions for Parity of Culpability Between Principal and Accomplice. (
  • The Obama-Biden Administration - with Secretary Clinton's latest remarks - continues to dig itself deeper and deeper into a hole of complicity in Turkey's genocide denial," said ANCA Executive Director Aram Hamparian. (
  • Complicity and the Rwandan Genocide. (
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  • Oxfam today issued a stinging condemnation of widespread political complicity in the Yemen conflict as the UN launches its latest plan to help millions of people caught up in the crisis. (
  • In cases where one is complicit because of a failure to act when one has a duty to act to prevent a crime, complicity differs from omission in that liability for complicity arises from the relationship to other perpetrators, whereas liability for omission arises from a duty relationship to the victim. (
  • White Complicity and Social Justice Education: Can One Be Culpable Without Being Liable? (
  • Peter Oborne is a rare example of a Western journalist reporting from Yemen, also pointing unequivocally to British complicity in the country's nightmare. (
  • Complicity also differs from attempt, solicitation, and conspiracy in that it always depends on that crime having been completed, i.e., it is never inchoate. (
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  • Longtime trade union activist, former aerospace worker and writer Roger Annis spoke with Canadian Dimension editorial assistant Harrison Samphir about the war in Ukraine, threats to European stability, and the complicity of the Canadian media and federal government in aggressive military policies. (
  • And in West Africa, some are also trying to reconcile the complicity of African rulers and slave merchants in the slave trade. (
  • The reasons are complex, but boil down to a system of complicity and perceived normality in Indigenous deaths at the hands of police and prisons. (