Conditions characterized by pain involving an extremity or other body region, HYPERESTHESIA, and localized autonomic dysfunction following injury to soft tissue or nerve. The pain is usually associated with ERYTHEMA; SKIN TEMPERATURE changes, abnormal sudomotor activity (i.e., changes in sweating due to altered sympathetic innervation) or edema. The degree of pain and other manifestations is out of proportion to that expected from the inciting event. Two subtypes of this condition have been described: type I; (REFLEX SYMPATHETIC DYSTROPHY) and type II; (CAUSALGIA). (From Pain 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33)
A syndrome characterized by severe burning pain in an extremity accompanied by sudomotor, vasomotor, and trophic changes in bone without an associated specific nerve injury. This condition is most often precipitated by trauma to soft tissue or nerve complexes. The skin over the affected region is usually erythematous and demonstrates hypersensitivity to tactile stimuli and erythema. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1360; Pain 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33)
A complex regional pain syndrome characterized by burning pain and marked sensitivity to touch (HYPERESTHESIA) in the distribution of an injured peripheral nerve. Autonomic dysfunction in the form of sudomotor (i.e., sympathetic innervation to sweat glands), vasomotor, and trophic skin changes may also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1359)
Interruption of sympathetic pathways, by local injection of an anesthetic agent, at any of four levels: peripheral nerve block, sympathetic ganglion block, extradural block, and subarachnoid block.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
A paravertebral sympathetic ganglion formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical and first thoracic ganglia.
Disorders of sensory information received from superficial and deep regions of the body. The somatosensory system conveys neural impulses which pertain to proprioception, tactile sensation, thermal sensation, pressure sensation, and pain. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; and BRAIN DISEASES may be associated with impaired or abnormal somatic sensation.
The TEMPERATURE at the outer surface of the body.
Use of any infusion therapy on an ambulatory, outpatient, or other non-institutionalized basis.
Intensely discomforting, distressful, or agonizing sensation associated with trauma or disease, with well-defined location, character, and timing.
Psychoanalytic theory focusing on interpretation of behavior in reference to self. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Terms, 1994) This elaboration of the psychoanalytic concepts of narcissism and the self, was developed by Heinz Kohut, and stresses the importance of the self-awareness of excessive needs for approval and self-gratification.
A tibial fracture is a medical term that describes a break or crack in the shinbone, one of the two bones in the lower leg, which can occur anywhere along its length due to various traumatic injuries or stresses.
Visible accumulations of fluid within or beneath the epidermis.
A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
The use of mental images produced by the imagination as a form of psychotherapy. It can be classified by the modality of its content: visual, verbal, auditory, olfactory, tactile, gustatory, or kinesthetic. Common themes derive from nature imagery (e.g., forests and mountains), water imagery (e.g., brooks and oceans), travel imagery, etc. Imagery is used in the treatment of mental disorders and in helping patients cope with other diseases. Imagery often forms a part of HYPNOSIS, of AUTOGENIC TRAINING, of RELAXATION TECHNIQUES, and of BEHAVIOR THERAPY. (From Encyclopedia of Human Behavior, vol. 4, pp29-30, 1994)
Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.
The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.
Persistent pain that is refractory to some or all forms of treatment.
Drugs that act on adrenergic receptors or affect the life cycle of adrenergic transmitters. Included here are adrenergic agonists and antagonists and agents that affect the synthesis, storage, uptake, metabolism, or release of adrenergic transmitters.
An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.
The removal or interruption of some part of the sympathetic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.
An attitude or posture due to the co-contraction of agonists and antagonist muscles in one region of the body. It most often affects the large axial muscles of the trunk and limb girdles. Conditions which feature persistent or recurrent episodes of dystonia as a primary manifestation of disease are referred to as DYSTONIC DISORDERS. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p77)
Aching sensation that persists for more than a few months. It may or may not be associated with trauma or disease, and may persist after the initial injury has healed. Its localization, character, and timing are more vague than with acute pain.
Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.
A syndrome characterized by retropatellar or peripatellar PAIN resulting from physical and biochemical changes in the patellofemoral joint. The pain is most prominent when ascending or descending stairs, squatting, or sitting with flexed knees. There is a lack of consensus on the etiology and treatment. The syndrome is often confused with (or accompanied by) CHONDROMALACIA PATELLAE, the latter describing a pathological condition of the CARTILAGE and not a syndrome.
Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.
The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.
A characteristic symptom complex.
Muscular pain in numerous body regions that can be reproduced by pressure on TRIGGER POINTS, localized hardenings in skeletal muscle tissue. Pain is referred to a location distant from the trigger points. A prime example is the TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DYSFUNCTION SYNDROME.
Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.
Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.
The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)

Concentration-effect relationship of intravenous lidocaine on the allodynia of complex regional pain syndrome types I and II. (1/114)

BACKGROUND: Several lines of evidence suggest that neuropathic pain (including Complex Regional Pain Syndrome [CRPS] I and CRPS II) is mediated in part by an increase in the density of voltage-sensitive sodium channels in injured axons and the dorsal root ganglion of injured axons. This study sought to characterize the effects of intravenous lidocaine (a sodium channel blocker) on acute sensory thresholds within the painful area and the size of the painful area in patients suffering from CRPS I and II. METHODS: This study used a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design in 16 subjects suffering from CRPS I and II with a prominent allodynia. Each subject received an intravenous infusion of lidocaine and diphenhydramine separated by 1 week. A computer-controlled infusion pump targeted stair-step increases in plasma levels of lidocaine of 1, 2, and 3 microg/ml. At baseline and at each plasma level, spontaneous and evoked pain scores and neurosensory testing within the painful area were measured. The neurosensory testing consisted of thermal thresholds, tactile thresholds and the area of allodynia to punctate, and stroking and thermal stimuli. RESULTS: Intravenous lidocaine and diphenhydramine had no significant effect on the cool, warm, or cold pain thresholds. However, lidocaine caused a significant elevation of the hot pain thresholds in the painful area. Intravenous lidocaine caused a significantly decreased response to stroking and cool stimuli in the allodynic area. There was also a significant decrease in pain scores to cool stimuli at all plasma levels and the spontaneous pain at the highest plasma level. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that intravenous lidocaine affects pain in response to cool stimuli more than mechanical pain in subjects with neuropathic pain. There is a lesser effect on spontaneous pain and pain induced by stroking stimuli and no effect on the pain induced by punctate stimuli.  (+info)

Pain and the body schema: evidence for peripheral effects on mental representations of movement. (2/114)

Some accounts of body representations postulate a real-time representation of the body in space generated by proprioceptive, somatosensory, vestibular and other sensory inputs; this representation has often been termed the 'body schema'. To examine whether the body schema is influenced by peripheral factors such as pain, we asked patients with chronic unilateral arm pain to determine the laterality of pictured hands presented at different orientations. Previous chronometric findings suggest that performance on this task depends on the body schema, in that it appears to involve mentally rotating one's hand from its current position until it is aligned with the stimulus hand. We found that, as in previous investigations, participants' response times (RTs) reflected the degree of simulated movement as well as biomechanical constraints of the arm. Importantly, a significant interaction between the magnitude of mental rotation and limb was observed: RTs were longer for the painful arm than for the unaffected arm for large-amplitude imagined movements; controls exhibited symmetrical RTs. These findings suggest that the body schema is influenced by pain and that this task may provide an objective measure of pain.  (+info)

Local sympathetic denervation in painful diabetic neuropathy. (3/114)

This study assessed whether painful diabetic neuropathy is associated with abnormal sympathetic nervous function in the affected limbs. Nine patients with diabetes (four men, five women; age 61 +/- 7 years) and painful peripheral neuropathy of the feet, but without evidence of generalized autonomic neuropathy, underwent intravenous infusion of tritiated norepinephrine (NE) and sampling of arterial and venous blood in both feet and in one arm to quantify the rate of entry of NE into the local venous plasma (NE spillover). In the same patients, positron emission tomography (PET) scanning after intravenous injection of the sympathoneural imaging agent 6-[(18)F]fluorodopamine was used to visualize sympathetic innervation and after intravenous [(13)N]ammonia to visualize local perfusion. The results were compared with those in the feet of normal volunteers and in an unaffected foot of patients with unilateral complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). In addition, neurochemical results obtained in painful diabetic neuropathy were compared with those obtained in diabetic control patients with painless neuropathy and diabetic control patients without neuropathy. Local arteriovenous difference in plasma NE levels (DeltaNE(AV)) and NE spillover in the arms did not differ across the groups. However, DeltaNE(AV) in the feet was significantly less in the group with painful diabetic neuropathy than in the control groups. Also NE spillover in the feet tended to be lower in painful neuropathy. DeltaNE(AV) of diabetic control patients without neuropathy (n = 6) resembled values in the control groups without diabetes, whereas patients with painless diabetic neuropathy (n = 6) had evidence suggesting partial loss of sympathetic innervation. PET scanning revealed decreased flow-corrected 6-[(18)F]fluorodopamine-derived radioactivity in patients with painful diabetic neuropathy, compared with values in normal volunteers and patients with CRPS. The results provide neurochemical and neuroimaging evidence for regionally selective sympathetic denervation in the painful feet of patients with diabetic neuropathy.  (+info)

Infrared thermographic imaging in the assessment of successful block on lumbar sympathetic ganglion. (4/114)

This study examined the net changes in temperature at various regions of the lower extremities in an attempt to identify the regions demonstrating the most significant temperature changes following a lumbar sympathetic ganglion block (LSGB). Thermography was performed before and after the LSGB in 26 sympathetic nerve system disorder cases. The inspection points were the anterior and posterior surfaces of the thigh, the knee and leg, and the dorsal and plantar surfaces of the feet. The net increases in skin temperature following the LSGB (deltaT(net)) at the plantar and dorsal surfaces of the feet, were 6.2 +/- 2.68 degrees C (mean +/- SD) and 3.9 +/- 1.89 degrees C, respectively, which were higher than those observed in the other regions of the lower extremities (p < 0.05). The areas, in order of decreasing deltaT(net), are as follows: the plantar surface of the foot, the dorsal surface of the foot, the shin, the anterior surface of the knee, the calf, the posterior surface of the knee, the anterior surface of the thigh, and the posterior surface of the thigh. There was one case of orthostatic hypotension during the thermography procedure. In conclusion, thermographic imaging is a useful method for demonstrating the success of a LSGB in various diseases. An evaluation of the deltaT(net) on the plantar surface of the feet using thermographic imaging is the most effective, simple, and safe method for assessing a successful LSGB.  (+info)

Referred sensations in patients with complex regional pain syndrome type 1. (5/114)

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to explore and characterize referred sensations (RS) in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type 1 and test the hypothesis that pain in CRPS is associated with central sensory changes. METHODS: Subjects underwent standardized neurological examination involving light touch, pinprick and vibration sense with eyes closed and then with eyes open. The subjects described the location and sensation emanating from the stimulated site and whether they experienced any sensations (similar or different) elsewhere. RESULTS: Five of 16 subjects recruited demonstrated RS. These were experienced in real time, were modality specific (touch and pinprick) and were located on the body part immediately adjacent, on Penfield's cortical homunculus, to the stimulated site. The RS were diminished or absent when the subject visualized the stimulated area. They disappeared when stimulation ceased and on clinical improvement. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of RS in CRPS and provides further evidence of central reorganization in what was previously thought to be a peripheral disorder.  (+info)

Persistence of pain induced by startle and forehead cooling after sympathetic blockade in patients with complex regional pain syndrome. (6/114)

BACKGROUND: Stimuli arousing sympathetic activity can increase ratings of clinical pain in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the increase in pain is mediated by peripheral sympathetic activity. METHODS: The effect of sympathetic ganglion blockade on pain evoked by a startle stimulus and cooling the forehead was investigated in 36 CRPS patients. RESULTS: Loss of vasoconstrictor reflexes and warming of the limb indicated that sympathetic blockade was effective in 26 cases. Before sympathetic blockade, pain increased in 12 of these 26 patients when they were startled. Pain increased in seven of the 12 patients and in another five cases when their forehead was cooled. As expected, pain that increased during sympathetic arousal generally subsided in patients with signs of sympathetic blockade. However, pain still increased in three of 12 of patients after the startle stimulus and in six of 12 of patients during forehead cooling, despite indisputable sympathetic blockade. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that stimuli arousing sympathetic activity act by a central process to exacerbate pain in some patients, independent of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system. This may account for the lack of effect of peripheral sympathetic blockade on pain in some CRPS patients.  (+info)

Spinal cord stimulation in complex regional pain syndrome: cervical and lumbar devices are comparably effective. (7/114)

BACKGROUND: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been used since 1967 for the treatment of patients with chronic pain. However, long-term effects of this treatment have not been reported. The present study investigated the long-term effects of cervical and lumbar SCS in patients with complex regional pain syndrome type I. METHODS: Thirty-six patients with a definitive implant were included in this study. A pain diary was obtained from all patients before treatment and 6 months and 1 and 2 years after implantation. All patients were asked to complete a seven-point Global Perceived Effect (GPE) scale and the Euroqol-5D (EQ-5D) at each post-implant assessment point. RESULTS: The pain intensity was reduced at 6 months, 1 and 2 years after implantation (P<0.05). However, the repeated measures ANOVA showed a statistically significant, linear increase in the visual analogue scale score (P=0.03). According to the GPE, at least 42% of the cervical SCS patients and 47% of the lumbar SCS patients reported at least 'much improvement'. The health status of the patients, as measured on the EQ-5D, was improved after treatment (P<0.05). This improvement was noted both from the social and from the patients' perspective. Complications and adverse effects occurred in 64% of the patients and consisted mainly of technical defects. There were no differences between cervical and lumbar groups with regard to outcome measures. CONCLUSION: SCS reduced the pain intensity and improves health status in the majority of the CRPS I patients in this study. There was no difference in pain relief and complications between cervical and lumbar SCS.  (+info)

Complex regional pain syndrome: a review. (8/114)

Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a challenging neuropathic pain state, quite difficult to comprehend and treat. Its pathophysiological mechanisms are unclear and its treatment is difficult. Multiple factors play a role in the generation and maintenance of CRPS. A close interdisciplinary collaboration amongst the psychologist, physical and occupational therapists, neurologist and pain medicine consultants is necessary to achieve optimal treatment effects. The primary goals of managing patients with this syndrome are to: 1) perform a comprehensive diagnostic evaluation, 2) be prompt and aggressive in treatment interventions, 3) assess and reassess the patient's clinical and psychological status, 4) be consistently supportive, and 5) strive for the maximal amount of pain relief and functional improvement. This article reviews the different aspects of CRPS including definition, classification, epidemiology and natural history, clinical presentation, pathophysiology and management.  (+info)

Complex Regional Pain Syndromes (CRPS) are a group of chronic pain conditions that typically affect a limb after an injury or trauma. They are characterized by prolonged, severe and often debilitating pain that is out of proportion to the severity of the initial injury. CRPS is divided into two types:

1. CRPS-1 (also known as Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy): This type occurs without a clearly defined nerve injury. It usually develops after an illness or injury that didn't directly damage the nerves.
2. CRPS-2 (also known as Causalgia): This type is associated with a confirmed nerve injury.

The symptoms of CRPS include:

* Continuous, burning or throbbing pain in the affected limb
* Changes in skin temperature, color and texture
* Swelling and stiffness in the joints
* Decreased range of motion and weakness in the affected limb
* Sensitivity to touch or cold
* Abnormal sweating pattern in the affected area
* Changes in nail and hair growth patterns

The exact cause of CRPS is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to a dysfunction in the nervous system's response to injury. Treatment for CRPS typically involves a combination of medications, physical therapy, and psychological support. In some cases, more invasive treatments such as nerve blocks or spinal cord stimulation may be recommended.

Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy (RSD), also known as Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS), is a chronic pain condition that most often affects a limb after an injury or trauma. It is characterized by prolonged or excessive pain and sensitivity, along with changes in skin color, temperature, and swelling.

The symptoms of RSD/CRPS are thought to be caused by an overactive sympathetic nervous system, which controls involuntary bodily functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, and sweating. In RSD/CRPS, the sympathetic nerves are believed to send incorrect signals to the brain, causing it to perceive intense pain even in the absence of any actual tissue damage.

RSD/CRPS can be classified into two types: Type 1, which occurs after an injury or trauma that did not directly damage the nerves, and Type 2, which occurs after a distinct nerve injury. The symptoms of both types are similar, but Type 2 is typically more severe and may involve more widespread nerve damage.

Treatment for RSD/CRPS usually involves a combination of medications, physical therapy, and other therapies such as spinal cord stimulation or sympathetic nerve blocks. Early diagnosis and treatment can help improve outcomes and reduce the risk of long-term complications.

Causalgia is a type of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) that occurs after a nerve injury. It is characterized by severe, persistent burning pain, sensitivity to touch, and changes in skin color, temperature, and swelling in the affected limb. These symptoms are often disproportionate to the severity of the initial injury.

Causalgia was originally described as a symptom of nerve injuries sustained during wartime, but it can also occur after trauma, surgery, or other types of nerve damage. The exact cause of causalgia is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve abnormalities in the nervous system's processing of pain signals.

Treatment for causalgia typically involves a combination of medications, physical therapy, and other therapies to manage pain and improve function. In some cases, more invasive treatments such as nerve blocks or spinal cord stimulation may be recommended.

An autonomic nerve block is a medical procedure that involves injecting a local anesthetic or other medication into or near the nerves that make up the autonomic nervous system. This type of nerve block is used to diagnose and treat certain medical conditions that affect the autonomic nervous system, such as neuropathy or complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS).

The autonomic nervous system is responsible for controlling many involuntary bodily functions, such as heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, and body temperature. It is made up of two parts: the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system is responsible for preparing the body for "fight or flight" responses, while the parasympathetic nervous system helps the body relax and rest.

An autonomic nerve block can be used to diagnose a problem with the autonomic nervous system by temporarily blocking the nerves' signals and observing how this affects the body's functions. It can also be used to treat pain or other symptoms caused by damage to the autonomic nerves. The injection is usually given in the area near the spine, and the specific location will depend on the nerves being targeted.

It is important to note that an autonomic nerve block is a medical procedure that should only be performed by a qualified healthcare professional. As with any medical procedure, there are risks and benefits associated with an autonomic nerve block, and it is important for patients to discuss these with their doctor before deciding whether this treatment is right for them.

Pain measurement, in a medical context, refers to the quantification or evaluation of the intensity and/or unpleasantness of a patient's subjective pain experience. This is typically accomplished through the use of standardized self-report measures such as numerical rating scales (NRS), visual analog scales (VAS), or categorical scales (mild, moderate, severe). In some cases, physiological measures like heart rate, blood pressure, and facial expressions may also be used to supplement self-reported pain ratings. The goal of pain measurement is to help healthcare providers better understand the nature and severity of a patient's pain in order to develop an effective treatment plan.

The Stellate Ganglion is a part of the sympathetic nervous system. It's a collection of nerve cells (a ganglion) located in the neck, more specifically at the level of the sixth and seventh cervical vertebrae. The stellate ganglion is formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical ganglion and the first thoracic ganglion.

This ganglion plays a crucial role in the body's "fight or flight" response, providing sympathetic innervation to the head, neck, upper extremities, and heart. It's responsible for various functions including regulation of blood flow, sweat gland activity, and contributing to the sensory innervation of the head and neck.

Stellate ganglion block is a medical procedure used to diagnose or treat certain conditions like pain disorders, by injecting local anesthetic near the stellate ganglion to numb the area and interrupt nerve signals.

Somatosensory disorders are a category of neurological conditions that affect the somatosensory system, which is responsible for receiving and processing sensory information from the body. These disorders can result in abnormal or distorted perception of touch, temperature, pain, vibration, position, movement, and pressure.

Somatosensory disorders can be caused by damage to or dysfunction of the peripheral nerves, spinal cord, or brain. They can manifest as a variety of symptoms, including numbness, tingling, burning sensations, hypersensitivity to touch, loss of sensation, and difficulty with coordination and balance.

Examples of somatosensory disorders include peripheral neuropathy, complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), and dysesthesias. Treatment for these conditions may involve medication, physical therapy, or other interventions aimed at managing symptoms and improving quality of life.

Skin temperature is the measure of heat emitted by the skin, which can be an indicator of the body's core temperature. It is typically lower than the body's internal temperature and varies depending on factors such as environmental temperature, blood flow, and physical activity. Skin temperature is often used as a vital sign in medical settings and can be measured using various methods, including thermal scanners, digital thermometers, or mercury thermometers. Changes in skin temperature may also be associated with certain medical conditions, such as inflammation, infection, or nerve damage.

Home infusion therapy is a healthcare service where patients receive administered medications, fluids, or nutritional support through a vein (intravenous), beneath the skin (subcutaneous), or into the spinal fluid (intrathecal) in their own homes. This treatment modality is an alternative to receiving such therapies in a hospital or other healthcare facility. It allows patients to receive medical care while maintaining their comfort and independence in a familiar environment. Home infusion therapy can be used for various conditions, including infections that require antibiotics or antifungals, pain management, hydration, chemotherapy, and other specialized infusions.

The process typically involves the placement of a catheter or needle, often with the help of a home healthcare nurse, who also provides training to the patient or their caregiver for self-administration. A pharmacist is responsible for preparing and compounding the medications, ensuring their sterility, stability, and accurate dosing. Home infusion therapy services may also include regular monitoring, assessment, and communication with the prescribing physician to manage the patient's treatment plan effectively.

Home infusion therapy has been shown to improve patient outcomes, increase satisfaction, and reduce healthcare costs compared to traditional inpatient care. It is a valuable option for patients who require ongoing therapies but prefer to recover or manage their conditions at home.

Acute pain is a type of pain that comes on suddenly and can be severe, but it typically lasts for a short period of time. It is often described as sharp or stabbing and can be caused by tissue damage, inflammation, or injury. Acute pain is the body's way of signaling that something is wrong and that action needs to be taken to address the underlying cause.

Acute pain is different from chronic pain, which is pain that persists for 12 weeks or longer. Chronic pain can be caused by a variety of factors, including ongoing medical conditions, nerve damage, or inflammation. It is important to seek medical attention if you are experiencing acute pain that does not improve or becomes severe, as it may be a sign of a more serious underlying condition.

Self psychology is a branch of psychoanalysis developed by Heinz Kohut that emphasizes the role of empathy in understanding and treating psychological disorders. It focuses on the self, which includes an individual's sense of identity, self-esteem, and emotional well-being. According to this theory, a healthy self is characterized by a cohesive and stable sense of self, along with the ability to experience joy, pride, and satisfaction. In contrast, a poorly functioning self may result in feelings of emptiness, low self-esteem, and difficulties in forming and maintaining relationships.

Self psychology posits that individuals have certain innate psychological needs, including the need for mirroring (to have one's thoughts, feelings, and experiences affirmed by others), idealization (the ability to admire and look up to others as role models), and twinship (a sense of connection and understanding with others). When these needs are not met in early childhood, it can lead to the development of psychological issues.

In therapy, self psychologists aim to provide a therapeutic environment that meets the patient's emotional needs through empathic listening and understanding. This approach helps the patient develop a stronger and more cohesive sense of self, improve their ability to regulate their emotions, and form healthier relationships with others.

A tibial fracture is a medical term that refers to a break in the shin bone, which is called the tibia. The tibia is the larger of the two bones in the lower leg and is responsible for supporting much of your body weight. Tibial fractures can occur in various ways, such as from high-energy trauma like car accidents or falls, or from low-energy trauma in individuals with weakened bones due to osteoporosis or other medical conditions.

Tibial fractures can be classified into different types based on the location, pattern, and severity of the break. Some common types of tibial fractures include:

1. Transverse fracture: A straight break that goes across the bone.
2. Oblique fracture: A diagonal break that slopes across the bone.
3. Spiral fracture: A break that spirals around the bone, often caused by twisting or rotational forces.
4. Comminuted fracture: A break where the bone is shattered into multiple pieces.
5. Open fracture: A break in which the bone pierces through the skin, increasing the risk of infection.
6. Closed fracture: A break in which the bone does not pierce through the skin.

Tibial fractures can cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, bruising, deformity, and difficulty walking or bearing weight on the affected leg. Treatment for tibial fractures may include immobilization with a cast or brace, surgery to realign and stabilize the bone with plates, screws, or rods, and rehabilitation to restore strength, mobility, and function to the injured limb.

A blister is a small fluid-filled bubble that forms on the skin due to friction, burns, or contact with certain chemicals or irritants. Blisters are typically filled with a clear fluid called serum, which is a component of blood. They can also be filled with blood (known as blood blisters) if the blister is caused by a more severe injury.

Blisters act as a natural protective barrier for the underlying skin and tissues, preventing infection and promoting healing. It's generally recommended to leave blisters intact and avoid breaking them, as doing so can increase the risk of infection and delay healing. If a blister is particularly large or painful, medical attention may be necessary to prevent complications.

Pain management is a branch of medicine that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of pain and improvement in the quality of life of patients with chronic pain. The goal of pain management is to reduce pain levels, improve physical functioning, and help patients cope mentally and emotionally with their pain. This may involve the use of medications, interventional procedures, physical therapy, psychological therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

The definition of pain management can vary depending on the medical context, but it generally refers to a multidisciplinary approach that addresses the complex interactions between biological, psychological, and social factors that contribute to the experience of pain. Pain management specialists may include physicians, nurses, physical therapists, psychologists, and other healthcare professionals who work together to provide comprehensive care for patients with chronic pain.

Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. It is a complex phenomenon that can result from various stimuli, such as thermal, mechanical, or chemical irritation, and it can be acute or chronic. The perception of pain involves the activation of specialized nerve cells called nociceptors, which transmit signals to the brain via the spinal cord. These signals are then processed in different regions of the brain, leading to the conscious experience of pain. It's important to note that pain is a highly individual and subjective experience, and its perception can vary widely among individuals.

Pain threshold is a term used in medicine and research to describe the point at which a stimulus begins to be perceived as painful. It is an individual's subjective response and can vary from person to person based on factors such as their pain tolerance, mood, expectations, and cultural background.

The pain threshold is typically determined through a series of tests where gradually increasing levels of stimuli are applied until the individual reports feeling pain. This is often used in research settings to study pain perception and analgesic efficacy. However, it's important to note that the pain threshold should not be confused with pain tolerance, which refers to the maximum level of pain a person can endure.

In medical terms, a hand is the part of the human body that is attached to the forearm and consists of the carpus (wrist), metacarpus, and phalanges. It is made up of 27 bones, along with muscles, tendons, ligaments, and other soft tissues. The hand is a highly specialized organ that is capable of performing a wide range of complex movements and functions, including grasping, holding, manipulating objects, and communicating through gestures. It is also richly innervated with sensory receptors that provide information about touch, temperature, pain, and proprioception (the sense of the position and movement of body parts).

In medicine, "intractable pain" is a term used to describe pain that is difficult to manage, control or relieve with standard treatments. It's a type of chronic pain that continues for an extended period, often months or even years, and does not respond to conventional therapies such as medications, physical therapy, or surgery. Intractable pain can significantly affect a person's quality of life, causing emotional distress, sleep disturbances, and reduced mobility. It is essential to distinguish intractable pain from acute pain, which is typically sharp and short-lived, resulting from tissue damage or inflammation.

Intractable pain may be classified as:

1. Refractory pain: Pain that persists despite optimal treatment with various modalities, including medications, interventions, and multidisciplinary care.
2. Incurable pain: Pain caused by a progressive or incurable disease, such as cancer, for which no curative treatment is available.
3. Functional pain: Pain without an identifiable organic cause that does not respond to standard treatments.

Managing intractable pain often requires a multidisciplinary approach involving healthcare professionals from various fields, including pain specialists, neurologists, psychiatrists, psychologists, and physical therapists. Treatment options may include:

1. Adjuvant medications: Medications that are not primarily analgesics but have been found to help with pain relief, such as antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and muscle relaxants.
2. Interventional procedures: Minimally invasive techniques like nerve blocks, spinal cord stimulation, or intrathecal drug delivery systems that target specific nerves or areas of the body to reduce pain signals.
3. Psychological interventions: Techniques such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), mindfulness meditation, and relaxation training can help patients cope with chronic pain and improve their overall well-being.
4. Physical therapy and rehabilitation: Exercise programs, massage, acupuncture, and other physical therapies may provide relief for some types of intractable pain.
5. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM): Techniques like yoga, tai chi, hypnosis, or biofeedback can be helpful in managing chronic pain.
6. Lifestyle modifications: Dietary changes, stress management, and quitting smoking may also contribute to improved pain management.

Adrenergic agents are a class of drugs that bind to and activate adrenergic receptors, which are cell surface receptors found in the nervous system and other tissues. These receptors are activated by neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine and epinephrine (also known as adrenaline), which are released by the sympathetic nervous system in response to stress or excitement.

Adrenergic agents can be classified based on their mechanism of action and the specific receptors they bind to. There are two main types of adrenergic receptors: alpha and beta receptors, each with several subtypes. Some adrenergic agents bind to both alpha and beta receptors, while others are selective for one or the other.

Adrenergic agents have a wide range of therapeutic uses, including the treatment of asthma, cardiovascular diseases, glaucoma, and neurological disorders. They can also be used as diagnostic tools to test the function of the sympathetic nervous system. Some examples of adrenergic agents include:

* Alpha-agonists: These drugs bind to alpha receptors and cause vasoconstriction (narrowing of blood vessels), which can be useful in the treatment of hypotension (low blood pressure) or nasal congestion. Examples include phenylephrine and oxymetazoline.
* Alpha-antagonists: These drugs block the action of alpha receptors, leading to vasodilation (widening of blood vessels) and a decrease in blood pressure. Examples include prazosin and doxazosin.
* Beta-agonists: These drugs bind to beta receptors and cause bronchodilation (opening of the airways), increased heart rate, and increased force of heart contractions. They are used in the treatment of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other respiratory disorders. Examples include albuterol and salmeterol.
* Beta-antagonists: These drugs block the action of beta receptors, leading to a decrease in heart rate, blood pressure, and bronchodilation. They are used in the treatment of hypertension, angina (chest pain), and heart failure. Examples include metoprolol and atenolol.
* Nonselective alpha- and beta-antagonists: These drugs block both alpha and beta receptors and are used in the treatment of hypertension, angina, and heart failure. Examples include labetalol and carvedilol.

Hyperalgesia is a medical term that describes an increased sensitivity to pain. It occurs when the nervous system, specifically the nociceptors (pain receptors), become excessively sensitive to stimuli. This means that a person experiences pain from a stimulus that normally wouldn't cause pain or experiences pain that is more intense than usual. Hyperalgesia can be a result of various conditions such as nerve damage, inflammation, or certain medications. It's an important symptom to monitor in patients with chronic pain conditions, as it may indicate the development of tolerance or addiction to pain medication.

Sympathectomy is a surgical procedure that involves interrupting the sympathetic nerve pathways. These nerves are part of the autonomic nervous system, which controls involuntary bodily functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, sweating, and digestion. The goal of sympathectomy is to manage conditions like hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating), Raynaud's phenomenon, and certain types of chronic pain.

There are different types of sympathectomy, including thoracic sympathectomy (which targets the sympathetic nerves in the chest), lumbar sympathectomy (which targets the sympathetic nerves in the lower back), and cervical sympathectomy (which targets the sympathetic nerves in the neck). The specific type of procedure depends on the location of the affected nerves and the condition being treated.

Sympathectomy is usually performed using minimally invasive techniques, such as endoscopic surgery, which involves making small incisions and using specialized instruments to access the nerves. While sympathectomy can be effective in managing certain conditions, it carries risks such as nerve damage, bleeding, infection, and chronic pain.

Dystonia is a neurological movement disorder characterized by involuntary muscle contractions, leading to repetitive or twisting movements. These movements can be painful and may affect one part of the body (focal dystonia) or multiple parts (generalized dystonia). The exact cause of dystonia varies, with some cases being inherited and others resulting from damage to the brain. Treatment options include medications, botulinum toxin injections, and deep brain stimulation surgery.

Chronic pain is defined as pain that persists or recurs for a period of 3 months or longer, beyond the normal healing time for an injury or illness. It can be continuous or intermittent and range from mild to severe. Chronic pain can have various causes, such as nerve damage, musculoskeletal conditions, or chronic diseases like cancer. It can significantly impact a person's quality of life, causing limitations in mobility, sleep disturbances, mood changes, and decreased overall well-being. Effective management of chronic pain often involves a multidisciplinary approach, including medications, physical therapy, psychological interventions, and complementary therapies.

Electric stimulation therapy, also known as neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) or electromyostimulation, is a therapeutic treatment that uses electrical impulses to stimulate muscles and nerves. The electrical signals are delivered through electrodes placed on the skin near the target muscle group or nerve.

The therapy can be used for various purposes, including:

1. Pain management: Electric stimulation can help reduce pain by stimulating the release of endorphins, which are natural painkillers produced by the body. It can also help block the transmission of pain signals to the brain.
2. Muscle rehabilitation: NMES can be used to prevent muscle atrophy and maintain muscle tone in individuals who are unable to move their muscles due to injury or illness, such as spinal cord injuries or stroke.
3. Improving circulation: Electric stimulation can help improve blood flow and reduce swelling by contracting the muscles and promoting the movement of fluids in the body.
4. Wound healing: NMES can be used to promote wound healing by increasing blood flow, reducing swelling, and improving muscle function around the wound site.
5. Muscle strengthening: Electric stimulation can be used to strengthen muscles by causing them to contract and relax repeatedly, which can help improve muscle strength and endurance.

It is important to note that electric stimulation therapy should only be administered under the guidance of a trained healthcare professional, as improper use can cause harm or discomfort.

Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS) is a broad term used to describe pain arising from the front of the knee, specifically where the patella (kneecap) meets the femur (thigh bone). It is often described as a diffuse, aching pain in the anterior knee, typically worsening with activities that load the patellofemoral joint such as climbing stairs, running, jumping or prolonged sitting.

PFPS can be caused by various factors including overuse, muscle imbalances, poor biomechanics, or abnormal tracking of the patella. Treatment usually involves a combination of physical therapy to improve strength and flexibility, activity modification, and sometimes bracing or orthotics for better alignment.

Local anesthetics are a type of medication that is used to block the sensation of pain in a specific area of the body. They work by temporarily numbing the nerves in that area, preventing them from transmitting pain signals to the brain. Local anesthetics can be administered through various routes, including topical application (such as creams or gels), injection (such as into the skin or tissues), or regional nerve blocks (such as epidural or spinal anesthesia).

Some common examples of local anesthetics include lidocaine, prilocaine, bupivacaine, and ropivacaine. These medications can be used for a variety of medical procedures, ranging from minor surgeries (such as dental work or skin biopsies) to more major surgeries (such as joint replacements or hernia repairs).

Local anesthetics are generally considered safe when used appropriately, but they can have side effects and potential complications. These may include allergic reactions, toxicity (if too much is administered), and nerve damage (if the medication is injected into a nerve). It's important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when using local anesthetics, and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

In medical terms, the foot is the part of the lower limb that is distal to the leg and below the ankle, extending from the tarsus to the toes. It is primarily responsible for supporting body weight and facilitating movement through push-off during walking or running. The foot is a complex structure made up of 26 bones, 33 joints, and numerous muscles, tendons, ligaments, and nerves that work together to provide stability, balance, and flexibility. It can be divided into three main parts: the hindfoot, which contains the talus and calcaneus (heel) bones; the midfoot, which includes the navicular, cuboid, and cuneiform bones; and the forefoot, which consists of the metatarsals and phalanges that form the toes.

A syndrome, in medical terms, is a set of symptoms that collectively indicate or characterize a disease, disorder, or underlying pathological process. It's essentially a collection of signs and/or symptoms that frequently occur together and can suggest a particular cause or condition, even though the exact physiological mechanisms might not be fully understood.

For example, Down syndrome is characterized by specific physical features, cognitive delays, and other developmental issues resulting from an extra copy of chromosome 21. Similarly, metabolic syndromes like diabetes mellitus type 2 involve a group of risk factors such as obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels that collectively increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes.

It's important to note that a syndrome is not a specific diagnosis; rather, it's a pattern of symptoms that can help guide further diagnostic evaluation and management.

Myofascial pain syndromes (MPS) are a group of chronic pain disorders characterized by the presence of trigger points in the musculoskeletal system. A trigger point is a hyperirritable spot within a taut band of skeletal muscle, which is often tender to palpation and can cause referred pain, meaning that the pain is felt in a different location than where the trigger point is located.

MPS can affect any muscle in the body, but they are most commonly found in the muscles of the neck, back, shoulders, and hips. The symptoms of MPS may include local or referred pain, stiffness, weakness, and reduced range of motion. The pain is often described as a deep, aching, or throbbing sensation that can be aggravated by physical activity, stress, or anxiety.

The exact cause of MPS is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to muscle overuse, injury, or chronic tension. Other factors that may contribute to the development of MPS include poor posture, vitamin deficiencies, hormonal imbalances, and emotional stress.

Treatment for MPS typically involves a combination of physical therapy, trigger point release techniques, pain management strategies, and self-care practices such as stretching, relaxation, and stress reduction. In some cases, medication may be prescribed to help manage the pain and reduce muscle spasms.

Analgesics are a class of drugs that are used to relieve pain. They work by blocking the transmission of pain signals in the nervous system, allowing individuals to manage their pain levels more effectively. There are many different types of analgesics available, including both prescription and over-the-counter options. Some common examples include acetaminophen (Tylenol), ibuprofen (Advil or Motrin), and opioids such as morphine or oxycodone.

The choice of analgesic will depend on several factors, including the type and severity of pain being experienced, any underlying medical conditions, potential drug interactions, and individual patient preferences. It is important to use these medications as directed by a healthcare provider, as misuse or overuse can lead to serious side effects and potential addiction.

In addition to their pain-relieving properties, some analgesics may also have additional benefits such as reducing inflammation (like in the case of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or NSAIDs) or causing sedation (as with certain opioids). However, it is essential to weigh these potential benefits against the risks and side effects associated with each medication.

When used appropriately, analgesics can significantly improve a person's quality of life by helping them manage their pain effectively and allowing them to engage in daily activities more comfortably.

Neuralgia is a type of pain that occurs along the pathway of a nerve, often caused by damage or irritation to the nerve. It is typically described as a sharp, stabbing, burning, or electric-shock like pain that can be severe and debilitating. Neuralgia can affect any nerve in the body, but it most commonly occurs in the facial area (trigeminal neuralgia) or in the nerves related to the spine (postherpetic neuralgia). The pain associated with neuralgia can be intermittent or constant and may be worsened by certain triggers such as touch, temperature changes, or movement. Treatment for neuralgia typically involves medications to manage pain, as well as other therapies such as nerve blocks, surgery, or lifestyle modifications.

In medical terms, the arm refers to the upper limb of the human body, extending from the shoulder to the wrist. It is composed of three major bones: the humerus in the upper arm, and the radius and ulna in the lower arm. The arm contains several joints, including the shoulder joint, elbow joint, and wrist joint, which allow for a wide range of motion. The arm also contains muscles, blood vessels, nerves, and other soft tissues that are essential for normal function.

Peripheral nerves are nerve fibers that transmit signals between the central nervous system (CNS, consisting of the brain and spinal cord) and the rest of the body. These nerves convey motor, sensory, and autonomic information, enabling us to move, feel, and respond to changes in our environment. They form a complex network that extends from the CNS to muscles, glands, skin, and internal organs, allowing for coordinated responses and functions throughout the body. Damage or injury to peripheral nerves can result in various neurological symptoms, such as numbness, weakness, or pain, depending on the type and severity of the damage.

Physical therapy modalities refer to the various forms of treatment that physical therapists use to help reduce pain, promote healing, and restore function to the body. These modalities can include:

1. Heat therapy: This includes the use of hot packs, paraffin baths, and infrared heat to increase blood flow, relax muscles, and relieve pain.
2. Cold therapy: Also known as cryotherapy, this involves the use of ice packs, cold compresses, or cooling gels to reduce inflammation, numb the area, and relieve pain.
3. Electrical stimulation: This uses electrical currents to stimulate nerves and muscles, which can help to reduce pain, promote healing, and improve muscle strength and function.
4. Ultrasound: This uses high-frequency sound waves to penetrate deep into tissues, increasing blood flow, reducing inflammation, and promoting healing.
5. Manual therapy: This includes techniques such as massage, joint mobilization, and stretching, which are used to improve range of motion, reduce pain, and promote relaxation.
6. Traction: This is a technique that uses gentle pulling on the spine or other joints to help relieve pressure and improve alignment.
7. Light therapy: Also known as phototherapy, this involves the use of low-level lasers or light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to promote healing and reduce pain and inflammation.
8. Therapeutic exercise: This includes a range of exercises that are designed to improve strength, flexibility, balance, and coordination, and help patients recover from injury or illness.

Physical therapy modalities are often used in combination with other treatments, such as manual therapy and therapeutic exercise, to provide a comprehensive approach to rehabilitation and pain management.

"Cold temperature" is a relative term and its definition can vary depending on the context. In general, it refers to temperatures that are lower than those normally experienced or preferred by humans and other warm-blooded animals. In a medical context, cold temperature is often defined as an environmental temperature that is below 16°C (60.8°F).

Exposure to cold temperatures can have various physiological effects on the human body, such as vasoconstriction of blood vessels near the skin surface, increased heart rate and metabolic rate, and shivering, which helps to generate heat and maintain body temperature. Prolonged exposure to extreme cold temperatures can lead to hypothermia, a potentially life-threatening condition characterized by a drop in core body temperature below 35°C (95°F).

It's worth noting that some people may have different sensitivities to cold temperatures due to factors such as age, health status, and certain medical conditions. For example, older adults, young children, and individuals with circulatory or neurological disorders may be more susceptible to the effects of cold temperatures.

Nociceptors are specialized peripheral sensory neurons that detect and transmit signals indicating potentially harmful stimuli in the form of pain. They are activated by various noxious stimuli such as extreme temperatures, intense pressure, or chemical irritants. Once activated, nociceptors transmit these signals to the central nervous system (spinal cord and brain) where they are interpreted as painful sensations, leading to protective responses like withdrawing from the harmful stimulus or seeking medical attention. Nociceptors play a crucial role in our perception of pain and help protect the body from further harm.

A nerve block is a medical procedure in which an anesthetic or neurolytic agent is injected near a specific nerve or bundle of nerves to block the transmission of pain signals from that area to the brain. This technique can be used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, such as identifying the source of pain, providing temporary or prolonged relief, or facilitating surgical procedures in the affected region.

The injection typically contains a local anesthetic like lidocaine or bupivacaine, which numbs the nerve, preventing it from transmitting pain signals. In some cases, steroids may also be added to reduce inflammation and provide longer-lasting relief. Depending on the type of nerve block and its intended use, the injection might be administered close to the spine (neuraxial blocks), at peripheral nerves (peripheral nerve blocks), or around the sympathetic nervous system (sympathetic nerve blocks).

While nerve blocks are generally safe, they can have side effects such as infection, bleeding, nerve damage, or in rare cases, systemic toxicity from the anesthetic agent. It is essential to consult with a qualified medical professional before undergoing this procedure to ensure proper evaluation, technique, and post-procedure care.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

"Complex Regional Pain Syndrome". American Family Physician. 104 (1): 49-55. PMID 34264598. "Complex Regional Pain Syndrome ( ... Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS Type 1 and Type 2) is a form of amplified musculoskeletal pain syndrome (AMPS) in which ... "Complex regional pain syndrome: are there distinct subtypes and sequential stages of the syndrome?". Pain. 95 (1-2): 119-124. ... for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome". Pain. 150 (2): 268-274. doi:10.1016/j.pain.2010.04.030. PMC 2914601. PMID 20493633. S2CID ...
... and localized amplified pain. Complex regional pain syndrome is a term for any amount of spontaneous regional pain lasting ... Allodynia Complex regional pain syndrome Myalgia Pediatrics Rheumatology "Amplified Musculoskeletal Pain Syndrome in Children ... This includes complex regional pain syndrome, diffuse idiopathic pain, intermittent amplified pain, ... "The natural history of complex regional pain syndrome". The Clinical Journal of Pain. 25 (4): 273-280. doi:10.1097/AJP. ...
"Complex Regional Pain Syndrome". International Association for the Study of Pain. 5 November 2015. Archived from the original ... "What does the mechanism of spinal cord stimulation tell us about complex regional pain syndrome". Pain Med. 11 (8): 1278-1283. ... "A Systematic Review of Ketamine for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome". Pain Medicine. 16 (5): 943-969. doi:10.1111/pme.12675. ... He has served two consecutive 2-year terms as Chair of the Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Group of the International ...
Guillain-Barre syndrome, carpal tunnel syndrome, meralgia paresthetica...[and] complex regional pain syndrome". To improve ... "the experimental neuropathic pain syndrome seen in CCI rats is similar in many respects to the neuropathic pain syndrome seen ... may prove to be a useful therapeutic means for clinical management of neuropathic pain syndromes". The third research ... Peripheral mononeuropathy can be complex in the sense that it can be diagnoses and treated in numerous ways, because of its ...
He has worked in the field of chronic back pain and complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). In 1982, he designed the Racz ... articles with other experts in pain management to improve diagnosis and treatment of complex regional pain syndromes (CRPS), a ... "Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: A Review". Annals of Vascular Surgery. 22 (2): 297-306. doi:10.1016/j.avsg.2007.10.006. PMID ... It is used to treat patients with chronic low back pain due to post lumbar surgery syndrome, sometimes called failed back ...
Has been renamed complex regional pain syndrome". BMJ. 311 (7008): 812. doi:10.1136/bmj.311.7008.812. PMC 2550819. PMID 7580471 ...
Rowbotham MC (June 2006). "Pharmacologic management of complex regional pain syndrome". The Clinical Journal of Pain. 22 (5): ... Phentolamine also has diagnostic and therapeutic roles in complex regional pain syndrome (reflex sympathetic dystrophy). ... Hollander JE, Henry TD (February 2006). "Evaluation and management of the patient who has cocaine-associated chest pain". ... "Phentolamine therapy for cocaine-association acute coronary syndrome (CAACS)". Journal of Medical Toxicology. 2 (3): 108-111. ...
"Complex regional pain syndrome Symptoms - Mayo Clinic". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 2017-03-07. Tan, Edward C.T.H.; Sandt-Renkema, ... "Quality of life in adults with childhood-onset of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I". Injury. 40 (8): 901-904. doi:10.1016/ ... pain Chronic neuropathic pain Chronic headache and orofacial pain Chronic visceral pain Chronic musculoskeletal pain Childhood ... "Pediatric Chronic Pain Management - Academy of Integrative Pain Management Blog". Academy of Integrative Pain Management Blog. ...
Complex regional pain syndrome following viper-bite. Scand J Pain 2016;10:15-18 a Section of Clinical Neurophysiology, Dept of ... Scandinavian Journal of Pain 2016:Jørum E, Kleggetveit PI, Skulberg PK. ...
Some patients develop a complex regional pain syndrome. This is a syndrome of chronic pain with changes of temperature and ... Pain is typically experienced with gripping and pinching. People experiencing pain may describe it as weakness. There may be ... The most common complication after surgery is pain persisting in the thumb. Over long term, there is pain relief, but on short ... The main symptom is pain, particularly with gripping and pinching. This pain is often described as weakness, but true weakness ...
Sullivan suffers from complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). In the season 2 finale and season 3, he becomes Andy's new love ...
Founder, Burning Nights Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Support. For services to Charity. Sarah Adams. For services to the Armed ... Lately Regional Chief Nurse, North West Region, NHS England and NHS Improvement. For services to Nursing and the Covid-19 ... For services to Regional News and Journalism and to Charity. Asad Mahmood Fazil. Chief Executive Officer, Al-Hurraya, ... Tax Specialist in Complex Evasion, HM Revenue and Customs. For services to Professional Development. Henry Terry Palton-Gaspard ...
Evidence suggests that the use of bisphosphonates would be useful in the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome, a neuro- ... Pontell D (July 2008). "A clinical approach to complex regional pain syndrome". Clinics in Podiatric Medicine and Surgery. 25 ( ... February 2013). "Zoledronate for metastatic bone disease and pain: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials". Pain Med. 14 ... Bisphosphonates reduce the risk of fracture and bone pain in people with breast, lung, and other metastatic cancers as well as ...
... hemiparesis in post-stroke patients and limb pain in patients with complex regional pain syndrome. Based on the observation ... Mirror therapy is also a recommended therapy for complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Since the 2000s, the visual illusion of ... 2015 Jun;29(5):444-52 Al Sayegb, Samaa; Filén, Tove (2013). "Mirror therapy for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)-A ... mirror therapy for Complex regional pain syndrome". BMJ. 351: h2730. doi:10.1136/bmj.h2730. PMID 26224572. S2CID 15705979. ...
Bone loss can be a feature of complex regional pain syndrome. It is also more frequent in people with Parkinson's disease and ... The symptoms of a vertebral collapse ("compression fracture") are sudden back pain, often with radicular pain (shooting pain ... These include Turner syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, Kallmann syndrome, anorexia nervosa, andropause, hypothalamic amenorrhea ... Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, porphyria, Menkes' syndrome, epidermolysis bullosa and Gaucher's disease. People with scoliosis of ...
He developed and tested several new VR-based procedures for patients with chronic pain such as complex regional pain syndrome, ... "Heartbeat-enhanced immersive virtual reality to treat complex regional pain syndrome". Neurology. 91 (5): e479-e489. doi: ... Pain (6): 1641-1649. doi:10.1097/j.pain.0000000000002160. ISSN 0304-3959. PMID 33259460. S2CID 227252509. Rognini, Giulio; ... He has also an interest in complex conscious experiences and their varied personal, neuroscientific, historical and cultural ...
When she was 13, an accident while kneeboarding left her with complex regional pain syndrome. In 2021, she took up wheelchair ...
Complex regional pain syndrome can be reported in up to 40% of fractures. Classic physical examination findings of a Smith's ... This can result in a permanent "garden-spade deformity". There are also higher risks of carpal tunnel syndrome and ...
It has been studied in the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome. Intravenous, usually 90 mg monthly. 30 mg, 60 mg, 90 mg ... Common side effects include bone pain, low calcium levels, nausea, and dizziness. Osteonecrosis of the jaw is a rare ...
"A critical review of controlled clinical trials for peripheral neuropathic pain and complex regional pain syndromes". Pain. 73 ... After fever and pain have subsided, the aspirin is no longer necessary, since it does not decrease the incidence of heart ... For pain or fever, effects typically begin within 30 minutes. Aspirin works similarly to other NSAIDs but also suppresses the ... Reye's syndrome, a rare but severe illness characterized by acute encephalopathy and fatty liver, can occur when children or ...
It has been used in the treatment of hypoplastic left heart syndrome. It is also used in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) ... Guzzetta NA (August 2007). "Phenoxybenzamine in the treatment of hypoplastic left heart syndrome: a core review". Anesthesia ...
Complex regional pain syndrome Cubital Tunnel Syndrome Decompression sickness Dehydration Erythromelalgia Fabry disease ... complex regional pain syndrome, or lupus erythematosus.[citation needed] The use of fluoroquinolones can also cause paresthesia ... chest or abdominal pain, or pelvic pain).[citation needed] Other common examples occur when sustained pressure has been applied ... causing numbness instead of the pain commonly associated with shingles.[citation needed] Acroparesthesia is severe pain in the ...
For instance, individuals experiencing complex regional pain syndrome demonstrate a diminished cortical somatotopic ... "Patterns of cortical reorganization in complex regional pain syndrome". Neurology. 61 (12): 1707-1715. doi:10.1212/01.wnl. ... Similar results have been reported for phantom limb pain, chronic low back pain and carpal tunnel syndrome. A number of studies ... Phantom Limb Syndrome. about consciousness, mirror neurons, and phantom limb syndrome Other readings Chorost M (2005). Rebuilt ...
Amputation with Osseointegration for Patients with Intractable Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: A Report of Three Cases. 2021. ... "Amputation With Osseointegration for Patients With Intractable Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: A Report of 3 Cases". JBJS Case ... Percutaneous epidural lysis of adhesions in chronic lumbar radicular pain: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial ... Pain Physician. 16 (3): 185-196. doi:10.36076/ppj.2013/16/185. ISSN 2150-1149. PMID 23703406. Muderis, M. Al; Stein, S.; Krimly ...
That year, she injured her ankle in training, which later developed into complex regional pain syndrome. In 2018, she had a leg ...
Some case studies have suggested a causative role in complex regional pain syndrome/reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome. The ... were implicated in conditions such as prostatitis and chronic pelvic pain syndrome as early as the 1980s. Research in women has ... contribute to etiologies such as interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome. Ureaplasma spp. are associated with ... "The role of Ureaplasma parvum serovar-3 or serovar-14 infection in female patients with chronic micturition urethral pain and ...
Brown has Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) in her feet, and competes sitting down on a stool. She was, at the time of the ...
A 2013 clinical trial suggests CRPS Type I (Complex regional pain syndrome) responds to treatment with intravenous neridronate ... March 2013). "Treatment of complex regional pain syndrome type I with neridronate: a randomized, double-blind, placebo- ...
"Physiotherapy for pain and disability in adults with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) types I and II". The Cochrane ... A 2016 Cochrane review found that supporting evidence for electrotherapy as a treatment for complex regional pain syndrome is " ... Borenstein DG (2007). "Chronic neck pain: how to approach treatment". Current Pain and Headache Reports. 11 (6): 436-439. doi: ... Kroeling P, Gross A, Graham N, Burnie SJ, Szeto G, Goldsmith CH, Haines T, Forget M (2013). "Electrotherapy for neck pain". The ...
"Physiotherapy for pain and disability in adults with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) types I and II". The Cochrane ... A 2016 guideline, in addition to reviews in 2016, 2013 and 2022, did not find EMT useful for various forms of pain. The FDA has ... "EMP Pad", a device manufactured by EMPPad, advertised by Noel Edmonds, that is claimed to slow ageing, reduce pain, lift ... July 2016). "Management of neck pain and associated disorders: A clinical practice guideline from the Ontario Protocol for ...
"Complex Regional Pain Syndrome". American Family Physician. 104 (1): 49-55. PMID 34264598. "Complex Regional Pain Syndrome ( ... Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS Type 1 and Type 2) is a form of amplified musculoskeletal pain syndrome (AMPS) in which ... "Complex regional pain syndrome: are there distinct subtypes and sequential stages of the syndrome?". Pain. 95 (1-2): 119-124. ... for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome". Pain. 150 (2): 268-274. doi:10.1016/j.pain.2010.04.030. PMC 2914601. PMID 20493633. S2CID ...
... and renamed them complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) types I and II, respectively. These designations were determined by the ... a consensus group of pain medicine experts gathered by the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) agreed on ... encoded search term (Complex Regional Pain Syndromes) and Complex Regional Pain Syndromes What to Read Next on Medscape ... Ketamine produces effective and long-term pain relief in patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1. Pain. 2009 Oct. ...
Learn more about neuromas and complex regional pain syndrome. ... Learn more about Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (PDF) Diagnosis ... Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (previously known as Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy). In some cases, the pain associated with ... Neuromas and Complex Regional Pain Syndrome. Learn more about neuromas and complex regional pain syndrome. ... neuroma;nerve-pain-after-trauma;nerve-pain-after-surgery. plastic-reconstructive-surgery;surgery. adult-pediatrics. n. true. * ...
... severe pain, autonomic dysregulation, neuropathic edema, and movement disorders. Explore its impact on cognition, cardiac ... Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a neuropathic pain disorder that is characterized by: 1) Severe pain beyond the area ... "Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: Are There Distinct Subtypes and Sequential Stages of the Syndrome?" Pain, Vol. 95, No. 1-2, ... for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome," Pain, Vol. 150, No. 2, 2010, pp. 268-274. doi:10.1016/j.pain.2010.04.030 ...
... and treatments recommended by pediatricians and pain clinics in Canada. Participants in the Canadian Paediatric Surveillance ... This study describes the minimum incidence of pediatric complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), clinical features, ... Canadian surveillance study of complex regional pain syndrome in children Pain. 2022 Jun 1;163(6):1060-1069. doi: 10.1097/j. ... DOI: 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000002482 Abstract This study describes the minimum incidence of pediatric complex regional pain ...
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome. What is it and how to defend CRPS claims? Presented by: Dr. Annu Ramaswamy, Rocky Mountain ... 2020-10-16T12:00:00-0600 2020-10-16T13:30:00-0600 New Date! Complex Regional Pain Syndrome. What is it and how to defend CRPS ...
These guidelines concern the diagnosis and management of patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). They are designed ...
... is a clinical diagnosis of a syndrome. Its aetiology is multifactorial and it has several contributing factors. These include ... and psychological and educational interventions for chronic pain management.[1] ... The aetiology of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome is multifactorial and it has several contributing factors.[1] It is a complex ... Physiotherapy for pain and disability in adults with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) types I and II. Cochrane Database ...
Pain Research Forum. / Papers of the Week. / Exosome microRNA signatures in patients with complex regional pain syndrome ... Exosome microRNA signatures in patients with complex regional pain syndrome undergoing plasma exchange. ... Exosome microRNA signatures in patients with complex regional pain syndrome undergoing plasma exchange. ... miRNAs are potential biomarkers due to their stability and dysregulation in diseases including complex regional pain syndrome ( ...
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals ... Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is chronic neuropathic pain that follows soft-tissue or bone injury (type I) or nerve ... 1. Harden RN, Bruehl S, Stanton-Hicks M, Wilson PR: Proposed new diagnostic criteria for complex regional pain syndrome. Pain ... Diagnosis reference Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is chronic neuropathic pain that follows soft-tissue or bone injury ( ...
Pain 1999; 81: 147-154. View article Google Scholar. *Maihofner C, Seifert F, Markovic K. Complex regional pain syndromes: new ... The outcome of complex regional pain syndrome type 1: a systematic review. J Pain 2014; 15: 677-690. View article Google ... The incidence of complex regional pain syndrome: a population-based study. Pain 2007; 129: 12-20. View article Google Scholar ... Complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) is characterized by pain, which is disproportionate to the inciting event. Other ...
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... on pain in upper limb complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). While acute pain relief with VR has been studied in multiple ... Immersive virtual reality for pain relief in upper limb complex regional pain syndrome: a pilot study ... Immersive virtual reality for pain relief in upper limb complex regional pain syndrome: a pilot study. Innovations in Clinical ... might provide subjective analgesia and functional improvement in select patients with upper limb complex regional pain syndrome ...
Risk perception of developing complex regional pain syndrome I. / Dijkstra, P U; van der Schans, C P; Geertzen, J HB. In: ... Dijkstra, PU, van der Schans, CP & Geertzen, JHB 2003, Risk perception of developing complex regional pain syndrome I, ... The risk of developing complex regional pain syndrome I (CRPS-I) was assessed on a 100-mm straight line based on clinical signs ... The risk of developing complex regional pain syndrome I (CRPS-I) was assessed on a 100-mm straight line based on clinical signs ...
Is a chronic pain condition that most often affects one limb (arm, leg, hand, or foot) usually after an injury such as a ... Prolonged severe pain that may be constant that is continuous burning or throbbing pain. - Changes in skin texture on the ... Is a chronic pain condition that most often affects one limb (arm, leg, hand, or foot) usually after an injury such as a ... While older people can have good outcomes, with some experiencing severe pain and disability. - physical therapy (exercises, ...
Explore managing Complex Regional Pain Syndrome through Physiotherapy at Optimise Health. Discover a holistic approach today. ... Managing Complex Regional Pain Syndrome With Physiotherapy. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) describes long-lasting pain ... As the name suggestions, the process and cause behind the pain can be complex and difficult to understand, attribute or ... Pregnancy and Lumbar Discomfort: Understanding Lower Back Pain in Expecting Mothers Lower back pain is a common complaint in ...
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WL 544 2001NE Neuropathic pain : WL 544 85CA Les névrites lépreuses / WL 600 2001CO Complex regional pain syndrome / WL 600 ... IASP Press, 2001. Description: 338 pISBN: 0931092418Subject(s): Complex regional pain syndromes -- diagnosis , Pain , Human ... Complex regional pain syndrome / editors, R. Norman Harden ... [et al.] Contributor(s): Harden, R. Norman , International ... WL 704 2000PA Pain imaging / WL 704 2000PR Proceedings of the 9th World Congress on Pain / ...
It is a time to bring awareness to complex regional pain ... November is considered International Nerve Pain Awareness Month ... What is Complex Regional Pain Syndrome?. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) may also be known as reflex sympathetic ... It is a time to bring awareness to complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and the more than 150 other conditions with nerve pain ... Treating Complex Regional Pain Syndrome. Left untreated, CRPS can eventually spread to the other side or another body part. ...
Discover the six most common causes of severe hand pain and the potential treatments available. Learn how to identify and ... Complex Regional Pain Syndrome is a chronic condition causing intense pain, discoloration, stiffness, and even swelling in ... Causes of Severe Hand Pain and Treatment. 1. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome. Source: propelphysiotherapy.com ... Causes of Severe Hand Pain and Treatment*1. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome ...
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... compensation benefits been denied for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome? Contact our office for help getting the care and ... Workers Who Develop Complex Regional Pain Syndrome After a Workplace Accident Face Debilitating Pain. CRPS is chronic pain ... One such complication is complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), also known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome (RSD). CRPS ... Treatment Options for Injured Workers With Complex Regional Pain Syndrome. Treatment options for CRPS vary, with every ...
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Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a baffling and often misunderstood condition that can arise after an injury, surgery, ... Demystifying Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: A Guide to Understanding and Managing CRPS ... The Symptoms: More Than Just Pain. CRPS symptoms can extend beyond pain to include swelling, changes in skin color, temperature ... CRPS is a chronic pain condition characterized by severe, persistent pain that typically affects an arm, leg, hand, or foot. ...
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  • Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS Type 1 and Type 2) is a form of amplified musculoskeletal pain syndrome (AMPS) in which pain from a physical trauma outlasts the expected recovery time. (wikipedia.org)
  • CRPS is not a short-term pain that will heal in time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Usually starting in a limb, CRPS manifests as pain, swelling, limited range of motion, and/or changes to the skin and bones. (wikipedia.org)
  • The classification system in use by the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) divides CRPS into two types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients may develop burning pain and allodynia in either form of CRPS. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1994, a consensus group of pain medicine experts gathered by the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) agreed on diagnostic criteria for reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) and causalgia, and renamed them complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) types I and II, respectively. (medscape.com)
  • However, since their inception, the 1994 taxonomy has been criticized by experts on clinical criteria validation and specialists in pain medicine on the grounds that the criteria are insufficiently specific (ie, use of the criteria results in overdiagnosis of CRPS). (medscape.com)
  • A small single center validation study demonstrated empirically that the 1994 CRPS criteria did indeed cause overdiagnosis of the syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • [ 5 ] showing that the modified criteria, mentioned above, produced better discrimination between CRPS and non-CRPS neuropathic pain, yielding better diagnostic accuracy than the original unmodified criteria. (medscape.com)
  • Therefore, a third diagnostic subtype, complex regional pain syndrome not otherwise specified (CRPS-NOS), was recommended to categorize those patients. (medscape.com)
  • This study describes the minimum incidence of pediatric complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), clinical features, and treatments recommended by pediatricians and pain clinics in Canada. (nih.gov)
  • These guidelines concern the diagnosis and management of patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). (fraserhealth.ca)
  • Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a clinical diagnosis of a syndrome. (physio-pedia.com)
  • In 1999, two articles were published by two members of the IASP Task Force on CRPS: Norman Harden (Pain Medicine Specialist, Chicago, IL) and Stephen Bruehl (Pain Medicine Specialist, Nashville, TN). (physio-pedia.com)
  • CRPS is a "chronic pain condition characterized by autonomic and inflammatory features. (physio-pedia.com)
  • Exosomal miRNAs are potential biomarkers due to their stability and dysregulation in diseases including complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), a chronic pain disorder with persistent inflammation. (iasp-pain.org)
  • Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is chronic neuropathic pain that follows soft-tissue or bone injury (type I) or nerve injury (type II) and lasts longer and is more severe than expected for the original tissue damage. (msdmanuals.com)
  • CRPS type I was previously known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy (see also Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: Treatment Guidelines ), and type II was known as causalgia. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The sympathetic nervous system is more involved in CRPS than in other neuropathic pain syndromes. (msdmanuals.com)
  • it is regional, even when caused by injury to a specific nerve, as occurs in CRPS type II. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Participants were interviewed in a semi-structured way regarding mobility, pain, recurrence of CRPS-I, quality of life, and prosthesis use. (medicaljournals.se)
  • Amputation can be considered as a treatment for patients with long-standing, therapy-resistant CRPS-I. Amputation can increase mobility and reduce pain, thereby improving the quality of patients' lives. (medicaljournals.se)
  • This study evaluated the long-term outcomes of amputation in these patients, with respect to quality of life, pain, recurrence of CRPS-I, and functioning. (medicaljournals.se)
  • Complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) is characterized by pain, which is disproportionate to the inciting event. (medicaljournals.se)
  • Objective: This pilot study explored the effects of therapeutic immersive virtual reality (VR) on pain in upper limb complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). (shu.ac.uk)
  • While acute pain relief with VR has been studied in multiple populations, there is little data on the use of this modality in treating chronic pain, especially CRPS. (shu.ac.uk)
  • The risk of developing complex regional pain syndrome I (CRPS-I) was assessed on a 100-mm straight line based on clinical signs 5 weeks, 7 weeks and 10 weeks after the accident. (hanze.nl)
  • Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) describes long-lasting pain in one or more of the limbs that is the result of damage to or malfunction of the nervous system - meaning your nerves in either your central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) or peripheral nervous system (the nerves that extend from your spine to the rest of your body) as opposed to any muscle, bone, joint or soft tissue injury. (optimisehealth.com.au)
  • While the recovery for CRPS can vary greatly from person to person and predicting outcomes is very difficult, it is possible to reduce and manage the pain. (optimisehealth.com.au)
  • Physiotherapy is an important part of managing CRPS and helping attain the best outcomes for patients - and something we do here at The Physio, with Senior Physiotherapist Stuart Canavan specialising in pain management. (optimisehealth.com.au)
  • Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a condition that causes pain, changes in skin color, and other symptoms in a certain part of your body - commonly in your extremities. (samarpanphysioclinic.com)
  • The symptoms of Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) can greatly impact the function of your affected limb, sleep, daily activities, and your mental health. (samarpanphysioclinic.com)
  • Experts believe that Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) happens as a result of dysfunction in your central or peripheral nervous systems. (samarpanphysioclinic.com)
  • Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) can either be acute (short-term) or chronic (lasting longer than six months). (samarpanphysioclinic.com)
  • Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) more commonly affects adults than children. (samarpanphysioclinic.com)
  • Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) affects people assigned to females at birth more often than people assigned to males at birth. (samarpanphysioclinic.com)
  • How serious and how long symptoms of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) last varies from person to person. (samarpanphysioclinic.com)
  • Symptoms of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) typically start within four to six weeks after an injury, fracture, or surgery, yet they can develop without a known cause. (samarpanphysioclinic.com)
  • The most usual and prominent symptom of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is pain. (samarpanphysioclinic.com)
  • Since the symptoms of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) usually improve over time, it is easiest for healthcare providers to diagnose it in the early stages. (samarpanphysioclinic.com)
  • It is important to see a provider soon after you experience symptoms of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). (samarpanphysioclinic.com)
  • Researchers are not sure why some people develop complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) while others with similar injuries do not. (samarpanphysioclinic.com)
  • In more than 90% of cases, complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) results from nerve trauma or injury to the affected limb that damages the thinnest sensory and autonomic nerve fibers. (samarpanphysioclinic.com)
  • The most common injury associated with developing complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a bone fracture, especially a wrist fracture. (samarpanphysioclinic.com)
  • It is a time to bring awareness to complex regional pain syndrome ( CRPS ) and the more than 150 other conditions with nerve pain as a symptom. (chronicillness.co)
  • Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) may also be known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy or RSD . (chronicillness.co)
  • For example, a small cut on the tip of the finger would be considered minor to someone in good health, but for an individual with CRPS , that small cut would radiate a burning pain that traveled up the arm and could be excruciating. (chronicillness.co)
  • I have complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), a severe neurological condition that makes my brain interpret all stimuli as painful ones. (themighty.com)
  • Friends and family don't experience CRPS pain on a daily basis, so it's understandable that loved ones won't always know what is actually a good gift. (themighty.com)
  • I'll start with a few tips on what to look for in potential CRPS-friendly presents, and follow with eight things that have been great for my full-body pain flares. (themighty.com)
  • One such complication is complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), also known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome (RSD). (monastlaw.com)
  • CRPS can be severe, debilitating and expensive to treat for those who experience it, and the BWC and self-insured employers often deny claims related to this painful syndrome. (monastlaw.com)
  • CRPS is chronic pain condition that occurs after an injury, typically affecting one limb-an arm, leg, hand, or foot. (monastlaw.com)
  • Over-the-counter pain relievers, steroids, antidepressants, anticonvulsives, and opioids have all been used to address the symptoms of CRPS. (monastlaw.com)
  • Biofeedback techniques can help to relieve pain and stiffness associated with CRPS. (monastlaw.com)
  • While experts agree on the validity of the condition, and clear evidence of the physiological issues is associated with CRPS, the uncertainty surrounding the syndrome may be a hurdle to obtaining treatment approval from the Ohio BWC. (monastlaw.com)
  • Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS), also known as Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy, or RSD, is a condition caused by neurological damage. (chicago-personal-injury-lawyers.us)
  • Contact an experienced complex regional pain syndrome attorney if you or a loved one has developed CRPS and have received poor medical treatment or if you believe the RSD case was the fault of another. (chicago-personal-injury-lawyers.us)
  • Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a condition associated with persistent pain in one or more limbs. (childrenshospital.org)
  • Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a baffling and often misunderstood condition that can arise after an injury, surgery, or even without a significant preceding event. (funkyfrugalmommy.com)
  • CRPS is a chronic pain condition characterized by severe, persistent pain that typically affects an arm, leg, hand, or foot. (funkyfrugalmommy.com)
  • CRPS symptoms can extend beyond pain to include swelling, changes in skin color, temperature, and texture, and increased sensitivity to touch. (funkyfrugalmommy.com)
  • Mirror therapy, where a mirror is positioned to reflect the unaffected limb, can trick the brain into thinking the affected limb is moving without pain, providing some CRPS patients with relief. (funkyfrugalmommy.com)
  • While CRPS is a challenging and often relentless companion, understanding the syndrome is the first step toward empowerment. (funkyfrugalmommy.com)
  • Remember, CRPS may be complex, but with the right approach, management, and support, there is a pathway to a better quality of life. (funkyfrugalmommy.com)
  • complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is caused by a malfunction of the peripheral and central nervous systems due to injury, disease or trauma. (medlatest.com)
  • Abbott's new system is designed to deliver stimulation to the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and alleviate pain in patients suffering from CRPS of the lower limbs. (medlatest.com)
  • RSDS / CRPS is a chronic, progressive neurological syndrome, characterized by severe pain, swelling, and changes in the skin. (pioneerlawoffice.com)
  • RSDS / CRPS is a chronic pain syndrome most often resulting from trauma to a single extremity. (pioneerlawoffice.com)
  • complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) was strong for short-term pain relief and moderate for long-term relief. (medscape.com)
  • [ 11 ] Also, a 20-year literature review found evidence that revealed long-term safety and efficacy of SCS in FBSS, CRPS, peripheral neuropathy, and severe ischemic limb pain secondary to peripheral vascular disease. (medscape.com)
  • CRPS is a chronic pain syndrome affecting a limb, while POTS is a condition where the heart rate increases abnormally on sitting or standing up, together with symptoms such as dizziness , fainting and weakness, as well as headache , aches and pains, nausea and fatigue. (medscape.com)
  • The EMA's Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC) has completed a detailed scientific review of the evidence surrounding reports of these two syndromes, and this review has concluded the evidence does not support a causal link between the vaccines ( Cervarix , Gardasil or Silgard , and Gardasil 9 ) and development of CRPS or POTS. (medscape.com)
  • Symptoms of CRPS and POTS may overlap with other conditions (such as chronic fatigue syndrome (also known as myalgic encephalomyelitis ), which makes diagnosis difficult in both the general population and vaccinated individuals, the agency noted in its press release. (medscape.com)
  • Very often, we hear of a preceding viral illness that is the identifiable trigger that tips the patient into a spiral of a pain syndrome like CRPS, chronic headache, dysautonomias, and total body pain. (medscape.com)
  • For example, its effect on neuropathic pain may be secondary to stimulation-induced suppression of central excitability, whereas the beneficial effect of SCS on ischemic pain may be related to stimulation-induced inhibition of sympathetic nervous system influences and antidromic vasodilation, which increases blood flow and reduces oxygen demand. (medscape.com)
  • Treatment of neuropathic pain symptoms due to FBSS is more likely to respond favorably. (medscape.com)
  • The objective of this study is to describe the clinical use of intravenous lidocaine for the management of non- de dolor neuropático no cancer neuropathic pain in adults. (bvsalud.org)
  • Intravenous lidocaine as non-Oncologic Neuropathic monotherapy for the management of non-cancer neuropathic pain, although effective in the short term with doses of Pain in Adults. (bvsalud.org)
  • Study and Treatment of Pain (IASP) defines population affected are between 2 to 3 %.3 neuropathic pain as pain caused by injury, Its prevalence has been described in dysfunction, or transient impairment of the several countries, varying from 3.3 % in nervous system. (bvsalud.org)
  • Is a chronic pain condition that most often affects one limb (arm, leg, hand, or foot) usually after an injury such as a fracture or after surgery. (primephysio.com)
  • Usually I try to smile, say thank you and tell them how much I appreciate them thinking about my chronic pain condition. (themighty.com)
  • The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) has defined RSDS as "a chronic pain condition that is believed to be the result of dysfunction in the central or peripheral nervous systems. (pioneerlawoffice.com)
  • The lack of an observed cause for the condition, or the lack of visible symptoms, creates the diagnosis of diffuse amplified pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Successful outcomes depend on an early diagnosis and a comprehensive management approach, which includes pharmacological therapy, physiotherapy, therapeutic exercise, neurorehabilitation, and psychological and educational interventions for chronic pain management. (physio-pedia.com)
  • The second consensus conference for The International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) was held in 1993 in Orlando, Florida, to create shared criteria supporting the diagnosis of Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy. (physio-pedia.com)
  • [ 13 ] The differential diagnosis must exclude transient metabolic processes, such as diabetes, infectious etiologies, entrapment neuropathies, and potential referred or radiating pain often associated with arthropathy (zygapophysial and sacroiliac joints), visceral pathology, or myofascial disorders. (medscape.com)
  • Consequently, patients might request amputation of the affected limb due to severe or unbearable pain, infections, or extremely limited mobility (4, 5, 8-10). (medicaljournals.se)
  • Conclusions: Immersive virtual reality might provide subjective analgesia and functional improvement in select patients with upper limb complex regional pain syndrome, but objective data is lacking. (shu.ac.uk)
  • Or as somebody was pressing the affected limb.It may also depict that the pain may spread to the whole arm or leg, despite the fact that the injury may have just included a finger or toe. (pain-institute.com)
  • Pathophysiology is unclear, but peripheral nociceptor and central sensitization and release of neuropeptides (substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide) help maintain pain and inflammation. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Exosome microRNA signatures in patients with complex regional pain syndrome undergoing plasma exchange. (iasp-pain.org)
  • Overview of Pain Pain is the most common reason patients seek medical care. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Pain often causes patients to limit use of an extremity. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Thirty-seven patients reported an important improvement in mobility, and 35 reported an important reduction in pain. (medicaljournals.se)
  • Both clinical and real world data have shown that DRG stimulation produces long-term, meaningful pain relief for patients with complex regional pain syndromes - like those resulting after total knee arthroplasty, foot surgery or hernia surgery," said Timothy Deer, M.D., an interventional pain physician, president and chief executive officer of the Spine and Nerve Center of the Virginias in Charleston, West Virginia, and co-principal investigator of the ACCURATE study. (medlatest.com)
  • I did not know then that post-sepsis or post-ICU syndrome exists, and can affect many sepsis and ICU patients. (cdc.gov)
  • A 2006 study demonstrated good relief in 15 of 19 patients with lower extremity pain due to MS. (medscape.com)
  • When TENS is used analgesically, patients are instructed to try different frequencies and intensities to find those that provide them with the best pain control. (medscape.com)
  • In some patients, these syndromes can severely affect the quality of life, the agency noted. (medscape.com)
  • It also consulted a group of leading experts in the field, and took into account detailed information received from a number of patient groups that also highlighted the impact these syndromes can have on patients and families. (medscape.com)
  • Coupled with a familial predisposition, through genetic, epigenetic phenomena and other complex psychosocial factors, we have been seeing patients like this increasingly at our pediatric pain clinics. (medscape.com)
  • a Uso clínico de lidocaína considerable number of patients present pain refractory to existing treatments, making it a diagnostic and therapeutic intravenosa para manejo challenge. (bvsalud.org)
  • Both types demonstrate continuing pain, allodynia, or hyperalgesia that is usually disproportionate to the inciting event. (medscape.com)
  • Philip S. Foisie (1896-1996) found that low-grade arterial spasms due to soft tissue injury could cause a severe pain syndrome with allodynia, oedema, muscle atrophy, osteoporosis, joint stiffness and reduced mobility. (physio-pedia.com)
  • Read on to learn the most probable causes of hand pain and possible treatments for the same. (thefrisky.com)
  • Treatments for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome include wearing a wrist splint and cutting down on repetitive motion. (thefrisky.com)
  • Pain has sensory and emotional components and is often classified as acute or chronic. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Acute pain is frequently associated with anxiety. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The most common acute clinical manifestations include complaints of intense pain and findings indicative of autonomic dysfunction at the site of the precipitating trauma. (pioneerlawoffice.com)
  • Prolonged severe pain that may be constant that is continuous burning or throbbing pain. (primephysio.com)
  • While older people can have good outcomes, with some experiencing severe pain and disability. (primephysio.com)
  • Both forms of the syndrome are also characterized by autonomic dysfunction, which presents with temperature changes (usually localized, but can be global), cyanosis, and/or edema. (wikipedia.org)
  • The persistent pain and the perception of nonpainful stimuli as painful are thought to be caused by inflammatory molecules (IL-1, IL-2, TNF-alpha) and neuropeptides (substance P) released from peripheral nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the injury may have been localized just to the nerve, over time the pain can migrate to the non-injured adjacent skin, which becomes painful to the touch. (massgeneral.org)
  • Feeling the pain from stimuli that are commonly not painful (such as just touching your skin). (samarpanphysioclinic.com)
  • When painful peripheral stimulation occurs, however, the information carried by C fibers reaches the T cells and opens the gate, allowing pain transmission centrally to the thalamus and cortex, where it is interpreted as pain. (medscape.com)
  • Usually, the electrodes are initially placed on the skin over the painful area, but other locations (eg, over cutaneous nerves, trigger points, acupuncture sites) may give comparable or even better pain relief. (medscape.com)
  • If you have reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome, Social Security disability benefits may be available to you. (pioneerlawoffice.com)
  • To determine whether you are disabled by your reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome (also called complex regional pain syndrome), the Social Security Administration will consider whether your condition qualifies as a severe medically determinable impairment at Step 2 of the Sequential Evaluation Process . (pioneerlawoffice.com)
  • RSDS stands for reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome. (pioneerlawoffice.com)
  • The complex regional pain syndrome is a rare form of chronic pain that commonly affects the arm or the leg. (pain-institute.com)
  • Recent research has provided some insight into how such neuromodulation affects pain. (medscape.com)
  • [ 6 ] These new IASP diagnostic criteria have been submitted to the medical committee for Classification of Chronic Pain of the IASP for future revision of formal taxonomy and diagnostic criteria. (medscape.com)
  • Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: Are the Iasp Diagnostic Criteria Valid And Sufficiently Comprehensive? (scirp.org)
  • External Validation of IASP Diagnostic Criteria for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome and Proposed Research Diagnostic Criteria. (scirp.org)
  • This condition results from malfunction and imbalance in the autonomic nervous system, leading to chronic pain, functional loss, disability, or even impairment. (thefrisky.com)
  • R. J. Schwartzman, K. L. Erwin and G. M. Alexander, "The Natural History of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome," The Clinical Journal of Pain, Vol. 25, No. 4, 2009, pp. 273-80. (scirp.org)
  • 2003). Risk perception of developing complex regional pain syndrome I . Clinical Rehabilitation , 17 (4), 454-456. (hanze.nl)
  • Hundreds of clinical reports exist concerning the use of TENS for various types of conditions, such as low back pain (LBP), myofascial and arthritic pain, sympathetically mediated pain, bladder incontinence , neurogenic pain, visceral pain, and postsurgical pain . (medscape.com)
  • J. W. Rasmussen, J. R. Grothusen, A. L. Rosso and R. J. Schwartzman, "Atypical Chest Pain: Evidence of Intercostobrachial Nerve Sensitization in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome," Pain Physician, Vol. 12, No. 5, 2009, pp. (scirp.org)
  • November is considered International Nerve Pain Awareness Month, or in simpler terms, NERVEmber . (chronicillness.co)
  • Nerve blocks to reduce pain signals have also shown benefits in specific cases, as has spinal cord stimulation and other types of neural stimulation. (chronicillness.co)
  • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome is a hand condition caused by pressure on the median nerve in your wrist. (thefrisky.com)
  • Inflammation and alteration of pain perception in the central nervous system are proposed to play important roles. (wikipedia.org)
  • P. U. Dijkstra, J. W. Groothoff, H. J. Duis and J. H. Geertzen, "Incidence of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I after Fractures of the Distal Radius," European Journal of Pain, Vol. 7, No. 5, 2003, pp. 457- 462. (scirp.org)
  • If relief is achieved, it is more likely that surgical treatment of that neuroma will help alleviate pain. (massgeneral.org)
  • S. Bruehl, R. N. Harden, B. S. Galer, S. Saltz, M. Backonja and M. Stanton-Hicks, "Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: Are There Distinct Subtypes and Sequential Stages of the Syndrome? (scirp.org)
  • In the wake of a recent discovery, it is stated that Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 and 2 are not any more relevant since four subtypes (four sorts) have been found. (pain-institute.com)
  • The pain is out of proportion to the severity of the initial injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several treatment options are available for arthritis , depending on the disability and severity of the pain. (thefrisky.com)
  • The pain is disproportionate to the initial injury's severity and is believed to be caused by a malfunction in the central or peripheral nervous systems. (funkyfrugalmommy.com)
  • It is characteristic of this syndrome that the degree of pain reported is out of proportion to the severity of the injury sustained by the individual. (pioneerlawoffice.com)
  • hantavirus infections in Europe and Asia can result in a hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) of varying severity. (cdc.gov)
  • We offer diagnostic and treatment options for common and complex medical conditions. (massgeneral.org)
  • If these changes are associated with a neuroma, often the treatment of the neuroma can help to decrease pain as well as these other signs and symptoms. (massgeneral.org)
  • Often, medications are used in conjunction with surgical treatment to modulate the body's response to the neuroma pain. (massgeneral.org)
  • This is done in collaboration with a specialist in the treatment of chronic pain. (massgeneral.org)
  • The treatment is highly beneficial for complex regional pain syndrome if started as early as possible. (pain-institute.com)
  • In some cases the symptoms of complex regional pain disappear without any treatment. (pain-institute.com)
  • According to the Mayo Clinic , some research indicates that early treatment can improve the symptoms and halt the advancement of the pain. (monastlaw.com)
  • See Pain Management: Concepts, Evaluation, and Therapeutic Options, a Critical Images slideshow, to help assess pain and establish efficacious treatment plans. (medscape.com)
  • The mechanisms of action may differ depending on the type of pain targeted for treatment. (medscape.com)
  • Of 416,384 Ad26.COV2.S recipients enrolled into v-safe, 60.9 % reported local symptoms (e.g. injection site pain) and 75.9 % reported systemic symptoms (e.g., fatigue, headache). (cdc.gov)
  • 38.5°C) for at least 3 days, accompanied by back pain, abdominal pain, or headache in the 4 weeks preceding the interview. (cdc.gov)
  • The complex regional pain syndrome particularly develops after an injury, surgery, stroke or heart attack. (pain-institute.com)
  • Through surgery, a small pump is implanted in the body to provide doses of pain-relieving medication directly to the spinal nerves causing the pain. (monastlaw.com)
  • Sometimes the syndrome is precipitated by injury and surgery, but some cases have no demonstrable injury to the original site. (pioneerlawoffice.com)
  • Both types require the exclusion of any other condition that might account for the degree of pain and dysfunction seen. (medscape.com)
  • [1] It is a complex condition due to the involvement of the peripheral and central nervous systems. (physio-pedia.com)
  • Several landmarks across the country were lit up on November 5th to Color the World Orange, and members of the pain community will be wearing orange all month long to show support for those suffering from this debilitating condition. (chronicillness.co)
  • Complex Regional Pain Syndrome is a chronic condition causing intense pain, discoloration, stiffness, and even swelling in certain extremities of your body. (thefrisky.com)
  • Complex regional pain syndrome can be a very difficult condition to shop for, even when you are the one grappling with it, like myself. (themighty.com)
  • The pain associated with the condition is generally more severe than what would be expected from the original injury. (monastlaw.com)
  • It's a condition that requires comprehensive management, including pain relief, physical therapy, and sometimes psychological support to address the mental toll of chronic pain. (funkyfrugalmommy.com)
  • According to the National Pain Foundation, one in four people in the world suffers from chronic pain and the condition is a key driver of visits to physician offices and a reduction in quality of life. (medlatest.com)
  • The condition is one of the most difficult types of pain to treat because of its complexity in intensity and location. (medlatest.com)
  • If your reflex sympathetic dystrophy/complex regional pain syndrome qualifies at Step 2, the Social Security Administration next considers whether your condition is severe enough to equal a listing at Step 3 of the Sequential Evaluation Process . (pioneerlawoffice.com)
  • If your reflex sympathetic dystrophy/complex regional pain syndrome is not severe enough to equal a listing, the Social Security Administration must assess your residual functional capacity (RFC) (the work you can still do, despite your condition), to determine whether you qualify for benefits at Step 4 and Step 5 of the Sequential Evaluation Process . (pioneerlawoffice.com)
  • The more dynamic symptoms (especially vascular aspects (edema, temperature) and the location of pain) can change numerous times each day. (wikipedia.org)
  • These little fibers transmit pain, itch, and temperature sensations. (samarpanphysioclinic.com)
  • This non-invasive therapy uses many guided relaxation and focus exercises to help those suffering from chronic pain gain more control over bodily functions including skin temperature, blood flow, and muscle tension. (monastlaw.com)
  • My temperature was soaring, my blood pressure was falling, and my arm was in excruciating pain. (cdc.gov)
  • These include regular meetings of all departments engaged in ageing-related work and regular electronic engagement with staff in regional and country offices. (who.int)
  • Complex regional pain syndrome is uncommon, and its cause is not clearly understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • In uncommon cases, pain can in some cases even travel to the opposing extremity. (pain-institute.com)
  • Validation of Proposed Diagnostic Criteria (the "Budapest Criteria") for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome," Pain, Vol. 150, No. 2, 2010, pp. 268-274. (scirp.org)
  • Pain-usually burning or aching-is a core diagnostic feature. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The origins of the regional anesthesia procedure can be traced to Philipp Gellert, a Jewish physician from Dresden, Germany, who in 1926 first reported on his experiences with the method. (bvsalud.org)
  • Among AESIs, reporting rates per million doses of Ad26.COV2.S administered ranged from 0.06 for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children to 263.43 for COVID-19 disease. (cdc.gov)
  • The abnormal functioning outcomes in an overreaction to pain signals that your nervous system can not shut off. (samarpanphysioclinic.com)
  • A. L Oaklander and H. L. Fields, "Is Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy/Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I a Small-Fiber Neuropathy? (scirp.org)
  • These electric pulses help to mask pain signals before they reach the brain. (monastlaw.com)
  • Although the action of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is ascribed to the direct inhibition of pain transmission in the dorsal horn, these theories do not fully explain the mechanisms by which SCS reduces pain. (medscape.com)
  • Later, spontaneously occurring pain may be associated with abnormalities in the affected region involving the skin, subcutaneous tissue, and bone. (pioneerlawoffice.com)
  • The results of laboratory studies suggest that electrical stimulation delivered by a TENS unit reduces pain through nociceptive inhibition at the presynaptic level in the dorsal horn, thus limiting its central transmission. (medscape.com)
  • It is also referred to as the Suicide Disease because of its intense incurable pain, among the highest recorded pain on the McGill Pain Scale. (wikipedia.org)
  • The complex regional pain syndrome may spread from its source to other parts of the body such as opposite leg. (pain-institute.com)
  • Intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA) is an established, safe and simple technique, being applicable for various surgeries on the upper and lower limbs. (bvsalud.org)