A hallucinogenic serotonin analog found in frog or toad skins, mushrooms, higher plants, and mammals, especially in the brains, plasma, and urine of schizophrenics. Bufotenin has been used as a tool in CNS studies and misused as a psychedelic.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)
Transport of the OVUM or fertilized ovum (ZYGOTE) from the mammalian oviduct (FALLOPIAN TUBES) to the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION in the UTERUS.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The process of moving specific RNA molecules from one cellular compartment or region to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).
A family of proteins involved in the transport of organic cations. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics, and their metabolites from the body.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A family of monosaccharide transport proteins characterized by 12 membrane spanning helices. They facilitate passive diffusion of GLUCOSE across the CELL MEMBRANE.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.
2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
Agents that affect ION PUMPS; ION CHANNELS; ABC TRANSPORTERS; and other MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS.
Passive or active movement of SPERMATOZOA from the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES through the male reproductive tract as well as within the female reproductive tract.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOSIDES across cellular membranes.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A set of protein subcomplexes involved in PROTEIN SORTING of UBIQUITINATED PROTEINS into intraluminal vesicles of MULTIVESICULAR BODIES and in membrane scission during formation of intraluminal vesicles, during the final step of CYTOKINESIS, and during the budding of enveloped viruses. The ESCRT machinery is comprised of the protein products of Class E vacuolar protein sorting genes.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An inhibitor of anion conductance including band 3-mediated anion transport.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
A ubiquitously expressed glucose transporter that is important for constitutive, basal GLUCOSE transport. It is predominately expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and ERYTHROCYTES at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and is responsible for GLUCOSE entry into the BRAIN.
Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Sulfhydryl analog of INOSINE that inhibits nucleoside transport across erythrocyte plasma membranes, and has immunosuppressive properties. It has been used similarly to MERCAPTOPURINE in the treatment of leukemia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p503)
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.
A family of POTASSIUM and SODIUM-dependent acidic amino acid transporters that demonstrate a high affinity for GLUTAMIC ACID and ASPARTIC ACID. Several variants of this system are found in neuronal tissue.
A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A polyspecific transporter for organic cations found primarily in the kidney. It mediates the coupled exchange of alpha-ketoglutarate with organic ions such as P-AMINOHIPPURIC ACID.
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.
The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
A cytotoxic sulfhydryl reagent that inhibits several subcellular metabolic systems and is used as a tool in cellular physiology.
Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.
A proton ionophore. It is commonly used as an uncoupling agent and inhibitor of photosynthesis because of its effects on mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Proteins involved in the process of transporting molecules in and out the cell nucleus. Included here are: NUCLEOPORINS, which are membrane proteins that form the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX; KARYOPHERINS, which carry molecules through the nuclear pore complex; and proteins that play a direct role in the transport of karyopherin complexes through the nuclear pore complex.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of arsenic acid.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are sorted for transport to various locations in the cell or cell membrane.
A family of proteins involved in the transport of monocarboxylic acids such as LACTIC ACID and PYRUVIC ACID across cellular membranes.
A non-penetrating amino reagent (commonly called SITS) which acts as an inhibitor of anion transport in erythrocytes and other cells.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The prototypical uricosuric agent. It inhibits the renal excretion of organic anions and reduces tubular reabsorption of urate. Probenecid has also been used to treat patients with renal impairment, and, because it reduces the renal tubular excretion of other drugs, has been used as an adjunct to antibacterial therapy.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Conveying ill or injured individuals from one place to another.
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Periplasmic proteins that scavenge or sense diverse nutrients. In the bacterial environment they usually couple to transporters or chemotaxis receptors on the inner bacterial membrane.
An element that is an alkali metal. It has an atomic symbol Rb, atomic number 37, and atomic weight 85.47. It is used as a chemical reagent and in the manufacture of photoelectric cells.
A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
A thin lining of closed cavities of the body, consisting of a single layer of squamous epithelial cells (MESOTHELIUM) resting on a thin layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and covered with secreted clear fluid from blood and lymph vessels. Major serous membranes in the body include PERICARDIUM; PERITONEUM; and PLEURA.
A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that regulates extracellular levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They differ from GABA RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They control GABA reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM through high-affinity sodium-dependent transport.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
The glycine amide of 4-aminobenzoic acid. Its sodium salt is used as a diagnostic aid to measure effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and excretory capacity.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A ubiquitous sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and CYSTEINE.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).
A membrane of squamous EPITHELIAL CELLS, the mesothelial cells, covered by apical MICROVILLI that allow rapid absorption of fluid and particles in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. The peritoneum is divided into parietal and visceral components. The parietal peritoneum covers the inside of the ABDOMINAL WALL. The visceral peritoneum covers the intraperitoneal organs. The double-layered peritoneum forms the MESENTERY that suspends these organs from the abdominal wall.
A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.
Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
Plant tissue that carries nutrients, especially sucrose, by turgor pressure. Movement is bidirectional, in contrast to XYLEM where it is only upward. Phloem originates and grows outwards from meristematic cells (MERISTEM) in the vascular cambium. P-proteins, a type of LECTINS, are characteristically found in phloem.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
Therefore, a few loose families of more-efficient light transport modelling techniques have emerged: rasterization, including ... without examining the contribution that complex objects make to the radiosity-or complex objects may be replaced in the ... Multiple models can be defined in a scene file containing objects in a strictly defined language or data structure. The scene ... In ray casting the geometry which has been modeled is parsed pixel by pixel, line by line, from the point of view outward, as ...
October 2000). "The 4F2hc/LAT1 complex transports L-DOPA across the blood-brain barrier". Brain Research. 879 (1-2): 115-21. ... a mathematical model". Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling. 6 (1): 21. doi:10.1186/1742-4682-6-21. PMC 2755466. PMID ... The dopamine-ATP complex is stabilised by hydrogen bonding between catechol hydroxyls and purine nitrogens and by electrostatic ... If compounds do not possess these qualities they must have a specific transporter that can transport them over the BBB. ...
However, the mechanisms are often more complex, and parameters for a model equation need to be estimated from experimental data ... Higher substrate concentrations are usually caused by osmotic issues, viscosity, or inefficient oxygen transport. By slowly ... Mathematical and Computer Modelling. 40 (5): 573-582. doi:10.1016/j.mcm.2003.10.051. ISSN 0895-7177. Marrot, B.; Barrios- ... The Monod equation accurately describes limiting conditions, but substrate inhibition models are more complex. Substrate ...
SISYPHE is the state of the art sediment transport and bed evolution module of the TELEMAC-MASCARET modelling system. SISYPHE ... can be used to model complex morphodynamics processes in diverse environments, such as coastal, rivers, lakes and estuaries, ... for different flow rates, sediment size classes and sediment transport modes. In SISYPHE, sediment transport processes are ... TOMAWAC is used to model wave propagation in coastal areas. By means of a finite-element type method, it solves a simplified ...
By matching such a model to an "Intelligent Transport System", traffic can be sent in uninterrupted "packets" of vehicles at ... Fluid Dynamic and Kinetic Modelling, Math. Mod. Meth. App. Sc., Vol. 12, No. 12 (2002) 1801-1843 S. Maerivoet, Modelling ... Traffic behaves in a complex and nonlinear way, depending on the interactions of a large number of vehicles. Due to the ... model, Wiedemann's model, Whitham's model, the Nagel-Schreckenberg (NaSch) cellular automaton (CA) model, Bando et al. OV model ...
"Accident models and organisational factors in air transport: The need for multi-method models". Safety Science. The gift of ... Qureshi, Zahid H (Jan 2008). "A Review of Accident Modelling Approaches for Complex Critical Sociotechnical Systems". Defense ... The Swiss cheese model is an accident causation model which analyzes the accident more from the human factor aspect. Reason's ... then it is necessary to investigate from backward of Reason's model. Swiss cheese model Wiegmann, Douglas A (2003). A Human ...
SIDRA NETWORK model provides a lane-based congestion modelling tool. It determines the backward spread of congestion as queues ... "Modelling procedure 4.0 Drive Cycle Development". U.S. Department of Transport: Federal Highway Administration Research, 6 July ... and actuated signal timing analysis methods for intersections with any geometry allowing for simple as well as complex phasing ... Fully signalised roundabouts can be modelled as a network. A recent NCHRP survey of US state transport agencies found that ...
Mount Skukum Volcanic Complex (Yukon) Blake River Megacaldera Complex (Quebec/Ontario) New Senator Caldera (Quebec) Misema ... Gudmundsson, Agust (2008). "Magma-Chamber Geometry, Fluid Transport, Local Stresses and Rock Behaviour During Collapse Caldera ... Modelling and Response. Developments in Volcanology. 10. pp. 313-349. doi:10.1016/S1871-644X(07)00008-3. ISBN 978-0-444-53165-0 ... Bailey chose the Valles caldera as their model. Although the Valles caldera is not unusually large, it is relatively young ( ...
Since the 1960s rather complex mathematical models have been developed, facilitated by the availability of high-speed computers ... Other topics include chemical transport as part of surface water, sediment transport and erosion. One of the important areas of ... hydrology and water resources Decision tree to choose an uncertainty method for hydrological and hydraulic modelling ... These models can be subdivided into single-event models and continuous simulation models. Recent research in hydrological ...
The gene product forms a core component of IFT-A complex which is indipensible for retrograde intraflagellar transport within ... Model organisms have been used in the study of IFT140 function. A conditional knockout mouse line called Ift140tm1a(KOMP)Wtsi ... a mouse strain with an Ift140 mutation that results in a skeletal ciliopathy modelling Jeune syndrome". PLOS Genetics. 9 (8): ... IFT140, Intraflagellar transport 140 homolog, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IFT140 gene. ...
... some or all of which may be modeled to address a particular problem. Modelling of complex reactive flows has applications in a ... Physical processes involved in reactive flows include species reactions, diffusive transport, radiative transport, convection, ... Reactive flow modeling can be applied to solar and stellar astrophysics to study novae, star formation, and cosmology. It can ... Fellowship in the American Physical Society (APS), 1993, "for innovations using cutting edge computers to model and explain ...
... solver allows for coupled heat and mass transport along with complex multi-step gas-phase and surface reactions which ... Auro Ashish Saha, Sushanta K. Mitra, "Modeling and Simulation of Microscale Flows," "Modelling and Simulation", book edited by ... The inertia effects and pressure drops across the pocket were incorporated in the numerical model.[9] Stanford University ... CFD-ACE+ was used by the Indian Institute of Technology Bombay to model the interplay of multiphysics phenomena involved in ...
Complex arrangements exist for the management of river regulation reservoirs, which are used to store winter water in the ... The resulting report entitled Learning to Live with Rivers specifically criticised a reluctance to use computer models and ... Major sources of air pollution, such as transport, are subject to various measures at the European, national and local level. ... The Environment Agency has an Air Quality Modelling and Assessment Unit (AQMAU) that aims to ensure that air quality ...
Online Model Organism DatabaseEdit. Xenbase[19] is the Model Organism Database (MOD) for both Xenopus laevis and Xenopus ... Furthermore, Xenopus oocytes are a leading system for studies of ion transport and channel physiology.[4] Xenopus is also a ... They have been instrumental in characterizing the biochemical function of the prereplicative complex, including MCM proteins.[ ... neuroscience and for modelling human disease and birth defects.[3][4][5] ...
... of Na+/K+-ATPase during the transport of sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) ions across the cell membrane in ... Elucidating complex signaling pathway phosphorylation events can be difficult. In cellular signaling pathways, protein A ... Schoeberl, B; Eichler-Jonsson, C; Gilles, ED; Müller, G (Apr 2002). "Computational modeling of the dynamics of the MAP kinase ... Aldridge, BB; Burke, JM; Lauffenburger, DA; Sorger, PK (Nov 2006). "Physicochemical modelling of cell signalling pathways". ...
Reliability modelingEdit. Reliability modeling is the process of predicting or understanding the reliability of a component or ... Reliability engineering for "complex systems" requires a different, more elaborate systems approach than for non-complex ... transport costs, storage cost, part obsolete risks, etc. But, as GM and Toyota have belatedly discovered, TCO also includes the ... field returns and existing modelling. ... For software, the CMM model (Capability Maturity Model) was ...
Over longer distances this mineral can be transported only in suspension state. At the same time, galena, which is very ... Herget J.& Agatz H. Modelling ice-dammed lake outburst floods in the Altay Mountains (Siberia) with HEC-RAS. - V.R. ... In early 1990s first international expeditions which specially studied the diluvial morpholithologic complex in Asia. Their ... Second International Planetary Dunes Workshop: Planetary Analogs - Integrating Models, Remote Sensing, and Field Data, held May ...
Models of the human ear-brain combination incorporating such effects are often called psychoacoustic models.[23] ... The Burrows-Wheeler transform can also be viewed as an indirect form of statistical modelling.[9] In a further refinement of ... A class of specialized formats used in camcorders and video editing use less complex compression schemes that restrict their ... The perceptual models used to estimate what a human ear can hear are generally somewhat different from those used for music. ...
These models are now used in network analysis, to classify human diseases into groups that share common proteins or metabolites ... In general, the complex molecules that make up cellular structures are constructed step-by-step from small and simple ... Finally, the acetyl group on the CoA is oxidised to water and carbon dioxide in the citric acid cycle and electron transport ... XTPase and modelling of deaminated purine nucleotide metabolism" (PDF). BMB Reports. 45 (4): 259-64. doi:10.5483/BMBRep.2012.45 ...
PBPK Modeling Analysis of Complex DDIs of Cerivastatin. Yoshiaki Yao, Kota Toshimoto, Soo-Jin Kim, Takashi Yoshikado and Yuichi ... 2006) Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling 2: predicting the tissue distribution of acids, very weak bases, neutrals ... PBPK Modeling Analysis of Complex DDIs of Cerivastatin. Yoshiaki Yao, Kota Toshimoto, Soo-Jin Kim, Takashi Yoshikado and Yuichi ... such as a segregated flow model (Chow and Pang, 2013), ACAT model (Agoram et al., 2001) or ADAM model (Jamei et al., 2009a,b), ...
Find air emissions modeling books and publications , the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and information ... Exchange and Transport of Air Pollutants over Complex Terrain and the Sea As the regional models required to understand and ... Modelling Diesel Combustion This book is a detailed discussion of the Diesel Combustion phenomena like ignition delay, fuel air ... air emissions modeling Books. Related terms for "air emissions modeling ": emissions modeling books , air emissions books ...
Axhausen KW (2000) Activity-based modelling: Research directions and possibilities, New Look at Multi-Modal Modeling. ... Department of Environment, Transport and the Regions, London, Cambridge and OxfordGoogle Scholar ... Travel demand modeling Evaluation Validation Complex networks Structure Connectivity Nomenclature. N. Number of nodes in the ... Song C, Koren T, Wang P, Barabási A (2010) Modelling the scaling properties of human mobility. Nat Phys 6:818-823CrossRefGoogle ...
Complex reactive transport problems are more commonly solved numerically. In this case, the governing equations are ... A reactive transport modelling approach to simulate biogeochemical processes in pore structures with pore-scale heterogeneities ... Hydrogeology Groundwater model Geochemical modeling Reservoir simulation Chemical process modeling Chemical transport model ... they are known as fate and transport models. Modern reactive transport modeling has arisen from several separate schools of ...
How much Natural Gas is there? Depletion Risk and Supply Security Modelling. US NG Technically Recoverable Resources US NG ... And so it goes with the oil discovery life-cycle, and arguably any other complex behavior.. The shape of the curve that Jerry ... Transport Along Streamlines • Spatial Discretization and Material Balance • Timestepping and Transverse Fluxes • Streamline ... For my model of oil depletion I intentionally separate the Discovery Model from the Production Model. This differs from the ...
Modelling Multi Stage Flash Desalination Process -. Current Status and Future Development. Dynamic Modelling of Complex ... Multiscale Modelling of Transport Phenomena in Biological Systems. Synthetic Biology: Dynamic Modelling and Construction of ... Prodess Modelling -. Putting Corporate Knowledge to Work. Modelling of Polymerisation Processes. Modelling of PEM Fuel Cells. A ... Modelling of Biological Systems. A Framework for the Modelling of Reactive Separations. Modelling of Crystallization Processes ...
... implementations Molecular mechanics Molecular modelling Comparison of software for molecular mechanics modeling Solvent models ... Swails JM, Roitberg AE (2013). "prmtop file of {A}mber" (PDF). Swails JM (2013). Free energy simulations of complex biological ... Micro- and Nanoscale Fluid Mechanics: Transport in Microfluidic Devices. ... The SPC model is rigid, whilst the flexible SPC model is flexible. In the model of Toukan and Rahman, the O-H stretching is ...
... how new ways of modelling are required to integrate a local model of the individual respiratory complexes into a global model ... Co-operative transport by molecular motors Biochem Soc Trans (September, 2011). Are Escherichia coli OXPHOS complexes ... Virtual mitochondrion: towards an integrated model of oxidative phosphorylation complexes and beyond Jean-Pierre Mazat Jean- ... towards an integrated model of oxidative phosphorylation complexes and beyond. Biochem Soc Trans 1 October 2010; 38 (5): 1215- ...
Modeling and Simulation Conference scheduled on March 15-16, 2022 in March 2022 in London is for the researchers, scientists, ... Production, Logistics and Transport. Prototyping and simulation. Real-time modeling and simulation. Simulation and Modelling in ... Simulation of Complex Systems. Simulation of Intelligent Systems. Simulation, Experimental Science and Engineering. Vision and ... Bond Graph Modelling. Chaos Modelling, Control and Signal Transmission. Circuit simulation & modeling. Computational and ...
3D Numerical Modeling of Flow and Sediment Transport in Open Channels journal, January 2000 * Wu, Weiming; Rodi, Wolfgang; ... Modelling the point and non-point nitrogen loads to the Venice Lagoon (Italy): the application of water quality models to the ... Synthesizing models useful for ecohydrology and ecohydraulic approaches: An emphasis on integrating models to address complex ... Synthesizing models useful for ecohydrology and ecohydraulic approaches: An emphasis on integrating models to address complex ...
Part III Subsurface Modelling and Pollutant Transport in Soils. Chapter 5 Pollutant Fate and Transport in the Subsurface. ... Chapter 4 Modelling Water Quality Impacts of Stormwater Runoff: Why Hydrologic Models are Insufficient. A. Jones-Lee and G. ... Part V Air Quality Modelling and Sensitivity Analysis. Chapter 9 Sensitivity Analysis Methods in Air Quality Models. Dacian N. ... This book showcases modern environmental modelling methods, the basic theory behind them and their incorporation into complex ...
Hydrologic modelling of complex river basins; Management of water resource system; Sediment transport; River hydraulics ... Transportation planning; demand modeling and forecasting; urban system analysis; Highway engineering; planning and design; ... This program, the only one of its kind in Canada, recognizes that effective solutions to increasingly complex technological and ...
For this purpose, at first, the modeling of changes in water ... ... to investigate the sedimentation mechanism at Pars port complex ... 2. Babu, M.T., Vethamony, P., Desa, E., (2005), Modelling tide-driven currents and residual eddies in the Gulf of Kachchh and ... Numerical modeling of sediment transport patterns under the effects of waves and tidal currents at Pars port complex inlet ... Numerical modeling of sediment transport patterns under the effects of waves and tidal currents at Pars port complex inlet. ...
The CFD model Fluidyn-Panache was configured to model atmospheric transport from an area source. Modelled flow and turbulence ... A dispersion simulation test for the RAMS-MIRS-SPRAY (RMS) modelling system in real complex terrain is presented. As a test ... Different versions of the model system RMS, including the Regional Atmospheric Modelling System (RAMS) and the dispersion model ... Evaluation of statistical models in atmospheric dispersion modelling When a gas is released into the atmosphere, there are ...
p style=text-indent:20px;,In this paper we consider the modeling of opinion dynamics over time dependent large scale networks ... C. Buet, S. Cordier and V. Dos Santos, A conservative and entropy scheme for a simplified model of granular media, Transport ... Opinion dynamics over complex networks: Kinetic modelling and numerical methods. Kinetic & Related Models, 2017, 10 (1) : 1-32 ... Opinion dynamics over complex networks: Kinetic modelling and numerical methods. Giacomo Albi 1, , Lorenzo Pareschi 2, and ...
Mathematics Meets Chemistry - Workflow-guided Evolving Software for Molecular Modelling. *Collaboration in the Modelling, ... Transported over a shared message bus, the elaborated information is retrieved by the learning component in the CONNECT ... The project, currently in its third year, will release a complex architecture populated with enablers not only for learning and ... Never-stop Learning: Continuous Validation of Learned Models for Evolving Systems through Monitoring Details Special Theme 02 ...
Modelling the air transport with complex networks: A short review. M Zanin, F Lillo ... Modeling the multi-layer nature of the European Air Transport Network: Resilience and passengers re-scheduling under random ... Combining complex networks and data mining: why and how. M Zanin, D Papo, PA Sousa, E Menasalvas, A Nicchi, E Kubik, ... ... Stefano BoccalettiSenior Researcher - CNR- Institute for Complex SystemsDirecci n de correo verificada de fi.isc.cnr.it ...
... hydrogeochemical models have been used since the 1960s and more frequently in recent times. ... Unlike groundwater flow and transport models, thermodynamic models, in principal, do not need any calibration. However, ... and geochemical models are important tools besides classical deterministic and analytical approaches. Solving complex linear or ... "This book focuses on giving practical support for geochemical modelling ... . Is it worthwhile to buy this book ... ? ...
The growing mobility needs of travellers have led to the development of increasingly complex and integrated multi-modal transit ... thus further attracting transport researchers to set up new models outside the context of the traditional data-driven approach ... The growing mobility needs of travellers have led to the development of increasingly complex and integrated multi-modal transit ... Modelling Intelligent Multi-Modal Transit Systems DOI link for Modelling Intelligent Multi-Modal Transit Systems ...
Complex environments ECO48 - NANO2PLAST: Extending nanoparticle models to open source models of the fate and transport of ... Complex environments ECO44 - A toxicokinetic mammalian modelling framework for bioaccumulation assessment. The general ... Complex environments. Complex environments ECO54: Developing a tiered modeling framework in support of risk assessment of ... Complex environments ECO52 - Bioavailability, complex substances and overall persistence (BCOP): three themes to deliver a step ...
Method of modelling muon transport through complex geological structures Description. We have developed a new method of ... Aaboud M (2018) Search for Higgs boson decays to beyond-the-Standard-Model light bosons in four-lepton events with the ATLAS ... Monte Carlo modelling of muon events (from 2008) Description. This is the method of simulating and analysing muon events that ... In 2015 the model and method have first been applied to the SURF underground laboratory in the USA. Recent improvements to the ...
Qamar, S.; Seidel-Morgenstern, A.: Analysis of Transport Model for Isocratic and Gradient Liquid Chromatography. 4th Indo- ... In: 3rd International Conference on Population Balance Modelling: PBM 2007, p. S6_1. PBM 2007 : 3rd International Conference on ... Bhandari, S.; Temmel, E.; Carneiro, T.; Qamar, S.; Lorenz, H.; Seidel-Morgenstern, A.: Modeling Batch Preferential ... Qamar, S.; Seidel-Morgenstern, A.: Numerical Solution of Batch Crystallization Models. In: 20th European Symposium on Computer ...
Improved modeling of photon observables with the event-by-event fission model freya journal, December 2017 * Vogt, R.; Randrup ... Microscopic description of complex nuclear decay: Multimodal fission journal, July 2009 * Staszczak, A.; Baran, A.; Dobaczewski ... Fission modelling with FIFRELIN journal, December 2015 * Litaize, Olivier; Serot, Olivier; Berge, Léonie ... Sensitivity of neutron observables to the model input in simulations of 252. Cf. (. sf. ). journal, May 2019 * Randrup, J.; ...
A Modeling Study of Large-Scale Solute Transport in Fractured Carbonate Rock  Howroyd, Matthew ... Fractures influence aqueous contaminant transport by allowing for rapid migration over long distances through complex pathways ... MODELLING COASTAL PROCESSES DRIVEN BY WINDS AND TIDES ACROSS A RANGE OF SPATIAL SCALES IN A MACROTIDAL BAY  Mclaughlin, Cody ... Numerical Modelling of Wind-driven Hydrodynamics in Shallow Wastewater Ponds and Coastal Estuaries  Rey, Alexander ...
Banagaaya, N.; Grundel, S.; Benner, P.: Index-Aware MOR for Gas Transport Networks. In: IUTAM Symposium on Model Order ... Modelling, Multirate, Model Order Reduction, Uncertainty Quantification, Fast Fault Simulation. Journal of Mathematics in ... Feng, L.; Yue, Y.; Banagaaya, N.; Meuris, P.; Schoenmaker, W.; Benner, P.: Parametric Modeling and Model Order Reduction for ( ... Banagaaya, N.; Feng, L.; Meuris, P.; Schoenmaker, W.; Benner, P.: Model Order Reduction of an Electro-Thermal Package Model. In ...
... brings together researchers and practitioners who are interested in all aspects of algorithmic methods and models for transport ... The aim of making transportation better gives rise to very complex and large-scale optimization problems requiring innovative ... The Symposium on Algorithmic Approaches for Transportation Modelling, Optimization, and Systems is an international forum for ... La théorie du transport optimal de masse (TOM) sera mise en avant afin dinitier les jeunes chercheurs à cette thématique ...
Agent-based modelling of paratransit as an intelligent complex adaptive system to improve efficiency  Ndibatya, Innocent ( ... An Analytical model of a radially magnetised longitudinal-flux permanent magnet air-cored linear oscillatory machine  Chembe, ... Alternative sphere decoding for finite control set model predictive control of power electronic converters  Raath, Johannes ... Industrial application of non-destructive analytical techniques still faces a challenge of lack of general and specialty models ...
... dissipation and transport processes in the interiors of icy moons Europa and Enceladus, numerical modelling of evolution of ice ... I am interested in the behavior of complex materials, both fluids, and solids that are dissipating energy. For example non- ... I perform numerical simulations of these models using the finite element method with applications in related areas. ... The approach used involves a mixture of Hopf algebras, monoidal categories, Lie theory, complex and Kähler geometry, C*- ...
... modeling, behavior, economics, geography, regional science, sociology, architecture and design, network science, and complex ... e design of the delta land-use modelling package. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 26(5):665-684. ... Land use-transport interaction (LUTI) models, Virtual cities, Model generalizability, Model replicability, Model ... LUTI operational models review based on the proposition of an a priori aluti conceptual model. Transport reviews, 39(2):204-225 ...
Theoretical Studies of Energy Transport in Complex Systems  Bhattacharya, Pallavi (2018-05-09) ... and application of the models in developing association schemes. A comprehensive set of analytical models is used to study the ... Performance Modelling Of TCP-Controlled File Transfers In Wireless LANs, And Applications In AP-STA Association. ... We model these simultaneous TCP-controlled transfers using a semi-Markov process. Our analytical approach leads to a procedure ...
... environmental and financial factors are crucial to the success of marine and transport projects. ... BMT supported Parsons Brinckerhoff in developing the first marine transport masterplan for Dubai. A transport model integrating ... Complex challenges, clear insight Addressing these complex challenges means having access to the right combination of technical ... Supported by sophisticated 3D mapping & modelling, our TMTM services assist:. *Marine construction: ranging from major port/ ...
Modeling, Fluid mechanics, Modeling, Environment(al), Modeling, Energy, Fluid mechanics, Hydraulics ... TURBULENT FLOWS MODELLING AND SIMULATION 5.00. 55.00. Français. NUMERICAL METHODS 8.00. 80.00. Français. ... Environment(al), Water, Water, Environment(al), Heat exchangers, Thermal transfer, Fluid mechanics, Modeling, ... TRANSPORT AND MIXING OF COMPLEX FLUIDS 3.00. 25.00. Français. Période 2 : January - October ...
"We are using Sparx Enterprise Architect to model the development of an energy station for transport, over a period of five ... Sparx EA allows us to model complex information flows around the production and supply of renewable energy for both the ... implementation of my rapid delivery methods as part of the Zachman Framework add-in to their Enterprise Architect modelling ... With a business domain model, linked to data centric messaging models, using EAs MDG technologies provides a head start for ...
It furthermore offers a diversity of tools for defining or importing the problem geometry, for modeling complex radiation ... S. Jan, D. Benoit, E. Becheva et al., "GATE V6: a major enhancement of the GATE simulation platform enabling modelling of CT ... Monte Carlo simulations have become an indispensable tool for radiation transport calculations in a great variety of ... DCMAKE MODULE LINKER FLAGS="-ansi -fp-model precise -mmic -static-intel" -DCMAKE SHARED LINKER FLAGS="-ansi -fp-model precise - ...
Method of modelling muon transport through complex geological structures Description. We have developed a new method of ... Aaboud M (2016) Search for minimal supersymmetric standard model Higgs Bosons H / A and for a [Formula: see text] boson in the ... Monte Carlo modelling of muon events (from 2008) Description. This is the method of simulating and analysing muon events that ... In 2015 the model and method have first been applied to the SURF underground laboratory in the USA. Recent improvements to the ...
The ebook modelling fluid flow research of time. The hedef creation length. here: Overton, C David. ... Collection and Model, where all Model gods tend used up to and through its ebook modelling fluid flow the state of the book. A ... If you are American of covering aftermarket change in a Socialist and total user without transport how Collections lead under ... The Gramophone communism put of complex theory. New York, Simon and Schuster, 1942. The religious video, adopted by R. Darrell ...
The parametric model was used to generate a 3D model of each of the five window frames, that included the required member size ... Transporting and installing was another challenge as the pillows were made and glazed as one assembly in a factory (up to ... Quality of finishing achieved particularly at the nodes as a result of the 3D modelling considerations and the finish quality ... To change something build a new model that makes the existing model obsolete." - Buckminster Fuller pic.twitter.com/CcMJTiPOyF ...
  • An understanding of long-range transport of air pollutants in the atmosphere requires a knowledge of the relevant atmospheric dynamic and chemical processes active at the regional scale as well as the temporal and spatial distribution of emissions. (environmental-expert.com)
  • In many cases the processes simulated in reactive transport models are highly related. (wikipedia.org)
  • Below are many of the physical and chemical processes which can be simulated with reactive transport models. (wikipedia.org)
  • These "bottom-up" models are essential for the understanding of the processes governing brain oxygenation in normal and disease states and for eventual translation of the lessons learned from animal studies to humans. (frontiersin.org)
  • Models of flow and transport processes in these systems must account for the inherent heterogeneity and scaling properties of porous rocks, as well as the typically sparse and uncertain field data that can be obtained to characterize a geological formation. (nap.edu)
  • Statistical network models can be used to characterize the structure of pore and fracture systems, and to define power laws that quantify flow and transport processes within them. (nap.edu)
  • Major efforts have been devoted over the last two decades to the development of realistic theoretical models capable of simulating flow and transport processes in fractured and heterogeneous porous formations. (nap.edu)
  • These efforts have led to significant understanding of the dynamics of flow and transport processes in these systems. (nap.edu)
  • Following introductory chapters providing essential physical background, the book examines in detail the processes to be modelled, from fluctuating pressure interactions to diffusive transport, from turbulent time and length scales to the handling of the semi-viscous region adjacent to walls. (ebooks.com)
  • It is also common for mathematical models of diffusive processes to treat diffusion using deterministic continuous partial differential equations (PDEs) [ 10 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • This is notably the case in mathematical modelling of biological processes [ 12 - 14 ] owing to the importance of diffusion of either chemicals and/or cells in many biological environments. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • For predicting the air concentration distribution and air bubble transport processes, the Two-Fluid Model is superior to others because it includes forces acting on the air bubbles. (kth.se)
  • In computational chemistry, a water model is used to simulate and thermodynamically calculate water clusters, liquid water, and aqueous solutions with explicit solvent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since 3-site models achieve a high computational efficiency, these are widely used for many applications of molecular dynamics simulations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent progress in optical imaging technologies for high-resolution in vivo measurement of the cerebral microvascular architecture, blood flow, and oxygenation enables construction of detailed computational models of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen transport based on realistic three-dimensional microvascular networks. (frontiersin.org)
  • Since completing her studies she has widened her research interests to include complex fuzzy inferencing and computational intelligence in transport. (dmu.ac.uk)
  • However, owing to recent advances in computational power, the simulation and therefore postulation, of computationally intensive individual-based models has become a popular way to investigate the effects of noise in reaction-diffusion systems in which regions of low copy numbers exist. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Stochastic models provide accuracy, but at the cost of significant computational resources. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Process Systems Enterprise (PSE), provider of the gPROMS advanced process simulation and modelling environment, is the 2007 winner of the Royal Academy of Engineering's MacRobert Award. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences and research results on all aspects of Modeling and Simulation. (waset.org)
  • Also, high quality research contributions describing original and unpublished results of conceptual, constructive, empirical, experimental, or theoretical work in all areas of Modeling and Simulation are cordially invited for presentation at the conference. (waset.org)
  • ICMS 2022 has teamed up with the Special Journal Issue on Modeling and Simulation . (waset.org)
  • It also comprises a C++ geometry library for defining the geometry of complex simulation environments and particle sources. (gc.ca)
  • It is widely regarded as the most accurate computer program for electron and photon transport simulation. (gc.ca)
  • Also, high quality research contributions describing original and unpublished results of conceptual, constructive, empirical, experimental, or theoretical work in all areas of Engineering Systems Modeling, Simulation and Analysis are cordially invited for presentation at the conference. (waset.org)
  • 17. International Conference on Engineering Systems Modeling, Simulation and Analysis has teamed up with the Special Journal Issue on Engineering Systems Modeling, Simulation and Analysis . (waset.org)
  • Spatial reaction-diffusion models have been employed to describe many emergent phenomena in biological systems. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • We have explored mathematical modeling of complex fluid phenomena, mathematical analysis of partial differential equations and stochastic differential equations associated to multi-scale phenomena as well as applications of nonlinear mechanics. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The physicochemical fundamental concepts of chemical equilibrium, activity-composition relationships, and structure-properties of molten metals are introduced before going into details of transport phenomena, i.e. kinetics, mixing and mass transfer in ironmaking and steelmaking pro-cesses. (google.com)
  • Because of the complex phenomena, it is still a challenge to investigate the behaviors of interaction between air and water. (kth.se)
  • Climate models have already predicted many of the phenomena for which we now have empirical evidence. (skepticalscience.com)
  • Reactive transport modeling in porous media refers to the creation of computer models integrating chemical reaction with transport of fluids through the Earth's crust. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to describe the transporter-/enzyme-mediated drug-drug interactions (DDIs) of CER with CsA or GEM based on unified physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models and to investigate whether the DDIs can be quantitatively analyzed by a bottom-up approach. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The rigid models are considered the simplest water models and rely on non-bonded interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In these models, bonding interactions are implicitly treated by holonomic constraints. (wikipedia.org)
  • Climate models are mathematical representations of the interactions between the atmosphere, oceans, land surface, ice - and the sun. (skepticalscience.com)
  • and supercritical carbon dioxide requires increasingly complex models which are prone to considerable uncertainty. (wikipedia.org)
  • Her MSc project was in the field of type-2 fuzzy logic, and her PhD studies continued this theme in her exploration of mathematical and philosophical aspects of type-2 fuzzy logic in relation to such topics as uncertainty modelling and defuzzification. (dmu.ac.uk)
  • Results demonstrate the complexity involved in the development, evaluation, and validation of travel demand models, which calls for advanced evaluation techniques reflecting a wide range of attributes of the observed and modeled data, travelers, mobility patterns, and complex network characteristics. (springer.com)
  • The public transport in India is gradually shifting towards electric mobility. (sae.org)
  • EGSnrc is a general-purpose software toolkit that can be applied to build Monte Carlo simulations of coupled electron-photon transport, for particle energies ranging from 1 keV to 10 GeV. (gc.ca)
  • The modelling technique most commonly adopted in the literature implements systems of partial differential equations (PDEs), which assumes there are sufficient densities of particles that a continuum approximation is valid. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Physical model tests are commonly conducted to investigate aerator flow features. (kth.se)
  • Statistical properties of the modeled networks are compared against the observed networks over time. (springer.com)
  • Well founded and reliable emission data are necessary to implement strategies to investigate and control air pollution caused by the transport and chemical transformation of air pollutants. (environmental-expert.com)
  • On the the same hand, the data does not convincingly back up the early discovery model. (theoildrum.com)
  • In this article, we review state-of-the-art optical microscopy technologies for quantitative in vivo imaging of cerebral microvascular structure, blood flow and oxygenation, and theoretical methods that utilize such data to generate spatially resolved models for blood flow and oxygen transport. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the context of these results, we discuss some conceptual and quantitative models of fluid flow and chemical transport in the fractured vadose zone, and the laboratory and field data that are required to evaluate them. (nap.edu)
  • Construct a reduced stochastic model from the data. (slideserve.com)
  • The numerical model was calibrated using field measured data provided by USGS, and then it was validated by the BCS Opening Event in 1997. (scirp.org)
  • The EGSnrc implementation improves the accuracy and precision of the charged particle transport mechanics and the atomic scattering cross-section data (I Kawrakow. (gc.ca)
  • Virtual route profile is modelled using longitude, latitude and altitude data captured through GPS and steering duty cycle is mapped in terms of steering rotation angle. (sae.org)
  • Models] are full of fudge factors that are fitted to the existing climate, so the models more or less agree with the observed data. (skepticalscience.com)
  • For example, the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo allowed modellers to test the accuracy of models by feeding in the data about the eruption. (skepticalscience.com)
  • Observed sea level rise since 1970 from tide gauge data (red) and satellite measurements (blue) compared to model projections for 1990-2010 from the IPCC Third Assessment Report (grey band). (skepticalscience.com)
  • This includes the assessment of airborne pollutant emissions, transport, and depletion and the related chemistry. (environmental-expert.com)
  • I can only hope that this post on oil depletion modeling attracts the same ferocity from the peak oil deniers out there. (theoildrum.com)
  • Unfortunately, we don't have a complementary " oil depletion audit " site organized yet (though Stuart and Khebab, et al, seem to be working on it--see yesterday's post), so we have to rely on the devil's advocates on TOD to attempt to rip my Application of the Dispersive Discovery Model to shreds. (theoildrum.com)
  • This approach provides the reader with a thorough understanding of the basic physical laws of thermoporoelastic rocks, the partial differential equations representing these laws and the principal numerical methods, which allow finding approximate solutions of the corresponding mathematical models. (routledge.com)
  • Early studies developed the theoretical basis of reactive transport models, and the numerical tools necessary to solve them, and applied them to problems of reactive contaminant transport and flow through reacting hydrothermal systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a simple and didactic manner the different water and energy problems existing in deformable porous rocks are explained as well as the corresponding theories and the mathematical and numerical tools that lead to modeling and solving them. (routledge.com)
  • Modeling the coast-valley environments is characterized by a high level of complexity due to the concurrent presence of complex orography and land-sea interface. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The European Conference on Complex Systems, held under the patronage of the Complex Systems Society, is an annual event that has become the leading European conference devoted to complexity science. (springer.com)
  • This highly readable volume introduces the reader to a level of modelling that respects the complexity of the physics of turbulent flows - second-moment closure. (ebooks.com)
  • Patterns of fluid flow and chemical transport in heterogeneous porous and fractured media tend to be highly complex. (nap.edu)
  • Hydrologists primarily concerned with the physical nature of mass transport assumed relatively simple reaction formulations, such as linear distribution coefficients or linear decay terms, which could be added to the advection-dispersion equation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The electrostatic interaction is modeled using Coulomb's law, and the dispersion and repulsion forces using the Lennard-Jones potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using the in vitro parameter sets selected by sensitivity analyses, these DDIs were well reproduced, indicating that the present PBPK models were able to describe adequately the clinical DDIs based on a bottom-up approach. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Reaction path models were created, for instance, to describe the sequence of chemical reactions resulting from chemical weathering or hydrothermal alteration in batch systems, in terms of the overall reaction progress. (wikipedia.org)
  • In modeling carbon sequestration and hydraulic fracturing, moreover, it may be necessary to describe rock deformation resulting from mineral growth or abnormally high fluid pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CFD method presents three two-phase flow models to describe the aerator flows, namely, the Volume of Fluid Model, the Mixture Model, and the Two-Fluid Model. (kth.se)
  • This is due, in part, to the very complex nature of fracture networks in the subsurface, and to the virtual impossibility of obtaining detailed structural, hydraulic, and geochemical characterizations of fractures in situ, in diverse geological and lithological settings. (nap.edu)
  • The hydraulic and transport properties of these formations vary considerably, being dependent largely on the degree of fracture interconnection, aperture variations in the fractures, and chemical characteristics of the fractures and host rock. (nap.edu)
  • A system level model of hydraulic power steering system is developed. (sae.org)
  • Certain applications, such as geothermal energy production and ore deposit modeling, require the additional calculation of heat transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • This book will serve as a synoptic compendium of the fundamentals of fluid, solute and heat transport, applicable to all types of subsurface systems, ranging from shallow aquifers down to deep geothermal reservoirs. (routledge.com)
  • To evaluate the environmental impacts of the flood water on lake ecosystems, a two-dimensional numerical model was developed based on CCHE2D and applied to simulate the flow circulation, sediment transport and algal biomass distribution in Lake Pontchartrain. (scirp.org)
  • 2013) [2] to simulate the flow circulation, sediment transport as well as algae biomass distribution in the lake due to the flood release from BCS. (scirp.org)
  • CCHE2D is a depth-averaged 2D hydrodynamic and sediment transport model that can be used to simulate unsteady free surface turbulent flow and sediment concentration (Jia et al. (scirp.org)
  • Testing models against the existing instrumental record suggested CO2 must cause global warming, because the models could not simulate what had already happened unless the extra CO2 was added to the model. (skepticalscience.com)
  • based on the CCHE2D hydrodynamic model (Jia et al. (scirp.org)
  • Modelling transport and mixing by turbulence in complex flows is one of the greatest challenges for CFD. (ebooks.com)
  • In a similar spirit, a random walk formalism can quantify anomalous (non-Gaussian) patterns of chemical transport that are frequently observed in laboratory and field experiments. (nap.edu)
  • Heat transport greatly affects the viscosity of water and its ability to flow. (wikipedia.org)
  • This book is ideal for CFD users in industry and academia who seek expert guidance on the modelling options available, and for graduate students in physics, applied mathematics and engineering who wish to enter the world of turbulent flow CFD at the advanced level. (ebooks.com)
  • Aerator flow includes intense air-water exchange and involves a process of air entrainment, transport, and detrainment. (kth.se)
  • The Volume of Fluid model leads to reasonable results regarding the water flow discharge and flow fields. (kth.se)
  • Based on the aerator flow from a chute spillway in Sweden, three two-phase flow models are applied and compared. (kth.se)
  • The results show similar flow features with the prototype but differ from those of the model tests. (kth.se)
  • An explanation for the discrepancy is discussed in terms of flow features, effect of surface tension in model tests, and the prerequisite for air entrainment of the free-surface flow. (kth.se)
  • Geochemical models, on the other hand, have been developed to provide thermodynamic descriptions of multicomponent systems without regard to transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • A framework for studying the effect of the coupling to the heat bath in models exhibiting anomalous heat conduction is described. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • The framework is applied to the harmonic chain with momentum exchange model where the non-trivial temperature profile is calculated. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • We briefly review this history and show how new ways of modelling are required to integrate a local model of the individual respiratory complexes into a global model of OXPHOS and, beyond that, into a reliable overall model of central metabolism. (portlandpress.com)
  • For the mathematical modeling, we have studied a Lagrangian variational formulation of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, modeling of cloud cavitation and with experiments, elucidation of LCS (Lagrangian coherent structures) for Rayleigh-Benard convection as well as a stochastic variational formulation of single bubble dynamics. (nii.ac.jp)
  • It gathered about 650 scholars representing a wide range of topics relating to complex systems research, with emphasis on interdisciplinary approaches. (springer.com)
  • All models have limits - uncertainties - for they are modelling complex systems. (skepticalscience.com)
  • Modern reactive transport modeling has arisen from several separate schools of thought. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most sophisticated multi-component reactive transport models consider both reaction and transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reactive transport models have found increased application in recent years with improvements in the power of personal computers and modeling software. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reactive transport models couple a large number chemical reactions with mass transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analyses of transport of reactive chemicals, including effects of precipitation and dissolution, as well as changes in fracture morphology, also demonstrate highly non-uniform behavior. (nap.edu)
  • In this work, we develop two hybrid algorithms in which a PDE in one region of the domain is coupled to a compartment-based model in the other. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Climate models have to be tested to find out if they work. (skepticalscience.com)
  • More and more important physical and chemical mechanisms are to be added to the air pollution models. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The simplicity with which diffusion can be represented in these deterministic models has, in part, lead to its popularity in modelling complex physical behaviour. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Axhausen K, Garling T (1992) Activity-based approaches to travel analysis: conceptual frameworks, models, and research problems. (springer.com)
  • The SPC/E model results in a better density and diffusion constant than the SPC model. (wikipedia.org)
  • Temperature profile and boundary conditions in an anomalous heat transport model. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • The models are determined from quantum mechanics, molecular mechanics, experimental results, and these combinations. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2-site model of water based on the familiar three-site SPC model (see below) has been shown to predict the dielectric properties of water using site-renormalized molecular fluid theory. (wikipedia.org)
  • For models that have regions of both low and high concentrations, it is often desirable, for reasons of efficiency, to employ coupled multi-scale modelling paradigms. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Such models predict the distribution in space and time of the chemical reactions that occur along a flowpath. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a model can correctly predict trends from a starting point somewhere in the past, we could expect it to predict with reasonable certainty what might happen in the future. (skepticalscience.com)
  • The models used to predict future global warming can accurately map past climate changes. (skepticalscience.com)
  • This book focuses on air pollution modeling in coast-valley environments. (environmental-expert.com)
  • When applied to the study of contaminants in the environments, they are known as fate and transport models. (wikipedia.org)
  • The new approach reveals the network structure and connectivity of the modeled trips that are not usually captured by traditional evaluation and validation methods. (springer.com)
  • The DDIs were then simulated using the established PBPK models with previously obtained in vitro inhibition constants of CsA or GEM/GEM-glu against the OATP1B1 and cytochrome P450s. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The field observation and numerical model show that during the spillway opening for flood release, the sediment concentration is very high, which greatly restricts the growth of algae, so there is no algal bloom observed in the lake. (scirp.org)
  • Publishing papers from the Fifteenth International Conference on Modelling, Monitoring and Management of Air Pollution, this book features articles on the latest developments in air pollution analysis and control. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Most of the models use a rigid geometry matching that of actual water molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • For more sophisticated and advanced models the numerical techniques are described and developed carefully. (routledge.com)
  • In reality, observed sea level is tracking at the upper range of the model projections. (skepticalscience.com)