Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and MANURE. These are distinguished from DRUG COMBINATIONS which have only a few components in definite proportions.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.
A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)
Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
A by-product of the destructive distillation of coal used as a topical antieczematic. It is an antipruritic and keratoplastic agent used also in the treatment of psoriasis and other skin conditions. Occupational exposure to soots, tars, and certain mineral oils is known to be carcinogenic according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985) (Merck Index, 11th ed).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
The contamination of indoor air.
Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.
An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.
Amide derivatives of phosphoric acid such as compounds that include the phosphoric triamide (P(=O)(N)(N)(N)) structure.
Nucleotides containing arabinose as their sugar moiety.
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
A highly miniaturized version of ELECTROPHORESIS performed in a microfluidic device.
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
A class of chemicals that contain an anthracene ring with a naphthalene ring attached to it.
Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Compounds that contain a BENZENE ring fused to a furan ring.
Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
A liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase capable of biotransforming xenobiotics such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons into carcinogenic or mutagenic compounds. They have been found in mammals and fish. This enzyme, encoded by CYP1A1 gene, can be measured by using ethoxyresorufin as a substrate for the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity.
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
Closely congeneric derivatives of the polycyclic naphthacenecarboxamide. (Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1117)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Relating to the size of solids.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.
The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
Preparations of cell constituents or subcellular materials, isolates, or substances.
Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
A chemical by-product that results from burning or incinerating chlorinated industrial chemicals and other hydrocarbons. This compound is considered an environmental toxin, and may pose reproductive, as well as, other health risks for animals and humans.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE. The common name of dragon's blood is also used for DRACAENA and Daemonorops (ARECACEAE). Croton tiglium is the source of CROTON OIL.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind certain aryl hydrocarbons, translocate to the nucleus, and activate transcription of particular DNA segments. AH receptors are identified by their high-affinity binding to several carcinogenic or teratogenic environmental chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in cigarette smoke and smog, heterocyclic amines found in cooked foods, and halogenated hydrocarbons including dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. No endogenous ligand has been identified, but an unknown natural messenger with a role in cell differentiation and development is suspected.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.

Cell death during corneal storage at 4 degrees C. (1/369)

PURPOSE: To evaluate cell death in human donor corneas stored at 4 degrees C, to determine whether terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-fluorescein nick-end labeling (TUNEL) discriminates between apoptosis and necrosis in corneas stored at 4 degrees C. METHODS: Ten human corneas were stored in Optisol (Chiron Ophthalmics, Irvine, CA) at 4 degrees C for periods ranging from 0 to 21 days and then fixed for histologic examination. Central corneal sections from each cornea were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and by the TUNEL assay. Electron micrographs of at least 15 keratocytes each from the anterior, middle, and posterior stroma were examined by three masked observers who graded each cell as normal, apoptotic, or necrotic. Central sections from the same corneas were processed by the TUNEL assay and evaluated with a laser scanning confocal microscope to determine the percentage of apoptotic cells. RESULTS: By TEM, apoptosis occurred in 23% of the keratocytes and necrosis in 12%. By TUNEL assay, apoptosis occurred in 11% of the keratocytes, with the results in individual corneas being similar to the findings by TEM for apoptosis, rather than for necrosis. By TUNEL assay, apoptosis occurred in 13% of the epithelial cells and in 8% of the endothelial cells. The percentage of apoptotic cells and storage time correlated significantly for the epithelium, but not for the keratocytes or endothelium in this small sample. CONCLUSIONS: Both apoptosis and necrosis occur in cells during corneal storage at 4 degrees C, with apoptosis appearing to predominate. The TUNEL assay identifies cells undergoing apoptosis, but not necrosis, in corneal tissue. Inhibition of apoptosis in corneas stored at 4 degrees C may prolong acceptable storage times.  (+info)

Effectiveness of microabrasion technique for improvement of dental aesthetics. (2/369)

OBJECTIVES: To investigate which types of enamel opacity are effectively treated by the microabrasion technique and whether this technique could be used as a diagnostic aid to determine the aetiology of these defects. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Thirty two patients who had enamel opacities affecting both upper central incisors were selected and the disfigurements were classified into four types: single line, multi-line, patched and diffused. The patient's previous medical history, possible history of fluoride ingestion, presence of taurodontism and family history of similar enamel defects were recorded. Both incisors were treated with Prema abrasive paste mixed with 18% hydrochloric acid. The aesthetic improvements were assessed by the patients and their parents and their satisfaction level after the treatment was recorded. RESULTS: Approximately two-thirds (65.6%) of the patients were satisfied with their appearance after microabrasion. Apart from four patients, the improved appearance was stable and acceptable to the remaining patients at the six month recall. Statistical analysis showed that acceptable improvement was found in patients with single line/patched types of defects but not in multi-line/diffused types (P = 0.03). However, the aesthetic improvement was not related to the patient's fluoride history, presence of taurodontism or the family history of enamel defects. CONCLUSION: Microabrasion using Prema abrasives with 1 8% HCI is effective in improving the appearance of enamel with single-line or patched opacities, indicating that these defects are a surface phenomenon. For the multi-line and diffused types, the defects appear to extend deeper into the enamel. The technique failed to assist in determining the aetiology of these defects.  (+info)

GFS, a preparation of Tasmanian Undaria pinnatifida is associated with healing and inhibition of reactivation of Herpes. (3/369)

BACKGROUND: We sought to assess whether GFS, a proprietary preparation of Tasmanian Undaria pinnatifida, has effects on healing or re-emergence of Herpetic infections, and additionally, to assess effects of GFS in vitro. Undaria is the most commonly eaten seaweed in Japan, and contains sulphated polyanions and other components with potential anti-viral activity. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infections have lower reactivation rates and Herpes type 2 (HSV-2) infections have lower incidence in Japan than in the west. METHODS: Patients with active (15 subjects) or latent (6 subjects) Herpetic infections (HSV-1, 2, EBV, Zoster) were monitored for response to ingestion of GFS. GFS extract was tested in vitro for human T cell mitogenicity and anti-Herpes activity. RESULTS: Ingestion of GFS was associated with increased healing rates in patients with active infections. In addition, patients with latent infection remained asymptomatic whilst ingesting GFS. GFS extract inhibited Herpes viruses in vitro and was mitogenic to human T cells in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Ingestion of GFS has inhibitory effects on reactivation and is associated with increased rate of healing after Herpetic outbreaks. GFS extract potently inhibited Herpes virus in vitro, and had mitogenic effects on human T cells.  (+info)

The use of antimicrobial peptides in ophthalmology: an experimental study in corneal preservation and the management of bacterial keratitis. (4/369)

PURPOSE: Bacterial keratitis is an ocular infection with the potential to cause significant visual impairment. Increasing patterns of antibiotic resistance have necessitated the development of new antimicrobial agents for use in bacterial keratitis and other serious ocular infections. With a view to exploring the use of novel antimicrobial peptides in the management of ocular infection, we performed a series of experiments using synthetic antimicrobial peptides designed for the eradication of common and serious ophthalmic pathogens. METHODS: Experiments were performed with three clinical ocular isolates--Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis--in three experimental settings: (1) in vitro in a controlled system of 10 mM sodium phosphate buffer, (2) in vitro in modified chondroitin sulfate-based corneal preservation media (Optisol), and (3) in an in vivo animal model (rabbit) simulating bacterial keratitis. In all cases, outcomes were measured by quantitative microbiological techniques. RESULTS: The candidate peptides (CCI A, B, and C and COL-1) produced a total reduction of the test pathogens in phosphate buffered saline. In modified Optisol, the peptides were effective against S epidermidis at all temperatures, demonstrated augmented activity at 23 degrees C against the gram-positive organisms, but were ineffective against P aeruginosa. The addition of EDTA to the medium augmented the killing of P aeruginosa but made no difference in the reduction of gram-positive organisms. In an in vivo rabbit model of Pseudomonas keratitis, COL-1 demonstrated neither clinical nor microbicidal efficacy and appeared to have a very narrow dosage range, outside of which it appeared to be toxic to the ocular surface. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that the antimicrobial peptides we tested were effective in vitro but not in vivo. In an age of increasing antibiotic resistance, antimicrobial peptides, developed over millions of years as innate defense mechanisms by plants and animals, may have significant potential for development as topical agents for the management of severe bacterial keratitis. However, modifications of the peptides, the drug delivery systems, or both, will be necessary for effective clinical application.  (+info)

Crude extracts of bacterially expressed dsRNA can be used to protect plants against virus infections. (5/369)

BACKGROUND: Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is a potent initiator of gene silencing in a diverse group of organisms that includes plants, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila and mammals. We have previously shown and patented that mechanical inoculation of in vitro-transcribed dsRNA derived from viral sequences specifically prevents virus infection in plants. The approach required the in vitro synthesis of large amounts of RNA involving high cost and considerable labour. RESULTS: We have developed an in vivo expression system to produce large amounts of virus-derived dsRNAs in bacteria, with a view to providing a practical control of virus diseases in plants. Partially purified bacterial dsRNAs promoted specific interference with the infection in plants by two viruses belonging to the tobamovirus and potyvirus groups. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that easy to obtain, crude extracts of bacterially expressed dsRNAs are equally effective protecting plants against virus infections when sprayed onto plant surfaces by a simple procedure. Virus infectivity was significantly abolished when plants were sprayed with French Press lysates several days before virus inoculation. CONCLUSION: Our approach provides an alternative to genetic transformation of plant species with dsRNA-expressing constructs capable to interfere with plant viruses. The main advantage of this mode of dsRNA production is its simplicity and its extremely low cost compared with the requirements for regenerating transgenic plants. This approach provides a reliable and potential tool, not only for plant protection against virus diseases, but also for the study of gene silencing mechanisms in plant virus infections.  (+info)

Protein stability in mixed solvents: a balance of contact interaction and excluded volume. (6/369)

Changes in excluded volume and contact interaction with the surface of a protein have been suggested as mechanisms for the changes in stability induced by cosolvents. The aim of the present paper is to present an analysis that combines both effects in a quantitative manner. The result is that both processes are present in both stabilizing and destabilizing interactions and neither can be ignored. Excluded volume was estimated using accessible surface area calculations of the kind introduced by Lee and Richards. The change in excluded volume on unfolding, deltaX, is quite large. For example, deltaX for ribonuclease is 6.7 L in urea and approximately 16 L in sucrose. The latter number is greater than the molar volume of the protein. Direct interaction with the protein is represented as the solvent exchange mechanism, which differs from ordinary association theory because of the weakness of the interaction and the high concentrations of cosolvents. The balance between the two effects and their contribution to overall stability are most simply presented as bar diagrams as in Fig. 3. Our finding for five proteins is that excluded volume contributes to the stabilization of the native structure and that contact interaction contributes to destabilization. This is true for five proteins and four cosolvents including both denaturants and osmolytes. Whether a substance stabilizes a protein or destabilizes it depends on the relative size of these two contributions. The constant for the cosolvent contact with the protein is remarkably uniform for four of the proteins, indicating a similarity of groups exposed during unfolding. One protein, staphylococcus nuclease, is anomalous in almost all respects. In general, the strength of the interaction with guanidinium is about twice that of urea, which is about twice that of trimethylamine-N-oxide and sucrose. Arguments are presented for the use of volume fractions in equilibrium equations and the ignoring of activity coefficients of the cosolvent. It is shown in the Appendix that both the excluded volume and the direct interaction can be extracted in a unified way from the McMillan-Mayer formula for the second virial coefficient.  (+info)

Solvation of nucleosides in aqueous mixtures of organic solvents: relevance to DNA open basepairs. (7/369)

Toward the goal of understanding how open basepairs in DNA interact with their heterogeneous environment, we have studied the steady-state intrinsic fluorescence properties of the purine and pyrimidine deoxynucleosides in organic solvents in the presence of small amounts of water. The organic solvents used in the present study were: n-butanol, acetonitrile, methanol, n-propanol, isopropanol, and isobutanol. For n-butanol and acetonitrile, which have a high degree of amphiphilicity and weak hydrogen bonding ability, respectively, the fluorescence spectral properties of the purines are found to depend on the sequence of steps in which the aqueous mixtures were formed. By contrast, no such dependence was observed in the mixtures with any of the other solvents used in the present study. Moreover, no such dependence was observed for the pyrimidines. These findings suggest that the final solvation network around the purines is dependent on the nature of the environment to which they were initially exposed. This would tend to present an impediment to the closing of AT or GC basepairs in DNA that become open as a result of structural fluctuations, DNA bending, or protein-DNA interactions.  (+info)

Egg hatching, larval movement and larval survival of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae in desiccating habitats. (8/369)

BACKGROUND: Although the effects of rainfall on the population dynamics of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae have been studied in great detail, the effects of dry periods on its survival remain less clear. METHODS: The effects of drying conditions were simulated by creating desiccated habitats, which consisted of trays filled with damp soil. Experiments were performed in these trays to (i) test the ability of An. gambiae sensu stricto eggs to hatch on damp soil and for larvae to reach an artificial breeding site at different distances of the site of hatching and (ii) to record survival of the four larval stages of An. gambiae s.s. when placed on damp soil. RESULTS: Eggs of An. gambiae s.s. hatched on damp soil and emerging larvae were capable of covering a distance of up to 10 cm to reach surface water enabling further development. However, proportions of larvae reaching the site decreased rapidly with increasing distance. First, second and third-instar larvae survived on damp soil for an estimated period of 64, 65 and 69 hrs, respectively. Fourth-instar larvae survived significantly longer and we estimated that the maximum survival time was 113 hrs. CONCLUSION: Short-term survival of aquatic stages of An. gambiae on wet soil may be important and adaptive when considering the transient nature of breeding sites of this species in sub-Saharan Africa. In addition, the results suggest that, for larval vector control methods to be effective, habitats should remain drained for at least 5 days to kill all larvae (e.g. in rice fields) and habitats that recently dried up should be treated as well, if larvicidal agents are applied.  (+info)

The most common types of laryngeal neoplasms include:

1. Vocal cord nodules and polyps: These are benign growths that develop on the vocal cords due to overuse, misuse, or trauma.
2. Laryngeal papillomatosis: This is a condition where warts grow on the vocal cords, often caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV).
3. Adenoid cystic carcinoma: This is a rare type of cancer that develops in the salivary glands near the larynx.
4. Squamous cell carcinoma: This is the most common type of cancer that develops in the larynx, often due to smoking or heavy alcohol consumption.
5. Verrucous carcinoma: This is a rare type of cancer that develops on the vocal cords and is often associated with chronic inflammation.
6. Lymphoma: This is a type of cancer that affects the immune system, and can develop in the larynx.
7. Melanoma: This is a rare type of cancer that develops from pigment-producing cells called melanocytes.

Symptoms of laryngeal neoplasms can include hoarseness or difficulty speaking, breathing difficulties, and ear pain. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as CT scans or MRI, and biopsy. Treatment options vary depending on the type and severity of the neoplasm, but may include surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy.

... (UCM), or hump, is a feature frequently observed in gas chromatographic (GC) data of crude oils and ... Analysis of the hydrocarbon fraction of crude oils by GC reveals a complex mixture containing many thousands of individual ... The use of GC×GC for the characterization of complex petrochemical mixtures has been extensively reviewed. Most research into ... Scarlett, Alan; Galloway, Tamara S.; Rowland, Steven J. (2007-06-08). "Chronic toxicity of unresolved complex mixtures (UCM) of ...
... all such mixtures are unimodal. However, for the case of mixtures of normal distributions, it is a complex one. Conditions for ... because the individual mixture components can be more easily studied than the overall mixture density. Mixture densities can be ... is called a finite mixture, and in applications, an unqualified reference to a "mixture density" usually means a finite mixture ... See Multimodal distribution#Mixture of two normal distributions for more details.) Given an equal (50/50) mixture of two normal ...
Complex gas mixtures are unnecessary. Oxygen rebreathers can usually be used, which makes the design considerably simpler, and ... A mixture of water and absorbent occurs when the scrubber floods and depending on the chemicals used, can produce a chalky ... All rebreathers other than oxygen rebreathers may be considered mixed gas rebreathers, as the breathing gas is a mixture of ... These can be divided into semi-closed circuit, where the supply gas is a breathable mixture containing oxygen and inert ...
PAHs are typically found as complex mixtures. Most PAHs are insoluble in water, which limits their mobility in the environment ... These metabolites can bind to DNA at specific sites, forming bulky complexes called DNA adducts that can be stable or unstable ... PAHs are among the complex suite of contaminants in tobacco smoke and particulate air pollution and may contribute to ... In 1922, Ernest Kennaway determined that the carcinogenic component of coal tar mixtures was an organic compound consisting of ...
Vidal-de-Miguel, Guillermo; Herrero, Ana (June 2012). "Secondary Electrospray Ionization of Complex Vapor Mixtures. Theoretical ... soft ionisation process which greatly simplifies the resulting spectra and thereby facilitates the analysis of complex mixtures ... usually from a mixture of laboratory air and water vapor. From the formed plasma, a single ionic species is selected using a ... without the need for sample preparation or calibration with standard mixtures. The detection limit of commercially available ...
"Chemical mixture caused explosion". Belfast Telegraph. 18 June 2011. Retrieved 18 June 2011. "Explosion at Leisure Centre ... "North Lincolnshire Council - 150 jobs created to build £21m sport and leisure complex in Scunthorpe (Friday 6 November)". www. ... "North Lincolnshire Council - Final piece to jigsaw on multi-million pound Pods sports complex (08 October 2009)". www. ...
M. R. Vant; R. O. Ramseier & V. Makios (1978). "The complex-dielectric constant of sea ice at frequencies in the range 0.1-4.0 ... The electro-magnetic properties of such a mixture will be different from, and normally somewhere in between (though not always- ... The most important quantity in this calculation, and also the most difficult to establish with any certainty, is the complex ... Sea ice is a complex composite composed of pure ice and included pockets of air and highly saline brine. ...
It is in this direction where complex chemistry calculations can be performed affordably. To model a non-premixed combustion, ... Mixture fraction Z 2. Scalar dissipation χ 3. Time Many times we neglect the unsteady terms in above equation and assume the ...
Huang, Guangming; Ouyang, Zheng; Cooks, R. Graham (2009). "High-throughput trace melamine analysis in complex mixtures". ... the ESI-MS technique allows now high-throughput analysis of melamine traces in complex mixtures. The Melaminometer was a ... are often complex and time-consuming. However, electrospray ionization methods coupled with mass spectrometry allow a rapid and ... direct analysis of samples with complex matrices: the native liquid samples are directly ionized under ambient conditions in ...
Committee on Methods for the In Vivo Toxicity Testing of Complex Mixtures (1998). Complex Mixtures: Methods for In Vivo ... Any mixture effects are taken into account in the total toxicity. The results for this method are limited by being mixture ... Next the experimental results from binary mixture tests are plotted on the isobologram. The results from the mixture test are ... A common method for studying mixtures is to measure the total toxicity of the mixture and consider the internal toxicant ...
"Hyphenated techniques for analysis of complex organic mixtures". Science. 222 (4621): 291-6. Bibcode:1983Sci...222..291W. doi: ... Separation processes are used to decrease the complexity of material mixtures. Chromatography, electrophoresis and field flow ...
Chemical Reactions in Complex Mixtures, (pp. 25-41). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1991. "The mathematics of continuous ... A286, 129-139 (1965). "On the theory of reactions in continuous mixtures" (with G.R. Gavalas). Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. A 260, ... 49, 5307-5313 (1994). "Pt-catalyzed combustion of CH4-C3-C8 mixtures" (with A. Balakrishna and L.D. Schmidt). Chem. Eng. Sci. ... Tech., 99 (1995). "On reactions in continuous mixtures." A.I.Ch.E.J. 35, 539-548 (1989). "On the limits of facilitated ...
doi:10.1016/S0003-2670(98)00250-5. Wilkins CL (October 1983). "Hyphenated techniques for analysis of complex organic mixtures ...
Wilkins CL (1983). "Hyphenated techniques for analysis of complex organic mixtures". Science. 222 (4621): 291-6. Bibcode: ... Separation processes are used to decrease the complexity of material mixtures. Chromatography and electrophoresis are ...
... in a very complex mixture". Mikrokosmos Nos. 99, 101, and 109 are octatonic pieces, as is No. 33 of the 44 Duos for Two Violins ...
Chromatin Immunoprecipitation results in production of complex mixtures of relatively short DNA fragments, which is challenging ... "Multiple displacement amplification for complex mixtures of DNA fragments". BMC Genomics. 9: 415. doi:10.1186/1471-2164-9-415. ... A method to circumvent this problem was proposed, which is based on conversion of these mixtures to circular concatemers using ...
Analysis of more complex protein mixtures, are just emerging. Analysis of binding adhesives usually thought to derive from ... Peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) is an analytical technique that can be applied to the digested protein mixture. The masses of ... Paleoproteomics is still a young field, with most complex proteomes only being discovered in the last decade. Current proteomic ... is most often used in the case of ancient proteome analysis due to the nature of these complex samples. At the present time, ...
Escher, Beate I.; Stapleton, Heather M.; Schymanski, Emma L. (24 January 2020). "Tracking complex mixtures of chemicals in our ... Schymanski has also worked to develop computational tools that allow the processing of complex high resolution mass ... complexes with modified poly(pyrazolyl)borate ligands-metal-ligand coordination and crystal packing". Polyhedron. 21 (5-6): 553 ...
... the harpooning kinetics is more complex. Despite its weak proportion in a gaseous mixture, Cl 2 is produced much effectively ... Only binary gas mixtures of xenon and a chlorine donor, or ternary mixtures that also include a buffer gas (a rare gas ... in a mixture of helium as buffer gas. They found that: - States D are especially formed from Xe+ ion, (2P1/2) ; - States B and ... Gas or gaseous mixtures that may lead to the formation of these molecules is a quasi-ideal laser medium since the population ...
Examples of solid bases include: Oxide mixtures: SiO2, Al2O3; MgO, SiO2; CaO, SiO2 Mounted bases: LiCO3 on silica; NR3, NH3, ... Adducts involving metal ions are usually described as coordination complexes. According to the original formulation of Lewis, ...
Voskoboinik, Lev; Darvasi, Ariel (2011-11-01). "Forensic identification of an individual in complex DNA mixtures". Forensic ... He holds a US patent for the identification of a suspect's DNA in a scene of crime where a mixture of DNA from several ... Darvasi, Ariel (1998-01-01). "Experimental strategies for the genetic dissection of complex traits in animal models". Nature ... US 9447474, Darvasi, Ariel & Voskoboinik, Lev, "System and method for analyzing DNA mixtures", published Sep 20, 2016 תבור, ...
mixture of 'soft' and 'hard' criteria; takes into account people's well-being and resource use of countries. Cons 'happiness' ... The exact function is a little more complex, but conceptually it approximates multiplying life satisfaction and life expectancy ... or 'life satisfaction' are very subjective and personal: cultural influences and complex impact of policies on happiness. ...
Mass spectrometry showed that the mixture of proteins present in their venom is as complex as the mixture of proteins found in ... Venoms are often complex mixtures of toxins of differing types. Toxins from venom are used to treat a wide range of medical ... Venoms cause their biological effects via the many toxins that they contain; some venoms are complex mixtures of toxins of ... Among marine animals, eels are resistant to sea snake venoms, which contain complex mixtures of neurotoxins, myotoxins, and ...
... (CPs) are complex mixtures of polychlorinated n-alkanes. The chlorination degree of CPs can vary between ...
This complex bonding behavior originates from the fact that boron has only three valence electrons; this hinders tetrahedral ... 1a). Tetraborides, i.e. B/M = 4, are mixtures of diboride and hexaboride structures. Cuboctahedron (Fig. 1b) is the structural ... Boron-rich borides are usually characterized by large and complex unit cells, which can contain more than 1500 atomic sites and ... Thermal conductivity of boron icosahedra based compounds is low because of their complex crystal structure; this property is ...
A mixture of urea and choline chloride is used as a deep eutectic solvent (DES), a substance similar to ionic liquid. When used ... It is also a Lewis base forming complexes of the type [M(urea)6]n+. Molten urea decomposes into ammonia gas and isocyanic acid ... This behaviour can be used to separate mixtures, e.g., in the production of aviation fuel and lubricating oils, and in the ... The resulting crystals have been used to separate racemic mixtures. Urea is basic. As such it is protonates readily. ...
It was predominantly used in complex mixtures with other plants. The plant has been shown to possess anti-bacterial activity ... a mixture of the bark and tobacco is used to dress some wounds; crushed leaves are applied to the fontanelle of newly born ...
Simple fluorinations of alkenes often produce complex mixtures of products. However, cofluorination in the presence of a ...
A number of different tags have been developed to help researchers purify specific proteins from complex mixtures. The study of ... Hey J, Posch A, Cohen A, Liu N, Harbers A (2008). "Fractionation of complex protein mixtures by liquid-phase isoelectric ... A more complex computational problem is the prediction of intermolecular interactions, such as in molecular docking, protein ... The resulting mixture can be purified using ultracentrifugation, which fractionates the various cellular components into ...
Thickeners Thickeners are substances which, when added to the mixture, increase its viscosity without substantially modifying ... Sage (Salvia officinalis) - Copper complexes of chlorophylls - color (green) Coriander - Coriander seed oil - used medicinally ...
Critics have noted similarities in how Chekhov and Shimizu use a mixture of light humour as well as an intense depictions of ... The plays that Chekhov wrote were not complex, but easy to follow, and created a somewhat haunting atmosphere for the audience ...
The mixture of figures from different periods that is normal in the type makes it clear than no historical incident is being ... The development of meaning of the Italian conversazione is also rather complex; as in English, it was a long time before the ...
Despite the complex issue of self-designations, pre-modern Syriac-language sources at times identified positively with the ... as well as royal Assyrian policies enacted to encourage assimilation and cultural mixture, is Sargon II's account of the ... The signs used in Old Assyrian texts are for the most part less complex than those used during the succeeding Middle and Neo- ... Assyrian society grew more complex and hierarchical over time. In the Middle Assyrian Empire, there were several groups among ...
Incendiary mixtures, such as the petroleum-based Greek fire, were launched by throwing machines or administered through a ... or as a quick welding mechanism to destroy artillery and other complex machined weapons. A variety of pyrophoric materials can ... Less successful was the Flammenbombe, a 250 kg or 500 kg high explosive bomb case filled with an inflammable oil mixture, which ...
... and a mixed approach design includes a mixture of the above (e.g., a mixture of quantitative and qualitative data, methods, ... and fuller or more complex answers to research questions; quantitative quality criteria are emphasized but high quality ... and fuller or more complex answers to research questions; qualitative quality criteria are emphasized but high quality ...
At the other extreme the model can be used to simulate succession and disturbance responses in a complex multi species, multi ... Silviculture of temperate and boreal broadleaf conifer mixtures (eds P.G. Comeau & K.D. Thomas), pp. 152. BC Ministry of ... canopy layering as a simple even-age single canopy layer or a complex multi-age, multi canopy) and population, community and ...
... is a mixture of chemical compounds which is obtained through fermentation by actinobacteria species in the genus ... Subscription or participating institution membership required.) "Antitumor agents from the bohemic acid complex. 4. Structures ... "Antitumor Agents from Bohemic Acid Complex, VI. Schaunardimycin". Journal of Natural Products. 47 (4): 698-701. doi:10.1021/ ... "Antitumor Agents From Bohemic Acid Complex, III. The Isolation of Marcellomycin, Musettamycin, Rudolphomycin, Mimimycin, ...
For a real-valued process, it distributes energy evenly over the real and complex domains. In other words, 2Re[KZFTm,k,ν0(t)] ... Combinations of a few fixed frequency waves can complicate the recognition of the mixture of signals, but still remain ... For a complex-valued process X(t) = ei(2mν0)t , the KZFTm,k,ν0(t) outcome is unchanged. ... The original observations provide no guess of the complex, hidden periodicity, which was perfectly reconstructed by the ...
Other gas mixtures, typically used for deeper dives by technical divers, may substitute helium for some or all of the nitrogen ... A more complex but still minimalist system is a webbing harness with shoulder straps, waist belt and crotch strap, supporting a ... The use of a low density inert gas, typically helium, in the breathing mixture can reduce this problem, as well as diluting the ... Technical divers may need to carry several different gas mixtures. These are intended to be used at different stages of the ...
Very complex nature of projects built in remote locations and where construction costs are regarded as some of the highest in ... If this mixture is within the flammable range, there is risk of ignition, which would create fire and thermal radiation hazards ... Thus a 2000cc engine would typically be more powerful than an 1800cc engine, but that assumes a similar air-fuel mixture is ... If, however, via a turbocharger as an example, the smaller engine uses an air-fuel mixture with higher energy density, then it ...
While AgCl dissolves in ammonia (due to the formation of the complex ion [Ag(NH3)2]+), Hg2Cl2 gives a black precipitate ... consisting of a mixture of chloro-mercuric amide and elemental mercury. Furthermore, AgCl is reduced to silver under light, ... because it forms a soluble complex ([PbCl4]2−) with Pb2+. Consequently, the Pb2+ ion would go undetected. The most important ... where they form polysulfide complexes. This group is determined by adding the salt in water and then adding dilute hydrochloric ...
These exist as a [Nd(OH2)9]3+ complexes: 2Nd (s) + 3H2SO4 (aq) → 2Nd3+ (aq) + 3SO2−4 (aq) + 3H2 (g) Some of the most important ... Between 1839 and 1843, ceria was shown to be a mixture of oxides by the Swedish surgeon and chemist Carl Gustaf Mosander, who ... It is generally regarded as having one of the most complex spectra of the elements. Neodymium was discovered in 1885 by the ... Neodymium is a component of "didymium" (referring to mixture of salts of neodymium and praseodymium) used for coloring glass to ...
A UML state machine, as represented in a tool, is not just the state diagram, but rather a mixture of graphical and textual ... Instead of addressing all aspects of a complex system at the same time, it is often possible to ignore (abstract away) some ... Because the internal structure of a composite state can be arbitrarily complex, any hierarchical state machine can be viewed as ... Harel statecharts, which are the precursors of UML state machines, have been invented as "a visual formalism for complex ...
The mechanism for the conversion of CH 3-S bond into methane involves a ternary complex of methyl coenzyme M and coenzyme B fit ... and the rest is a mixture of other molecules including carbon dioxide, methane and ammonia. Aerobic methane production ...
The reference is the most complex of the three electrodes; there are a variety of standards used and it is worth investigating ... If the mixture is not stirred, the width of the diffusion layer eventually increases. This can be observed by the maximum peak ...
A fed-batch process will also have an output flow rate of the substrate/cell/product mixture which can be collected to retrieve ... However, the mechanisms are often more complex, and parameters for a model equation need to be estimated from experimental data ... Additionally, information on inhibitory effects caused by mixtures of compounds is limited because most studies have been ... The Monod equation accurately describes limiting conditions, but substrate inhibition models are more complex. Substrate ...
... dance in which the participant's entire body is used as an instrument to produce complex rhythms and sounds through a mixture ...
The mixture of Eastern stylistic influences with Hellenistic paid tribute to Isis' Egyptian roots, while still keeping the ... Wall paintings in this style possessed a lot of color, complex, and were representational and influenced by theater. However, ...
... more detailed studies have shown the development of ingrown meanders versus entrenched meanders depends on a complex mixture of ...
DESs have also demonstrated promising results to recover metals from complex mixtures such Cu/Zn and Ga/As, and precious metals ... It has also been demonstrated that metals can be recovered from complex mixtures by electrocatalysis using a combination of ... Most of them are mixtures of choline chloride and a hydrogen-bond donor (e.g., urea, ethylene glycol, malonic acid) or mixtures ... "Electrocatalytic recovery of elements from complex mixtures using deep eutectic solvents". Green Chem. 17 (4): 2172-2179. doi: ...
One such example is the flexible mixture model which reduces the database of hundreds or thousands of deformed parts by ... Many solutions involve training complex models with large data sets. Pose estimation is a difficult problem and an active ... Professor Nikos Paragios at the Ecole Centrale de Paris Articulated Pose Estimation with Flexible Mixtures of Parts Project at ... "Articulated pose estimation with flexible mixtures-of-parts." Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2011 IEEE ...
Social-utility efficiency … Smith referred to a similar formulation as Bayesian regret "Range voting with mixtures of honest ... using more complex and arguably more realistic parameters, examining a wider variety of scenarios and using a hierarchical ...
Also in 2018, soto is promoted in Asian Festival in Gelora Bung Karno Sports Complex during 2018 Asian Games in Jakarta as a ... Another scholar suggests that it was more likely a mixture of cooking traditions in the region, namely Chinese, Indian, and ...
Fractional crystallization in silicate melts (magmas) is complex compared to crystallization in chemical systems at constant ... Experimentally-determined phase diagrams for simple mixtures provide insights into general principles. Numerical calculations ...
Elevated levels of total cortisol can also be due to estrogen found in oral contraceptive pills that contain a mixture of ... Some of these are associated with inherited disorders such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and Carney complex. Diagnosis ...
Azam Complex Chamazi is owned by Azam Football Club. The Gymkhana Golf Courses located northwest of the Kivukoni area (between ... It contains a mixture of traditional shops and western-oriented resorts and stores. Mbezi Beach is the beachfront suburb ...
Particularly American critics such as John Updike have found the mixture of politics and social critique in his works to ... It portrays the area's mixed ethnicities and complex historical background in lyrical prose that is highly evocative. The Tin ...
These bees also have complex foraging and wing buzzing behaviors and are part of a mimicry complex. Eulaema meriana resembles a ... It is suggested that this allows the pollen mixture to be pushed down and packed into the cell. Other materials like mud, feces ... The fragrances stay in the pouch for a long period of time and form a complex chemical blend. The blends are species specific, ... Each brood cell is filled two-thirds of its volume with a pale yellow, sticky pollen/nectar mixture. Females returning to the ...
The distribution of rocks of different sizes in an aggregate mixture that is being shaken (with gravity acting on the rocks) .[ ... Feigenbaum, M. J. (1976) "Universality in complex discrete dynamics", Los Alamos Theoretical Division Annual Report 1975-1976 ...
Complex Mixtures addresses the problem of identifying and classifying complex mixtures, investigating the effect of exposure, ... many common harmful substances occur naturally as mixtures and can interact to exhibit greater toxic effects as a mixture than ... Complex Mixtures addresses the problem of identifying and classifying complex mixtures, investigating the effect of exposure, ... National Research Council (US) Committee on Methods for the In Vivo Toxicity Testing of Complex Mixtures. Complex Mixtures: ...
COMPLEX CHEMICAL MIXTURES INTERAGENCY ANNOUNCEMENT 2000 SCIENCE TO ACHIEVE RESULTS (STAR) PROGRAM Release Date: April 24, 2000 ... NIEHS is interested in understanding what mixtures of chemicals the public is exposed to as well as the mechanisms involved in ... or predictive strategies for assessing the impact of chemical mixtures that focus on the mechanistic basis for chemical ... improve characterization of worker exposures to mixtures, or improve laboratory and statistical analysis methods. Information ...
Thermodynamic modelling of complex mixtures. Multicomponent liquid mixtures are ubiquitous in both chemical engineering and ... modelling and classical molecular dynamics simulation to study the phase diagram and miscibility of the multicomponent mixture ...
Bioassay of complex mixtures derived from fossil fuels E Bingham et al. Environ Health Perspect. 1979 Jun. ... Bioassay of complex mixtures derived from fossil fuels E Bingham, W Barkley ... Risk assessment of complex mixtures: some considerations on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban areas. Zapponi GA, Attias ... A method for testing complex mixtures for their carcinogenic potential is described. The carcinogenic potency of these ...
However, traditional and modern alternative health care practices typically employ botanical medicines as complex mixtures. ... Comparative Bioactivity Modeling and Bioinformatics to Study Combination Effects in Complex Natural Product Mixtures. Abstract ... Comparative Bioactivity Modeling and Bioinformatics to Study Combination Effects in Complex Natural Product Mixtures. ... There is ample literature precedent that the overall biological effect of a mixture can be the result of multiple constituents ...
... of samples and therefore rapidly and directly provide non-targeted information on chemical components in complex mixtures. In ... Complex Mixture Analysis of Organic Compounds in Yogurt by NMR Spectroscopy by Yi Lu ... Lu Y, Hu F, Miyakawa T, Tanokura M. Complex Mixture Analysis of Organic Compounds in Yogurt by NMR Spectroscopy. Metabolites. ... Lu Y, Hu F, Miyakawa T, Tanokura M. Complex Mixture Analysis of Organic Compounds in Yogurt by NMR Spectroscopy. Metabolites. ...
Primary: 16 - Mixtures. Secondary: 03 - Carcinogenesis/Cell Transformation Publications. No publications associated with this ...
Karasek, F.W.; Tong, H.Y. 1985: Semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of complex organic mixtures J ... Karasek, F.W.; Tong, H.Y. 1985: Semi preparative high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of complex organic mixtures ... Simple high performance liquid chromatographic methods for resolving complex mixtures. Kirschbaum, J.J.; Noroski, J.E.. ... Simple and robust determination of monosaccharides in plant fibers in complex mixtures by capillary electrophoresis and high ...
Rearick DC Complex mixtures, complex responses: Assessing pharmaceutical mixtures using field and laboratory approaches Environ ... "Complex mixtures, complex responses: Assessing pharmaceutical mixtures using field and laboratory approaches". ... "Complex mixtures, complex responses: Assessing pharmaceutical mixtures using field and laboratory approaches" Environ Toxicol ... a simple antidepressant mixture (fluoxetine, paroxetine, venlafaxine), a sleep aid (temazepam), or a complex mixture of all ...
Integrating Chemical and Biological Profiling for the Functional Annotation of Complex Natural Product Mixtures ... Integrating Chemical and Biological Profiling for the Functional Annotation of Complex Natural Product Mixtures Download ... It is challenging to identify the active components within complex mixtures of natural products and understand their modes of ... It is challenging to identify the active components within complex mixtures of natural products and understand their modes of ...
... Immunosorbents for Selective Sample Preparation of Complex ... Many methods have been published using one or both of these techniques to simplify complex mixtures before chromatographic or ... The production of an IS can be performed in the laboratory but most workers faced with solving a complex sample preparation ... Figure 4 shows the timing sequence of the previous operation and the separation of the standard mixture on the tandem column ...
But research on complex cover crop mixtures is inconsistent because it fails to capture all of the potential ecosystem services ... Success with simple, two-species cover crop mixes has led to interest in more complex cover crop mixtures, with three or more ... Evaluate the range of ecosystem services provided by cover crop mixtures to select cover crop mixtures that provide the desired ... provided by complex mixtures. This research hopes to show the cumulative effect of the ecosystem services provided by cover ...
Realistic Membrane Modeling using Complex Lipid Mixtures in Simulation Studies. Realistic Membrane Modeling using Complex Lipid ... Particularly, we emphasize the relevance of using complex lipid mixtures to model a cell membrane of interest to capture the ... Mixtures in Simulation Studies. Campbell, Oluwatoyin; Le, Van; Aguirre, Angela; Monje-Galvan, Viviana. Afiliação *Campbell O; ...
Complex mixtures and cancer risk / edited by H. Vainio, M. Sorsa and A. J. McMichael. Contributor(s): Vainio, Harry , Sorsa, ...
... of PEM fuel cells fed with H2/CO-mixtures by means of modeling and model reduction ... Understanding complex operating behavior of PEM fuel cells fed with H2/CO-mixtures by means of modeling and model reduction ... complex operating behavior of PEM fuel cells fed with H2/CO-mixtures by means of modeling and model reduction. Talk presented ... 1Process Systems Engineering, Max Planck Institute for Dynamics of Complex Technical Systems, Max Planck Society, ou_1738151 2 ...
The pathophysiology of cholinesterase inhibitors on the CNS is complex and poorly understood. Both Nicotinic and muscarinic ... Section 4: Clinical Findings in Cholinesterase Inhibitor Toxicity Are Due to a Mixture of Nicotinic and Muscarinic Effects. ... Nicotinic and muscarinic receptor stimulation results in a mixture of their sympathetic and parasympathetic effects. (Erdman ...
Kohler, P.F.: Immune complexes and allergic disease. In: Middleton et al: Allergy Principles and Practice 3rd Ed. St. Louis: CV ... NOTE: For extracts of Short Ragweed or equal part mixture of Short and Tall Ragweed refer to AgE dosage schedule. The AgE ... 10 mL and 50 mL, single antigens or specified mixtures, potency expressed in PNU/mL (up to and including 100,000 PNU/mL) or W/V ... FAPP MIXTURE aspergillus flavus var. oryzae, aspergillus niger var. niger, aspergillus repens, aspergillus terreus, gibberella ...
Using passive sampling and zebrafish to identify developmental toxicants in complex mixtures. ... Using passive sampling and zebrafish to identify developmental toxicants in complex mixtures.. Title. Using passive sampling ... Using passive sampling and zebrafish to identify developmental toxicants in complex mixtures. ... We also eliminated pesticides, phthalates, musks, and others identified in toxic fractions by testing surrogate mixtures. We ...
Complex Mixtures, Complex Responses-Using Comprehensive Approaches to Assess Pharmaceutical Effects on Fish The occurrence of ... Complex Mixtures, Complex Responses-Using Comprehensive Approaches to Assess Pharmaceutical Effects on Fish The occurrence of ... Complex Mixtures, Complex Responses-Using Comprehensive Approaches to Assess Pharmaceutical Effects on Fish ... Complex Mixtures, Complex Responses-Using Comprehensive Approaches to Assess Pharmaceutical Effects on Fish ...
... rice and pasta mixtures; and frozen meals in which the main course is a grain mixture. ... Sodium density for each participant was calculated as mg/(kcal/1,000). Results are weighted to account for the complex ... Includes mixtures having a grain product as a main ingredient, such as burritos, tacos, pizza, egg rolls, quiche, spaghetti ... The weighting of the 2-day dietary subsample took into account the complex multistage probability design, survey nonresponse, ...
... of toxicity and suggests its usefulness for the detection of toxicity associated with metallic pollution in complex mixtures. ... promoter linked to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene in evaluating the toxic potential of complex mixtures. ... Evaluation of an in vitro hsp 70 induction test for toxicity assessment of complex mixtures : comparaison with chemical ... Evaluation of an in vitro hsp 70 induction test for toxicity assessment of complex mixtures : comparaison with chemical ...
Since then, the types of agents considered by this program have expanded beyond simple chemicals to include complex mixtures, ... For the purpose of this FOA, "agents" are defined broadly to include: chemicals; complex mixtures; physical agents; biological ...
A culture mixture of Navicula and Synedra. Each culture contains enough material for a class of 30 students. ... Get help teaching complex techniques, setting up products, and gain critical knowledge before your class. ... A culture mixture of Navicula and Synedra. Each culture contains enough material for a class of 30 students. ...
Researchers showed how receptors in the nose help decode the smell of complex odor mixtures. ... researchers showed how receptors in the nose help decode the smell of complex odor mixtures in mice. ... But how more complex odors made of several different odor molecules create the perception of a unique smell isnt known. Some ... As a result, the code sent to the brain for a mixture of odors was different than what would be predicted from the sum of each ...
... in humans remains limited.ObjectiveThe present proof-of-concept study investigated if a probiotic product containing a mixture ... Objective: The present proof-of-concept study investigated if a probiotic product containing a mixture of Bifidobacterium ... Britton JC, Taylor SF, Sudheimer KD, Liberzon I. Facial expressions and complex IAPS pictures: common and differential networks ... Probiotic Mixture Containing Lactobacillus helveticus, Bifidobacterium longum and Lactiplantibacillus plantarum Affects Brain ...
  • Dr. Linington's laboratory is developing new methods for the unbiased chemical characterization of natural product mixtures as part of a collaborative program funded by the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health and the Office of Dietary Supplements. (nih.gov)
  • During this lecture, Dr. Linington will share his perspective on potential solutions for the unbiased chemical characterization of complex natural product mixtures, discuss the advantages of high-content assay systems for target-agnostic biological profiling, and highlight opportunities provided by the integration of orthogonal datasets for the functional characterization of natural product samples. (nih.gov)
  • Many methods have been published using one or both of these techniques to simplify complex mixtures before chromatographic or spectroscopic analysis. (chromatographyonline.com)
  • Complex Mixtures addresses the problem of identifying and classifying complex mixtures, investigating the effect of exposure, and the research problems inherent in testing their toxicity to human beings. (nih.gov)
  • Fatty acids and dithiocarbamates were previously unrecorded components of LDPE extracts and are likely contributing to the toxicity of the whole mixture. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Thus, NIOSH is interested in studies that identify synergistic effects of multiple exposure, improve characterization of worker exposures to mixtures, or improve laboratory and statistical analysis methods. (nih.gov)
  • Cumulative and adaptive respiratory tract responses to 3 concentrations of an inhaled particle-oxidant mixture were examined in Fisher 344 N rats exposed 4 h/day, 3 days/week for 4 weeks. (cdc.gov)
  • The samples were chemically complex, as they contained high concentrations of naturally occurring interferences, including glycerin in the hand sanitizer and oleic acid in the body oil samples. (llnl.gov)
  • This addresses the problem of detection of low concentrations in complex mixtures. (usda.gov)
  • The proposed approach will combine traditional natural products based isolation with metabolomics and bioinformatics, enabling a more comprehensive understanding of mixture behavior than is currently possible. (nih.gov)
  • NIEHS is interested in understanding what mixtures of chemicals the public is exposed to as well as the mechanisms involved in the interaction of these mixtures and subsequent health effects. (nih.gov)
  • The purpose of these proceedings is to present the state-of-the-art techniques in bioassay and chemical analysis as applied to complex mixtures and to foster continued advancement of this important area of collaborative research. (epa.gov)
  • Use of bacterial assay system for monitoring genotoxic complex mixtures in the occupational setting. (cdc.gov)
  • There is ample literature precedent that the overall biological effect of a mixture can be the result of multiple constituents, which together exert "combination effects," acting synergistically or antagonistically. (nih.gov)
  • Together, these systems are providing a broad perspective on the biological roles of all metabolites in complex samples. (nih.gov)
  • Multi-Lectin Affinity Chromatography for Separation, Identification, and Quantitation of Intact Protein Glycoforms in Complex Biological Mixtures. (bvsalud.org)
  • Aberrant N-linked glycosylation has been associated with several human diseases and has prompted the development and constant improvement of analytical tools to separate, characterize, and quantify glycoproteins in complex mixtures extracted from various biological samples (such as blood and tissue ). (bvsalud.org)
  • However, many common harmful substances occur naturally as mixtures and can interact to exhibit greater toxic effects as a mixture than the individual components exhibit separately. (nih.gov)
  • We also eliminated pesticides, phthalates, musks, and others identified in toxic fractions by testing surrogate mixtures. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Using an advanced 3D imaging technique, researchers showed how receptors in the nose help decode the smell of complex odor mixtures in mice. (nih.gov)
  • But how more complex odors made of several different odor molecules create the perception of a unique smell isn't known. (nih.gov)
  • Lab Forensic Science Center analytical chemist David Cho utilizes state-of-the-art, two-dimensional gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry to analyze complex samples for the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons 48th proficiency test. (llnl.gov)
  • NMR measurements do not require separation and chemical modification of samples and therefore rapidly and directly provide non-targeted information on chemical components in complex mixtures. (mdpi.com)
  • It is challenging to identify the active components within complex mixtures of natural products and understand their modes of action. (nih.gov)
  • Despite the advances that have been made in the sensitivity and selectivity of analytical instrumentation, for complex samples encountered in environmental and food matrices, some form of sample pretreatment almost always is required to isolate the analytes of interest. (chromatographyonline.com)
  • Complex mixtures and cancer risk / edited by H. Vainio, M. Sorsa and A. J. McMichael. (who.int)
  • The purpose of this announcement is to stimulate innovative experimental approaches and computational, statistical, or predictive strategies for assessing the impact of chemical mixtures that focus on the mechanistic basis for chemical interactions and related health effects. (nih.gov)
  • Antibody cell separation is a precise and effective approach to isolating cells from complex mixtures. (prlog.org)
  • More broadly, we expect to demonstrate new methodologies that can be adopted by other investigators studying biologically active mixtures. (nih.gov)
  • It is a diverse and complex mixture of materials. (whoi.edu)
  • But when two or three odors were mixed together, a more complex system of nerve cell responses appeared. (nih.gov)
  • For example, physician consultations are one of the staple activities in any modern health-care system and often an initial point of entry into more complex forms of care. (fraserinstitute.org)
  • The mass spectrometry technique has a huge capability to separate complex mixtures. (llnl.gov)
  • Respiratory tract responses to repeated inhalation of an oxidant and acid gas-particle air pollutant mixture. (cdc.gov)
  • however, interpreting sequence data from complex mixtures of viruses at a population-level remains challenging ( 11 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The threat to human health is complex and poorly understood. (whoi.edu)
  • Using passive sampling and zebrafish to identify developmental toxicants in complex mixtures. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Likewise, the old building would be renamed and in a stroke, mesh the two buildings (currently known for sake of ease as North and South) and harmonise the entire complex - or 'campus' as Brand and his marketing team refer to it. (abc.net.au)