Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and MANURE. These are distinguished from DRUG COMBINATIONS which have only a few components in definite proportions.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.
A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)
Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
A by-product of the destructive distillation of coal used as a topical antieczematic. It is an antipruritic and keratoplastic agent used also in the treatment of psoriasis and other skin conditions. Occupational exposure to soots, tars, and certain mineral oils is known to be carcinogenic according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985) (Merck Index, 11th ed).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
The contamination of indoor air.
Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.
An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Waste products which threaten life, health, or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed.
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
A highly miniaturized version of ELECTROPHORESIS performed in a microfluidic device.
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
A class of chemicals that contain an anthracene ring with a naphthalene ring attached to it.
Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Compounds that contain a BENZENE ring fused to a furan ring.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
A liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase capable of biotransforming xenobiotics such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons into carcinogenic or mutagenic compounds. They have been found in mammals and fish. This enzyme, encoded by CYP1A1 gene, can be measured by using ethoxyresorufin as a substrate for the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity.
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Relating to the size of solids.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.
The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
Preparations of cell constituents or subcellular materials, isolates, or substances.
Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
A chemical by-product that results from burning or incinerating chlorinated industrial chemicals and other hydrocarbons. This compound is considered an environmental toxin, and may pose reproductive, as well as, other health risks for animals and humans.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind certain aryl hydrocarbons, translocate to the nucleus, and activate transcription of particular DNA segments. AH receptors are identified by their high-affinity binding to several carcinogenic or teratogenic environmental chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in cigarette smoke and smog, heterocyclic amines found in cooked foods, and halogenated hydrocarbons including dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. No endogenous ligand has been identified, but an unknown natural messenger with a role in cell differentiation and development is suspected.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.

Cell death during corneal storage at 4 degrees C. (1/369)

PURPOSE: To evaluate cell death in human donor corneas stored at 4 degrees C, to determine whether terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-fluorescein nick-end labeling (TUNEL) discriminates between apoptosis and necrosis in corneas stored at 4 degrees C. METHODS: Ten human corneas were stored in Optisol (Chiron Ophthalmics, Irvine, CA) at 4 degrees C for periods ranging from 0 to 21 days and then fixed for histologic examination. Central corneal sections from each cornea were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and by the TUNEL assay. Electron micrographs of at least 15 keratocytes each from the anterior, middle, and posterior stroma were examined by three masked observers who graded each cell as normal, apoptotic, or necrotic. Central sections from the same corneas were processed by the TUNEL assay and evaluated with a laser scanning confocal microscope to determine the percentage of apoptotic cells. RESULTS: By TEM, apoptosis occurred in 23% of the keratocytes and necrosis in 12%. By TUNEL assay, apoptosis occurred in 11% of the keratocytes, with the results in individual corneas being similar to the findings by TEM for apoptosis, rather than for necrosis. By TUNEL assay, apoptosis occurred in 13% of the epithelial cells and in 8% of the endothelial cells. The percentage of apoptotic cells and storage time correlated significantly for the epithelium, but not for the keratocytes or endothelium in this small sample. CONCLUSIONS: Both apoptosis and necrosis occur in cells during corneal storage at 4 degrees C, with apoptosis appearing to predominate. The TUNEL assay identifies cells undergoing apoptosis, but not necrosis, in corneal tissue. Inhibition of apoptosis in corneas stored at 4 degrees C may prolong acceptable storage times.  (+info)

Effectiveness of microabrasion technique for improvement of dental aesthetics. (2/369)

OBJECTIVES: To investigate which types of enamel opacity are effectively treated by the microabrasion technique and whether this technique could be used as a diagnostic aid to determine the aetiology of these defects. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Thirty two patients who had enamel opacities affecting both upper central incisors were selected and the disfigurements were classified into four types: single line, multi-line, patched and diffused. The patient's previous medical history, possible history of fluoride ingestion, presence of taurodontism and family history of similar enamel defects were recorded. Both incisors were treated with Prema abrasive paste mixed with 18% hydrochloric acid. The aesthetic improvements were assessed by the patients and their parents and their satisfaction level after the treatment was recorded. RESULTS: Approximately two-thirds (65.6%) of the patients were satisfied with their appearance after microabrasion. Apart from four patients, the improved appearance was stable and acceptable to the remaining patients at the six month recall. Statistical analysis showed that acceptable improvement was found in patients with single line/patched types of defects but not in multi-line/diffused types (P = 0.03). However, the aesthetic improvement was not related to the patient's fluoride history, presence of taurodontism or the family history of enamel defects. CONCLUSION: Microabrasion using Prema abrasives with 1 8% HCI is effective in improving the appearance of enamel with single-line or patched opacities, indicating that these defects are a surface phenomenon. For the multi-line and diffused types, the defects appear to extend deeper into the enamel. The technique failed to assist in determining the aetiology of these defects.  (+info)

GFS, a preparation of Tasmanian Undaria pinnatifida is associated with healing and inhibition of reactivation of Herpes. (3/369)

BACKGROUND: We sought to assess whether GFS, a proprietary preparation of Tasmanian Undaria pinnatifida, has effects on healing or re-emergence of Herpetic infections, and additionally, to assess effects of GFS in vitro. Undaria is the most commonly eaten seaweed in Japan, and contains sulphated polyanions and other components with potential anti-viral activity. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infections have lower reactivation rates and Herpes type 2 (HSV-2) infections have lower incidence in Japan than in the west. METHODS: Patients with active (15 subjects) or latent (6 subjects) Herpetic infections (HSV-1, 2, EBV, Zoster) were monitored for response to ingestion of GFS. GFS extract was tested in vitro for human T cell mitogenicity and anti-Herpes activity. RESULTS: Ingestion of GFS was associated with increased healing rates in patients with active infections. In addition, patients with latent infection remained asymptomatic whilst ingesting GFS. GFS extract inhibited Herpes viruses in vitro and was mitogenic to human T cells in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Ingestion of GFS has inhibitory effects on reactivation and is associated with increased rate of healing after Herpetic outbreaks. GFS extract potently inhibited Herpes virus in vitro, and had mitogenic effects on human T cells.  (+info)

The use of antimicrobial peptides in ophthalmology: an experimental study in corneal preservation and the management of bacterial keratitis. (4/369)

PURPOSE: Bacterial keratitis is an ocular infection with the potential to cause significant visual impairment. Increasing patterns of antibiotic resistance have necessitated the development of new antimicrobial agents for use in bacterial keratitis and other serious ocular infections. With a view to exploring the use of novel antimicrobial peptides in the management of ocular infection, we performed a series of experiments using synthetic antimicrobial peptides designed for the eradication of common and serious ophthalmic pathogens. METHODS: Experiments were performed with three clinical ocular isolates--Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis--in three experimental settings: (1) in vitro in a controlled system of 10 mM sodium phosphate buffer, (2) in vitro in modified chondroitin sulfate-based corneal preservation media (Optisol), and (3) in an in vivo animal model (rabbit) simulating bacterial keratitis. In all cases, outcomes were measured by quantitative microbiological techniques. RESULTS: The candidate peptides (CCI A, B, and C and COL-1) produced a total reduction of the test pathogens in phosphate buffered saline. In modified Optisol, the peptides were effective against S epidermidis at all temperatures, demonstrated augmented activity at 23 degrees C against the gram-positive organisms, but were ineffective against P aeruginosa. The addition of EDTA to the medium augmented the killing of P aeruginosa but made no difference in the reduction of gram-positive organisms. In an in vivo rabbit model of Pseudomonas keratitis, COL-1 demonstrated neither clinical nor microbicidal efficacy and appeared to have a very narrow dosage range, outside of which it appeared to be toxic to the ocular surface. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that the antimicrobial peptides we tested were effective in vitro but not in vivo. In an age of increasing antibiotic resistance, antimicrobial peptides, developed over millions of years as innate defense mechanisms by plants and animals, may have significant potential for development as topical agents for the management of severe bacterial keratitis. However, modifications of the peptides, the drug delivery systems, or both, will be necessary for effective clinical application.  (+info)

Crude extracts of bacterially expressed dsRNA can be used to protect plants against virus infections. (5/369)

BACKGROUND: Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is a potent initiator of gene silencing in a diverse group of organisms that includes plants, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila and mammals. We have previously shown and patented that mechanical inoculation of in vitro-transcribed dsRNA derived from viral sequences specifically prevents virus infection in plants. The approach required the in vitro synthesis of large amounts of RNA involving high cost and considerable labour. RESULTS: We have developed an in vivo expression system to produce large amounts of virus-derived dsRNAs in bacteria, with a view to providing a practical control of virus diseases in plants. Partially purified bacterial dsRNAs promoted specific interference with the infection in plants by two viruses belonging to the tobamovirus and potyvirus groups. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that easy to obtain, crude extracts of bacterially expressed dsRNAs are equally effective protecting plants against virus infections when sprayed onto plant surfaces by a simple procedure. Virus infectivity was significantly abolished when plants were sprayed with French Press lysates several days before virus inoculation. CONCLUSION: Our approach provides an alternative to genetic transformation of plant species with dsRNA-expressing constructs capable to interfere with plant viruses. The main advantage of this mode of dsRNA production is its simplicity and its extremely low cost compared with the requirements for regenerating transgenic plants. This approach provides a reliable and potential tool, not only for plant protection against virus diseases, but also for the study of gene silencing mechanisms in plant virus infections.  (+info)

Protein stability in mixed solvents: a balance of contact interaction and excluded volume. (6/369)

Changes in excluded volume and contact interaction with the surface of a protein have been suggested as mechanisms for the changes in stability induced by cosolvents. The aim of the present paper is to present an analysis that combines both effects in a quantitative manner. The result is that both processes are present in both stabilizing and destabilizing interactions and neither can be ignored. Excluded volume was estimated using accessible surface area calculations of the kind introduced by Lee and Richards. The change in excluded volume on unfolding, deltaX, is quite large. For example, deltaX for ribonuclease is 6.7 L in urea and approximately 16 L in sucrose. The latter number is greater than the molar volume of the protein. Direct interaction with the protein is represented as the solvent exchange mechanism, which differs from ordinary association theory because of the weakness of the interaction and the high concentrations of cosolvents. The balance between the two effects and their contribution to overall stability are most simply presented as bar diagrams as in Fig. 3. Our finding for five proteins is that excluded volume contributes to the stabilization of the native structure and that contact interaction contributes to destabilization. This is true for five proteins and four cosolvents including both denaturants and osmolytes. Whether a substance stabilizes a protein or destabilizes it depends on the relative size of these two contributions. The constant for the cosolvent contact with the protein is remarkably uniform for four of the proteins, indicating a similarity of groups exposed during unfolding. One protein, staphylococcus nuclease, is anomalous in almost all respects. In general, the strength of the interaction with guanidinium is about twice that of urea, which is about twice that of trimethylamine-N-oxide and sucrose. Arguments are presented for the use of volume fractions in equilibrium equations and the ignoring of activity coefficients of the cosolvent. It is shown in the Appendix that both the excluded volume and the direct interaction can be extracted in a unified way from the McMillan-Mayer formula for the second virial coefficient.  (+info)

Solvation of nucleosides in aqueous mixtures of organic solvents: relevance to DNA open basepairs. (7/369)

Toward the goal of understanding how open basepairs in DNA interact with their heterogeneous environment, we have studied the steady-state intrinsic fluorescence properties of the purine and pyrimidine deoxynucleosides in organic solvents in the presence of small amounts of water. The organic solvents used in the present study were: n-butanol, acetonitrile, methanol, n-propanol, isopropanol, and isobutanol. For n-butanol and acetonitrile, which have a high degree of amphiphilicity and weak hydrogen bonding ability, respectively, the fluorescence spectral properties of the purines are found to depend on the sequence of steps in which the aqueous mixtures were formed. By contrast, no such dependence was observed in the mixtures with any of the other solvents used in the present study. Moreover, no such dependence was observed for the pyrimidines. These findings suggest that the final solvation network around the purines is dependent on the nature of the environment to which they were initially exposed. This would tend to present an impediment to the closing of AT or GC basepairs in DNA that become open as a result of structural fluctuations, DNA bending, or protein-DNA interactions.  (+info)

Egg hatching, larval movement and larval survival of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae in desiccating habitats. (8/369)

BACKGROUND: Although the effects of rainfall on the population dynamics of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae have been studied in great detail, the effects of dry periods on its survival remain less clear. METHODS: The effects of drying conditions were simulated by creating desiccated habitats, which consisted of trays filled with damp soil. Experiments were performed in these trays to (i) test the ability of An. gambiae sensu stricto eggs to hatch on damp soil and for larvae to reach an artificial breeding site at different distances of the site of hatching and (ii) to record survival of the four larval stages of An. gambiae s.s. when placed on damp soil. RESULTS: Eggs of An. gambiae s.s. hatched on damp soil and emerging larvae were capable of covering a distance of up to 10 cm to reach surface water enabling further development. However, proportions of larvae reaching the site decreased rapidly with increasing distance. First, second and third-instar larvae survived on damp soil for an estimated period of 64, 65 and 69 hrs, respectively. Fourth-instar larvae survived significantly longer and we estimated that the maximum survival time was 113 hrs. CONCLUSION: Short-term survival of aquatic stages of An. gambiae on wet soil may be important and adaptive when considering the transient nature of breeding sites of this species in sub-Saharan Africa. In addition, the results suggest that, for larval vector control methods to be effective, habitats should remain drained for at least 5 days to kill all larvae (e.g. in rice fields) and habitats that recently dried up should be treated as well, if larvicidal agents are applied.  (+info)

Downloadable! In finite mixture model clustering, each component of the fitted mixture is usually associated with a cluster. In other words, each component of the mixture is interpreted as the probability distribution of the variables of interest conditionally on the membership to a given cluster. The Gaussian mixture model (GMM) is very popular in this context for its simplicity and flexibility. It may happen, however, that the components of the fitted model are not well separated. In such a circumstance, the number of clusters is often overestimated and a better clustering could be obtained by joining some subsets of the partition based on the fitted GMM. Some methods for the aggregation of mixture components have been recently proposed in the literature. In this work, we propose a hierarchical aggregation algorithm based on a generalisation of the definition of silhouette-width taking into account the Mahalanobis distances induced by the precison matrices of the components of the fitted GMM. The
Interactions between chemicals in a mixture and interactions of mixture components with the skin, can significantly alter the rate and extent of percutaneous absorption, as well as the cutaneous diposition of a xenobiotic. The predictive ability of dermal absorption models, and consequently, the dermal risk assessment process would be greatly improved through the elucidation and characterization o
The Gaussian mixture vector autoregressive (GMVAR) model with \(M\) mixture components and autoregressive order \(p\), which we refer to as the GMVAR(\(p,M\)) model, is a mixture of \(M\) stationary Gaussian VAR(\(p\)) models with time varying mixing weights. At each point of time \(t\), a GMVAR process generates an observation from one of its mixture components (also called regimes) according to the probabilities pointed by the mixing weights.. Let \(y_t=(y_{1t},...,y_{dt})\), \(t=1,2,...\) be the \(d\)-dimensional vector valued time series of interest, and let \(\mathcal{F}_{t-1}\) be the \(\sigma\)-algebra generated by the random variables \(\lbrace y_{t-j},j,0 \rbrace\) (containing the information on the past of \(y_t\)). Let \(M\) be the number of mixture components, and \(\boldsymbol{s}_t=(s_{t,1},...,s_{t,M})\) a sequence of (non-observable) random vectors such that at each \(t\) exactly one of its components takes the value one and others take the value zero. The component that takes the ...
Sham will present the paper Competitive Algorithms for VWAP and Limit Order Trading, S. Kakade, M. Kearns, Y. Mansour and L. Ortiz. Wed Oct 6: Guest Speaker Yee Whye Teh, UC Berkeley Hierarchical Dirichlet processes: A Bayesian approach to sharing clusters among related groups Abstract: We consider problems involving groups of data, where each observation within a group is drawn from a mixture model, and where it is desirable to share mixture components both within and between groups. We assume that the number of mixture components is unknown a priori and is to be inferred from data. Such problems occur often in practice, e.g. in the problem of topic discovery in document corpora, each document is treated as a group of data items (bag of words), and each topic corresponds to a mixture component. In this setting, sharing components between groups simply means that topics can occur across a number of documents, allowing dependencies across documents (groups) to be modeled effectively as well as ...
Potash (especially potassium carbonate) has been used in bleaching textiles, making glass, and making soap, since about AD 500. Potash was principally obtained by leaching the ashes of land and sea plants. Beginning in the 14th century potash was mined in Ethiopia. One of the worlds largest deposits, 140 to 150 million tons, is located in the Tigrays Dallol area.[16] Potash was one of the most important industrial chemicals. It was refined from the ashes of broadleaved trees and produced primarily in the forested areas of Europe, Russia, and North America. The first U.S. patent of any kind was issued in 1790 to Samuel Hopkins for an improvement in the making of Pot ash and Pearl ash by a new Apparatus and Process.[17] Pearl ash was a purer quality made by calcination of potash in a reverberatory furnace or kiln. Potash pits were once used in England to produce potash that was used in making soap for the preparation of wool for yarn production. As early as 1767, potash from wood ashes was ...
environmental potash feldspar impact crusher in Torino, Aug 26, 2019·Potash feldspar crushersinclude jawcrusher, conecrusher, andimpact crusher. Potassium rock crushing process The raw materials are fed into the silo via a dump truck, and the materials are evenly fed into the jawcrusherthrough a vibrating feeder to prevent the material from impacting the crushing cavity to cause damage to the equipment.potash feldspar powder jaw crusher for gold ore, Crusher Machine For FeldsparCrusher Machine For Feldspar. Feldspar processing equipment used mainly for large ore milling, production yield, low investment cost Potash Feldspar Powder Tin Ore Crusher Mining Heavy We have potash feldspar powder tin ore ...equipment used in a potash plant, equipment potash flotation - Mineral Processing EPC 2018-5-3 Iron Ore Processing Plant Gold Mining Equipment Main Equipments potash feldspar jaw crusher used jaw crusher for sale complete processing plant Quotation More Air Classifier Air ClassifierPotash Feldspar ...
Compounds satisfied Lipinskis Rule of Five in evaluating druglikeness. Query: (-5:5[LOGP]) AND (0:500[MOLWT]) AND (0:5[HBDC]) AND (0:10[HBAC ...
Compounds satisfied Lipinskis Rule of Five in evaluating druglikeness. Query: (-5:5[LOGP]) AND (0:500[MOLWT]) AND (0:5[HBDC]) AND (0:10[HBAC ...
http://ca.reuters.com/. RANKFURT (Reuters) - Shares in German potash miner K+S SDFGn.DE leapt almost 40 percent on Friday after a takeover proposal from Canadas Potash Corp POT.TO which sources close to the matter said was worth more than 7 billion euros ($7.8 billion).. K+S, which would become the first German blue-chip firm in a decade to be bought by a foreign company, said it was assessing its options after announcing the approach late Thursday. Two sources close to the matter said K+S would likely reject the proposal as too low.. K+S believes Potash Corp wants to take capacity out of an over-supplied market to boost its profitability, the sources said, adding the Canadian firm might also look to close some of K+Ss high cost German mines and sell its salt business.. Potash Corp is currently operating well below full capacity because of weak potash prices.. The sources said Potash Corp proposed to pay just over 40 euros a share, a 38 percent premium to K+Ss closing price on Thursday and 44 ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Isotope separation by optically pumped ionizing collisions. AU - Harris, S. E.. AU - Lidow, D. B.. PY - 1975. Y1 - 1975. N2 - We propose a modification of the selective two-step photoionization technique which greatly improves its efficiency. A third species with a strong resonance transition is added to the mix of isotopes which it is desired to separate. Incident optical energy is radiatively and collisionally trapped in this catalytic species. Selective ionization of excited step one species is accomplished by long-range ionizing collisions.. AB - We propose a modification of the selective two-step photoionization technique which greatly improves its efficiency. A third species with a strong resonance transition is added to the mix of isotopes which it is desired to separate. Incident optical energy is radiatively and collisionally trapped in this catalytic species. Selective ionization of excited step one species is accomplished by long-range ionizing collisions.. UR - ...
Veolia Water Technologies will supply HPD® crystallisation systems that will produce high-quality sulphate of potash (SOP) fertiliser in the depths of Western Australias outback. Perth-based Salt Lake Potash Ltd. is developing the Lake Way potash mining project to produce 245,000 tons per year of SOP (K 2S O 4) from dry salt lake deposits in […]
0025] As used herein, the term representational, when used in reference to a sample of nucleic acids selected from a complex mixture of nucleic acids, is intended to mean a nucleic acid sample in which the proportion of each sequence in the sample relative to all other sequences in the sample is substantially the same as the proportions in the nucleic acids in the complex mixture. In particular embodiments, the sample is obtained by copying or amplification such that the proportion of each sequence in the copy relative to all other sequences in the copy is substantially the same as the proportions in the nucleic acids in the complex mixture. A nucleic acid copy can be a single molecule or plurality of molecules such as fragments that are smaller than the nucleic acids of the complex mixture. Accordingly, the proportion of different fragments in the population will be substantially the same as the proportion of their sequences in the reference complex mixture. Substantial similarity between the ...
TORONTO--(Marketwired - Jun 11, 2013) - IC Potash Corp. (ICP or the Company) (TSX: ICP) (OTCQX: ICPTF) today announced that the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) has issued the Company a Jurisdictional Determination confirming that there are no Waters of the United States on the Ochoa Sulphate of Potash...
Continued good demand for potash and magnesium products, the further stabilisation of potash prices on a low level and a positive special item of about € 30 million characterised the business development of the K+S Group from April to June 2014. EBIT I for the quarter was only slightly below the figure of a year ago, but down significantly when adjusted for the extraordinary effect.. Giving the starting position on global potash markets, we had a solid first half of the year, says Norbert Steiner, chairman of the Board of Executive Directors of K+S Aktiengesellschaft. The good salt business in North America and the positive development of our fertilizer specialties were particularly pleasing. We are making good progress on Fit for the Future and our Legacy Project.. In the first half of the year, the K+S Group saw revenues fall by about 8% to € 1.97 billion. Higher sales volumes in the Salt business unit in the wake of the severe winter in North America could only partially offset ...
Im-Yunity acts selectively in HL-60 leukemic cells, resulting in cell cycle restriction through the G(1)/S checkpoint and the induction of apoptosis.
Grades 7 12. Students use planning skills, logic, and trial-and-error to construct a flowchart that details how to separate a mixture of sand, iron filings, sodium chloride, and stearic acid. They first perform a warm-up activity to determine the mixture components physical properties. Student...
Note. In this case, where the experimental region forms a simplex, it matters little which direction you take. Check this out by going to the Trace Graph tool and pressing Cox. In the Cox direction, as the amount of any component increases, the amounts of all other components decrease, but their ratio to one another remains constant. Chemists may like this because it preserves the reaction stoichiometry. However, when plotted in this direction, traces for highly constrained mixture components (such as a catalyst for a chemical reaction) become truncated. Thus, mixture-design experts argue that although it no longer holds actual ratios constant, Piepels direction provides a more helpful plot by providing the broadest coverage of the experimental space. For this reason Piepel is the preferred plot in Design-Expert. For more detail, search in Help for trace plot.. P.S. Trace plots depend greatly on where you place the starting point (by default the centroid). See for yourself by moving slide ...
Target analytes are nitroaromatic and nitramine explosives and their degradation products. Obtaining pure, neat compounds for Method 8330 reference standards can be very difficult. To ensure the highest quality standards, Resteks Quality Control (QC) lab confirms the identity and purity of mixture components and solvents using one or more of the following techniques: GC-FID, HPLC, GC-ECD, GC-MS, LC-MS, refractive index, and melting point ...
Downloadable! This paper exploits the fact that implied volatilities calculated from identical call and put options have often been empirically found to differ, although they should be equal in theory. We propose a new bivariate mixture multiplicative error model and show that it is a good fit to Nikkei 225 index call and put option implied volatility (IV). A good model fit requires two mixture components in the model, allowing for different mean equations and error distributions for calmer and more volatile days. Forecast evaluation indicates that in addition to jointly modeling the time series of call and put IV, cross effects should be added to the model: putside implied volatility helps forecast callside IV, and vice versa. Impulse response functions show that the IV derived from put options recovers faster from shocks, and the effect of shocks lasts for up to six weeks.
Abstract Polymer spots with entrapped glucose oxidase were fabricated on glass surfaces and the localized enzymatic response was subsequently visualized using scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) in the generator,collector mode. SECM images were obtained under simultaneous variation of the concentration of glucose (0,6,mM) and ascorbic acid (0,200,,M), or, in a second set of experiments, of glucose (0,2,mM) and 2-deoxy- D(+)-glucose (0,4,mM). Aiming at the quantification of the mixture components discretization of the response surfaces of the overall enzyme/polymer spot into numerous spatially defined microsensor substructures was performed. Sensitivity of sensor substructures to measured analytes was calculated and patterns of variability in the data were analyzed before and after elimination of interferences using principal component analysis. Using artificial neural networks which were fed with the data provided by the sensor substructures showing highest sensitivity for glucose, ...
A great grain crop or forage mixture component. Yellow peas are a great non-GMO protein source and are becoming more prevalent in feed rations with protein ...
Bioconductor version: Development (3.7) Merging of mixture components for model-based automated gating of flow cytometry data using the flowClust framework. Note: users should have a working copy of flowClust 2.0 installed.. Author: Greg Finak ,gfinak at fhcrc.org,, Raphael Gottardo ,rgottard at fhcrc.org, Maintainer: Greg Finak ,gfinak at fhcrc.org, ...
The plenary session was opened by the coordinator of ATHON - Dr. Helen Håkansson of the Karolinska Institutet in Sweden - who gave a brief introduction on the ATHON project and the relevance of mixture toxicity for NDL-PCB risk assessment. Next, Dr. Thomas Backhaus (University of Gothenburg, Sweden), gave an introduction to the general principles of concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA) within mixture toxicity, which was illustrated with an abundance of practical examples. The general conclusion from his presentation was that for hazard and risk assessment, the selection between a CA or IA model seems to be of minor importance. Keeping in mind the adage seek simplicity but distrust it, Dr. Backhaus advocated that CA might be a simple default assumption to start with and to work further from. The third plenary speaker was Dr. Niklas Johansson (Swedish EPA and Karolinska Institutet) who demonstrated the use of a Central Composite, Face centered (CCF) statistical test ...
Using traditional beneficiating methods, even the cleanest potash can still contain unwanted clay particles. Imagine increasing the yield still further - up to 95%-while using considerably fewer resources.. Arclins high performing Captive® Clay Blinder for Potash has been engineered for specific ore bodies, attaching to even the finest particles of clay and sand and removing them quickly and efficiently from valuable mined materials. This innovative blinder compensates for the limitations of standard technology and equipment, providing better outcomes for your business and the environment.. ...
Health,(PRWEB) October 26 2013 The report Global Biofertilizers Market by Types (Nitrogen Fixing Phosphate Solubilizing And Potash Mobilizing) Applications & Geography - Trends and Forecasts to 2017 defines and segments the global biofertilizers market with analysis and forecasting of the global revenue for biofertilizers. It also identifies the d,Biofertilizers,Market,(Nitrogen,Fixing,,Phosphate,Solubilizing,,Potash,Mobilizing),Worth,$10.2,Billion,by,2017,-,New,Report,by,MarketsandMarkets,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
NATURE AGROCARE & RESEARCH PVT. LTD. - Exporter, Importer, Manufacturer, Service Provider, Distributor, Supplier, Trading Company, Wholesaler, Retailer & Dealer of Potash Mobilizing Bacteria based in Indore, India
We are very encouraged with the results from the Phase 1 resource delineation drilling at Mariana that confirmed our belief in the potential of this multi-commodity potash-lithium-boron brine project. The observed extent of high grade potash brine encountered provides ILC the support and confidence to continue to advance our plans towards development. The objective for the next stage of exploration is to complete the remaining 10 to 12 holes needed for delineation drilling in conjunction with hydrogeological testing required to produce a reportable resource. Drilling will be designed to test structures that may control higher grade potash, lithium or boron zones states Kirill Klip, President of the Company.The Company has received analytical results for Phase 1 of the Resource Delineation drilling program at the Companys 100% owned Mariana potash-lithium-boron brine project. Four (4) widely spaced drill holes (totalling 444 metres), were positioned approximately 5 km apart to characterize the ...
Cyco Potash Plus strengthens plants and aids in water retention which improves yields and transportability. Cyco Potash Plus also makes a positive
Interested in potash investing, but not sure where to start? Heres what you need to know about potash, from supply and demand to prices to stocks.
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Our team members pioneered the methodology for conducting exposure assessments and dose reconstructions. We have published nearly 30 papers on this topic involving both the workplace and community exposures.. Exposure assessment involves the collection of data that describes the intake of chemicals via inhalation, dermal absorption, and ingestion. These data are then used to characterize the total dose due to all chemicals with a consideration of mixture effects.. Dose reconstruction attempts to characterize the lifetime intake of one or more chemicals using a combination of simulation data and historical exposure data. These are used to characterize exposures that occurred in the past from when reasonable quality contemporaneous exposure data are not available.. ...
Abstract Background: Risk assessment of chemical mixtures or complex substances remains a major methodological challenge due to lack of available hazard or exposure data. Therefore, risk assessors usually infer hazard or risk from data on the subset of constituents with available toxicity values. Objectives: We evaluated the validity of the widely used traditional mixtures risk assessment paradigms, Independent Action (IA) and Concentration Addition (CA), with new approach methodologies (NAMs) data from human cell-based in vitro assays.
A longer chromatography gradient can give more separation of peptides. More important, it gives the mass spectrometer time to measure more peptides. In a gradient of 1% acetonitrile/minute, in the 6 seconds to change from 30% to 30.1% acetonitrile, the instrument can analyze 18 peptides. Using a gradient of 0.25% acetonitrile/min, 72 peptides can be analyzed, allowing more proteins to be found.. In some cases, the peptide mixture is fractionated by ion exchange or other method before the reverse phase separation mentioned above. This is 2D-LC, referred to as MUDPIT by some. This increases the number of analyses.. Not every peptide is analyzed. This is always the case. Some peptides are always on a black list not be be analyzed-peptides from trypsin, peptides from keratin-an almost universal contaminant. In an actual sample, after a peptide is analyzed once, it goes on a list of peptides not to be analyzed for a while. Nevertheless, analysis of the data takes much longer than for a single ...
Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) play a critical role in diverse cellular processes and their activity is regulated by lipids in the surrounding membrane, including PIP2 (phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate) in the inner leaflet, and GM3 (monosialodihexosylganglioside) in the outer leaflet. However, the precise details of the interactions at the molecular level remain to be fully characterised. Using a multiscale molecular dynamics simulation approach, we comprehensively characterise anionic lipid interactions with all 58 known human RTKs. Our results demonstrate that the juxtamembrane (JM) regions of RTKs are critical for inducing clustering of anionic lipids, including PIP2, both in simple asymmetric bilayers, and in more complex mixed membranes. Clustering is predominantly driven by interactions between a conserved cluster of basic residues within the first five positions of the JM region, and negatively charged lipid headgroups. This highlights a conserved interaction pattern shared across the
If soil Indices* are below the target level the second section of the Calculator provides a guide to the quantity of nutrient which is likely to be required to correct the deficiency. This will vary according to the level of deficiency and the soil type. The quantity will usually be more than can reasonably be applied in one season, and the Calculator asks by how much and how quickly you want to correct the deficiency, i.e. over how many years. The desired improvement can be input by Index or more precisely by mg/litre as determined by soil analysis*. Once all relevant information has been input (for one or both nutrients) clicking on the Calculate button will provide a guide to the total quantity of nutrient(s) which will be required. The annual dressing is also shown, according to the timescale selected. The bottom line shows this annual deficiency-correcting application, together with the maintenance dressing. The cost of the nutrient(s) required to correct the deficiency should not be ...
Potash refers to potassium-bearing materials and compounds, the most common of which is potassium chloride (KCl). Potassium is the third primary plant and crop nutrient after nitrogen and phosphorus.
U.S. fertilizer maker Mosaic Co (MOS.N) reported a smaller-than-expected quarterly profit on Tuesday, as higher sales volumes were offset by lower phosphate and potash prices.
The Report Global Potash Market Report: 2015 Edition provides information on pricing, market analysis, shares, forecast, and company profiles for key...
VANCOUVER, BRITISH COLUMBIA--(Marketwired - Sept. 28, 2015) - Western Potash Corp. (TSX:WPX)(FRANKFURT:AHE) (the Western, the Company) is pleased to announce that subsequent to the closing of the strategic investment from Beijing Tairui Innovation Capital Management Ltd. (Tairui), announced September 16th of this year, Mr. Chang Xiaogang (Geoffrey) has been elected...
Sulphate of Potash - Granular is mainly used for high value horticultural crop production where the extra benefits of low salt index and sulphate supply offset the higher cost compared to Potassium Chloride.
Sulphate of potash (also known as SOP) is widely used in the horticultural sector as well as organics to provide potassium for chloride-sensitive crops. It is largely inert and may be blended with virtually all other fertiliser products.
Potash Corp. lowered earnings guidance just a couple of weeks before its third quarter earnings release. That comes after dour comments from chief competitors Mosaic and Agrium . But don't
Slide Set: Introduction to Chemical Mixtures. A biologist must be able to work with and understand a variety of mixtures. Dr. David Caprette presents basic concepts and definitions, and the rationale behind descriptions of types of mixtures. Companion slide set for the video, Introduction to Chemical Mixtures.
Dive into the research topics of A Measurement Process for the Determination of the Mixture Averaged Molecular Weight of Complex Mixtures. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
This mini program is composed of Experiments 1-3 from Modern Biologys Basic Program 3.. 1. Separating Molecules by Gel Filtration. Students fill their chromatographic columns with packing material and separate three colored molecules of known molecular weights as shown in the photograph below. The exercise illustrates how components of a complex mixture can be separated by chromatography and introduces the concept of the standard curve for determining the size of an unknown protein.. 2. The Molecular Weight of Hemoglobin. ...
TY - CONF. T1 - Triglyceride analysis of complex biological samples using HPLC-HR-AM-MS/MS. AU - Triebl, Alexander. AU - Trötzmüller, Martin. AU - Hartler, Jürgen. AU - Thallinger, Gerhard. AU - Köfeler, Harald. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. UR - http://massspec.uni-graz.at/ELM_2014. M3 - Poster. T2 - 4th European Lipidomic Meeting. Y2 - 22 September 2014 through 24 January 2015. ER - ...
The present invention relates, in general, to methods for selectively detecting a prokaryotic microorganism and a eukaryotic microorganism in a single complex biological sample wherein the cells of su
Applications for specialised gas mixtures can range from high-accuracy instrument calibrations, to cell culture and welding. So how do you determine which product best suits your application?
The top-of-atmosphere (TOA) path radiance generated by an aerosol mixture can be synthesized by linearly adding the contributions of the individual aerosol components, weighted by their fractional optical depths. The method, known as linear mixing, is exact in the single-scattering limit ...
Complex gas mixtures are unnecessary. Oxygen rebreathers can usually be used. Mountaineering rebreathers provide oxygen at a ... They use a mixed supply gas with a higher oxygen fraction than the steady state loop gas mixture. Usually only one gas mixture ... The diver can manually control the mixture by adding diluent gas or oxygen. Adding diluent can prevent the loop gas mixture ... and which will provide a breathable mixture at the surface must be used, or it will be necessary to change mixtures during the ...
PAHs are typically found as complex mixtures. Most PAHs are insoluble in water, which limits their mobility in the environment ... These metabolites can bind to DNA at specific sites, forming bulky complexes called DNA adducts that can be stable or unstable ... PAHs are among the complex suite of contaminants in tobacco smoke and particulate air pollution and may contribute to ... In 1922, Ernest Kennaway determined that the carcinogenic component of coal tar mixtures was an organic compound consisting of ...
Vidal-de-Miguel, Guillermo; Herrero, Ana (June 2012). "Secondary Electrospray Ionization of Complex Vapor Mixtures. Theoretical ... soft ionisation process which greatly simplifies the resulting spectra and thereby facilitates the analysis of complex mixtures ... usually from a mixture of laboratory air and water vapor. From the formed plasma, a single ionic species is selected using a ... without the need for sample preparation or calibration with standard mixtures. The detection limit of commercially available ...
M. R. Vant; R. O. Ramseier & V. Makios (1978). "The complex-dielectric constant of sea ice at frequencies in the range 0.1-4.0 ... The electro-magnetic properties of such a mixture will be different from, and normally somewhere in between (though not always- ... The most important quantity in this calculation, and also the most difficult to establish with any certainty, is the complex ... Sea ice is a complex composite composed of pure ice and included pockets of air and highly saline brine. ...
Huang, Guangming; Ouyang, Zheng; Cooks, R. Graham (2009). "High-throughput trace melamine analysis in complex mixtures". ... the ESI-MS technique allows now high-throughput analysis of melamine traces in complex mixtures.[76] ... are often complex and time consuming. However, electrospray ionization methods coupled with mass spectrometry allow a rapid and ... direct analysis of samples with complex matrices: the native liquid samples are directly ionized under ambient conditions in ...
Wilkins, C. (1983). "Hyphenated techniques for analysis of complex organic mixtures". Science. 222 (4621): 291-6. Bibcode: ... Separation processes are used to decrease the complexity of material mixtures. Chromatography, electrophoresis and Field Flow ...
As the copper ions dissolve into the water, they form a coordination complex with salts already present. The copper then ... In addition fluoroborate, and proprietary mixtures are used. It is important to control the current to produce the smoothest ... There are three primary chemicals used as the complexing agents.: either cyanide, or sulfuric acid, or pyrophosphate. ...
Committee on Methods for the In Vivo Toxicity Testing of Complex Mixtures (1998). Complex Mixtures: Methods for In Vivo ... Any mixture effects are taken into account in the total toxicity. The results for this method are limited by being mixture ... Next the experimental results from binary mixture tests are plotted on the isobologram. The results from the mixture test are ... A common method for studying mixtures is to measure the total toxicity of the mixture and consider the internal toxicant ...
"CHARACTERISATION OF UNRESOLVED COMPLEX MIXTURES OF HYDROCARBONS" (PDF). University of Plymouth, PHD Theses. Archived from the ...
Chemical Reactions in Complex Mixtures, (pp. 25-41). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1991. "The mathematics of continuous ... A286, 129-139 (1965). "On the theory of reactions in continuous mixtures" (with G.R. Gavalas). Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. A 260, ... 49, 5307-5313 (1994). "Pt-catalyzed combustion of CH4-C3-C8 mixtures" (with A. Balakrishna and L.D. Schmidt). Chem. Eng. Sci. ... Tech., 99 (1995). "On reactions in continuous mixtures." A.I.Ch.E.J. 35, 539-548 (1989). "On the limits of facilitated ...
doi:10.1016/S0003-2670(98)00250-5. Wilkins CL (October 1983). "Hyphenated techniques for analysis of complex organic mixtures ...
Wilkins CL (1983). "Hyphenated techniques for analysis of complex organic mixtures". Science. 222 (4621): 291-6. Bibcode: ... Separation processes are used to decrease the complexity of material mixtures. Chromatography and electrophoresis are ...
... in a very complex mixture". Mikrokosmos Nos. 99, 101, and 109 are octatonic pieces, as is No. 33 of the 44 Duos for Two Violins ...
Chromatin Immunoprecipitation results in production of complex mixtures of relatively short DNA fragments, which is challenging ... "Multiple displacement amplification for complex mixtures of DNA fragments". BMC Genomics. 9: 415. doi:10.1186/1471-2164-9-415. ... A method to circumvent this problem was proposed, which is based on conversion of these mixtures to circular concatemers using ...
... the harpooning kinetics is more complex. Despite its weak proportion in a gaseous mixture, Cl 2 is produced much effectively ... Only binary gas mixtures of xenon and a chlorine donor, or ternary mixtures that also include a buffer gas (a rare gas ... in a mixture of helium as buffer gas. They found that: - States D are especially formed from Xe+ ion, (2P1/2) ; - States B and ... Gas or gaseous mixtures that may lead to the formation of these molecules is a quasi-ideal laser medium since the population ...
Examples of solid bases include: Oxide mixtures: SiO2, Al2O3; MgO, SiO2; CaO, SiO2 Mounted bases: LiCO3 on silica; NR3, NH3, ... Adducts involving metal ions are usually described as coordination complexes. According to the original formulation of Lewis, ...
Voskoboinik, Lev; Darvasi, Ariel (2011-11-01). "Forensic identification of an individual in complex DNA mixtures". Forensic ... He holds a US patent for the identification of a suspect's DNA in a scene of crime where a mixture of DNA from several ... Darvasi, Ariel (1998-01-01). "Experimental strategies for the genetic dissection of complex traits in animal models". Nature ... 1], Darvasi, Ariel & Lev Voskoboinik, "System and method for analyzing DNA mixtures" תבור, אלון (2001-01-17). "חברת ...
mixture of 'soft' and 'hard' criteria; takes into account people's well-being and resource use of countries. Cons 'happiness' ... The exact function is a little more complex, but conceptually it approximates multiplying life satisfaction and life expectancy ... or 'life satisfaction' are very subjective and personal: cultural influences and complex impact of policies on happiness. ...
A number of different tags have been developed to help researchers purify specific proteins from complex mixtures.[41] ... Hey J, Posch A, Cohen A, Liu N, Harbers A (2008). "Fractionation of complex protein mixtures by liquid-phase isoelectric ... The resulting mixture can be purified using ultracentrifugation, which fractionates the various cellular components into ... Samarin S, Nusrat A (2009). "Regulation of epithelial apical junctional complex by Rho family GTPases". Frontiers in Bioscience ...
This complex bonding behavior originates from the fact that boron has only three valence electrons; this hinders tetrahedral ... 1a). Tetraborides, i.e. B/M = 4, are mixtures of diboride and hexaboride structures. Cuboctahedron (Fig. 1b) is the structural ... Boron-rich borides are usually characterized by large and complex unit cells, which can contain more than 1500 atomic sites and ... Thermal conductivity of boron icosahedra based compounds is low because of their complex crystal structure; this property is ...
Mass spectrometry showed that the mixture of proteins present in their venom is as complex as the mixture of proteins found in ... Venoms cause their biological effects via the toxins that they contain; some venoms are complex mixtures of toxins of differing ... Sea snake venom is composed of complex mixtures of neurotoxins, myotoxins, nephrotoxins, and other nontoxic substances. The ... "Venom Resistance as a Model for Understanding the Molecular Basis of Complex Coevolutionary Adaptations". Integrative and ...
... (CPs) are complex mixtures of polychlorinated n-alkanes. The chlorination degree of CPs can vary between ...
It was predominantly used in complex mixtures with other plants. The plant has been shown to possess anti-bacterial activity ... a mixture of the bark and tobacco is used to dress some wounds; crushed leaves are applied to the fontanelle of newly-born ...
Simple fluorinations of alkenes often produce complex mixtures of products. However, cofluorination in the presence of a ...
A number of different tags have been developed to help researchers purify specific proteins from complex mixtures. The study of ... Hey J, Posch A, Cohen A, Liu N, Harbers A (2008). "Fractionation of complex protein mixtures by liquid-phase isoelectric ... A more complex computational problem is the prediction of intermolecular interactions, such as in molecular docking, protein ... The resulting mixture can be purified using ultracentrifugation, which fractionates the various cellular components into ...
... is a complex mixture of stereoisomers. The molecule contains three asymmetric carbon atoms, there is cis-trans ...
Liquid shoe polish is a complex mixture. Polyethylene wax emulsion is a major component. Various polymers, typically acrylates ... Each differs in detailed composition but all consist of a mixture of waxes, solvent, and dyes. Waxes, organic solvents and dyes ... The waxes are often some mixture of carnauba wax, beeswax, montan wax and its oxidized derivatives, and paraffin waxes.[ ... and finally the colorant-stearate mixture. The molten mass is added to warm solvent before being dispensed. Wax-based shoe ...
These metal complexes are often described as salts. They are, however, not ionic but charge-neutral coordination complexes. ... It is supplied as a racemic mixture. 2-Ethylhexanoic acid is produced industrially from propylene, which is hydroformylated to ... These ethylhexanoate complexes are used in organic and industrial chemical synthesis. They function as catalysts in ...
... measurement is essential for odor regulation and control.[25] An odor emission often consists of a complex mixture of many ... Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and body odor preferences[edit]. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a genotype ... "Discrimination of Complex Mixtures by a Colorimetric Sensor Array: Coffee Aromas". Anal. Chem. 82 (5): 2067-73. doi:10.1021/ ... can identify discrete chemicals in complex mixtures using only the sense of smell. ...
Gygi SP, Rist B, Gerber SA, Turecek F, Gelb MH, Aebersold R (October 1999). "Quantitative analysis of complex protein mixtures ... He has primarily researched techniques for measuring proteins in complex samples, in many cases via mass spectrometry. Ruedi ...
... (LNG) is natural gas (predominantly methane, CH4, with some mixture of ethane, C2H6) that has been cooled ... Very complex nature of projects built in remote locations and where construction costs are regarded as some of the highest in ... If this mixture is within the flammable range, there is risk of ignition which would create fire and thermal radiation hazards ... Thus a 2000cc engine would typically be more powerful than an 1800cc engine, but that assumes a similar air-fuel mixture is ...
A physiologically complex, motivated behavioral system. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 1996 Dec;25(4):815-29. ... omnivores consume a mixture of both plant and animal matter, and detritivores eat detritus. Fungi digest organic matter outside ... The control of food intake is a physiologically complex, motivated behavioral system. Hormones such as cholecystokinin, ... complex digestive process of an herbivore. Larger animals, on the other hand, generate more heat and less of this heat is lost ...
... and engaging in complex clinical reasoning (medical decision-making).[97] Writing in 2002, Snyderman and Weil remarked that by ... Ready-to-drink traditional Chinese medicine mixture. Alternative medical systems may be based on traditional medicine practices ...
The larger the size and the larger the density of the particles, the faster they separate from the mixture. By applying a ... The ribosomes, membranes and Golgi complexes can be separated by another technique called density gradient centrifugation. ... Differential Centrifugation is a type of centrifugation in which one selectively spins down components of a mixture by a series ... More-dense components of the mixture migrate away from the axis of the centrifuge (move to the outside), while less-dense ...
... ceria was shown to be a mixture of oxides by the Swedish surgeon and chemist Carl Gustaf Mosander, who lived in the same house ... "Scandium mineralization associated with hydrothermal lazurite-quartz veins in the Lower Austroalpie Grobgneis complex, East ... Metallic scandium was produced for the first time in 1937 by electrolysis of a eutectic mixture, at 700-800 °C, of potassium, ...
The cathedral has an asymmetric façade, including a complex narthex with two galleries (matronaei) connected by a tribune and ... Since then it has offered a mixture of theatre, music and dance, while the foyer is used for exhibitions, usually photographic ... Palazzo Langosco, in Via Corte d'Appello, encloses part of the main cloister of the former Augustinian convent complex of Santa ...
... nuclear translocation of androgen receptor complex with beta-catenin and T-cell factor 4 may bypass canonical Wnt signaling to ... testosterone ester mixtures (Deposterona, Omnadren, Sustanon, Testoviron Depot)) ...
... ion forms most complexes and the heavier alkali metal ions form less and less (though exceptions occur for weak complexes).[10] ... The eutectic mixture melts at −12.6 °C.[108] An alloy of 41% caesium, 47% sodium, and 12% potassium has the lowest known ... which due to its small size forms tetrahedral tetrahydrate complexes ([Li(H2O)4)]+); the alkali metals form these complexes ... A notable reagent is Schlosser's base, a mixture of n-butyllithium and potassium tert-butoxide. This reagent reacts with ...
Drinking water can be obtained from natural water by treating the natural water with a mixture of activated carbon and Al(OH)3 ... Activated carbons are complex products which are difficult to classify on the basis of their behaviour, surface characteristics ... Tannins are a mixture of large and medium size molecules. Carbons with a combination of macropores and mesopores adsorb tannins ... Aizpuru A, Malhautier L, Roux JC, Fanlo JL (2003). "Biofiltration of a mixture of volatile organic compounds on granular ...
Nelson, Ximena J.; Jackson, Robert R. (2007-09-01). "Complex display behaviour during the intraspecific interactions of ... These ritualized behaviours can be visual however many animals depend on a mixture of visual, audio, tactical and/or chemical ... to the more complex vertebrates like the harbour seal.[3] ...
... though larger reptiles can show more complex brain development. Larger lizards, like the monitors, are known to exhibit complex ... To produce antivenom, a mixture of the venoms of different species of snake is injected into the body of a horse in ever- ... Casewell, N.R.; Wuster, W.; Vonk, F.J.; Harrison, R.A.; Fry, B.G. (2013). "Complex cocktails: the evolutionary novelty of ... Herbivorous reptiles face the same problems of mastication as herbivorous mammals but, lacking the complex teeth of mammals, ...
Heating the reaction mixture to 1500 °C results in the in situ generation of boron carbide and carbon, and the reduction of ZrO ... 2008). "A Simple Polymeric Precursor Strategy for the Syntheses of Complex Zirconium and Hafnium‐Based Ultra High‐Temperature ... The stoichiometric nitrogen content can be varied in these complexes based on the synthetic technique utilized; different ... A second SHS reaction with Mg and H3BO3 as reactants along with the ZrB2/ZrO2 mixture yields increased conversion to the ...
A variety of other techniques uses mixtures of differently colored probes. A range of colors in mixtures of fluorescent dyes ... Preparation of Complex DNA Probe Sets for 3D FISH with up to Six Different Fluorochromes ... these mixtures are used to detect deletion mutations. When combined with a specific color, a locus-specific probe mixture is ... The mixture of probe sequences determines the type of feature the probe can detect. Probes that hybridize along an entire ...
... complex F, which is produced in the copper cycle, to give complex C, expelling the copper halide, complex G. Both organic ... The Pd II catalyst is reduced to Pd0 in the reaction mixture by either an amine, a phosphine ligand, or a reactant, allowing ... It is suggested that the presence of base results in the formation of a pi-alkyne complex, complex E, which makes the terminal ... complex B. This step is believed to be the rate-limiting step of the reaction. Complex B reacts in a transmetallation with the ...
Models of volition have been constructed in which it is seen as a particular kind of complex, high-level process with an ... Modern science, on the other hand, is a mixture of deterministic and stochastic theories.[154] Quantum mechanics predicts ... In particular, the supplementary motor complex on the medial surface of the frontal lobe appears to activate prior to primary ... The bearing of these results upon notions of free will appears complex.[169][170] ...
When the mixture is of a lumpy consistency, the mixture is pressed into sheets or extruded. Varieties of pasta such as ... In Southern Italy more complex variations include pasta paired with fresh vegetables, olives, capers or seafood. Varieties ... The dried pasta is then packaged: Fresh pasta is sealed in a clear, airtight plastic container with a mixture of carbon dioxide ... Furthermore, fresh pasta is usually made with a mixture of eggs and all-purpose flour or "00" low-gluten flour. Since it ...
For instance, a mixture of amino acids may be separated by ion-exchange chromatography. Under a particular set of conditions, ... they can either pass by the adsorbent/analyte complex or they can displace the analyte by binding to the adsorbent in its place ... past the adsorbent/analyte complex. As the solvent molecules "elute", or travel down through the chromatography column, ...
... the Cham dedicated some Chinese slaves to their goddess Lady Po Nagar at the Po Nagar temple complex, along with Thai, Khmer ... Analysis of Vietnamese Kinh people's genetics show that within the last 800 years there was mixture between a Malay-like ... "Phylogeographic and genome-wide investigations of Vietnam ethnic groups reveal signatures of complex historical demographic ...
Such fuel mixtures can be required by the FAI for certain events in so-called FAI "Class F" international competition, that ... experimental development biofuels plant for production of Biomethanol and BioDME at the Domsjö Fabriker biorefinery complex in ... In 2006, in partnership with the ethanol industry, the IRL used a mixture of 10% ethanol and 90% methanol as its fuel. Starting ... 80 percent of the automobiles manufactured or sold in the United States by each such manufacturer to operate on fuel mixtures ...
A balanced scorecard includes a mixture of quantitative and qualitative measures, including how key participants perceive the ... An executive sponsor and, for complex, strategic supplier relationships, a cross-functional steering committee. These ...
SM is a mixture of SD (sense data: usually aided by instruments to refine the senses) with the old Greek PR [pure reason]. ... The Citadel is the author's term for the military-industrial complex that he claims funds mainstream science and is the source ... Something else he critizices is that the dependence on the military industrial complex is the norm. He proclaims that instead ...
One element, cobalt, is available for use by animals only after having been processed into complex molecules (e.g., vitamin B12 ... as a compound or mixture of compounds), such as calcium (as calcium carbonate, calcium citrate, etc.) or magnesium (as ...
Australian English, a dialect which initially emerged as a mixture of eighteenth century Cockney English and Irish English, and ... The first generation of such children spontaneously develops a pidgin into a more complex language termed a creole. [...] [T]he ...
When choosing a space in which to debrief, one must consider whether the scenario which unfolded was a complex case. Complex ... other or a small mixture of centralized & decentralized and centralized & mobile. Most CSSC are owned by the facilities, 84% ... "Why simulation can be efficient: on the preconditions of efficient learning in complex technology based practices" (PDF). ... and general healing skills are too complex to simulate accurately. However, technological advances in the past two decades have ...
South of the gneisses are a complex mixture of rocks forming the North West Highlands and Grampian Highlands in Scotland. These ...
Langham, W.; Storer, J. (1952). "Toxicology of Actinium Equilibrium Mixture". Los Alamos Scientific Lab.: Technical Report. doi ... "Improved in Vivo Stability of Actinium-225 Macrocyclic Complexes". J Med Chem. 42 (15): 2988-9. doi:10.1021/jm990141f. PMID ...
Other materials are often added to the iron/carbon mixture to produce steel with desired properties. Nickel and manganese in ... "Transformation Induced Plasticity in low alloyed TRIP-steels and microstructure response to a complex stress history". Archived ... Even in a narrow range of concentrations of mixtures of carbon and iron that make a steel, a number of different metallurgical ... When steels with exactly 0.8% carbon (known as a eutectoid steel), are cooled, the austenitic phase (FCC) of the mixture ...
... is a naturally occurring mixture of sodium carbonate decahydrate (Na2CO3·10H2O, a kind of soda ash) and around 17% ... Somma-Vesuvius Complex. *Kola Peninsula, northern Russia *Khibiny Massif. *Lovozero Massif *Alluaiv Mountain ... From such mixtures, the mineral natron (and also the historical one) will be formed only if the brine temperature during ... Historical natron was harvested directly as a salt mixture from dry lake beds in ancient Egypt, and has been used for thousands ...
When the insulator is a mixture of different dielectric materials (e.g., polyethylene foam is a mixture of polyethylene and air ... With increasing frequency, the reactive components take effect and the impedance of the line is complex-valued.. At higher ... Characteristic impedance in ohms (Ω). The complex impedance Z of an infinite length of transmission line is: ...
Animal fats are complex mixtures of triglycerides, with lesser amounts of phospholipids and cholesterol. Consequently all foods ... When cholesterol levels fall, Insig-1 dissociates from the SREBP-SCAP complex, allowing the complex to migrate to the Golgi ... A mixture of conjugated and non-conjugated bile acids along with cholesterol itself is excreted from the liver into the bile. ... A mixture of conjugated and non-conjugated bile acids along with cholesterol itself is excreted from the liver into the bile. ...
Molecular-Level Composition and Reaction Modeling for Heavy Petroleum Complex System Zhen Hou, Linzhou Zhang, Scott R. Horton, ... Catalyzed Oxidation for Petroleum Heavy Petroleums Petroleum Asphaltenes Petroleum Complex System Petroleum Related ...
This meeting will discuss a vision for developing the field of analysis of complex mixtures.. It will be unique in bringing ... We invite you to join us to discuss the topic of Challenges in analysis of complex natural mixtures and make your contribution ... Chair, Challenges in analysis of complex natural mixtures. Caring responsibilities. The RSC is keen to encourage and enable as ... Challenges in analysis of complex natural mixtures Faraday Discussion 13 - 15 May 2019, Edinburgh, United Kingdom ...
These systems are generally classed as "complex mixtures" or "unresolved complex mixtures (UCM)", emphasising our current ... This meeting will discuss a vision for developing the field of analysis of complex mixtures. It will be unique in bringing ... Challenges in analysis of complex natural mixtures Faraday Discussion 13 - 15 May 2019, Edinburgh, United Kingdom ... For the most part, people who work on the analysis of complex mixtures are driving the progress in exploiting new methodologies ...
Exposure to complex mixtures of chemicals is the norm in most of these settings. Although the mechanism of absorption of a ... Exposure to complex mixtures of chemicals is the norm in most of these settings. Although the mechanism of absorption of a ... Mixture component interactions are quantitated as a Mixture Factor that is related to certain solution properties of the ... A correlation between the straltum corneum/mixture partition coefficient and ultimate dermal absorption across mixtures was ...
In: Waters M.D., Daniel F.B., Lewtas J., Moore M.M., Nesnow S. (eds) Genetic Toxicology of Complex Mixtures. Environmental ... Development and Application of New Methodologies Applicable to Research on Complex Environmental Mixtures. ... Development and Application of New Methodologies Applicable to Research on Complex Environmental Mixtures. ...
Dr. Dan Hudgins is the Lead Scientist for the Raman Technologies division at Anton Paar USA. Dr. Hudgins has over 10 years of applied spectroscopy experience with significant expertise in an array of industries and applications including pulp & paper converting, nanomaterial discovery, explosives detection, and polymer engineering. As Lead Scientist, Dr. Hudgins work at Anton Paar USA includes both industrial and governmental partnerships devoted to novel Raman application development and optimization. Dr. Hudgins received his Bachelors degree in Biology from Randolph-Macon College and his doctorate in Inorganic Chemistry from Virginia Commonwealth University.. ...
Short-term bioassays in the analysis of complex environmental mixtures II. [Michael D Waters; Shahbeg S Sandhu; Joellen Lewtas ... Short-term bioassays in the analysis of complex environmental mixtures II. Author:. Michael D Waters; Shahbeg S Sandhu; Joellen ... schema:name "Short-term bioassays in the analysis of complex environmental mixtures II"@en ;. schema:productID "7925767" ;. ... Initially, complex mixtures may be separated and bioassayed in carefully defined chemical fractions. The results of such short- ...
... and Analysis of Complex Environmental Mixtures the use of short-term bioassays to evaluate potential health hazards of complex ... Short-Term Bioassays in the Analysis of Complex Environmental Mixtures III. Editors. * Michael D. Waters ... Short-Term Bioassays in the Analysis of Complex Environmental Mixtures III. Editors: Waters, Michael D. (Ed.) ... Application of Bovine Macrophage Bioassays in the Analysis of Toxic Agents in Complex Environmental Mixtures ...
Treatment of Complex Mixtures. EPA Grant Number: R825689C035. Subproject: this is subproject number 035 , established and ... Title: Treatment of Complex Mixtures. Investigators: Reinhard, Martin , Roberts, Paul V. Institution: Stanford University EPA ... R825689C035 Treatment of Complex Mixtures. R825689C036 Oxidation of Chlorinated Solvents by Methanotrophs. R825689C037 ... complex mixtures, Data Evaluation System for Organic Compounds (DESOC), physico-chemical properties, hazardous waste, treatment ...
... particularly of complex mixtures. The findings of recent studies which assessed macromolecular adducts formed by carcinogens ... Genetic toxicology of complex mixtures. Waters MD, Daniel FB, Lewtas J, Moor MM, Nesnow S, eds. New York: Plenum Press, ... An overview was included of recent studies involving complex mixtures. The authors conclude that these early studies are ... DNA adducts and related biomarkers in assessing the risk of complex mixtures.. ...
Ozone results in increased oxidation of Vehicle Emissions] which results in increased chemical synthesis of Aerosols] which results in increased DNA damage response, detection of DNA damage ...
SNOSID, a proteomic method for identification of cysteine S-nitrosylation sites in complex protein mixtures. Gang Hao, Behrad ... SNOSID, a proteomic method for identification of cysteine S-nitrosylation sites in complex protein mixtures ... SNOSID, a proteomic method for identification of cysteine S-nitrosylation sites in complex protein mixtures ... SNOSID, a proteomic method for identification of cysteine S-nitrosylation sites in complex protein mixtures ...
analysis in complex mixtures G. Huang, Z. Ouyang and R. G. Cooks, Chem. Commun., 2009, 556 DOI: 10.1039/B818059H ...
... Tyler Carson, Charles M. Bachmann, Carl ... Tyler Carson, Charles M. Bachmann, Carl Salvaggio, "Soil signature simulation of complex mixtures and particle size ... "Soil signature simulation of complex mixtures and particle size distributions," Optical Engineering 54(9), 094103 (10 September ... It also confirms the suggestion that directional reflectance signatures can be defined by intimate mixtures that depend on pore ...
The assessment of complex mixture biodegradability can be limited by technical issues and/or difficulties to rule on ready or ... Biodegradability assessment of complex chemical mixtures using a carbon balance approach F. Brillet, M. Cregut, M. J. Durand, C ... The assessment of complex mixture biodegradability can be limited by technical issues and/or difficulties to rule on ready or ... The UTOC was evaluated using a complex mixture of soluble and non-soluble substances and verified with an UVCB (vegetal extract ...
Chemists at the University of Liverpool have created a new technique that could be used in industry to separate complex organic ... Their use relies heavily on distillation techniques which separate complex mixtures into more simple molecules used as building ... Citation: New technique developed to separate complex molecular mixtures (2013, February 15) retrieved 10 April 2021 from https ... New technique developed to separate complex molecular mixtures. by University of Liverpool ...
MSDS requirements for complex mixtures with similar hazards. 07/09/1985 ... As you noted, the HCS allows manufacturers of complex mixtures with similar hazards and contents to prepare only one material ... Title: 07/09/1985 - MSDS requirements for complex mixtures with similar hazards. ... In your letter, you state that these mixtures have varying flash points and vapor pressures, and ask whether it is necessary to ...
COMPLEX CHEMICAL MIXTURES INTERAGENCY ANNOUNCEMENT 2000 SCIENCE TO ACHIEVE RESULTS (STAR) PROGRAM Release Date: April 24, 2000 ... NIEHS is interested in understanding what mixtures of chemicals the public is exposed to as well as the mechanisms involved in ... or predictive strategies for assessing the impact of chemical mixtures that focus on the mechanistic basis for chemical ... improve characterization of worker exposures to mixtures, or improve laboratory and statistical analysis methods. Information ...
A mixture of complexes of: titanium, 2,2-oxydiethanol, ammonium lactate, nitrilotris(2-propanol) and ethylene glycol EC Number ... A mixture of complexes of: titanium, 2,2-oxydiethanol, ammonium lactate, nitrilotris(2-propanol) and ethylene glycol. IUPAC ... A mixture of complexes of: titanium, 2,2-oxydiethanol, ammonium lactate, nitrilotris(2-propanol) and ethylene glycol. ...
A mixture of complexes of: titanium, 2,2-oxydiethanol, ammonium lactate, nitrilotris(2-propanol) and ethylene glycol. ... A mixture of complexes of: titanium, 2,2-oxydiethanol, ammonium lactate, nitrilotris(2-propanol) and ethylene glycol ... reaction mass of complexes of: titanium, 2,2-oxydiethanol, ammonium lactate, nitrilotris(2-propanol) and ethylene glycol ... not of the presence of the substance in other articles or mixtures. The precautionary measures and guidance on safe use are as ...
YEAST ENOLASE COMPLEXED WITH AN EQUILIBRIUM MIXTURE OF 2-PHOSPHOGLYCEATE AND PHOSPHOENOLPYRUVATE. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1ONE/pdb ... Crystals of the equilibrium mixture and of the enolase complex of phosphonoacetohydroxamate (PhAH) are isomorphous, and the ... structure of the yeast enzyme complexed with the equilibrium mixture of 2-phosphoglycerate and phosphoenolpyruvate at 1.8 A ... The equilibrium mixture of yeast enolase with substrate, 2-phospho-D-glycerate (2-PGA), and product, phosphoenolpyruvate (P- ...
In this work, we demonstrate the use of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to analyze N2O in the complex mixture of ... FTIR spectroscopy was used to analyze N2O in a complex gas mixture produced in corn silage. The corn silage was made in ... In this work, we demonstrate the use of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to analyze N2O in the complex mixture of ... Zhao, Y., Wexler, A.S., Hase, F., Pan, Y. and Mitloehner, F.M. (2016) Detecting Nitrous Oxide in Complex Mixtures Using FTIR ...
Structure determination of molecules contained within unresolved complex mixtures represents an unsolved question that ... These systems are generally classed as "complex mixtures" or "unresolved complex mixtures (UCM)", emphasising our current ... For the most part, people who work on the analysis of complex mixtures are driving the progress in exploiting new methodologies ... Most naturally occurring systems can be characterised as complex mixtures. These can be broadly divided according to the ...
Complex,Mixtures,with,,,,,,,,,,,,Ion,Trap,MSn,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology ... Structural Analysis of Glycosylated Peptides in Complex Mixtures with Ion Trap MS n Shiaw-Lin Wu Pavel Bondarenko Tom Shaler ... As would be expected from such a complex mixture, a number of co-eluting ions were observed. However, the triply-charged 211- ... Structural Analysis of Glycosylated Peptides in Complex Mixtures with Ion Trap MSn. Shiaw-Lin Wu, Pavel Bondarenko, Tom Shaler ...
For analyzing complex mixtures, the most important improvement of directed versus DDA LC-MS/MS results from the fact that the ... Work flow of directed LC-MS/MS analysis. Aliquots of a complex peptide mixture are analyzed by LC-MS/MS, and all MS1 peaks are ... 3B, green line). This clearly indicates that in complex peptide mixtures a higher number of peptide ions with low intensities ... An Integrated, Directed Mass Spectrometric Approach for In-depth Characterization of Complex Peptide Mixtures. Alexander ...
Can transcriptomics provide insight into the underlying chemopreventive mechanisms of complex mixtures of phytochemicals in ... into the relevant cellular processes and genetic pathways which contribute to the antioxidant response of complex mixtures of ... Pathway analysis of the identified genes showed strong but complex gene expression changes in pathways signaling for apoptosis ...
The identification of lower peptides in complex mixtures. R. Consden, A. H. Gordon, A. J. P. Martin ... The identification of lower peptides in complex mixtures Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
Buy the Hardcover Book Short-term Bioassays In The Analysis Of Complex Environmental Mixtures Ii by Michael Waters at Indigo.ca ... Short-term Bioassays In The Analysis Of Complex Environmental Mixtures Ii. EditorMichael Waters, Stephen Nesnow, Joellen L. ... Title:Short-term Bioassays In The Analysis Of Complex Environmental Mixtures Ii ...
... e1 Standard Test Method for Quantification of Complex Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Mixtures or Petroleum Oils in Water water ... Standard Test Method for Quantification of Complex Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Mixtures or Petroleum Oils in Water. Active ... ASTM D5412-93(2017)e1, Standard Test Method for Quantification of Complex Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Mixtures or Petroleum ... 1.2 This test method is applicable to PAHs resulting from petroleum oils, fuel oils, creosotes, or industrial organic mixtures ...
Buy the Paperback Book Short-Term Bioassays in the Analysis of Complex Environmental Mixtures II by Michael Waters at Indigo.ca ... Short-Term Bioassays in the Analysis of Complex Environmental Mixtures II. byMichael WatersEditorStephen Nesnow, Joellen L. ... Initially, complex mixtures may be separated and bioassayed in carefully defined chemical fractions. The results of such short- ... On the other hand, bioassays alone cannot tell us which components of complex mixtures are responsible for the biological ...
  • High-resolution mass spectrometry is one of the most promising approaches to tackle the issues of structure determination of molecules locked in complex mixtures. (rsc.org)
  • The techniques best positioned to tackle such mixtures experimentally include mass spectrometry, chromatography, NMR spectroscopy, or new alternative techniques, including combinations of the above methods. (rsc.org)
  • Processing complex mixtures of intact proteins for direct analysis by mass spectrometry. (nih.gov)
  • Based upon a combination of custom experiments and an in-house data processing algorithm, we used Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) to successfully analyse a non-distillable fraction of a heavy petroleum sample, representing one of the most complex mixtures investigated to date. (spectroscopyeurope.com)
  • Ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry, offering resolving power in the region of 10 5 -10 6 FWHM and sub part-per-million mass accuracy, is perhaps the only analytical technique able to separate and assign individual compositions in complex mixtures such as crude oils. (spectroscopyeurope.com)
  • The state of art high throughput assay approaches like mass spectrometry-based proteomics are able to monitor the changing of substrates or products during the course of this type of complex enzymatic reactions. (mcponline.org)
  • Koch, B. (2005): A key to the molecular characterisation of complex organic mixtures: Ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry , Research Center Ocean Margins (RCOM), 19 Apr. (awi.de)
  • Can we unravel the molecular structures in complex mixtures by atomic force microscopy by "seeing", rather than interpreting the spectroscopic data? (rsc.org)
  • These can be broadly divided according to the molecular sizes of their constituents, into mixtures of small or large molecules. (rsc.org)
  • A modified LFER model based on molecular descriptors of the penetrants and physical properties of the mixtures was formulated. (cdc.gov)
  • This chapter critically evaluated the role of biological markers and molecular epidemiology in the risk management of environmental carcinogens, particularly of complex mixtures. (cdc.gov)
  • The disadvantages and limitations of biomarkers were that most lack adequate validation, and that the molecular epidemiological studies are complex and resource intensive. (cdc.gov)
  • The authors encourage the use of well designed molecular epidemiological studies in human populations with model exposures to single agents and to complex mixtures in order to gain the most from the use of these markers. (cdc.gov)
  • Heavy crude oils are extremely complex and most conventional analytical techniques do not offer the level of performance required to provide sufficiently detailed molecular insights into crude oil behaviour under upgrading conditions. (spectroscopyeurope.com)
  • The exceptions were exotic fuels such as synthetic jet fuel that expose the central assumption of the volatility-dependent model that most emissions consist of complex mixtures with similar distribution of molecular classes. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • Jathar, S. H., Donahue, N. M., Adams, P. J., and Robinson, A. L.: Testing secondary organic aerosol models using smog chamber data for complex precursor mixtures: influence of precursor volatility and molecular structure, Atmos. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • Scientists from the Max-Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology have developed an easy and efficient way to screen complex compound libraries of any origin for the presence of compounds which form stable complex with the macromolecular target. (max-planck-innovation.de)
  • A process is disclosed for separating low molecular weight components from complex aqueous organic mixtures. (google.com)
  • The separation solution is then contacted with the organic mixtures while maintaining the temperature and pressure as above until the mixtures and solution reach equilibrium to extract the preselected low molecular weight components from the organic mixtures. (google.com)
  • The present invention relates generally to the separation of complex organic mixtures into various components and, more particularly, to processes of separating low molecular weight fractions from complex organic mixtures utilizing supercritical solutions and is a continuation of U.S. application Ser. (google.com)
  • Specifically, the present invention relates to the supercritical separation of low molecular weight components from complex organic mixtures utilizing supercritical carbon dioxide modified by the presence of an entrainer. (google.com)
  • Mixture will combine all these possibilities and generate their corresponding molecular formulas. (epfl.ch)
  • Quantification of constituents in areal and intimate binary mixtures of. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • LC-MS/MS has emerged as the method of choice for the identification and quantification of protein sample mixtures. (mcponline.org)
  • Over the past decade, MS has emerged as the method of choice for the identification and quantification of proteins in very complex biological samples ( 1 ). (mcponline.org)
  • 5.1 This test method is useful for characterization and rapid quantification of PAH mixtures including petroleum oils, fuels, creosotes, and industrial organic mixtures, either waterborne or obtained from tanks. (astm.org)
  • DDRS is an application of partial least squares (PLS) analysis that combines higher-density discrete wavelet transform (HDWT) with variable selection influenced by the data itself, with the goal of isolating the most useful spectral features for target gas quantification in complex multicomponent mixtures. (spectroscopyonline.com)
  • As the amorphous API is essential to the function of the drug, methods for its characterisation and quantification within the complex formulation are essential. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Reproducibility of quantitative proteomic analyses of complex biological mixtures by multidimensional protein identification technology. (nih.gov)
  • We have analyzed the reproducibility of complex quantitative proteomic analyses of metabolically labeled S. cerevisiae analyzed via multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT). (nih.gov)
  • The collaboration will focus on developing software interfaces between the Elucidator system and Waters instrument systems that will give scientists the capability to perform comprehensive qualitative and quantitative profiling of complex biological mixtures. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Validation of its performance using both standard gas mixtures and two real mud-logging data sets compared favorably against the GC method, demonstrating the feasibility of this technique for online, high-throughput quantitative analysis of gases in oil and gas exploration and recovery, as well as many other industries. (spectroscopyonline.com)
  • In this work, we describe an integrated microreactor system called the Quantitative Carbon Detector (QCD) for use with current gas chromatography techniques for calibration-free quantitation of analyte mixtures. (elsevier.com)
  • Parameters governing the rates of mass transfer of the individual components of four synthetic dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) mixtures into the aqueous phase were evaluated. (researchwithnj.com)
  • Structural Analysis of Glycosylated Peptides in Complex Mixtures with ,,, Ion Trap MSn ( Structural Analysis of Glycosylated Pe. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Dermal absorption of toxicologically relevant compounds can be predicted using generally accepted QSPR equations based on LFER principles if the presence of mixture components are accounted for in a modified equation. (cdc.gov)
  • This can be stimulated by the use of complex forming compounds in the apolar phase, which mask the polar group present in any amino acids and thus leave the rest group as the most exposed and differentiating moiety to the solvent. (wur.nl)
  • First responders exposed to fire debris, either during an active fire or after the flames have been extinguished are exposed to a very complex mixture of compounds, including some potentially toxic compounds. (waters.com)
  • A food sample is inherently chemically complex, comprising an array of high abundance to trace-level compounds. (spectroscopyonline.com)
  • Each mixture sample containing a limited number of candidate biotin derivatives with moderate differences in their molar quantities were prepared via parallel-combinatorial-synthesis (PCS) without purification, or via the pooling of individual compounds. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Nowadays, to practice the mixture-based library strategy, mixtures of multiple candidate ligands are routinely prepared via the pooling of individual compounds, parallel combinatorial synthesis (PCS) or the fractionation of crude extracts of natural products. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The preparation of mixtures of multiple candidate ligands via the pooling of individual compounds suffers from the cost and time required for synthesizing individual compounds, but the composition ratios of candidate ligands in these mixtures can be rigorously controlled. (biomedcentral.com)
  • What type of reaction occurs when complex compounds are broken down into simpler substances? (reference.com)
  • This is the opposite of a synthesis reaction, in which two or more elements or simple compounds combine to create one or more slightly more complex compounds. (reference.com)
  • Advanced analysis for mixture of compounds, with automatic peak picking and ion assignment and as a result a clear graphical representation. (epfl.ch)
  • Some chemicals listed in this database or not pure chemical compounds, rather they are mixtures/solutions of chemicals. (environmentalchemistry.com)
  • It will be unique in bringing together scientists who may otherwise attend more specialised conferences focusing e.g. on their specific field of chromatography, NMR or MS, or biological metabolites or a specific environmental mixture. (rsc.org)
  • Furthermore, the biological activity of a complex mixture cannot be reliably predicted from knowledge of its components. (worldcat.org)
  • On the other hand, bioassays alone cannot tell us which components of complex mixtures are responsible for the biological activity detected. (worldcat.org)
  • Thus, cost effectiveness and technical feasibility dictate stepwise and perhaps iterative application -of both chemical and biological methods in evaluating the health effects of complex environmental mixtures. (worldcat.org)
  • Here we describe a high-throughput proteomic approach that enables simultaneous identification of SNO-Cys sites and their cognate proteins in complex biological mixtures. (pnas.org)
  • Given this knowledge gap, we sought to develop a method that enables unbiased, facile, and high-throughput specification of SNO-Cys sites on NO-regulated target proteins in complex biological samples. (pnas.org)
  • Recent technical improvements in MS instrumentation, database searching, and result validation as well as advances in database annotation now make it possible to routinely identify hundreds to a few thousands of proteins in complex biological samples ( 5 - 8 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Comprehensively identify proteins at attomole concentrations in a complex biological matrix using SYNAPT G2-S. (waters.com)
  • Understanding the chemical and biological properties of these mixtures leads to a clearer comprehension of the principles inherent in their carcinogenic activities. (taylorfrancis.com)
  • The ability to monitor the behavior of individual proteins in complex mixtures has many potential uses, ranging from analysis of protein interactions in highly-concentrated solutions, modelling biological fluids or the intracellular environment, to optimizing biopharmaceutical co-formulations. (bionmr.com)
  • The proposed method involves preparing a processed-mixture-for-screening (PMFS) with each mixture sample and an exogenous reference ligand, initiating competitive binding among ligands from the PMFS to a target immobilized on magnetic particles, recovering target-ligand complexes in equilibrium by magnetic force, extracting and concentrating bound ligands, and analyzing ligands in the PMFS and the concentrated extract by chromatography. (biomedcentral.com)
  • If you want to see all mixtures (salts and/or combinations) associated with a ligand you can click on the "Related substances, Mixture" tag in the PubChem CID (the caveat is that for well established drugs these can be large "overkill" lists from patent-only specified salts or mixtures). (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • Chicago By Night experienced its most Belgian download Short Term Bioassays in the Analysis of Complex Environmental Mixtures after Vampire: The Masquerade? (marienhafe.eu)
  • For download Short Term Bioassays in the Analysis of Complex, animated benefits spun mostly higher in here made months( Fig 6A), and ending Duck involved with moon there in the such case applies( Fig 6B). (marienhafe.eu)
  • We will squeeze download Short Term Bioassays in the Analysis of Complex Environmental Mixtures we say about your Autodesk sequence or increase show and story film, and relevant wife you might be with us, to disrupt us compare what will encounter most same and small to you, and to be more only how orders are you need with our media and editors. (marienhafe.eu)
  • There brought again the Sunday download Short Term Bioassays in the Analysis of Complex Environmental snuggling Calvin including relevant to Meet up, not So as 1:30 in the airway. (marienhafe.eu)
  • The first step in the original biotin-switch method is methylthiolation of all free Cys-thiols in a protein mixture, followed by selective reduction of S-NO bonds, thereby generating a new unmodified thiol at each former SNO-Cys site. (pnas.org)
  • The product ion spectra from the tryptic digest mixture were used by TurboSEQUEST software to search the human protein database. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In this application brief, we show results from a protein mixture spiked at different concentrations into a cytosolic E.coli lysate. (waters.com)
  • This method has proven to be highly efficient when dealing with protein mixtures of varying complexity. (waters.com)
  • A standard protein mixture containing equal molar amounts of yeast enolase, bovine serum albumin, rabbit glycogen phosphorylase B, and yeast alcohol dehydrogenase, were spiked at various concentrations into 100 ng of digested E.coli cell lysate. (waters.com)
  • However, their sensing strategy will not use protein receptors but rather more than 10 16 free-floating DNA molecules folded into a complex set of 3D structures (2). (carlsbergfondet.dk)
  • Many important experiments in proteomics including protein digestion, enzyme substrate screening, enzymatic labeling, etc., involve the enzymatic reactions in a complex system where numerous substrates coexists with an enzyme. (mcponline.org)
  • Analysis of complex protein mixtures, such as cell extracts, uses the same principles of protein identification as single proteins, but with some differences. (virginia.edu)
  • This study proposes differential labelling of proteins by covalent attachment of 19F groups with distinct chemical shifts, giving each protein a unique spectral signature which can be monitored by 19F NMR without signal overlap, even in complex mixtures, and without any interfering signals from the buffer or other unlabelled components. (bionmr.com)
  • The goal of this project is to investigate the harmful effects of exposure to complex mixtures of PAHs and other environmental pollutants, and to improve the scientific base for risk assessment of human exposure to complex environmental mixtures. (ki.se)
  • Considering that there are few evaluations of soybean farmers, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of human exposure to complex mixtures of pesticides. (deepdyve.com)
  • A new study highlights the complexity of chemical mixtures in streams and advances the understanding of wildlife and human exposure to complex chemical mixtures. (usgs.gov)
  • Chemists at the University of Liverpool have created a new technique that could be used in industry to separate complex organic chemical mixtures. (phys.org)
  • Small molecule mixtures include environmental matrices (such as soil, dissolved organic matter, organic molecules contained in atmospheric aerosol particles, or crude oil), biofluids, and man-made mixtures of small molecules such as food, beverages or plant extracts. (bokkilden.no)
  • 1.2 This test method is applicable to PAHs resulting from petroleum oils, fuel oils, creosotes, or industrial organic mixtures. (astm.org)
  • This study investigated the potential treatability of a representative soil sample, holding a complex mixture of metals, organic and inorganic contaminants, from the site of a Former Manufactured Gas Plant (FMGP) using a combination of soil washing technique and bioremediation. (bl.uk)
  • The authors conclude that these early studies are encouraging in that macromolecular adducts and related biomarkers can ultimately be useful in identifying the operational carcinogenic constituents of complex mixtures and in estimating whether their effect is additive or interreactive. (cdc.gov)
  • Fortunately, for the most commonly expected PAH mixtures, such substituted PAHs and heterocycles are not major components of the mixtures and do not cause serious errors. (astm.org)
  • In the project we study the effects of complex mixtures of PAHs in environmental samples on DNA damage and repair, inflammation and development. (ki.se)
  • Our hypothesis is that synergistic effects between different PAHs and other pollutants in complex mixtures represent a major carcinogenic effect and there is an urgent need to include these interactions in health risk assessment. (ki.se)
  • Cancer Risk Assessment of Airborne PAHs Based on in Vitro Mixture Potency Factors. (ki.se)
  • Persistent activation of DNA damage signaling in response to complex mixtures of PAHs in air particulate matter. (ki.se)
  • The DNAPL mixtures, composed of toluene and eight polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were designed to serve as models for coal tars and creosotes. (researchwithnj.com)
  • In the absence of appropriate reference materials, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency initiated comparative genotoxicity studies to determine the relative mutagenic and carcinogenic activity and, ultimately, the potential human health risk due to exposure to various complex emission products. (springer.com)
  • This chapter focusses on and summarizes the major findings on the carcinogenic effects of complex environmental mixtures and discusses mixture interactions as they pertain to chemical carcinogenesis. (taylorfrancis.com)
  • Exposure to complex mixtures of chemicals is the norm in most of these settings. (cdc.gov)
  • The ability to separate complex molecules using less energy will be important in the future for current petrochemical and chemical industries and for producing any next-generation sustainable bio-derived chemicals. (phys.org)
  • NIEHS is interested in understanding what mixtures of chemicals the public is exposed to as well as the mechanisms involved in the interaction of these mixtures and subsequent health effects. (nih.gov)
  • Fish and other wildlife are exposed to these complex mixtures of chemicals. (usgs.gov)
  • The results indicate that the mixtures of chemicals in streams reflect combined contaminant contributions originating from a combination of agricultural, industrial, municipal, and residential sources in individual watersheds. (usgs.gov)
  • Complex chemical mixtures (a range of 4 to 161 chemicals per stream) were detected in streams across a range of urban and agricultural areas in the United States. (usgs.gov)
  • The indicators were related to target chemicals in the water samples to different degrees, which advanced our understanding of exposure and relative risk of specific chemicals and mixtures. (usgs.gov)
  • Use of this acid-labile surfactant (ALS) facilitates subsequent reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) for a net two-dimensional fractionation illustrated by transforming thousands of intact proteins from Saccharomyces cerevisiae to mixtures of 5-20 components (all within approximately 5 kDa of one another) for presentation via electrospray ionization (ESI) to a Fourier transform MS (FTMS). (nih.gov)
  • Liquid chromatography techniques have been successfully coupled with mass spectrometers to provide a robust method for the identification of proteins in mixtures. (currentprotocols.com)
  • Thus, NIOSH is interested in studies that identify synergistic effects of multiple exposure, improve characterization of worker exposures to mixtures, or improve laboratory and statistical analysis methods. (nih.gov)
  • The methods commonly used for assessing the toxicity of complex environmental mixtures probably significantly underestimate the risk of exposure to human health since they do not take into account interactions which potentially give rise to synergistic effects. (ki.se)
  • Furthermore, after short-term (4 days) exposure, statistically significant inhibition of AChE activity in hemolymph of metal mixture-exposed mussels, in comparison to control and pre-exposure group, was found. (springer.com)
  • DNA damage and epigenetic alteration in soybean farmers exposed to complex mixture of pesticides Benedetti, Danieli;Alderete, Barbara Lopes;de Souza, Claudia Telles;Dias, Johnny Ferraz;Niekraszewicz, Liana;Cappetta, Mónica;Martínez-López, Wilner;Silva, Juliana Da 2018-01-01 00:00:00 Abstract Exposure to pesticides can trigger genotoxic and mutagenic processes through different pathways. (deepdyve.com)
  • These data indicate that persistent genetic instability associated with hypermethylation of DNA in soybean workers after long-term exposure to a low-level to pesticides mixtures may be critical for the development of adverse health effects such as cancer. (deepdyve.com)
  • This study presents the testing of various generated atmospheres under the same cell-exposure conditions and demonstartion of studying dose-dependent cytotoxic effects in human lung epithelial cells exposed to air contaminated with single gases or complex mixtures, such as diesel exhaust fumes and side-stream cigarette smoke. (vitrocell.com)
  • NMR paper 19F NMR as a Tool for Monitoring Individual Proteins in Complex Mixtures. (bionmr.com)
  • They are exposed to complex mixtures containing multiple carcinogens, and these exposures can come from multiple sources (e.g., vehicle exhaust fumes and water disinfection by-products) and by multiple routes (inhalation, oral, dermal). (taylorfrancis.com)
  • Here, we demonstrate the identification of known standard proteins spiked at varying levels into a complex sample matrix. (waters.com)
  • Here we have shown identification of four standard proteins spiked at varying concentrations (100 amol to 10 fmol) into a complex matrix using the SYNAPT G2-S System. (waters.com)
  • Special focus is put on bioassay-guided fractionation as the standard technique employed (in identification and purification of bioactive molecules from a bioactive mixture), and on state-of-the-art post-column bioactivity profiling approaches, also providing examples and limitations of these analytical methods. (vu.nl)
  • However, the current identification methods (DNA-based and chemical) are not capable of resolving mixtures of several plant species simultaneously. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Identification of species independently and concurrently in complex mixtures has become increasingly important for regulators based on two main factors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Both magnesium ions are complexed to functional groups of the substrate/product. (rcsb.org)
  • This is primarily a consequence of limited sequencing speed of current LC-ESI-MS/MS systems that are incapable of analyzing each precursor ion detected in complex samples together with the redundant selection of a subset of precursor ions even if precautions like dynamic exclusion are applied. (mcponline.org)
  • intermediate in the dissociative (D) substitution at the complex ions [Fe(CN)5L]3? (islandscholar.ca)
  • Once the initial calculation is over, mixture allows you an additional post calibration step to improve mass accuracy and, therefore, similarity scores of matched ions. (epfl.ch)
  • Symposium on the Application of Short-Term Bioassays in the Fractionation and Analysis of Complex Environmental Mixtures (2nd : 1980 : Williamsburg, Va. (worldcat.org)
  • In the four years since the 1978 Symposium on the Application of Short-Term Bioassays in the Fractionation and Analysis of Complex Environmental Mixtures the use of short-term bioassays to evaluate potential health hazards of complex environmental mixtures has substantially increased. (springer.com)
  • Bacterial degradation of hydrocarbons is complex and will depend on environmental conditions (e.g. aerobic or anaerobic, temperature, nutrient availability, available species of bacteria etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our aim is to improve the risk assessment of complex environmental mixtures. (ki.se)
  • Our published data indicate that complex environmental PAH mixtures induce unexpected and persistent DNA damage signalling responses. (ki.se)
  • In vitro cell-based assays have shown promise as bioscreening tools to assess environmental mixtures and prioritize sites requiring further investigations. (watereuse.org)
  • EN] Mathematical models are important tools for environmental management and risk assessment. (upv.es)
  • There is strong epidemiological evidence supported by experimental animal data that complex environmental mixtures pose a risk to human health producing increases in cancer incidence. (taylorfrancis.com)
  • For the most part, people who work on the analysis of complex mixtures are driving the progress in exploiting new methodologies and their creative combinations. (rsc.org)
  • For very complex samples such as complete proteomes, the most commonly used LC-MS/MS method, data-dependent acquisition (DDA) precursor selection, is of limited utility. (mcponline.org)
  • Amplification of a complex mixture of relatively short DNA fragments, derived from mini scale experiments in chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), degraded forensic material, cDNA synthesis, clinical diagnostics, stored tumor or other tissue samples is an area of genome research which has received scant attention. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Amongst the range of such samples, petroleum is considered one of nature's most complex mixtures. (spectroscopyeurope.com)
  • optimized conditions to validate the approximation equation could be applied to different mixture samples. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Relative affinities of candidate biotin derivatives with unknown molar quantities in each mixture sample were consistent with those estimated by a homogenous method using their purified counterparts as samples. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our group has previously studied the nature of chemical interactions within a mixture that could modulate absorption across the skin. (cdc.gov)
  • The objective of this present grant was to extend the analysis of chemical mixture interactions that affect percutaneous absorption to define the physical chemical characteristics of the mixture that allow significant mixture interactions to be detected. (cdc.gov)
  • Statistical techniques were used to define significant mixture interactions. (cdc.gov)
  • Mixture component interactions are quantitated as a Mixture Factor that is related to certain solution properties of the mixture components. (cdc.gov)
  • The purpose of this announcement is to stimulate innovative experimental approaches and computational, statistical, or predictive strategies for assessing the impact of chemical mixtures that focus on the mechanistic basis for chemical interactions and related health effects. (nih.gov)
  • Interactions between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in complex mixtures and implications for cancer risk assessment. (ki.se)
  • The combinatorial library strategy of using multiple candidate ligands in mixtures as library members is ideal in terms of cost and efficiency, but needs special screening methods to estimate the affinities of candidate ligands in such mixtures. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Herein, a new method to screen candidate ligands present in unknown molar quantities in mixtures was investigated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This new method is robust and effective for each mixture possessing a limited number of candidate ligands whose molar quantities have moderate differences, and its integration with PCS has promise to routinely practice the mixture-based library strategy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In theory, an ideal approach to the combinatorial library strategy would integrate the preparation of multiple candidate ligands in each mixture as a library member with the simultaneous estimation of affinities and the concurrent judgment of binding site(s) of all candidate ligands in the mixture as a sample. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The preparation of mixtures of multiple candidate ligands via PCS or the fractionation of crude extracts of natural products has attractive cost and efficiency. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These systems are generally classed as "complex mixtures" or "unresolved complex mixtures (UCM)", emphasising our current inability to separate their individual components. (rsc.org)
  • This model resulted in better correlations (R2 of 0.76 versus 0.58) to absorption in both porcine skin model systems than was seen when a factor to account for mixture components was not included. (cdc.gov)
  • Analysis of the hydrocarbon fraction of crude oils by GC reveals a complex mixture containing many thousands of individual components. (wikipedia.org)
  • By selecting the subclass of modules that can bind to the components in a particular food mixture and subsequently characterise them Kjems and his colleagues hope to create a "picture" of the ingredients - very similar to the principle applied by our brain. (carlsbergfondet.dk)
  • Highly sensitive analysis for trace level components in a complex sample matrix. (waters.com)
  • Finally, the entrainer/extracted components portion of the equilibrium mixture is isolated from the separation solution. (google.com)
  • Researchers at Oxford have created a new and robust method that enables not only the characterisation of the single components of a complex mixture but also the level of crystallinity of the sample. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Although there are a number of techniques currently available for this purpose, the characterisation of amorphous components in complex formulations remains a challenge. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Film transfer coefficients for all components of the mixtures studied were similar in magnitude, in the range 0.8-3 x 10 -3 cm/s. (researchwithnj.com)
  • The individual distributions that are combined to form the mixture distribution are called the mixture components, and the probabilities (or weights) associated with each component are called the mixture weights. (wikipedia.org)
  • The number of components in a mixture distribution is often restricted to being finite, although in some cases the components may be countably infinite in number. (wikipedia.org)
  • A distinction needs to be made between a random variable whose distribution function or density is the sum of a set of components (i.e. a mixture distribution) and a random variable whose value is the sum of the values of two or more underlying random variables, in which case the distribution is given by the convolution operator. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mixture components are often not arbitrary probability distributions, but instead are members of a parametric family (such as normal distributions), with different values for a parameter or parameters. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the course of our research within this field, we have developed an approach for the characterisation of the most challenging complex mixtures. (spectroscopyeurope.com)
  • Academics at Oxford have tackled such limitation and developed a general and robust method for the characterisation of APIs in complex formulations. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The dissolution reaction of WO3 in pure molten K2S2O7 and in molten K2S2O7-K2SO4 mixtures is studied under static equilibrium conditions in the XWO3 0 = 0-0.33 mol fraction range at temperatures up to 860 C. High temperature Raman spectroscopy shows that the dissolution leads to formation of WVI oxosulfato complexes, and the spectral features are adequate for inferring the structural and vibrational properties of the complexes formed. (dtu.dk)
  • Chemical contaminants do not occur alone in our water resources and detections of complex chemical mixtures are commonly documented in rivers and streams across the United States. (usgs.gov)
  • This study builds on previous work that identified mixtures of contaminants in streams across the United States. (usgs.gov)
  • Drag Reduction of Complex Mixtures discusses the concept of drag reduction phenomena in complex mixtures in internal and external flows that are shown experimentally by dividing flow patterns into three categories. (ebooksdownloads.xyz)
  • This meeting is for established scientists, post-graduate students and industrial researchers interested in the structure determination of molecules contained within unresolved complex mixtures. (rsc.org)
  • Structure determination of molecules contained within unresolved complex mixtures represents an unsolved problem that continues to challenge physical and analytical chemistry. (rsc.org)
  • man-made mixtures of small molecules such as food, beverages or plant extracts. (rsc.org)
  • Their use relies heavily on distillation techniques which separate complex mixtures into more simple molecules used as building blocks to develop drugs, plastics and new materials. (phys.org)
  • The principle of this approach is based on the supposition that small molecules/metabolites interacting with proteins are forming a stable complex and will fractionate together (3). (max-planck-innovation.de)
  • Residence time distribution of the QCD reveals negligible loss in chromatographic resolution consistent with fine separation of complex mixtures including cellulose pyrolysis products. (elsevier.com)
  • Study of the diffusion, rheology and microrheology of complex mixtures of bacteria and particles under flow confined in thin channels. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • The new method was tested using the competitive binding of biotin derivatives from mixtures to streptavidin immobilized on magnetic particles as a model. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As accurately modeling flow behavior with drag reduction is always complex, and since drag reducing additives or solid particles are mixed in fluids, this book covers these complex phenomena in a concise, but comprehensive manner. (ebooksdownloads.xyz)
  • After a 4-week recovery period, equal numbers of each group were exposed 23 hr/day x 28 day to filtered air (AIR) or to the complex by-products from a dark-phase-reaction mixture of trans-2-butene, ozone, and sulfur dioxide (MIX). (osti.gov)
  • It was validated by 630 time-course points from 24 enzymatic reaction experiments and was demonstrated to be a powerful tool to simulate the reactions in the complex system. (mcponline.org)
  • Based on this striking observation, a simplified model was developed to determine the catalytic efficiencies of numerous competing substrates presented in the complex enzyme reaction system. (mcponline.org)
  • Free hydroxyl radicals (free · OH), singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ), or · OH produced by DNA-copper-hydroperoxo complexes are possible DNA-damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the reaction system containing copper, catechol, and DNA. (lib4ri.ch)
  • Unresolved complex mixture (UCM), or hump, is a feature frequently observed in gas chromatographic (GC) data of crude oils and extracts from organisms exposed to oil. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fractionation System analyzes complex protien mixtures. (thomasnet.com)
  • The results of this overall effort yield insights into the complexity of chemical mixtures present in a wide range of surface waters across the United States and their potential for eliciting adverse ecological health consequences. (usgs.gov)
  • Finally, this chapter briefly discusses the importance of bioactivity profiling of metabolic mixtures in drug discovery. (vu.nl)
  • This session will explore how chemometrics can assist all other techniques in the analysis of complex mixtures, where extracting information by data-driven analysis is a necessity. (rsc.org)
  • How can chemometrics, data mining, multivariate calibration or multi-way analysis be best applied to different types of complex mixtures? (rsc.org)
  • Yongnian Ni, Yanhua Lai, and Serge Kokot, "Fluorescence Spectral Analysis for the Discrimination of Complex, Similar Mixtures with the Aid of Chemometrics," Appl. (osapublishing.org)
  • One of the main advantages is the very high separation power, making the technique ideal for unravelling the composition of complex mixtures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rapid, continuous analysis of the composition of these complex mixtures is essential to help workers respond quickly to changes during drilling. (spectroscopyonline.com)
  • Can transcriptomics provide insight into the underlying chemopreventive mechanisms of complex mixtures of phytochemicals in humans? (wur.nl)
  • This model provides validation for a phenomenological trade space between density and particle size distribution in complex, heterogeneous soil mixtures. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • This same methodology is readily transferable to the study of other complex mixtures beyond those mentioned, such as battery materials, heterogeneous catalysts, and liquid fuels. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Stability constants of ternary complexes were refined with MINIQUAD75. (scielo.org.za)
  • A dimeric [{WO2(SO4)2}2(μ-SO4)2]8- configuration is proposed for the W oxosulfato complex in the ternary system, generated from inversion symmetry of aWO2(SO4)3 4- moiety resulting in two bridging sulfates. (dtu.dk)
  • Since the FTIR spectroscopic technique has been used for real-time measurements of N 2 O and other gas species [10] [11] , it is an excellent tool for real time monitoring of N 2 O in silage gas and may also be suitable for measuring N 2 O emissions in other anthropogenic emissions mixtures. (scirp.org)
  • Complex coacervation refers to a phase separation of oppositely charged polyelectrolyte (PE) mixtures into a PE-poor supernatant phase and a PE-rich coacervate phase. (aps.org)
  • Using a simple liquid-state (LS) theory that accounts for all of these effects, we study the phase behaviors of a mixture of oppositely charged PE solutions. (aps.org)
  • The UTOC was evaluated using a complex mixture of soluble and non-soluble substances and verified with an UVCB (vegetal extract). (rsc.org)
  • The anionic surfactant associates to a significant degree with PE045MEMA:METAC-2 to form soluble complexes at all stoichiometries. (diva-portal.org)
  • Highly complex substrate libraries including the synthetic oligonucleotide or peptide mixture ( 9 , 10 ), the peptide library derived from the digestion of proteins in total cell lysate ( 11 , 12 ) and the proteins in total cell lysate ( 13 , 14 ) were used for substrate screening. (mcponline.org)
  • In some cases, the peptide mixture is fractionated by ion exchange or other method before the reverse phase separation mentioned above. (virginia.edu)
  • We invite you to join us to discuss the topic of Challenges in analysis of complex natural mixtures and make your contribution to this cutting-edge dialogue alongside leaders in this field. (rsc.org)
  • This meeting will discuss a vision for developing the field of analysis of complex mixtures. (rsc.org)
  • The following thesis used chemometric software to examine data generated from differential analysis of complex mixtures. (hud.ac.uk)
  • Raman spectroscopy offers a promising alternative for multicomponent analysis of complex gas mixtures, particularly when high-sensitivity compact Raman instrumentation is combined with advanced data analysis. (spectroscopyonline.com)
  • Complex structures with native alkylimidate and thio-analog support its catalytic relevance and show, together with biochemical assays, that only the coproduct complex is relevant for inhibition by Ex-527, which stabilizes the closed enzyme conformation preventing product release. (rcsb.org)
  • As you noted, the HCS allows manufacturers of complex mixtures with similar hazards and contents to prepare only one material safety data sheet for these mixtures. (ilpi.com)
  • The equilibrium mixture of yeast enolase with substrate, 2-phospho-D-glycerate (2-PGA), and product, phosphoenolpyruvate (P-enolpyruvate), has been crystallized from solutions of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) at pH 8.0. (rcsb.org)
  • Crystals of the equilibrium mixture and of the enolase complex of phosphonoacetohydroxamate (PhAH) are isomorphous, and the structure of the former complex was solved from the coordinates of enolase-(Mg2+)2-PhAH [Wedekind, J. E., Poyner, R. R., Reed, G. H., & Rayment, I. (1994) Biochemistry 33, 9333-9342]. (rcsb.org)
  • We also investigated fitting an SOA model based solely on the volatility of the precursor mixture to the experimental data. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • The Raman spectra of complex gas mixtures of the type seen in mud logging are composed of many overlapping bands, and are also subject to considerable matrix interference. (spectroscopyonline.com)
  • Food and beverages are extremely complex mixtures of substances that upon interaction with thousands of taste receptors on our tongue send a cascade of signals to our brain to create our perception of taste. (carlsbergfondet.dk)