Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
A method of gel filtration chromatography using agarose, the non-ionic component of agar, for the separation of compounds with molecular weights up to several million.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
A chromatography technique in which the stationary phase is composed of a non-polar substance with a polar mobile phase, in contrast to normal-phase chromatography in which the stationary phase is a polar substance with a non-polar mobile phase.
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A method of separation of two or more substances by repeated distribution between two immiscible liquid phases that move past each other in opposite directions. It is a form of liquid-liquid chromatography. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A hybrid separation technique combining both chromatographic and electrophoretic separation principles. While the method was invented to separate neutral species, it can also be applied to charged molecules such as small peptides.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The development and use of techniques and equipment to study or perform chemical reactions, with small quantities of materials, frequently less than a milligram or a milliliter.
A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Compounds in which a methyl group is attached to the cyano moiety.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
High-molecular-weight insoluble polymers that contain functional cationic groups capable of undergoing exchange reactions with anions.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
An extraction method that separates analytes using a solid phase and a liquid phase. It is used for preparative sample cleanup before analysis by CHROMATOGRAPHY and other analytical methods.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Medicated dosage forms for topical application in the vagina. A cream is a semisolid emulsion containing suspended or dissolved medication; a foam is a dispersion of a gas in a medicated liquid resulting in a light, frothy mass; a jelly is a colloidal semisolid mass of a water soluble medicated material, usually translucent.
Pyrolysis of organic compounds at the temperature of a hydrogen-air flame to produce ionic intermediates which can be collected and the resulting ion current measured by gas chromatography.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
The separation of particles from a suspension by passage through a filter with very fine pores. In ultrafiltration the separation is accomplished by convective transport; in DIALYSIS separation relies instead upon differential diffusion. Ultrafiltration occurs naturally and is a laboratory procedure. Artificial ultrafiltration of the blood is referred to as HEMOFILTRATION or HEMODIAFILTRATION (if combined with HEMODIALYSIS).
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A CHROMATOGRAPHY method using supercritical fluid, usually carbon dioxide under very high pressure (around 73 atmospheres or 1070 psi at room temperature) as the mobile phase. Other solvents are sometimes added as modifiers. This is used both for analytical (SFC) and extraction (SFE) purposes.
Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
Electrophoresis in which a starch gel (a mixture of amylose and amylopectin) is used as the diffusion medium.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Streptomyces griseus.
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Electrophoresis in which discontinuities in both the voltage and pH gradients are introduced by using buffers of different composition and pH in the different parts of the gel column. The term 'disc' was originally used as an abbreviation for 'discontinuous' referring to the buffers employed, and does not have anything to do with the shape of the separated zones.
... can be purified from the venom of the coastal taipan by gel filtration chromatography. In addition to taipoxin, the ... The whole complex is slightly acidic with a pH(I) of 5, but under a lower pH and/or high ionic strength the subunits dissociate ... The β complex is neutral and can be separated into two isoforms. β1 and β2 are interchangeable but differ slightly in amino ... The γ complex contains 135 amino acid residues which are cross linked by 8 disulfide bridges. It is very acidic due to 4 sialic ...
... acterization Polyolefin Gel permeation chromatography / Size Exclusion Chromatography Polymer science Polymer ... CCD is often the most discriminating feature of a complex polyolefin. Some instruments in Polymer Char's range are available ... Molar mass distribution GPC-IR: high temperature gel permeation chromatography (GPC) for polyolefin molar mass distribution. It ... Data Unit 200: signals device for gel permeation chromatography instruments. GPC-QC: simplified and fully automated GPC ...
Success of CTP is often evaluated using gel permeation chromatography, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization, nuclear ... The complex formed after reductive elimination is referred to as a π-complex because the catalyst bound to the π system of the ... If the π-complex is too weakly bound, termination of polymer chains can occur before a quenching agent is added, causing lower ... The catalyst can isomerize to other π-complexes via a process known as "ring-walking" to the π-bond adjacent to a C-X bond at ...
This mode of action makes them useful for affinity chromatography to separate thiol-containing compounds from complex mixtures ... For example, organomercurial agarose gel or gel beads are used to isolate thiolated compounds (such as thiouridine) in a ... Thiolates (R-S−) and thioketones (R2C=S), being soft nucleophiles, form strong coordination complexes with mercury(II), a soft ... "Separation of Newly-Synthesized RNA by Organomercurial Agarose Affinity Chromatography". J. Biochem. 81 (5): 1247-1252. PMID ...
... as chromatography or gel electrophoresis, and the complex blotting procedures for the gel are not required. However, it offers ...
Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry is also limited in its lack of a reference map from which to work with. Complex ... These include liquid chromatography mass spectrometry along with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, or ... Neuroproteomics is a complex field that has a long way to go in terms of profiling the entire neuronal proteome. It is a ... Neuroproteomics is the study of the protein complexes and species that make up the nervous system. These proteins interact to ...
Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analysis allows separation of monomers from larger proanthocyanidin molecules. Monomers of ... More complex polyphenols, having the same polymeric building block, form the group of tannins. Proanthocyanidins were ... galloyl glucoses and ellagitannins fit on a single calibration curve in high performance-gel permeation chromatography". ... Journal of Chromatography A. 1218 (43): 7804-12. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2011.08.082. PMID 21930278. Engström, M. T.; Pälijärvi, M ...
... but are stained with protein stains like Coomassie Brilliant Blue in the dried gel. In contrast to SDS-gel electrophoresis, the ... Some variants of affinity immunoelectrophoresis are similar to affinity chromatography by use of immobilized ligands. The open ... immunoelectrophoresis is based on changes in the electrophoretic pattern of proteins through specific interaction or complex ... Agarose as 1% gel slabs of about 1 mm thickness buffered at high pH (around 8.6) is traditionally preferred for the ...
... and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography are widely used for separation of proteins. ... Proteins of interest are usually part of a complex mixture of multiple proteins and molecules, which co-exist in the biological ... Gel spots identified on a 2D Gel are usually attributable to one protein. If the identity of the protein is desired, usually ... The first method fractionates whole proteins via two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The first-dimension of 2D gel is ...
... active complex was isolated by ion exchange chromatography through DE-Cellulose and two steps of Cm-Cellulose chromatography at ... Sephadex G-50 gel filtration chromatography can be used, in the presence of high salt (1M NaCl) and alkaline conditions (pH = ... Through SDS-PAGE analysis, TCX (112154-17-3 ) was determined to be a complex held together by non-covalent forces of the ... It migrates in beta-alanine-acetate-urea gel electrophoresis as a single compound. The phospholipase activity can be separated ...
... agarose gel electrophoresis is used to separate protein-bound amino acid complexes from free amino acids. Using a low voltage ... Some of the methods are similar to affinity chromatography by use of immobilized ligands. Currently, there is ongoing research ... Then, the sample is transferred to a different polyacrylamide gel (the affinity-trap gel) where affinity probes are immobilized ... Other factors included in developing the technique of rapid agarose gel electrophoresis are gel thickness, and the percentage ...
Gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the protein complex, the complex formed a single band that was excised and ran on an ... It was discovered using chromatography. Unfolded labeled β-actin from bovine testes was put into solution. This solution ... After gel filtration of the actin, the actin complex, consisting of actin and its bonded proteins, began to form and the ... This complex of prefoldin and chaperonin then forms molecules of actin in the cytosol. The prefoldin acts as a transporter ...
Other separation techniques include high-performance liquid chromatography (with short columns packed with silica gel with ... Esters of fatty acids with more complex alcohols, such as sorbitol, ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, and polyethylene glycol ... which are then separated by gas chromatography. or analyzed by gas chromatography and mid-infrared spectroscopy. Separation of ... The role of silver lies in its ability to form complexes with unsaturated compounds. Fatty acids are mainly used in the ...
Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and Preparative electrophoresis. Electrophoresis History of chromatography History of ... making it possible with relatively simple technology to analyze complex protein mixtures and identify minute differences in ... Starch gel (and later polyacrylamide and other gels) enabled the efficient separation of proteins, ... which used filter paper or gels as supporting media. By the 1960s, increasingly sophisticated gel electrophoresis methods made ...
... gel electrophoresis and paper chromatography in the 1950s to explore homologous proteins. The field of molecular evolution came ... natural selection, origins of new genes, the genetic nature of complex traits, the genetic basis of speciation, evolution of ... and microreactors including line flow reactors and gel slice reactors. These studies were accompanied by theoretical ...
Chromatography, a more powerful but more complex procedure to separate compounds Extraction Multiphasic liquid Separating ... charged salts tend to remain strongly adsorbed to the silica gel or alumina ion exchange chromatography can separate acids, ... Alternatives to acid-base extraction include: filtering the mixture through a plug of silica gel or alumina - ...
Two dimensional liquid chromatography is better suited to analyzing complex mixtures samples such as urine, environmental ... Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis Vékey, Károly; Vertes, Akos; Telekes, András (2008). Medical Applications of Mass ... Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography is an analytical technique that separates and analyzes complex mixtures. It ... Two dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) combines two separate analyses of liquid chromatography into one data analysis. ...
... the technique is known as gel-filtration chromatography, versus the name gel permeation chromatography, which is used when an ... It is usually applied to large molecules or macromolecular complexes such as proteins and industrial polymers. Typically, when ... Striegel A, Yau WW, Kirkland JJ, Bly DD (2009). Modern Size-Exclusion Liquid Chromatography: Practice of Gel Permeation and Gel ... While Lathe and Ruthven used starch gels as the matrix, Jerker Porath and Per Flodin later introduced dextran gels; other gels ...
After unsuccessful experiments with complex countercurrent extraction machines and liquid-liquid chromatography methods where ... the liquids move in opposite directions, Martin hit on the idea of using silica gel in columns to hold water stationary while ... The history of chromatography spans from the mid-19th century to the 21st. Chromatography, literally "color writing", was used- ... Martin, p. 359 Martin Ettre, C. (2001). "Milestones in Chromatography: The Birth of Partition Chromatography" (PDF). LCGC. 19 ( ...
The fragments can be purified by gel filtration, ion exchange, or affinity chromatography. Fab and F(ab')2 antibody fragments ... The N-terminus of PI-3 in the PI-3:pepsin complex is positioned by hydrogen bonds which form an eight-stranded β-sheet, where ... "Crystal structure of human pepsin and its complex with pepstatin". Protein Science. 4 (5): 960-72. doi:10.1002/pro.5560040516. ...
Chromatography can be used to separate protein in solution or denaturing conditions by using porous gels. This technique is ... Protein purification is a series of processes intended to isolate one or a few proteins from a complex mixture, usually cells, ... High performance liquid chromatography or high pressure liquid chromatography is a form of chromatography applying high ... This extraction may involve excision of the gel containing a band, or eluting the band directly off the gel as it runs off the ...
... is one of the Affinity chromatography techniques used for protein purification of a complex ... The blue dye is used as a void volume (V0) marker for a gel filtration column. It has shown that the dye has a property to bind ... Like general chromatography, but using dyes to apply on a support matrix of a column as the stationary phase that will allow a ... It can carry out in a conventional way by using as a packed column, or in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) column ...
... this is done after a gel electrophoresis, transferring the molecules from the gel onto the blotting membrane, and other times ... Antibodies are then used to detect the presence of the protein-protein complex, making the Far-Western blot a specific case of ... High-performance thin-layer chromatography is first used to separate the lipids by physical and chemical characteristics, then ... A western blot is used for the detection of specific proteins in complex samples. Proteins are first separated by size using ...
The coupling of MS with LC systems is attractive because liquid chromatography can separate delicate and complex natural ... However, this high level of protein identification is possible only after separating the sample by means of SDS-PAGE gel or ... partition chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography, size-exclusion chromatography, and affinity chromatography. Among these ... Gas chromatography (GC)-MS was originally introduced in 1952, when A. T. James and A. J. P. Martin were trying to develop ...
This may also be done by in-gel digestion of proteins after separation by gel electrophoresis for the identification by mass ... These venoms are, in fact, complex digestive fluids that begin their work outside of the body. Proteolytic venoms cause a wide ... Digestion of proteins in solution for proteome analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). ... The polyubiquinated protein is targeted to an ATP-dependent protease complex, the proteasome. The ubiquitin is released and ...
For example, it can be used to dissolve polymers prior to determining their molecular mass using gel permeation chromatography ... THF is a weak Lewis base that forms molecular complexes with many transition metal halides. Typical complexes are of the ... It is more basic than diethyl ether and forms stronger complexes with Li+, Mg2+, and boranes. It is a popular solvent for ... THF is used as a component in mobile phases for reversed-phase liquid chromatography. It has a greater elution strength than ...
... usually silica gel, or aluminium oxide), and the stationary phase in paper chromatography is less absorbent paper. The ... This is useful for separating complex mixtures of compounds having similar polarity, for example, amino acids. The setup has ... Paper chromatography is one method for testing the purity of compounds and identifying substances. Paper chromatography is a ... Separations in paper chromatography involve the principle of partition. In paper chromatography, substances are distributed ...
The purity of test samples have been obtained through chromatography (affinity chromatography etc.) and analytical ... spectroscopy for complete structural analysis of complex glycans is a difficult and complex field. However, the structure of ... "Small-scale analysis of O-linked oligosaccharides from glycoproteins and mucins separated by gel electrophoresis". Anal. Chem. ... The glycome may in fact be one of the most complex entities in nature. "Glycomics, analogous to genomics and proteomics, is the ...
Gel electrophoresis of the fractions was carried out on a polyacrylamide gel. Samples were made containing sodium dodecyl ... Without the Golgi complex, the B-chain cannot enter the cytosol and therefore loses its toxicity. It only enters the cytosol ... Further purification using affinity chromatography with immobilised glycoproteins. Affinity was increased by glycoprotein- ... Again, the fractions were assayed for toxicity to mice, to which the most toxic fraction was pooled and analysed by Gel ...
... as with affinity chromatography). For easy use, a wide range of pre-packed columns for techniques such as ion exchange, gel ... "Isolation and quantitation of adiponectin higher order complexes". Methods in Enzymology. Methods of Adipose Tissue Biology, ... Fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC), is a form of liquid chromatography that is often used to analyze or purify mixtures ... "CHROMATOGRAPHY , High-performance Liquid Chromatography", in Caballero B, Polo MC (eds.), Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and ...
More complex serological techniques are known as immunoassays. Using a similar basis as described above, immunoassays can ... For instance, traditional PCR techniques require the use of gel electrophoresis to visualize amplified DNA molecules after the ...
Hey J, Posch A, Cohen A, Liu N, Harbers A (2008). Fractionation of complex protein mixtures by liquid-phase isoelectric ... Various types of chromatography are then used to isolate the protein or proteins of interest based on properties such as ... most often after in-gel digestion), protein microarrays, which allow the detection of the relative levels of a large number of ... As a result, when the lysate is passed over a chromatography column containing nickel, the histidine residues ligate the nickel ...
Pritchard JK (2001). "Are rare variants responsible for susceptibility to complex diseases?". Am J Hum Genet. 69: 124-137. doi: ... Southern blotting is an early technique basic on detection of fragments of DNA separated by size through gel electrophoresis ... Quantitative amino acid analysis is typically performed using the ninhydrin reaction, followed by liquid chromatography to ... Cardon LR, Abecasis GR (2003). "Using haplotype blocks to map human complex trait loci". Trends Genet. 19: 135-140. doi:10.1016 ...
Sol-Gel Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Coatings for Capillary Microextraction and Gas Chromatography". Anal. Chem. 79 (24): 9441-9451 ... Some complex organic germanium compounds are being investigated as possible pharmaceuticals, though none have yet proven ... Like silicon, germanium naturally reacts and forms complexes with oxygen in nature. ... the silica stationary phase in some gas chromatography columns can be replaced by GeO2.[73] ...
In these studies, automated sizing has proven to be more reproducible and precise than manual gel sizing.[43][44][45] ... Protein nanopore sequencing utilizes membrane protein complexes such as α-hemolysin, MspA (Mycobacterium smegmatis Porin A) or ... were obtained in the early 1970s by academic researchers using laborious methods based on two-dimensional chromatography. ... To visualize the fragments, the gel is exposed to X-ray film for autoradiography, yielding a series of dark bands each ...
By using these techniques it has been possible to study proteins in complex with the 900 kDa chaperone GroES-GroEL.[26] ... or preparation of the sample in a stretched polyacrylamide gel. This creates a local environment that favours certain ... Fiaux J; Bertelsen EB; Horwich AL; Wüthrich K (July 2002). "NMR analysis of a 900K GroEL GroES complex". Nature. 418 (6894): ... A common application is to compare the exchange of a free form versus a complex. The amides that become protected in the ...
A common set-up for this is a biotin tag with a streptavidin affinity column.[21][22] Gel electrophoresis based separation can ... As an example, the separation step for ribonucleotide cleavage often utilizes affinity chromatography, in which a biological ... DNA complex catalysed a Diels-Alder reaction in water between cyclopentadiene and an aza chalcone. The reaction products (endo ... weight of strands upon the cleavage reaction is enough to cause a shift in the location of the reactive strands on the gel.[22] ...
and complex permittivity ε. p. ∗. {\displaystyle \varepsilon _{p}^{*}}. in a medium with complex permittivity ε. m. ∗. {\ ... Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies. 20 (16-17): 2857-2872. doi:10.1080/10826079708005597.. ... Gel electrophoresis of nucleic acids. *Gel electrophoresis of proteins. *Serum protein electrophoresis ... with complex dielectric constant ε. p. ∗. {\displaystyle \varepsilon _{p}^{*}}. in a medium with complex dielectric constant ε ...
... are the reasons that ion exchange chromatography is an excellent candidate for initial chromatography steps in a complex ... Agarose gel based medium contain large pores as well but their substitution ability is lower in comparison to dextrans. The ... Size exclusion chromatography. Micellar liquid chromatography. Ion chromatography (or ion-exchange chromatography) separates ... Anion exchange chromatography retains anions using positively charged functional group: R-X. +. A. −. +. M. +. B. −. ⇄. R-X. + ...
These qualities make click reactions particularly suitable to the problem of isolating and targeting molecules in complex ... Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis separation[48]. *preparative organic synthesis of 1,4-substituted triazoles ... scientists have opened up the possibility of hitting particular targets in complex cell lysates. Recently, scientists have ... "Dicopper Cu(I)Cu(I) and Cu(I)Cu(II) Complexes in Copper-Catalyzed Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition" (PDF). Journal of the American ...
To ensure that f(r) is real, the Fourier transform F(q) must be such that the Friedel mates F(−q) and F(q) are complex ... forming a useless dust or amorphous gel on the bottom of the container. Crystal growth in solution is characterized by two ... The Fourier transform F(q) is generally a complex number, and therefore has a magnitude ,F(q), and a phase φ(q) related by the ... As noted above, f(r) is the inverse transform of its Fourier transform F(q); however, such an inverse transform is a complex ...
Similar to gas chromatography MS (GC-MS), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS or LC-MS) separates compounds ... Found mostly in the operating room, they were a part of a complex system, in which respired gas samples from patients ... either in solution or in gel after electrophoretic separation. Other proteolytic agents are also used. The collection of ... The duty cycle of IMS is short relative to liquid chromatography or gas chromatography separations and can thus be coupled to ...
Such modifications are often guided by protein X-ray crystallography of the protein-fragment complex.[41][42][43] The ... Chemical compounds exist in nature as mixtures, so the combination of liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is ... "New scale-down methodology from commercial to lab scale to optimize plant-derived soft gel capsule formulations on a commercial ... Discovering drugs that may be a commercial success, or a public health success, involves a complex interaction between ...
It can be whipped like egg whites, liquefied or gelled and can take on the flavour and texture of a variety of foods. It is ... A protein of the White-Brown complex subfamily[10] can be extracted from the leaves. It is an odourless, tasteless white powder ... nitrosamines in mainstream smoke by dispersive solid-phase extraction coupled with ultra-performance liquid chromatography/ ...
Similar to gas chromatography MS (GC-MS), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS or LC-MS) separates compounds ... Found mostly in the operating room, they were a part of a complex system, in which respired gas samples from patients ... either in solution or in gel after electrophoretic separation. Other proteolytic agents are also used. The collection of ... Main article: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A common combination is gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS or GC- ...
The most common stationary phase for column chromatography is silica gel, followed by alumina. Cellulose powder has been used ... two-dimensional chromatography', uses two solvents and rotates the paper 90° in between. It is useful for separating complex ... Thin layer chromatography[change , change source]. Main article: Thin layer chromatography. Thin layer chromatography (TLCC) is ... Column chromatography[change , change source]. Column chromatography separates compounds using many chemical actions between ...
... followed by silica-gel chromatography purification.[185] Tracking and dosing the extracted solenopsin ant alkaloids has been ... Complex esters of monocarboxylic acids Indicine, lindelophin, sarracine [59] Macrocyclic diesters Platyphylline, trichodesmine[ ... or solvent extractions followed by silica-gel column chromatography.[7] Alkaloids have a wide range of pharmacological ... "Gas-chromatography and UV-spectroscopy of Hymenoptera venoms obtained by trivial centrifugation". Data in Brief. 18: 992-998. ...
Semiconductors, metals, and ceramics are used today to form highly complex systems, such as integrated electronic circuits, ... chromatography, thermal analysis, electron microscope analysis, etc. Structure is studied at various levels, as detailed below ...
... are the reasons that ion exchange chromatography is an excellent candidate for initial chromatography steps in a complex ... Agarose gel based medium contain large pores as well but their substitution ability is lower in comparison to dextrans. The ... Micellar liquid chromatography. Ion chromatography (or ion-exchange chromatography) is a chromatography process that separates ... High performance liquid chromatography. Aqueous Normal Phase Chromatography. Size exclusion chromatography. ...
Size-exclusion chromatography (also called gel permeation chromatography), sometimes coupled with static light scattering, can ... Dynamic mechanical analysis or DMA measures this complex modulus by oscillating the load and measuring the resulting strain as ... Viscoelasticity describes a complex time-dependent elastic response, which will exhibit hysteresis in the stress-strain curve ... Furthermore, the phase behavior of polymer solutions and mixtures is more complex than that of small molecule mixtures. Whereas ...
Various types of chromatography are then used to isolate the protein or proteins of interest based on properties such as ... Samarin S, Nusrat A (2009). "Regulation of epithelial apical junctional complex by Rho family GTPases". Frontiers in Bioscience ... most often after in-gel digestion), protein microarrays,[51] which allow the detection of the relative levels of a large number ... As a result, when the lysate is passed over a chromatography column containing nickel, the histidine residues ligate the nickel ...
Some is processed into HFCS 90 by liquid chromatography, then mixed with HFCS 42 to form HFCS 55. The enzymes used in the ... One consumer concern about HFCS is that processing of corn is more complex than used for "simpler" or "more natural" sugars, ...
"Engineering algae to make complex anti-cancer 'designer' drug". PhysOrg. 10 December 2012. Retrieved 15 April 2013.. ... These segments can then be extracted through gel electrophoresis. If the chosen gene or the donor organism's genome has been ...
In more complex spectra with multiple peaks at similar chemical shifts or in spectra of nuclei other than hydrogen, coupling is ... NMR has largely replaced traditional wet chemistry tests such as color reagents or typical chromatography for identification. A ... In solid-phase media, such as crystals, microcrystalline powders, gels, anisotropic solutions, etc., it is in particular the ... Long-range couplings over more than three bonds can often be observed in cyclic and aromatic compounds, leading to more complex ...
Paper chromatography of some spinach leaf extract shows the various pigments present in their chloroplasts. ... It is found in many consumer products including beverages, skin lotion, cosmetics, ointments or in the form of gel for minor ...
... exhibits complex-type N-linked oligosaccharide chains at two residues.[1] Chains are between 5-13 glycosyl units long ... For over the past 100 years, ginger protease has traditionally been used to curdle milk to create ginger milk curd, a gel-like ... which were isolated by chromatography, with molecular weights of approximately 22,500 Da.[5] ...
Elucidating complex signaling pathway phosphorylation events can be difficult. In cellular signaling pathways, protein A ... The relative amount of each isoform can also easily and rapidly be determined from staining intensity on 2D gels. ... "Proteome analysis of low-abundance proteins using multidimensional chromatography and isotope-coded affinity tags". J. Proteome ... These techniques are becoming increasingly important for the systematic analysis of complex phosphorylation networks.[30] They ...
... complexes were the first examples of complexes where carboranyl ligands were bound to a d0-metal center through a η7- ... nanocrystalline powders by auto-combustion of nitrate-citrate gel". Journal of Alloys and Compounds. 430 (1-2): 339-343. doi: ... yttrium from the mixed oxide ores is to dissolve the oxide in sulfuric acid and fractionate it by ion exchange chromatography. ...
Lucey JA (2002). "Formation and Physical Properties of Milk Protein Gels". J. Dairy Sci. 85 (2): 281-94. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022- ... Kunz, C; Lönnerdal, B (1990). "Human-milk proteins: analysis of casein and casein subunits by anion-exchange chromatography, ... "Enhanced Remineralisation of Tooth Enamel Using Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Complex: A Review". ... An attractive property of the casein molecule is its ability to form a gel or clot in the stomach, which makes it very ...
Combining liquid chromatography with multiplexed capillary gel electrophoresis for offline comprehensive analysis of complex ... "Combining Liquid Chromatography with Multiplexed Capillary Gel Electrophoresis for Offline Comprehensive Analysis of Complex ... "Combining Liquid Chromatography with Multiplexed Capillary Gel Electrophoresis for Offline Comprehensive Analysis of Complex ... Combining liquid chromatography with multiplexed capillary gel electrophoresis for offline comprehensive analysis of complex ...
Connors, W. J., Sarkanen, S., & McCarthy, J. L. (1980). Gel Chromatography and Association Complexes of Lignin. Holzforschung, ... Gel Chromatography and Association Complexes of Lignin. / Connors, William J.; Sarkanen, Simo; McCarthy, Joseph L. ... Connors, WJ, Sarkanen, S & McCarthy, JL 1980, Gel Chromatography and Association Complexes of Lignin, Holzforschung, vol. 34 ... Connors, William J. ; Sarkanen, Simo ; McCarthy, Joseph L. / Gel Chromatography and Association Complexes of Lignin. In: ...
"Characterization and Purification of Supramolecular Metal Complexes Using Gel-Permeation Chromatography",. abstract = "Gel- ... Characterization and Purification of Supramolecular Metal Complexes Using Gel-Permeation Chromatography. Inorganic Chemistry. ... Characterization and Purification of Supramolecular Metal Complexes Using Gel-Permeation Chromatography. Christopher R. Graves ... Characterization and Purification of Supramolecular Metal Complexes Using Gel-Permeation Chromatography. / Graves, Christopher ...
Drosophila embryo extracts contain two γ-tubulin-containing complexes that can be separated by gel filtration chromatography or ... and the small complex the γTuSC. To obtain size estimates for each complex, we performed gel filtration and sucrose gradient ... γ-tubulin ring complex. γTuSC. γ-tubulin small complex. MT. microtubule. PCM. pericentriolar material. PEG. polyethylene glycol ... We purify both complexes and show that the large Drosophila complex nucleates MTs much more potently than the small complex. We ...
Using the ligand, DMEGpy, three new copper guanidine-pyridine complexes could be synthesized and structurally characterized. ... were proven to be able to stabilize copper complexes active in the solvent-free polymerization of styrene at 110 °C using 1- ... Gel Permeation Chromatography: The average molecular weights and the weight distributions of the obtained polystyrene samples ... Complex Synthesis. 3.1.1. Bis(chelate) Complexes 1 and 2. The reaction of two equivalents of DMEGpy with CuCl2 or CuBr2 yields ...
... led to a third more protein/peptide identifications Comparing off-gel separation to reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC ... Off-Gel and Gel-Free Separation. Because of the limitations associated with gel-based techniques, recently with respect to ... In general, off-gel separation has clear advantages over a gel-based approach with respect to focusing and concentrating ... Liquid Chromatography. 3.3.1. Size Exclusion Chromatography. Another analytical tool to separate LMW compounds from HMW ...
... are required for chromophore synthesis in photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes, photoreceptors, and circadian clocks. In ... Chromatography, Gel * Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay * Ferredoxins / metabolism* * Genes, Bacterial * Heme Oxygenase ( ... I confirmed that Fd1 induced the formation of a stable and functional HO1 complex by the gel mobility shift assay. Furthermore ... HO1 and PcyA proteins involved in phycobilin biosynthesis form a 1:2 complex with ferredoxin-1 required for photosynthesis FEBS ...
Chromatography, Gel * Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / chemistry* * Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / metabolism ... Crystal structure of the HP1-EMSY complex reveals an unusual mode of HP1 binding Structure. 2006 Apr;14(4):703-12. doi: 10.1016 ... We have determined the crystal structure of the HP1beta CSD in complex with the N-terminal domain of EMSY at 1.8 A resolution. ...
Gel Filtration Chromatography Analysis. For gel filtration experiment using purified His-BRAF and His-FZR1, recombinant His- ... In addition, utilizing gel filtration chromatography, single-molecule kinetic analysis (47, 48), and chemical crosslinking, we ... The APC/C E3 Ligase Complex Activator FZR1 Restricts BRAF Oncogenic Function. Lixin Wan, Ming Chen, Juxiang Cao, Xiangpeng Dai ... The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome: a machine designed to destroy. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2006;7:644-56. ...
Flash column chromatography was performed by using silica gel.. General procedure for synthesis of racemic nitronitriles 6 a-f ... Lin Sun, Qi-Peng Guo, Xiao Li, Lei Zhang, Yu-Yan Li, Chao-Shan Da, C2-Symmetric Homobimetallic Zinc Complexes as Chiral ... Salen ligands and complexes.. We have previously reported that the same combination of 1 and titanium tetraisopropoxide ... The best results were obtained by using complexes with a nucleophilic counter-ion that was capable of acting as a Lewis base to ...
... properties on the complex. Preferred are mono-cationic complexes, particularly having the formulawhere X is halide or ... The complexes may be made by reacting generator eluate pertechnetate with a hydroxylamine salt and with the ligands, preferably ... Complexes useful as radiopharmaceuticals contain the .sup.99m Tc-NO moiety and up to four organic ligands which confer ... Chromatography Saline rf = 0.0 rf = 0.0 MEK rf = 0.0 rf = 0.0 ACN/W50:50 rf = +0.99 rf = 0.75 (broad to 0.99 Gel ...
The cryo-electron microscopy structure of human TBK1 in complex with cyclic GMP-AMP-bound chicken STING reveals a binding mode ... Here we present the cryo-electron microscopy structure of human TBK1 in complex with cGAMP-bound, full-length chicken STING. ... c, Gel filtration chromatography of the hybrid complex between chicken STING and human TBK1. Data are representative of two ... n , 3. d, f, Final reconstructions of the intact STING-TBK1 complex (d) and from the TBK1-focused refinement (f), with colours ...
Complex was eluted with WASH-VCA and further purified by gel filtration chromatography. ... Recombinant WASH complex is inhibited. (A) Silver stained 4-20% SDS-PAGE gel of the purified recombinant human WASH complex. ... A) Silver stained 10% SDS-PAGE of the bovine WASH complex eluting from the final gel filtration column during its purification ... WASH Exists in a Large Macromolecular Complex.. We used both conventional- and antibody-affinity chromatography to purify the ...
Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). Inorganic analysis. Quantification of elements to trace levels ... High resolution separations of complex matrices. *2D GC Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry ... High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) coupled to UV, light scattering;. *Gas chromatography (GC) with either Flame ...
... gradient gel for both in-gel fluorescence analysis (left, Fluo) and subsequent Coomassie Blue staining of the same gel (right, ... Size-exclusion chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis of the purified Drs2p-Cdc50p complex. ... A) Top: calibration of the TSK-3000SW silica gel column with gel filtration standards. The elution volume of Thyroglobulin ... size-exclusion chromatography profile of the streptavidin-purified Drs2p-Cdc50p complex (continuous line). The streptavidin- ...
Gel filtration chromatography separates virulence protein complexes of different molecular masses. Membranes from virulence ... Separation of DDM-Soluble Proteins by Gel Filtration Chromatography.. Gel filtration chromatography was chosen as an ... Analysis by blue native electrophoresis as well as by gel filtration chromatography showed that VirB7 is present in complexes ... Gel Filtration Chromatography.. Proteins (500 μl) solubilized by 2% DDM were applied to a Superdex 200 column (XK 16/70, ...
When complexed with "lipofectin", the DNA would not enter the gel. The same agarose gel electrophoresis procedure was employed ... Sepharose 4B Chromatography:. To assess whether transferrin was complexed with "lipofectin"-DNA complex, a transfection ... 2) DNA can form a complex with transferrin, as demonstrated by Sepharose 4B chromatography (See, FIG. 3D). Because transferrin ... 4 (complex C). When all three components are present, "lipofectin"-DNA complex will be formed prior to the formation of other ...
Column chromatography was performed using silica gel (70-230 mesh).. Synthesis and characterization of complexes 9 and 13-17‡. ... In summary, the reactivity shown by complex 1 and the cyclometalated complexes 9 and 13-15 is in accordance with the calculated ... complexes 9 and 13-15 (Scheme 5). In this regard, the sluggish formation of complexes 9 and 13-15 in the presence of norbornene ... the resulting complex, 16, is not a competent catalyst for the silylation of Phpy with Et3SiH; (iii) complex 9 only reacts with ...
How many proteins can be identified in a 2-DE gel spot within an analysis of a complex human cancer tissue proteome ... Biomedical Chromatography (135). *Genomatix wins biotech award (117). *Chromedia Chromatogram Generator Tool (111) ... Journal Highlight: How many proteins can be identified in a 2-DE gel spot within an analysis of a complex human cancer tissue ... How many proteins can be identified in a 2-DE gel spot within an analysis of a complex human cancer tissue proteome? ...
... to methods for selectively detecting a prokaryotic microorganism and a eukaryotic microorganism in a single complex biological ... When detritylation is performed, the oligonucleotides are further purified by gel exclusion chromatography. Analytical checks ... A more complex comparison can be made, but a more complex computer (e.g., a Cray computer) is required. See, e.g., Waterman, " ... Methods for selectively detecting microorganisms associated with vaginal infections in complex biological samples ...
Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary Chromatography. Inclusion Pseudophases. Metal-complexing Pseudophases. Other Types of ... Gel-filled Columns. Packed Columns. Combining Packed and Open-Tubular Column. 5. Electrophoretic Media. Electrophoretic Buffer ...
... gel-filtration chromatography; ITC, isothermal titration calorimetry; LD, lipoyl domain; PDC, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex; ... Variation in the organization and subunit composition of the mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex E2/E3BP core assembly. ... Variation in the organization and subunit composition of the mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex E2/E3BP core assembly ... Crucial to glucose homoeostasis in humans, the hPDC (human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex) is a massive molecular machine ...
The key component is the complexing agent, which comprises a C3 -C5 aliphatic alcohol a cyclic, bidentate compound selected ... The catalysts comprise a DMC compound, an organic complexing agent, and optionally, a functionalized polymer. ... Measurement of High Molecular Weight Polyol Component by Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). The molecular weight of the high ... A particularly convenient way to measure this component is by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). A suitable technique is ...
Un-complexed proCPU and Fab were separated from the proCPU-Fab complex by gel-filtration chromatography. Briefly, a superdex™ ... complexing it with Fab fragment and subsequently purifying the complex.. *activating the pro-form alone or in complex with a ... so as to allow complex formation, purifying the complex and treating the purified complex under conditions suitable to allow ... CPU is separated from un-activated proCPU and the pro-peptide by gel-filtration chromatography. Briefly, a superdex™ 75 16/60 ...
Gels were stained with Coomassie blue. Molecular mass markers are in kilodaltons. (C) Gel permeation chromatography of purified ... Two Adjacent Trimeric Fas Ligands Are Required for Fas Signaling and Formation of a Death-Inducing Signaling Complex. Nils ...
The protein was then purified by Ni-affinity chromatography and gel-filtration chromatography. ... The structure of the SoIPMDH-IPM complex was then refined with the program REFMAC5 (Murshudov et al., 2011. ) and manually ... Large crystals of the SoIPMDH-IPM complex were grown by the microseeding method. Seed crystals were obtained via the hanging- ... The initial crystal structure of the SoIPMDH-IPM complex at atmospheric pressure was solved with the program MOLREP (Vagin & ...
Trusted information for laboratory scientists about Gel Doc / Image Analysis lab products and techniques on SelectScience, ... Webinar Highlights: Obtaining Clear LC-MS Data for Complex Proteins - Your Questions Answered. 12 Feb 2018. ... µPAC™ Micro-Chip Chromatography - Better by Design. 16 Feb 2018. 8 Exclusive Clinical Mass Spectrometry Interviews. 09 Feb 2018 ... Gel Doc / Image Analysis. Gel documentation (gel doc) and image analysis of fluorescent proteins, DNA, gels, western blots, ...
The present invention discloses crystal structure of Staphylococcus aureus Clumping factor A (ClfA) in complex with fibrinogen ... This recombinant His-tag fusion protein was purified by Ni.sup.+ chelating chromatography; ion-exchange and gel permeation ... fibrinogen complex with the stability of a mutated MSCRAMM:fibrinogen complex, where said fibrinogen in the complex comprises ... The crystals of the ClfA-peptide complex diffracted to a 1.95 .ANG. resolution. Two copies of ClfA-peptide complex were found ...
3. Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) Analyses. In a typical analysis, polymer samples were dissolved in 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4- ... The monomeric complex 1 was thus the most active while the dinuclear complex 4 was the least active. This trend contrasts our ... Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analyses of the polymers were performed on a Waters 600E instrument. ... Generally, zinc(II) complexes gave higher molecular weight PLAs than the analogous copper(II) complexes. For instance, poly(L- ...
  • Preliminary biochemical analyses showed that endogenous cytoplasmic WASH runs on a size exclusion chromatography column at an estimated mass of approximately 700 kDa (versus its actual mass, 55 kDa), suggesting that WASH exists in a macromolecular complex ( 8 ). (
  • Importantly, the procedure enabled us to recover a fraction that mainly contained a 1:1 complex, which was assessed by size-exclusion chromatography and mass spectrometry. (
  • Gel permeation chromatography (GPC), also known as size exclusion chromatography, is an analytical technique that determines the molecular weight distribution (MWD) of a polymer by virtue of its hydrodynamic volume. (
  • Oligomeric states of proteins determined by size‐exclusion chromatography coupled with light scattering, absorbance, and refractive index detectors. (
  • Determination of molecular masses of proteins in solution: Implementation of an HPLC size exclusion chromatography and laser light scattering service in a core laboratory. (
  • Determination of the molecular mass and dimensions of membrane proteins by size exclusion chromatography. (
  • Size‐exclusion chromatography with on‐line light‐scattering, absorbance, and refractive index detectors for studying proteins and their interactions. (
  • Specific objectives of the report include developing an understanding of the current market scenario for both gel electrophoresis (GE) and capillary electrophoresis (CE) technologies. (
  • This report also assesses the growth and market potential for agarose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis techniques. (
  • Separation of the solubilized proteins by blue native electrophoresis revealed cofractionation between two classes of protein complexes containing VirB7. (
  • Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) in proteomics is traditionally assumed to contain only one or two proteins in each 2-DE spot. (
  • This strategy is based on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis separation of protein isoforms, mass spectrometry (MS) and MS n analyses of intact proteins, and tandem MS analyses of proteolytic peptides. (
  • We believe that this strategy, which combines two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometric analyses of gel-eluted intact proteins using a benchtop ion trap mass spectrometer, represents a promising approach in proteomics. (
  • In this approach, protein identification is achieved after protein separation by one- or two-dimensional (1D or 2D) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by protein digestion usually with trypsin, analyses of the resulting peptide mixture using various MS approaches, and data base search. (
  • To overcome limitations of 2D gel electrophoresis, alternative techniques based on multidimensional liquid chromatography have been recently developed ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • The most efficient technique to separate protein isoforms thus remains 2D gel electrophoresis. (
  • Using blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) we show that Bax forms a 200 kDa complex before caspase activation. (
  • Gygi SP, Corthals GL, Zhang Y, Rochon Y and Aebersold R (2000) Evaluation of two‐dimensional gel electrophoresis‐based proteome analysis technology. (
  • The components were detected by silver stained sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gels and identified by the Western blot. (
  • The core technologies we use for these approaches are liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, and capillary (gel) electrophoresis. (
  • Solubilized proteins were characterized further by gel filtration chromatography. (
  • Gel filtration chromatography and electron microscopy studies indicated that human Pex5p (HsPex5p) is a homotetramer [4]. (
  • Using affinity purification, we demonstrate that this PSII fraction consists of PSII-LHCII mega- and supercomplexes, PSII dimers, and PSII monomers, which were separated by gel filtration and functionally characterized. (
  • The final purification step by gel filtration chromatography shows that these proteins form a tight 1:1 heterodimeric complex. (
  • Gel-filtration column chromatography showed that, like the wild-type GC-c, the mutated protein also formed a high-molecular-weight complex. (
  • Interestingly, EseC, EseE, and EscA were able to form a ternary complex, as revealed by pulldown and gel filtration assays. (
  • However, both structures adopted a hexamer composed of three dimers in the asymmetric unit, and this oligomerization was additionally confirmed by gel-filtration column chromatography. (
  • Fractionation of vanadium complexes in serum, packed cells and tissues of Wistar rats by means of gel filtration and anion-exchange chromatography. (
  • Taipoxin can be purified from the venom of the coastal taipan by gel filtration chromatography. (
  • High molecular weight mucilage was separated by high-pressure liquid chromatography gel filtration from low molecular weight components of pea root exudate. (
  • Gel-permeation chromatography (GPC) has been used to analyze transition-metal-based squares, triangles, and related supramolecular complexes. (
  • C) Gel permeation chromatography of purified recombinant FasL. (
  • In addition, SSIIa, SSIII, BEIIa, and BEIIb all comigrated in gel permeation chromatography in a high molecular mass form of approximately 600 kD, and SSIIa, BEIIa, and BEIIb also migrated in a second high molecular form, lacking SSIII, of approximately 300 kD. (
  • Monomer forms of all four proteins were also detected by gel permeation chromatography. (
  • The solid has also been investigated by gel-permeation chromatography and catalytic dehydrogenation. (
  • Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) plays an essential role in determination of dispersity and molecular weight of polymers and complex molecules. (
  • Humates form complexes with silver chloride, silver sulphide and the silver cation, which can be separated from smaller species by gel permeation chromatography. (
  • Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) is one of the most powerful and versatile analytical techniques available for understanding and predicting polymer performance. (
  • Inside the gel permeation chromatograph, the dissolved resin is injected into a continually flowing stream of solvent (mobile phase). (
  • Solute selectivity of the sol-gel derived stationary phase was found to be similar to the selectivity of HPLC monomeric-type phases. (
  • High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as with GC, is a universal separation technique applicable to complex mixtures. (
  • High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods are used for separating and purifying peptides or proteins on the basis of charge, size, or on the whole hydrophobicity. (
  • In literature, often pragmatic definitions are used, such as "the small proteins typically running off a typical 2D polyacrylamide gel" or "the small proteins with zero or maximally one tryptic cleavage site", and, therefore, different upper molecular weight limits for peptides can be found from 10 kDa and even beyond [ 1 - 6 ]. (
  • It circulates at extraordinarily high concentrations primarily in three forms: trimer, hexamer, and a high-molecular-weight (HMW) complex ( 15 - 17 ). (
  • The presence of Ig and/or the subsequent increase in molecular weight of the complex prolongs the overall half-life of the molecule by impairing its ability to be cleared from circulation or inactivated. (
  • Edman degradation, in combination with protein sequencing of the SH high-molecular-weight complex, established a subunit stoichiometry of HoxFUYHI 2 . (
  • Factors other than the molecular weight, however, may also affect the movement of proteins on SDS gel, which was analyzed in a course group. (
  • Numerous apoptotic stimuli, including growth factor withdrawal, anoikis, and DNA damage, as well as cytotoxic compounds like staurosporine, result in Bax translocating to the OMM, where it assembles into high molecular weight complexes [ 8 - 10 ]. (
  • In addition to providing the molecular weight distribution, GPC also separates a complex polymeric compound into its component parts - polymer, oligomer, monomer, and additives. (
  • Membrane protein molecular weight determined by low‐angle laser light‐scattering photometry coupled with high‐performance gel chromatography. (
  • AtZDP was found in a 600,000 molecular-weight protein complex by gel chromatography and glycerol gradient sedimentation centrifugation. (
  • Also fractions of the gel chromatography corresponding to lower molecular weight showed 3'-DNA phosphatase activity, but antibodies against AtZDP did not recognize this fraction inferring that in plants, at least another protein with similar activity exists. (
  • After recovery of yeast membranes expressing both proteins, efficient purification was achieved in a single step by affinity chromatography on streptavidin beads, yielding ∼ 1-2 mg purified Drs2p-Cdc50p complex per liter of culture. (
  • These results indicate that the Drs2p-Cdc50p complex remains functional after affinity purification and that PI4P as a cofactor tightly controls its stability and catalytic activity. (
  • The complex was purified by two different methods: conventional chromatography and affinity chromatography using antibodies directed against CDK8, the human homolog of the yeast Srb10 protein. (
  • 1999) Quantitative analysis of complex protein mixtures using isotope‐coded affinity tags. (
  • Gygi SP, Rist B, Griffin TJ, Eng J and Aebersold R (2002) Proteome analysis of low abundance proteins using multidimensional chromatography and isotope coded affinity tags. (
  • Circulating immune complexes (CIC) were isolated from 25 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by anti-C1q affinity chromatography. (
  • Using the principles of immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC), the his-tagged fusion protein binds to a metal chelate-coated substrate and can be eluted with imidazole. (
  • HIS-select nickel affinity gel can bind about 15 mg protein/ml. (
  • The guanidine hybrid ligands, (tetramethylguanidine)methylenepyridine (TMGpy) and (dimethylethyleneguanidine)methylenepyridine (DMEGpy), were proven to be able to stabilize copper complexes active in the solvent-free polymerization of styrene at 110 °C using 1-phenylethylbromide as the initiator. (
  • Mostly, polyfunctionalized N donor ligands are used for the stabilization of suited activator complexes [ 4 ]. (
  • Complexes useful as radiopharmaceuticals contain the .sup.99m Tc-NO moiety and up to four organic ligands which confer biological target-seeking properties on the complex. (
  • The complexes may be made by reacting generator eluate pertechnetate with a hydroxylamine salt and with the ligands, preferably in a single step by providing a reaction mixture containing the three reagents optionally in the presence of a reducing agent. (
  • 1. A complex, useful as a diagnostic radiopharmaceutical, comprising the .sup.99m Tc-NO nitrosyl moiety and up to four organic ligands which confer biological target-seeking propertieson the complex. (
  • The kinetics, mechanism and polymer microstructure studies of ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of lactides (LA) by Zn(II) and Cu(II) complexes of (pyrazolylmethyl)pyridine ligands, 2-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-ylmethyl)pyridine (L1) and 2-(3,5-diphenylpyrazol-1-ylmethyl)pyridine (L2) is described. (
  • One signal is delivered through the TCR by engagement with peptide/MHC complexes, and the second is delivered by interaction between costimulatory molecules such as CD28 and its ligands CD80 and CD86. (
  • A new ligands that include a benzene ring in the backbone can be combined with a metal or metal precursor compound or formed into a metal-ligand complex catalyze a number of different chemical transformations, including olefin polymerization reactions. (
  • The ligands, complexes formed with the ligands and. (
  • The ligands, complexes formed with the ligands and compositions including the ligands are useful catalysts, depending on the reaction. (
  • Among the major GE techniques, 2D polyacrylamide gel (2D PAGE) technique has received immense attention, fuelled by the growing field of proteomics. (
  • We extracted protein isoforms from polyacrylamide gels by passive elution using SDS, followed by nanoscale hydrophilic phase chromatography for SDS removal. (
  • We focus on techniques which can be employed prior to liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry for peptide detection and identification and indicate their advantages as well as their shortcomings when it comes to the untargeted analysis of native peptides from complex biological matrices. (
  • The present invention discloses crystal structure of Staphylococcus aureus Clumping factor A (ClfA) in complex with fibrinogen (Fg) derived peptide. (
  • 1. A crystal structure of a Staphylococcus clumping factor A protein (ClfA):fibrinogen derived peptide complex that diffracts x-rays for determining atomic coordinates of the complex with a resolution of at least about 2 angstroms. (
  • A crystal structure has been determined of a 41 kDa fragment of human Pex5p that includes six TPR motifs in complex with a small peptide containing a PTS1 sequence [1,2] or the sterol carrier protein [3]. (
  • The first signal is postulated to be elicited by the engagement of TCR by the peptide/MHC complex. (
  • This article describes a protocol for producing and purifying disulfide-stabilized transmembrane peptide complexes that are suitable for structural analysis by solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and other analytical applications. (
  • A high-yield co-expression system for the purification of an intact Drs2p-Cdc50p lipid flippase complex, critically dependent on and stabilized by phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate. (
  • Purification of reconstituted T10/β 2 m heterodimer by ion exchange chromatography. (
  • C ) Ion exchange chromatography profile from the T10/hβ 2 m heterodimer purification. (
  • Modern two-dimensional chromatographic techniques are based on the results of the early developments of Paper chromatography and Thin-layer chromatography which involved liquid mobile phases and solid stationary phases. (
  • These techniques would later generate modern Gas chromatography and Liquid chromatography analysis. (
  • Two-dimensional separations can be carried out in gas chromatography or liquid chromatography. (
  • The coating was used as the stationary phase for reversed-phase open tubular liquid chromatography (OTLC). (
  • Chiral Stationary-Phase Optimized Selectivity Liquid Chromatography: a Novel Approach for the Separation of Mixtures of Enantiomers. (
  • The use of thermoresponsive chromatography to overcome the modulation problems in comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography. (
  • Hyphenation of an Immobilized Enzyme Reactor with Liquid Chromatography for the online stability of Oligonucleotides. (
  • Plasma was obtained and analysed for silybin concentration using a validated ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy method. (
  • Online size‐exclusion high‐performance liquid chromatography light scattering and differential refractometry methods to determine degree of polymer conjugation to proteins and protein‐protein or protein‐ligand association states. (
  • Combined differential light scattering with various liquid chromatography separation techniques. (
  • Fractionation of VirB7-containing complexes (VirB7-VirB7 homodimers and VirB7-VirB9 heterodimers) suggested that they may link the T-pilus components to the core of the translocation machinery. (
  • 1999) Direct analysis of protein complexes using mass spectrometry. (
  • Synthesis and Characterization of a Reactive Binuclear Co(III) Complex. (
  • The functional properties of the purified complex were examined, including the dependence of its catalytic cycle on specific lipids. (
  • Organosilicon compounds are key building blocks in modern organic synthesis, often used as intermediates for complex molecules or monomers for silicone polymers. (
  • GC-MS is the single most important analytical tool for the analysis of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds in complex mixtures. (
  • In the presence of hex-1-en-3-ol or oct-1-en-3-ol, the β-arylated carbonyl compounds were selectively obtained. (
  • These complexes stabilize WASP proteins in cells, control their subcellular localization, and regulate the biochemical activity of the VCA. (
  • We report here that P49 and P35 use similar mechanisms for stoichiometric inhibition that require caspase cleavage of their reactive site loops (RSL) and chemical contributions of a conserved N-terminal cysteine to stabilize the resulting inhibitory complex. (
  • Further provided are methods which permit the detection of a Gram-positive bacterium with at least one other microorganism selected from the group consisting of yeast, protozoa, mycoplasma and Gram-negative bacteria in a single complex biological sample. (
  • High resolution gel doc / imaging system detection methods include CCD / digital cameras, chemiluminescence, fluorescence imaging, small animal in vivo imagers, radioisotope and phosphor imaging. (
  • The present invention relates, in general, to methods for selectively detecting a prokaryotic microorganism and a eukaryotic microorganism in a single complex biological sample wherein the cells of such microorganisms are lysed by combining the sample with a lysis solution and contacting the nucleic acid released from the microorganisms with selective nucleic acid probes through hybridization techniques. (
  • alk-1-en-3-ol INTRODUCTION The palladium-catalysed Heck vinylation reaction is one of the most powerful methods for the formation of C-C bonds.1 - 5 The efficiency of several catalysts for the reaction of aryl halides with acrylates or styrene derivatives has been studied in detail. (
  • Gels were stained with Coomassie blue. (
  • The gel was stained with Coomassie blue. (
  • Although recombinant WASH is constitutively active toward the Arp2/3 complex, the reconstituted core assembly is inhibited, suggesting that it functions in cells to regulate actin dynamics through WASH. FAM21 interacts directly with CAPZ and inhibits its actin-capping activity. (
  • Recombinant Bax activated by the BH3-only protein Bid forms a 100 kDa complex in vitro which can release mega-Dalton sized dextrans from liposomes [ 16 ]. (
  • Here, we show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Swr1, an uncharacterized member of the Swi2/Snf2 family of chromatin remodeling adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) ( 2 , 4 , 5 , 14 ), is contained in a multicomponent protein complex that catalyzes H2AZ-specific histone exchange. (
  • Drosophila Asx complexes with the histone deubiquitinase Calypso (mammalian BAP1) forms a polycomb repressive deubiquitinase (PR-DUB) complex and stimulates removal by Calypso of monoubiquitin from H2A lysine 119 for transcriptional repression 5 . (
  • We have isolated a human RNA polymerase II complex that contains chromatin structure remodeling activity and histone acetyltransferase activity. (
  • This complex contains the Srb proteins, the Swi-Snf complex, and the histone acetyltransferases CBP and PCAF in addition to RNA polymerase II. (
  • Conversely, the finding that histone deacetylases are components of a Sin3 repressor complex ( 1 , 21 , 23 , 26 , 46 , 80 ) also agrees with the observation that histone acetylation plays a key role in regulating transcription. (
  • The second class contains putative translocation complex core components VirB8, VirB9, and VirB10 in the high molecular mass portion of the gel larger than 232 kDa, as well as VirB7. (
  • Macroenzymes are serum enzymes found in a complex with high molecular mass components. (
  • Soluble complex between whey protein isolate (WPI) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) can be formed at pH above the pI of the protein. (
  • Previous research has shown that heated soluble complexes of whey protein isolate (WPI) with polysaccharides can improve both foam stability and acid-induced gel strength. (
  • Pérez-Alonso, C. 2017-11-01 00:00:00 A complex coacervate was prepared with whey protein isolate (WPI) and tamarind seed mucilage (TSM) and was compared with a commonly used whey protein isolate (WPI)-gum Arabic (GA) complex coacervate. (
  • A complex coacervate was prepared with whey protein isolate (WPI) and tamarind seed mucilage (TSM) and was compared with a commonly used whey protein isolate (WPI)-gum Arabic (GA) complex coacervate. (
  • These effects were eliminated when LiCl was added to the dimethylformamide used as a solvent for lignin chromatography on Octylsepharose CL-4B and Sephadex LH-60 gels. (
  • The earliest form of 2D-chromatography came in the form of a multi-step TLC separation in which a thin sheet of cellulose is used first with one solvent in one direction, then, after the paper has been dried, another solvent is run in a direction at right angles to the first. (
  • I confirmed that Fd1 induced the formation of a stable and functional HO1 complex by the gel mobility shift assay. (
  • The high surface area of the coating, characteristic of materials fabricated by the sol-gel process, resulted in capillary columns with a stronger retention than those prepared by a conventional procedure. (
  • Therefore, we sought to assess and compare the pharmacokinetic properties and bioavailability of silybin-phosphatidylcholine complex in oily-medium soft-gel capsules and conventional silymarin tablets in healthy Mexican volunteers. (
  • The two proteins form a heterodimeric complex which might be subject to feedback regulation by the pathway end-product heme. (
  • In this paper, we demonstrate that the Dgt proteins form an MT binding complex involved in MT generation within the spindle and that this process plays a vital role in mitotic spindle assembly. (
  • Crucial to glucose homoeostasis in humans, the hPDC (human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex) is a massive molecular machine comprising multiple copies of three distinct enzymes (E1-E3) and an accessory subunit, E3BP (E3-binding protein). (
  • Recently, it was shown that in contrast to the usual pyruvate dehydrogenase complex employed by aerobes, the main route for pyruvate assimilation in H. pylori is via a pyruvate:flavodoxin oxidoreductase (POR) (EC ) ( 20 ). (
  • First, unlike the 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase multienzyme complexes, these enzymes are highly oxygen labile. (
  • Since catalase is one of the major peroxisomal proteins this indicates that such HpPex5p-HpPex20p-catalase complexes are functional as receptor complex. (
  • Mechanistically, Fam20A is a pseudokinase that forms a functional complex with Fam20C, and this complex enhances extracellular protein phosphorylation within the secretory pathway. (
  • Recently, also peptidomics is becoming more and more a "hot topic" as it is recognized that peptides play complex regulatory roles in many if not all biological processes, for example, intercellular signaling [ 7 , 8 ]. (
  • Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) has also been used for separating peptides on the basis of their similar properties. (
  • We have determined crystal structures of the antigen-binding fragment for one of these antibodies, 2F5, in complex with 7-mer, 11-mer, and 17-mer peptides of the gp41 membrane-proximal region, at 2.0-, 2.1-, and 2.2-Å resolutions, respectively. (
  • Tandem mass spectrometry (Tandem MS or MS/MS) uses two mass analyzers in sequence to separate more complex mixtures of analytes. (
  • Gas chromatography (GC) is a universal separation technique applicable to complex mixtures. (
  • The "bottom up" strategy has allowed the identification of thousands of proteins in complex mixtures ( 3 ). (
  • Recently, the use of a moderate resolution routine quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer was described as an efficient approach for the analysis and identification of intact proteins in complex mixtures ( 11 ). (
  • An essential aspect of proteomic analysis is the identification and quantification of each protein present in two or more complex mixtures. (
  • The Rho family GTPase, Cdc42, relieves this autoinhibition by binding the GBD and competitively displacing the VCA, enabling it to bind and activate Arp2/3 complex ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • In a successive set of experiments we show that HpPex5p-HpPex20p complexes are able to bind folded copies of tetrameric catalase at the periphery. (
  • the monomeric (PSIIm or C), the dimeric (PSIId or C 2 ), the incomplete form free of the antenna component CP43 (RC-CP47) and finally the two PSII complexes, consisting of several combinations of C 2 with the trimeric Light Harvesting Complex II (LHCII), which may bind C 2 strongly (S) or mildly (M) via the so-called minor antenna complexes (CP24, CP26, and CP29). (
  • Fluorescence microscopy studies described here show specific binding of the EsxO/EsxP complex to the surface of monocyte and macrophage cells, suggesting that EsxA/EsxB and EsxO/EsxP complexes bind to specific target but distinct targets on the surface of host cells, which suggests possible roles in pathogen-host cell signalling. (
  • Therefore, 2-DE coupled with high-sensitivity LC-MS has a clearly higher sensitivity as expected until now to detect, identify and quantify low abundance proteins in a complex human proteome with an estimated resolution of about 500 000 protein species. (
  • Secondly, large LPP oligomeric complexes that are catalytically active were isolated using gel-exclusion chromatography. (
  • Molecular weights obtained from these experiments were correlated with results from chromatography of lignin on Sephadex G-75 with 0.1N NaOH eluant and from those obtained using an analytical ultracentrifuge. (
  • Different combinations of one dimensional GC and LC produced the analytical chromatographic technique that is known as two-dimensional chromatography. (
  • Using the ligand, DMEGpy, three new copper guanidine-pyridine complexes could be synthesized and structurally characterized. (
  • Moreover, biochemical and electron microscopic analyses show that the WASH and WAVE complexes are structurally similar. (
  • The catalysts comprise a DMC compound, an organic complexing agent, and optionally, a functionalized polymer. (
  • 5. The catalyst of claim 1 wherein the organic complexing agent comprises from about 10 to about 80 wt. (
  • 17. A method which comprises reacting aqueous solutions of a metal salt and a metal cyanide salt in the presence of an organic complexing agent and optionally, from about 2 to about 80 wt. (
  • A high-resolution mass spectrum of this material revealed that it is a very complex mixture of organic molecules with many of the characteristics of coal. (
  • 20 In this current work, we explore the potential use of these breeds of complexes as initiators in the ROP of Meso-lactide (D,L-LA) and L-LA monomers. (
  • Taipoxin is a ternary complex consisting of three subunits of α, β and γ monomers in a 1:1:1 ratio, also called the A, B and C homologous subunits. (
  • In this report, we present a procedure for high-yield co-expression of a yeast flippase, the Drs2p-Cdc50p complex. (
  • Four of the five core components show distant (approximately 15% amino acid sequence identify) but significant structural homology to components of a complex that negatively regulates the WASP family member, WAVE. (
  • Fluorescence and inhibition versus pH studies of the β-glucosidase-iminosugar complexes revealed that the amino group in the inhibitor is unprotonated when bound, while one of the active site carboxylates is protonated. (
  • The α and β complex consist of 120 amino acid residues which are cross linked by 7 disulfide bridges. (
  • The γ complex contains 135 amino acid residues which are cross linked by 8 disulfide bridges. (
  • Two-dimensional chromatography is a type of chromatographic technique in which the injected sample is separated by passing through two different separation stages. (
  • on Hyphenated Techniques in Chromatography and Hyphenated Chromatographic Analysers - 3th International Symposium on Hyphenated Techniques for Sample Preparation. (
  • This chromatographic technique uses different mobile phases and columns to achieve the necessary separation of polar, thermally labile, non-volatile and other analytes that cannot be analyzed by gas chromatography. (
  • It further relates to devices that are made with the polymeric metal complex or the polymeric-metal complex salt. (
  • Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is a two-dimensional chromatography technique that combines the separation technique of gas chromatography with the identification technique of mass spectrometry. (
  • Whereas conjugative transfer systems likely translocate DNA in a complex with relaxosome components or other DNA processing enzymes, the T4SS of pathogens may translocate proteinaceous virulence factors to modulate their host's defense response. (
  • One possibility is that specific SSs, BEs, and/or starch debranching enzymes associate physically with each other in multisubunit complexes. (
  • Supporting this theory, an examination of the molecular mass of macroenzyme complexes reveals these interactions occur at the antigen-binding site of the Ig and involve two enzymes bound to a single antibody (1). (
  • MPYS, a novel membrane tetraspanner, is associated with major histocompatibility complex class II and mediates transduction of apoptotic signals. (
  • Photosystem II (PSII) is a membrane protein complex that plays an essential role in oxygenic photosynthesis. (
  • The first class, consisting of major T-pilus component VirB2 and associated proteins VirB5 and VirB7, comigrated in the low molecular mass portion of the gel of about 100 kDa. (
  • the entire 20S complex has a mass of approximately 700 kDa ( 1 - 3 ). (
  • Using this strategy, we have determined the molecular mass of 5-10 pmol of a protein up to circa 50 kDa loaded on a gel with a 0.01% mass accuracy. (
  • Patterson SD and Aebersold R (1995) Mass spectrometric approaches for the identification of gel‐separated proteins. (
  • Finally, the nickel-chelate complex bound to 96 well plates enables high-throughput screening for quantification or preparation for MALDI mass spectrometry. (
  • GE separates macromolecules using a gel-like matrix and has extended the range of geometries available to researchers. (
  • The term "macromolecules" will be used to refer to all of these Ig-complexes. (