Three regions (CDR1; CDR2 and CDR3) of amino acid sequence in the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION that are highly divergent. Together the CDRs from the light and heavy immunoglobulin chains form a surface that is complementary to the antigen. These regions are also present in other members of the immunoglobulin superfamily, for example, T-cell receptors (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Short chains of RNA (100-300 nucleotides long) that are abundant in the nucleus and usually complexed with proteins in snRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEAR). Many function in the processing of messenger RNA precursors. Others, the snoRNAs (RNA, SMALL NUCLEOLAR), are involved with the processing of ribosomal RNA precursors.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS, for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the germline cells. The completed genes are created when the segments are shuffled and assembled (B-LYMPHOCYTE GENE REARRANGEMENT) during B-LYMPHOCYTE maturation. The gene segments of the human light and heavy chain germline genes are symbolized V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant). The heavy chain germline genes have an additional segment D (diversity).
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A family of RNA-binding proteins that has specificity for MICRORNAS and SMALL INTERFERING RNA molecules. The proteins take part in RNA processing events as core components of RNA-induced silencing complex.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
Synthetic transcripts of a specific DNA molecule or fragment, made by an in vitro transcription system. This cRNA can be labeled with radioactive uracil and then used as a probe. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the first stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.
The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A family of nonbiting midges, in the order DIPTERA. Salivary glands of the genus Chironomus are used in studies of cellular genetics and biochemistry.
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SNAILS and slugs. The former have coiled external shells and the latter usually lack shells.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic rods formerly called Pseudomonas testosteroni. It is differentiated from other Comamonas species by its ability to assimilate testosterone and to utilize phenylacetate or maleate as carbon sources.
The sequential set of three nucleotides in TRANSFER RNA that interacts with its complement in MESSENGER RNA, the CODON, during translation in the ribosome.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying lysine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A class of marine annelids including sandworms, tube worms, clamworms, and fire worms. It includes also the genus Myxicola infundibulum.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
A segment of the immunoglobulin heavy chains, encoded by the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES in the J segment where, during the maturation of B-LYMPHOCYTES; the gene segment for the variable region upstream is joined to a constant region gene segment downstream. The exact position of joining of the two gene segments is variable and contributes to ANTIBODY DIVERSITY. It is distinguished from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN J CHAINS; a separate polypeptide that serves as a linkage piece in polymeric IGA or IGM.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Nucleotide sequences located at the ends of EXONS and recognized in pre-messenger RNA by SPLICEOSOMES. They are joined during the RNA SPLICING reaction, forming the junctions between exons.
Small nuclear RNAs that are involved in the processing of pre-ribosomal RNA in the nucleolus. Box C/D containing snoRNAs (U14, U15, U16, U20, U21 and U24-U63) direct site-specific methylation of various ribose moieties. Box H/ACA containing snoRNAs (E2, E3, U19, U23, and U64-U72) direct the conversion of specific uridines to pseudouridine. Site-specific cleavages resulting in the mature ribosomal RNAs are directed by snoRNAs U3, U8, U14, U22 and the snoRNA components of RNase MRP and RNase P.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Short RNA, about 200 base pairs in length or shorter, that does not code for protein.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
The structure of one molecule that imitates or simulates the structure of a different molecule.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
An endoribonuclease that is specific for double-stranded RNA. It plays a role in POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL RNA PROCESSING of pre-RIBOSOMAL RNA and a variety of other RNA structures that contain double-stranded regions.
A codon that directs initiation of protein translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) by stimulating the binding of initiator tRNA (RNA, TRANSFER, MET). In prokaryotes, the codons AUG or GUG can act as initiators while in eukaryotes, AUG is the only initiator codon.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A multicomponent, ribonucleoprotein complex comprised of one of the family of ARGONAUTE PROTEINS and the "guide strand" of the one of the 20- to 30-nucleotide small RNAs. RISC cleaves specific RNAs, which are targeted for degradation by homology to these small RNAs. Functions in regulating gene expression are determined by the specific argonaute protein and small RNA including siRNA (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING), miRNA (MICRORNA), or piRNA (PIWI-INTERACTING RNA).
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the beta-chain of antigen receptors.
Small kinetoplastid mitochondrial RNA that plays a major role in RNA EDITING. These molecules form perfect hybrids with edited mRNA sequences and possess nucleotide sequences at their 5'-ends that are complementary to the sequences of the mRNA's immediately downstream of the pre-edited regions.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Calcium and magnesium salts used therapeutically in hepatobiliary dysfunction.
Abnormal immunoglobulins characteristic of MULTIPLE MYELOMA.
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A ribonuclease that specifically cleaves the RNA moiety of RNA:DNA hybrids. It has been isolated from a wide variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms as well as RETROVIRUSES.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Double-stranded nucleic acid molecules (DNA-DNA or DNA-RNA) which contain regions of nucleotide mismatches (non-complementary). In vivo, these heteroduplexes can result from mutation or genetic recombination; in vitro, they are formed by nucleic acid hybridization. Electron microscopic analysis of the resulting heteroduplexes facilitates the mapping of regions of base sequence homology of nucleic acids.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.26.-, EC 3.1.27.-, EC 3.1.30.-, and EC 3.1.31.-.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
The presence of an uncomplimentary base in double-stranded DNA caused by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or adenine, mismatching during homologous recombination, or errors in DNA replication. Multiple, sequential base pair mismatches lead to formation of heteroduplex DNA; (NUCLEIC ACID HETERODUPLEXES).
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Highly conserved nuclear RNA-protein complexes that function in RNA processing in the nucleus, including pre-mRNA splicing and pre-mRNA 3'-end processing in the nucleoplasm, and pre-rRNA processing in the nucleolus (see RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEOLAR).
RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.
Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Any of the DNA in between gene-coding DNA, including untranslated regions, 5' and 3' flanking regions, INTRONS, non-functional pseudogenes, and non-functional repetitive sequences. This DNA may or may not encode regulatory functions.
The ability of a protein to retain its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to physical or chemical manipulations.
RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION whereby the formation of a peptide chain is started. It includes assembly of the RIBOSOME components, the MESSENGER RNA coding for the polypeptide to be made, INITIATOR TRNA, and PEPTIDE INITIATION FACTORS; and placement of the first amino acid in the peptide chain. The details and components of this process are unique for prokaryotic protein biosynthesis and eukaryotic protein biosynthesis.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
Animals that have no spinal column.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.

Characterization of T-cell repertoire of the bone marrow in immune-mediated aplastic anemia: evidence for the involvement of antigen-driven T-cell response in cyclosporine-dependent aplastic anemia. (1/723)

To determine whether the antigen-driven T-cell response is involved in the pathogenesis of aplastic anemia (AA), we examined the complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) size distribution of T-cell receptor (TCR) beta-chain (BV) subfamilies in the bone marrow (BM) of untreated AA patients. AA patients who did not respond to immunosuppressive therapy and those who obtained unmaintained remission early after cyclosporine (CyA) or antithymocyte globulin (ATG) therapy exhibited essentially a normal CDR3 size pattern. In contrast, five patients who needed continuous administration of CyA to maintain remission exhibited a skewed CDR3 size pattern in a number (>40%) of BV subfamilies suggestive of clonal predominance. The skewing of CDR3 size distribution became less pronounced in one of the CyA-dependent patients when the patient achieved unmaintained remission after a 4-year therapy with CyA, whereas it persisted longer than 7 years in the other patient requiring maintenance therapy. Sequencing of BV15 cDNA for which the CDR3 size pattern exhibited apparent clonal predominance in all CyA-dependent patients showed high homology of the amino acid sequence of the CDR3 between two different patients. These findings indicate that antigen-driven expansion of T cells is involved in the pathogenesis of AA characterized by CyA-dependent recovery of hematopoiesis.  (+info)

A peptide derived from a polyreactive monoclonal anti-DNA natural antibody can modulate lupus development in (NZBxNZW)F1 mice. (2/723)

In lupus-prone (NZBxNZW)F1 (B/W) mice, elevated levels of polyreactive autoantibodies bearing the D23 idiotype (Id), characteristic of natural antibodies, were detected before and after the appearance of pathological anti-DNA antibodies. While these D23 Id+ antibodies were able to regulate anti-DNA antibodies in the early stage of the disease, we found that during disease evolution they had lost their normal ability to regulate anti-DNA antibodies and furthermore could participate in the lupus-like syndrome. To explore further the role of the D23 Id+ antibodies, we injected young B/W mice with a peptide corresponding to the VH CDR3 region of the D23 monoclonal natural antibody (mNAb). High levels of monospecific antipeptide, as well as polyreactive antibodies, were induced. Among them, the most markedly enhanced antibody population was DNA-reactive immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1). Compared with controls, these immunized mice had a delayed 50% survival rate and proteinuria developed later. Furthermore, IgG1 able to react with IgG2a anti-DNA monoclonal antibodies derived from B/W mice were also produced after peptide immunization. Thus, a peptide corresponding to the CDR3 of the D23 mNAb antibody might play a role in the regulation of murine lupus.  (+info)

Polyclonal expansion of TCRBV2- and TCRBV6-bearing T cells in patients with Kawasaki disease. (3/723)

We examined T-cell receptor (TCR) usage, cytokine production and antibody responses to superantigens in patients with Kawasaki disease (KD) to facilitate a better understanding of the immunopathogenesis of KD. The mean percentage of VB2- or VB6. 5-bearing T cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of patients with acute-phase KD was significantly higher than that of patients in the convalescent phase of KD or in healthy donors. Expansion of VB2- or VB6.5-bearing T cells was polyclonal because DNA sequences in the complementarity determining region 3 of VB2- and VB6.5-positive cDNA clones were all different from each other. The plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) were elevated in the acute phase of KD. We previously reported that streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin C (SPEC) was a potent stimulator of VB2- and VB6.5-positive T cells and, furthermore, serum levels of anti-SPEC antibodies were significantly higher in patients with acute and convalescent KD than in age-matched controls. The results of the present study, together with those of our previous report, suggest that SPEC induces activation and polyclonal expansion of VB2- and VB6.5-positive T cells, and that SPEC-induced activation of T cells may lead to the pathogenesis of KD.  (+info)

Evolution of antigen-specific T cell receptors in vivo: preimmune and antigen-driven selection of preferred complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) motifs. (4/723)

Antigen (Ag)-driven selection of helper T cells (Th) in normal animals has been difficult to study and remains poorly understood. Using the major histocompatibility complex class II- restricted murine response to pigeon cytochrome c (PCC), we provide evidence for both preimmune and Ag-driven selection in the evolution of Ag-specific immunity in vivo. Before antigenic challenge, most Valpha11(+)Vbeta3(+) Th (70%) express a critical complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) residue (glutamic acid at TCR-alpha93) associated with PCC peptide contact. Over the first 5 d of the primary response, PCC-responsive Valpha11(+)Vbeta3(+) Th expressing eight preferred CDR3 features are rapidly selected in vivo. Clonal dominance is further propagated through selective expansion of the PCC-specific cells with T cell receptor (TCR) of the "best fit." Ag-driven selection is complete before significant emergence of the germinal center reaction. These data argue that thymic selection shapes TCR-alpha V region bias in the preimmune repertoire; however, Ag itself and the nongerminal center microenvironment drive the selective expansion of clones with preferred TCR that dominate the response to Ag in vivo.  (+info)

Composite low grade B-cell lymphomas with two immunophenotypically distinct cell populations are true biclonal lymphomas. A molecular analysis using laser capture microdissection. (5/723)

Low grade B-cell lymphomas comprise several well defined, clinically and immunophenotypically distinct disease entities. Composite lymphomas showing phenotypic characteristics of more than one of these tumor subtypes in the same site are rare, and both common and separate clonal origins of the two tumor parts have been reported for cases studied by molecular methods. We describe the detailed immunohistochemical and molecular findings in three cases with features of composite low grade B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL). All three neoplasms contained morphologically distinct but interwoven compartments of different cell types, which exhibited discordant expression of several markers, including CD5, CD10, CD43, and cyclin D1. According to their morphology and phenotypes, they were classified as mantle cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma (Case 1), follicular lymphoma and small lymphocytic lymphoma (Case 2), and mantle cell lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (Case 3). PCR analysis of DNA obtained from whole tissue sections failed to reveal evidence for biclonality in any of the cases. We therefore isolated cell populations with different antigen expression patterns by laser capture microdissection and analyzed them by polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing of clonal immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangements and oncogene rearrangements. Sequence analysis revealed unrelated clonal rearrangements in each of the two tumor parts in all three cases, suggesting distinct clonal origins. In addition, Case 1 showed a bcl-2 rearrangement present only in the follicular lymphoma part. Our findings suggest that low grade B-NHL with two distinct morphological and immunophenotypic patterns in the same anatomical site are frequently biclonal. This is in keeping with current classification schemes, which recognize subtypes of low grade B-NHL as separate disease entities. Furthermore, our analysis demonstrates the power of laser capture microdissection in revealing molecular microheterogeneity in complex neoplasms.  (+info)

Astrocytoma infiltrating lymphocytes include major T cell clonal expansions confined to the CD8 subset. (6/723)

Anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma are frequent and malignant brain tumors that are infiltrated by T lymphocytes. Whether these cells result from non-specific inflammation following blood-brain barrier disruption or an antigen-driven specific immune response is unknown. In this study, an in-depth characterization of TCR diversity in tumor and blood RNA biopsies was performed in a series of 16 patients with malignant astrocytoma. Whilst there was no obvious restriction of the AV and BV gene segment usage, complementarity-determining region 3 size analysis and sequencing of amplified TCR transcripts revealed multiple T cell oligoclonal expansions in all astrocytomas analyzed. Unique T cell clones were present in different adjacent areas of a given tumor, but never detected in the blood. Quantification of the number of TCR clonal transcripts per microg of tumor RNA indicated that certain T cell clonal expansions may represent at least 300 cells/10(6) tumor cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the in vivo expanded clones were almost exclusively confined to the CD8(+) subset. Overall, these data suggest that spontaneous antigen-driven immune responses may be elicited against human astrocytoma despite the immunosuppressive microenvironment generated by the brain and the tumor itself. However, the ultimate failure of the immune system to control tumor growth could be the consequence of a deficient CD4 T(h) component of the response. This observation could have important consequences for the development of immunotherapies for astrocytoma patients.  (+info)

Characterisation of T cell clonotypes that accumulated in multiple joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (7/723)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether identical T cell clonotypes accumulate in multiple rheumatoid joints, the clonality of T cells that had infiltrated into synovial tissue (ST) samples simultaneously obtained from multiple joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was analysed. METHODS: T cell receptor (TCR) beta gene transcripts, amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction from ST and peripheral blood lymphocytes of five RA patients, were subjected to single strand conformation polymorphism analysis and DNA sequencing. RESULTS: Approximately 40% of accumulated T cell clonotypes found in one joint of a patient were found in multiple joints in the same patient. Furthermore, identical amino acid sequences were found in TCR beta junctional regions of these clonotypes from different patients with at least one HLA molecule match. CONCLUSIONS: The T cell clonotypes accumulating in multiple rheumatoid joints may be involved in the perpetuation of polyarthritis by reacting to antigens common to these multiple joints.  (+info)

Selection at multiple checkpoints focuses V(H)12 B cell differentiation toward a single B-1 cell specificity. (8/723)

Phosphatidyl choline (PtC)-specific B cells segregate to the B-1 subset, where they comprise up to 10% of the B-1 repertoire. About half express V(H)12 and Vkappa4/5H and are restricted in V(H)CDR3. We have previously reported that anti-PtC V(H)CDR3 is enriched among V(H)12-expressing cells by selective elimination of pre-B cells. We report here a bias for Vkappa4/5H expression among V(H)12-expressing B cells, even among those that do not bind PtC and are not B-1. This is due in part to an inability of V(H)12 to associate with many light (L) chains but must also be due to a selective advantage in survival or clonal expansion in the periphery for Vkappa4/5H-expressing cells. Thus, the bias for Vkappa4/5H expression is independent of PtC binding, and, as segregation to B-1 occurs after Ig gene expression, it precedes segregation to the B-1 subset. In 6-1 mice, splenic B-1 cells reside in follicles but segregate to follicles distinct from those that contain B-2 cells. These data indicate that selection at multiple developmental checkpoints ensures the co-expression of an anti-PtC V(H)CDR3 and L chain in a high frequency of V(H)12 B cells. This focus toward specificity for PtC facilitates the development of a large anti-PtC B-1 repertoire.  (+info)

Complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) are part of the variable chains in immunoglobulins (antibodies) and T cell receptors ... Complementarity+determining+regions at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) PyIgClassify -- ... Framework region Hypervariable region Abbas AK and Lichtman AH (2003). Cellular and Molecular Immunology (5th ed.). Saunders, ... these regions are sometimes referred to as hypervariable regions. Within the variable domain, CDR1 and CDR2 are found in the ...
These regions correspond to the complementarity-determining regions; the sites involved in antigen recognition on the ... The TSM process implies an "in-frame DNA reader" whereby DNA and RNA deaminases at transcribed regions are guided in their ... During B cell division the immunoglobulin variable region DNA is transcribed and translated. The introduction of mutations in ... Somatic hypermutation involves a programmed process of mutation affecting the variable regions of immunoglobulin genes. Unlike ...
... each have distinctly formed complementarity-determining regions. Allergen - A substance capable of causing an allergic reaction ...
These loops are referred to as the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs), since their shape complements that of an antigen ... or complementarity-determining regions (CDR1, CDR2 and CDR3). CDRs are supported within the variable domains by conserved ... multi-level conformational clustering of antibody complementarity-determining regions". PeerJ. 2 (e456): e456. doi:10.7717/ ... The distinctive features of each class are determined by the part of the heavy chain within the hinge and Fc region. The ...
Humanized antibodies are almost completely human; only the complementarity determining regions of the variable regions are ... Changes in the Fc region can alter an antibody's ability to engage Fc receptors and, by extension, will determine the type of ... Anti-PD-1 drugs contain not only an Fab region that binds PD-1 but also an Fc region. Experimental work indicates that the Fc ... Antibodies are formed of a binding region (Fab) and the Fc region that can be detected by immune system cells via their Fc ...
"Replacing the complementarity-determining regions in a human antibody with those from a mouse". Nature. 321 (6069): 522-525. ...
"Humanization of rabbit monoclonal antibodies via grafting combined Kabat/IMGT/Paratome complementarity-determining regions: ... The region (residues 296-359) consisting of 64 amino acids at the N-terminus of cell surface mesothelin has been identified as ... depending on the assay used and thus that normal levels must be determined anew when new assays are introduced. Increase of ...
They named "HV4" and "LV4", non-complementarity-determining region (CDR) loops that are structurally close to the antigen and ... "Humanization of rabbit monoclonal antibodies via grafting combined Kabat/IMGT/Paratome complementarity-determining regions: ...
... despite the non-human origin of some of its complementarity-determining region (CDR) segments responsible for the ability of ... "Humanization of an anti-CD34 monoclonal antibody by complementarity-determining region grafting based on computer-assisted ... In this case, a mouse variable region is spliced to a human constant region. The chimera can then be further humanized by ... That is, since the CDR portions of the variable region are essential to the ability of the antibody to bind to its intended ...
However, they have demonstrated that two of the five consensus mutations were within the complementarity determining regions ( ... The T7 promoter region allows large-scale in vitro T7 transcription to transcribe the DNA library into an mRNA library, which ... The ribosomal binding site in the 5'-untranslated region (5' UTR) is designed according to the in vitro translation system to ...
... between Antibody 2F5 Neutralization of HIV-1 and Hydrophobicity of Its Heavy Chain Third Complementarity-Determining Region". ... The region DKW of the core epitope must be in a β-turn conformation and have the correct side-chain positions for 2F5 to bind ... 2F5 recognizes an epitope in the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of HIV-1 gp41. 2F5 then binds to this epitope and its ... 2F5 binds to the variable regions of env and neutralizes the virus before it infects target cells. 2F5 recognizes a core ...
Each paratope is made up of six complementarity-determining regions - three from each of the light and heavy chains - that ... In cows, an extra-long complementarity-determining region is considered to have an essential role in diversifying paratopes. ... It is a small region at the tip of the antibody's antigen-binding fragment and contains parts of the antibody's heavy and light ...
Leverage Vbeta Complementarity Determining Regions (CDRs) and Hydrophobic Patch in Mechanosensing Thymic Self-ligands". Journal ... Ju L, Dong JF, Cruz MA, Zhu C (November 2013). "The N-terminal flanking region of the A1 domain regulates the force-dependent ... "Force-regulated in situ TCR-peptide-bound MHC class II kinetics determine functions of CD4+ T cells". Journal of Immunology. ... "Mechano-regulation of Peptide-MHC Class I Conformations Determines TCR Antigen Recognition". Molecular Cell. 73 (5): 1015-27 e7 ...
Evidence for the involvement of multiple complementarity determining region (CDR)-like loops in receptor domain I". The Journal ... 5'-flanking region of the Pigr gene contains a response element to glucocorticoids. This class of hormones increases the steady ... Cleavage occurs at the junction of the transmembrane region of the receptor and domain 5. pIgRs are capable of capturing IgA ... The quite long intracellular domain of the receptor, along with the transmembrane region, is responsible for the transduction ...
The variable domain of both the TCR α-chain and β-chain each have three hypervariable or complementarity-determining regions ( ... The Constant region is proximal to the cell membrane, followed by a transmembrane region and a short cytoplasmic tail, while ... Each chain is composed of two extracellular domains: Variable (V) region and a Constant (C) region, both of Immunoglobulin ... The intersection of these specific regions (V and J for the alpha or gamma chain; V, D, and J for the beta or delta chain) ...
IgG4 monoclonal antibody that was derived from a mouse antibody which was humanized via Complementarity Determining Region (CDR ... as determined by an FDA-approved test, that has progressed on or following prior treatment with a platinum-containing regimen. ... as determined by an FDA-approved test, that have progressed on or following prior treatment and who have no satisfactory ...
The variable region of antigen receptors of T cells (TCRs) and B cells (immunoglobulins) contain complementarity-determining ... They define the surface and properties of the variable region, determining the antigen specificity and therefore the idiotope ... He also defined the "paratope" to be that part of an antibody variable region that binds to an antigen. The best developed ... Antibody idiotype is determined by: Gene rearrangement Junctional diversity P-nucleotides (palindromic nucleotides at sites of ...
The complementarity-determining regions of 5.11A1 were cloned into the framework of human IgG and combined with IgG1 (TGN1112) ... The molecule was genetically engineered by transfer of the complementarity determining regions (CDRs) from heavy and light ... Humanised variable regions were subsequently recombined with a human gene coding for the IgG4 gamma chain and with a human gene ... region. According to a report by TeGenero, the F(ab)2 is not able to generate the required stimulation. Unlike the related ...
The variable domain contains the paratope (the antigen-binding site), comprising a set of complementarity-determining regions, ... The fragment antigen-binding region (Fab region) is a region on an antibody that binds to antigens. It is composed of one ... Conversely, the enzyme pepsin cleaves below the hinge region, so the result instead is a F(ab')2 fragment and a pFc' fragment. ... Heavy and light chains, variable and constant regions of an antibody. An antibody digested by papain yields three fragments: ...
... complementarity determining regions) bound to a carboxylate side chain. These have been engineered to give rise to monoclonal ... Their occurrence in cation and anion-binding regions of proteins". Journal of Molecular Biology. 315 (15): 183-191. doi:10.1006 ... successive residues gives rise to anion-binding sites that occur commonly and are found often at functionally important regions ...
... psychology The principle that the International Criminal Court is a court of last resort Complementarity-determining region, ... Look up complementarity or complementary in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Complementarity may refer to: Complementarity ( ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Complementarity. If an internal link led you here, you may ... molecular biology), a property of nucleic acid molecules in molecular biology Complementarity (physics), the principle that ...
... whereas the binding regions of antibodies, called complementarity-determining regions, are flexible loops. Historically, ... In both types, the binding region is typically located in a beta sheet structure, ... a process creating regions capable of binding different antigens, depending on which amino acids are exchanged. ...
It is an immunoglobulin G-kappa (IgGκ) consisting of human constant regions and murine complementarity-determining regions ... per person per year price and Pharmac's economic analysis determined the price would need to be halved before the drug was cost ... grafted onto human framework light and heavy chain variable regions. The compound contains two 448-amino acid heavy chains and ...
The antibody, originally called G5/44, was created by grafting the complementarity-determining regions and some framework ...
... everything is replaced except the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs), the three loops of amino acid sequences at the ... If the constant region is replaced with the human form, the antibody is termed chimeric and the substem used was -xi-. Part of ... Group 2 has the stem -bart for full-length antibodies artificial, which contain one or more engineered regions (at least one ... Finally, group 4 assigns the stem -ment for monospecific antibody fragments without an Fc region. Other antibody parts (such as ...
... now known as complementarity-determining region 3. Her research also pointed to evidence that at least two genes are involved ... Her studies on antibodies were important in determining the chain structure, and particularly the observation that more than ... Press's work provided the first evidence that immunoglobulin heavy chains had variable regions similar to those observed in ...
... can refer to Complementarity-determining region 2 on antibodies CDR2 (gene), cerebellar degeneration-related protein 2, a ...
... one study identified the preferential presence of the TCR-V-b and complementarity-determining region 3 in T-cell receptors ... studies to date have not clearly determined if they are a cause or merely a consequence of T cell-mediated tissue injury. ...
... today called the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs). Affinity therapy, or immunotoxins is a biorecognition-based ...
They discovered the "canonical-structure model" for the conformation of the complementarity-determining regions of antibodies, ... each peptide plane is determined for Ribbon Diagrams and β-sheets; and spline fit is used for curved sheets. Hidden-line ... "Conformations of immunoglobulin hypervariable regions". Nature. 342 (6252): 877-883. Bibcode:1989Natur.342..877C. doi:10.1038/ ...
Compile data on the biodiversity of the planning region Identify conservation goals for the planning region Review existing ... Monitoring an indicator species is a measure to determine if there is a significant environmental impact that can serve to ... November 2007). "Impacts of plant diversity on biomass production increase through time because of species complementarity". ... The value of ecosystem services on one New Zealand island has been imputed to be as great as the GDP of that region. This ...
However, it is possible to create a mixture of smaller probes that are specific to a particular region (locus) of DNA; these ... The mixture of probe sequences determines the type of feature the probe can detect. Probes that hybridize along an entire ... fluorescent probes that bind to only particular parts of a nucleic acid sequence with a high degree of sequence complementarity ... Bacterial FISH probes are often primers for the 16s rRNA region. FISH is widely used in the field of microbial ecology, to ...
The biggest problem is to determine the structure of regions between double stranded helical regions. Also RNA molecules often ... In vivo, DNA structures are more likely to be duplexes with full complementarity between two strands, while RNA structures are ... A common problem for researchers working with RNA is to determine the three-dimensional structure of the molecule given only a ... However, in the case of RNA much of the final structure is determined by the secondary structure or intra-molecular base ...
They contain a central region of tandem 33-35 residue repeats and each repeat region encodes a single DNA base in the TALE's ... Within the repeat it is residue 13 alone that directly contacts the DNA base, determining sequence specificity, while other ... but even non-sequence-specific recognition involves some sort of molecular complementarity between protein and DNA. DNA ... The larger helix typically contains the DNA-binding regions. HMG-box domains are found in high mobility group proteins which ...
Fatou Bensouda invoked the principle of complementarity in the situation between Russia and Georgia in the Ossetia region. ... The amount payable by each state party is determined using the same method as the United Nations: each state's contribution is ... The principle of complementarity means that the Court will only prosecute an individual if states are unwilling or unable to ... "Beyond Complementarity: The International Criminal Court and National Prosecutions, a View from Haiti, Brian Concannon 32 ...
Individual regions within an miRNA gene face different evolutionary pressures, where regions that are vital for processing and ... This complementarity was proposed to inhibit the translation of the lin-14 mRNA into the LIN-14 protein. At the time, the lin-4 ... Studies to determine what role pluripotent stem cells play in adipogenesis, were examined in the immortalized human bone marrow ... A mutation in the seed region of miR-96 causes hereditary progressive hearing loss. A mutation in the seed region of miR-184 ...
Gray, M.; Kalpers, J. (2005). "Ranger based monitoring in the Virunga-Bwindi Region of East-Central Africa: a simple data ... determined on the basis of relative contributions of local stakeholders and professional researchers,. and supported by ... "Commonalities and complementarities among approaches to conservation monitoring and evaluation". Biological Conservation. 169: ... Scientist-executed monitoring is often costly and hard to sustain, especially in those regions of the world where financial ...
Burbine, T (2016). "Advances in determining asteroid chemistries and mineralogies". Chemie der Erde. 76 (2): 181. Bibcode: ... "Source regions and timescales for the delivery of water to the Earth". Meteoritics & Planetary Science. 35 (6): 1309-20. ... "Volatile fractionation in the early solar system and chondrule/matrix complementarity". PNAS. 102 (39): 13755-60. Bibcode: ... but from an arid region, and considered reasonably unaltered Nogoya- 1879; Boriskino- 1930; Murray- 1950; Murchison- 1969; ...
The chosen insect vector of a plant virus will often be the determining factor in that virus's host range: it can only infect ... 2001). "In vivo analysis of the TSWV cap-snatching mechanism: single base complementarity and primer length requirements". The ... untranslated regions of viral mRNA. Some viruses (e.g. tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)) have RNA sequences that contain a "leaky" ... although he did not determine that the RNA was the infectious material. However, he received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in ...
Deloitte determines most companies do not do their due diligence in determining whether a M&A is the correct move due to these ... For the dimension strategic management, the six strategic variables: market similarity, market complementarities, production ... "M&A Statistics - Worldwide, Regions, Industries & Countries". Institute for Mergers, Acquisitions and Alliances (IMAA). ... The valuation methods described above represent ways to determine value of a company independently from how the market ...
He also proposes that the prominence of democratic capitalism in a society is strongly determined by the religious concepts ... This saw the advancement of democratic capitalism throughout the European region. The South African Competition Act of 1998 ... According to political scientist Wolfgang Merkel, democracy and capitalism coexisted with more complementarity at this time ... as determined by decisions reached through democratic politics. It is marked by democratic elections, freedom, and rule of law ...
Base pairing in RNA occurs when RNA folds between complementarity regions. Both single- and double-stranded regions are often ... The sugar pucker which determines the shape of the a-helix, whether the helix will exist in the A-form or in the B-form, occurs ... A nucleic acid sequence is the order of nucleotides within a DNA (GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule that is determined by a series ... Pseudoknots are formed when nucleotides from the hairpin-loop pair with a single stranded region outside of the hairpin to form ...
... untranslated region of that mRNA. This was an indication that miRNA regulation via 3' UTR complementarity may be a common ... The Search for Extraterrestrial Genomes, or SETG, project has been developing a small instrument that can determine DNA ... When Ambros and Ruvkun compared the sequence of the lin-4 miRNA and the lin-14 3' untranslated region, they discovered that the ... untranslated region. In a key breakthrough, the Ambros lab discovered that lin-4 encodes a very small RNA product, defining the ...
The flora of the canton is determined mainly by rice, and complementarity teak, less cocoa, mango, tobacco, among others ... The town of Palestina is located within the Ecuadorian mainland, which, in turn, is situated in the coastal region or Litoral ...
These faculties determine the fate in the Akhira. The Quran says: We have bound every human's destiny to their neck. And on the ... Convergence and Complementarity (PDF), Al-Akhawayn University, archived from the original (PDF) on February 27, 2008, retrieved ... Muhammad surveyed the natural resources in the region-the wadis (riverbeds); the rich, black volcanic soil; the high rangelands ... Muslims believe Allah determined certain aspects of their lives for which they are not accountable (e.g., their place of birth ...
The final list of students is decided by adding up a pre-determined percentage of the YGS score and the local exam (aptitude ... Serving the inhabitants of the entire Black Sea region, both faculties provide treatment in all areas of health and dental care ... based on mutual understanding and complementarity among European countries. This process, which is rapidly growing and which ... the students are accepted to the undergraduate programmes according to the score of one of the international exams determined ...
Also, MOG was shown to dimerize in solution, and the shape complementarity index is high at the dimer interface, suggesting a " ... The crystal structure of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein was determined by x-ray diffraction at a resolution of 1.45 ... MOG's cDNA coding region in humans have been shown to be "highly homologous" to rats, mice, and bovine, and hence highly ... "Physical mapping of the human and mouse MOG gene at the distal end of the MHC class Ib region". Immunogenetics. 42 (5): 386-91 ...
A low obliquity helps; while the tropics take solar insolation, two polar regions see little sunlight and can help maintain a ... In 1979, an asteroid was found and given the provisional designation 1979 VA, until its orbit could be determined to a ... "Volatile fractionation in the early solar system and chondrule/matrix complementarity". Proceedings of the National Academy of ...
... the status of a male Canada goose is determined by the rank of his family. Although dominance is determined differently in each ... One of the areas that has been linked with this behavior is the prefrontal cortex, a region involved with decision making and ... The interpersonal complementarity hypothesis suggests that obedience and authority are reciprocal, complementary processes. ... A 2016 study determined that higher status increased reproductive success amongst men, and that this did not vary by type of ...
His knowledge of the region, seen also his articles on folk art and the folklore published in the local press made of Mihai ... determined to learn and discover all the secrets hidden in the world of books. Even if this period changed his orientation from ... because the critic's firm conviction was that the complementarity of the folkloric elements and modernism in Brâncuşi's work ... with the oldest codex of written language found in a monastery from the region. Mihai, the second son of a Romanian family, was ...
The size of each AFP and the maximum gap size are required input parameters but are usually set to empirically determined ... "Thousands of corresponding human and mouse genomic regions unalignable in primary sequence contain common RNA structure". ... "Ligand Binding Site Detection by Local Structure Alignment and Its Performance Complementarity". Journal of Chemical ... Dynamic programming applied to each resulting matrix determines a series of optimal local alignments which are then summed into ...
For example, if an electron wave packet is initially localized in a region of atomic dimensions (i.e., 10−10 m) then the width ... the time evolution of every function ψ0 is determined by this propagation kernel K, ψ t ( x ) = ∫ ψ 0 ( y ) 1 2 π i t e i ( x ... According to the principle of complementarity, the wave-like and particle-like characteristics never manifest themselves at the ... If the packet is strongly localized, more frequencies are needed to allow the constructive superposition in the region of ...
To investigate the diversity of peripheral blood T cell receptor (TCR) ß chain complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) ... Diversity of the T cell receptor ß chain complementarity-determining region 3 in peripheral blood of neonates with sepsis: an ...
DNA sequences of the third complementarity determining regions were identified. This approach is based on subcutaneous melanoma ... or YAC-1 cells was determined by standard 51Cr-release assay. B16OVA cells were subjected to hyperthermia using NPrCAP/M with ...
Complementarity Determining Regions Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Structures determined here are shown as solid squares. Notably, newly determined structures - 8ANC131, VRC13, VRC16, and HJ16 ... To determine a common reference frame for calculations of angular difference, antibody-gp120 structures were first aligned to a ... Numbers in the table correspond to the number of heavy chain sequences retrieved from heavy chain transcripts determined by NGS ...
Sequence analysis indicated that the mAbs shared 100% amino acid identity in their complementarity determining regions (CDR). A ... We sought to determine how fast PSA concentrations decline during the first 10 h after exposure to semen. STUDY DESIGN: Women ... METHODS: First, we determined the technical abilities and needs of middle-aged and older adults with serious mental illnesses ... At the climate region level, consistently elevated but not statistically significant estimates were observed for at least 2 ...
Positive charge in the complementarity-determining regions of synthetic nanobody prevents aggregation.. Zhong Z; Yang Y; Chen X ... Construction of a synthetic phage-displayed Nanobody library with CDR3 regions randomized by trinucleotide cassettes for ...
Natalizumab contains human framework regions and the complementarity-determining regions of a murine antibody that binds to α4- ... Determine every six months whether patients should continue on treatment and, if so, authorize treatment for another six months ... The anti-JCV antibody status was determined using an anti-JCV antibody test (ELISA) that has been analytically and clinically ... Clinical studies of TYSABRI did not include sufficient numbers of patients aged 65 years and over to determine whether they ...
... disease in multiple myeloma using real-time polymerase chain reaction and plasmid-DNA complementarity determining region III ... disease in multiple myeloma using real-time polymerase chain reaction and plasmid-DNA complementarity determining region III ...
Grafting of "abbreviated" complementarity-determining regions containing specificity-determining residues essential for ligand ... In vitro affinity maturation of a specificity-determining region-grafted humanized anticarcinoma antibody: isolation and ... Determining the Stoichiometry of a Protein-Polymer Conjugate Using Multisignal Sedimentation Velocity Analytical ... Multi-signal sedimentation velocity analysis with mass conservation for determining the stoichiometry of protein complexes. ...
Complementarity Determining Region 2 Complementarity Determining Region 3 Complementarity Determining Region I Complementarity ... Complementarity Determining Region III Complementarity-Determining Region Complementarity-Determining Region 3 Hypervariable ... Complementarity Determining Region 3 Narrower Concept UI. M0359514. Registry Number. 0. Terms. Complementarity Determining ... Complementarity Determining Region 1 Narrower Concept UI. M0359512. Registry Number. 0. Terms. Complementarity Determining ...
"Mutations in the variable, antigen-binding coding sequences (known as complementarity-determining regions (CDR)) of the ... I think weve determined that nothing is ever a problem for evolutionary theory. . Stop projecting. Of course certain ... The duplicated gene and regulatory region have a new function, and are new functionally coded elements by the definition of ... I think weve determined that nothing is ever a problem for evolutionary theory. ...
The binding between antibodies and antigens is mainly determined by the complementarity-determining regions (CDR) of the ...
... complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) selected from a group of six CDR sequences. The variable heavy chain (VH) and the ... the skilled person was familiar with antibody constructs containing only three complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) that ... In determining whether or not the disclosure is sufficient, it has to be assessed whether the patent application provides the ... At the end of the oral proceedings, the board indicated that, if the binding affinity was indeed determined by the presence of ...
... of the HeV G and m102.4/ephrinB2 binding interface highlight specific interactions by the complementarity-determining regions ...
... long heavy chain complementarity determining region 3 and autoreactivity that can be limited by host tolerance controls. ... However, development of such a vaccine has been hindered by the poor immunogenicity of the conserved exposed regions on the HIV ... The quality of such antibody responses is likely to be a major factor in determining efficacy. An understanding of the division ... Studies examining the relative roles of different B cell subsets responding to HIV-1 envelope immunogens in determining the ...
... by the sequence similarity within the germline encoded segment and then by the size of the complementarity determining regions ...
... each heavy chain comprising three complementarity determining regions (CDRs) and four framework regions, wherein portions of ... each heavy chain comprising three complementarity determining regions (CDRs) and four framework regions, wherein portions of ... each heavy chain comprising three complementarity determining regions (CDRs) and four framework regions, wherein portions of ... a sample well, a background fluid well, and a droplet well each having an upper region protruding from the top surface of the ...
VH3+ Marginal Zone B Cells with a Short Complementarity Determining Region 3 Survive Staphylococcal Protein A Superantigen ... Distinct Intracellular Mouse Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor Domains Determine Subtype-Specific G-protein Coupling ...
The nucleotide sequences of the complementarity determining regions (CDRs) of the immunoglobulin gene of this hybridoma were ... of other regions has not yet been determined. For example, the stalk region is missing in the short-splicing variant of Dectin- ... Instead, the non-CRD region (a stretch including the cytoplasmic, transmembrane, and stalk regions) derived from hDectin-1 ... The stalk region of hDectin-1 interacts with the CRD of hCLEC-2.. (A) Schematic representations of mDectin-1 (mD1), hDectin-1 ( ...
Complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) incorporates the VDJ recombination junctions, accounting for most of the repertoire ... Statistical significance was determined at α = 5.0%. Values are expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD). Pearson ... variation mediating specific antigen recognition [40]. CDR3 regions of naïve and antigen-experienced clonotypes are longer and ...
Complementarity Determining Region Complementarity-Determining Region Complementarity-Determining Regions Hypervariable Region ... Complementarity Determining Region. Complementarity Determining Region 1. Complementarity Determining Region 2. Complementarity ... Complementarity Determining Region 3 Entry term(s). Complementarity Determining Region III Complementarity-Determining Region 3 ... Third Complementarity-Determining Region Third Complementarity-Determining Regions Complementarity Determining Region 1 - ...
Complementarity Determining Region 2 Complementarity Determining Region 3 Complementarity Determining Region I Complementarity ... Complementarity Determining Region III Complementarity-Determining Region Complementarity-Determining Region 3 Hypervariable ... Complementarity Determining Region 3 Narrower Concept UI. M0359514. Registry Number. 0. Terms. Complementarity Determining ... Complementarity Determining Region 1 Narrower Concept UI. M0359512. Registry Number. 0. Terms. Complementarity Determining ...
... an IGHV3-23*01 target show strongly favored deaminations occurring in the antigen-binding complementarity determining regions ( ... CDR) compared to the framework regions (FW). By exhibiting consistency with B-cell SHM, our in vitro data suggest that ... Immunoglobulin Variable Region/genetics*; Models, Biological; Mutation/genetics; Nuclear Proteins/metabolism; RNA Polymerase II ...
... an unusually long complementarity determining region 3 of the heavy chain CDRH3, and a propensity to deletion mechanisms. ... The Determined, Resilient, AIDS-free, Mentored, and Safe (DREAMS) initiative - This collaboration involves the PEPFAR, the Bill ... RV217/ECHO - This trial is a collaboration between the MHRP and the NIAID to determine the processes involved in the earliest ... The rate of HIV infection in some regions of Africa is incredibly high and effective HIV prevention agents are urgently needed ...
... activity of 4E10 requires solvent-exposed hydrophobic residues at the apex of the complementarity-determining region (CDR) H3 ... activity of 4E10 requires solvent-exposed hydrophobic residues at the apex of the complementarity-determining region (CDR) H3 ... activity of 4E10 requires solvent-exposed hydrophobic residues at the apex of the complementarity-determining region (CDR) H3 ... activity of 4E10 requires solvent-exposed hydrophobic residues at the apex of the complementarity-determining region (CDR) H3 ...
  • Inter alia the appellant was asked to submit evidence in support of their statement that any three CDRs were sufficient to determine the binding specificity of an antibody, and that the CDR3 of the light and/or heavy variable chain of the claimed monoclonal antibody/fragment could be modified without distorting it's binding properties. (
  • En conjunto, las CDRs de las cadenas ligeras y pesadas de las inmunoglobulinas forman una superficie que es complementaria al antígeno. (
  • Here, we define a subset of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) that acquire N-glycosylation sites selectively in the Ig complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) of the antigen-binding sites. (
  • Antibody engineering technology was used to optimize the sequence of the original antibody to reduce the potential immunogenicity risk, and two typical Asp isomerization hotspots in the complementarity determining regions (CDRs) were removed to improve the stability. (
  • In addition, the structural similarities of their complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) to those of original mouse mAbs were estimated to derive the weighted interatomic root mean squared deviation (wRMSD i ) value. (
  • Tres regiones (CDR1, CDR2 y CDR3) de secuencia de aminoácidos en la REGIÓN VARIABLE DE LAS INMUNOGLOBULINAS que son muy divergentes. (
  • CDR2 and CDR3) of amino acid sequence in the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION that are highly divergent. (
  • These regions are also present in other members of the immunoglobulin superfamily, for example, T-cell receptors ( RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL ). (
  • Glycosylation of the surface immunoglobulin (Ig) variable region is a remarkable follicular lymphoma-associated feature rarely seen in normal B cells. (
  • The first polypeptide of the multivalent target binding protein comprises a first scFv molecule and a first immunoglobulin-like domain which preferably comprises an immunoglobulin light chain variable region domain. (
  • The first scFv molecule and the first immunoglobulin-like domain are preferably linked via a first extra amino acid sequence which preferably comprises an immunogiob-ulin light chain constant region domain. (
  • To investigate the diversity of peripheral blood T cell receptor (TCR) ß chain complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) based on immune repertoire sequencing in neonates with sepsis and the possible pathogenesis of neonatal sepsis . (
  • The binding between antibodies and antigens is mainly determined by the complementarity-determining regions (CDR) of the antibodies. (
  • C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), a family of PRRs, mainly signal via the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM), which was originally identified in the cytoplasmic regions of the signaling subunits of antigen receptors which discriminate foreign from self-antigens. (
  • Thus, IgE is able to bind a total of two antigens, which occurs in variable regions of the light and heavy chains that produce unique antigen-specific binding sites. (
  • The 4E10 antibody recognizes the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of the HIV-1 Env glycoprotein gp41 transmembrane subunit, exhibiting one of the broadest neutralizing activities known to date. (
  • PMB-104 binds to the constant region (Fc) of free IgE and prevents free IgE from binding to IgE receptors, thereby inhibiting effector cell responses to allergens. (
  • In some elderly humans, Ig heavy chain (IGH) complementarity determining region 3 (HCDR3) spectratyping analysis of PB B cells revealed a significant loss of diversity, which was associated with poor health status and poor survival [ 13 ]. (
  • Biochemical analyses revealed that Dectin-1 is a mucin-like protein as its stalk region is highly O -glycosylated. (
  • They determined the 3D structure of protein complex (photosynthetic reaction center) found in particular photosynthetic bacteria. (
  • Zoomed top views (at right) of the HeV G and m102.4/ephrinB2 binding interface highlight specific interactions by the complementarity-determining regions of the mAb and G-H loop of the receptor ephrinB2. (
  • The neutralizing activity of 4E10 requires solvent-exposed hydrophobic residues at the apex of the complementarity-determining region (CDR) H3 loop, but the molecular basis for this requirement has not been clarified. (
  • Diversity of the T cell receptor ß chain complementarity-determining region 3 in peripheral blood of neonates with sepsis: an analysis based on immune repertoire sequencing. (
  • The watershed focuses with a command of extensive Analysis that believes administrator to determine with the license of the notice and uses previously come clearly into the reconsideration's Javascript. (
  • In this fundamental study Dectin-1 and CLEC2 - another C-type lectin receptor expressed on platelets - interacts through an O -glycosylated ligand presented in the stalk region of Dectin-1. (
  • Aim: The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a relationship between disease experience of rheumatoid arthritis and periodontal disease. (
  • The constant region at the carboxyl-terminal end of the heavy chain, called the Fc region, binds to the Fc receptors of neutrophils, eosinophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, B cells, and the natural killer (NK) cells. (
  • These regions are also present in other members of the immunoglobulin superfamily, for example, T-cell receptors ( RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL ). (
  • Epitopes are a component of the antigen that are recognized by the immune system and determine whether the cellular or the humoral arm of the immune system shall be activated against that particular antigen. (
  • Site-by-site comparisons for biochemical and human memory B-cell mutational spectra in an IGHV3-23*01 target show strongly favored deaminations occurring in the antigen-binding complementarity determining regions (CDR) compared to the framework regions (FW). (
  • Staphylococcal protein A (SPA) is a B cell superantigen that binds to human VH3-encoded Igs independently of the D- and JH-encoded regions and light chain sequences. (
  • The quality of such antibody responses is likely to be a major factor in determining efficacy. (
  • Each chain has domains called the V (variable) region and C (constant) region. (
  • Variable region constitutes the antibody binding region of the molecule to the different antigens as it consists of about 110 amino acids that vary widely among the different antibody molecules. (
  • These data indicate that SPA requires simultaneous interaction with three distinct regions of a VH3 structure, which together in three-dimensional space form an extended solvent-exposed surface. (
  • We localized the regions in a VH3-encoded Ab required for SPA binding by producing mutant Abs in the baculovirus expression system in which regions of a human-derived Ab known to bind SPA were exchanged with those from a mouse Ab of the J558 family, a family not associated with SPA binding. (

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