Complement Hemolytic Activity Assay: A screening assay for circulating COMPLEMENT PROTEINS. Diluted SERUM samples are added to antibody-coated ERYTHROCYTES and the percentage of cell lysis is measured. The values are expressed by the so called CH50, in HEMOLYTIC COMPLEMENT units per milliliter, which is the dilution of serum required to lyse 50 percent of the erythrocytes in the assay.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Anemia, Hemolytic: A condition of inadequate circulating red blood cells (ANEMIA) or insufficient HEMOGLOBIN due to premature destruction of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES).Hemolysin Proteins: Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.Hemolytic Agents: Substances that are toxic to blood in general, including the clotting mechanism; hematotoxins may refer to the hematopoietic system.Complement Activation: The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.Complement C3: A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune: Acquired hemolytic anemia due to the presence of AUTOANTIBODIES which agglutinate or lyse the patient's own RED BLOOD CELLS.Complement C4: A glycoprotein that is important in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C4 is cleaved by the activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C4A and COMPLEMENT C4B.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Bronchoconstriction: Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.Glomerulonephritis, Membranoproliferative: Chronic glomerulonephritis characterized histologically by proliferation of MESANGIAL CELLS, increase in the MESANGIAL EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX, and a thickening of the glomerular capillary walls. This may appear as a primary disorder or secondary to other diseases including infections and autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Various subtypes are classified by their abnormal ultrastructures and immune deposits. Hypocomplementemia is a characteristic feature of all types of MPGN.Complement C3-C5 Convertases: Serine proteases that cleave COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, or cleave COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. These include the different forms of C3/C5 convertases in the classical and the alternative pathways of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Both cleavages take place at the C-terminal of an ARGININE residue.Complement C3b: The larger fragment generated from the cleavage of COMPLEMENT C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. It is a constituent of the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb), and COMPLEMENT C5 CONVERTASES in both the classical (C4b2a3b) and the alternative (C3bBb3b) pathway. C3b participates in IMMUNE ADHERENCE REACTION and enhances PHAGOCYTOSIS. It can be inactivated (iC3b) or cleaved by various proteases to yield fragments such as COMPLEMENT C3C; COMPLEMENT C3D; C3e; C3f; and C3g.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Salmonella enterica: A subgenus of Salmonella containing several medically important serotypes. The habitat for the majority of strains is warm-blooded animals.Blood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.Salmonella Infections, Animal: Infections in animals with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Serum Bactericidal Test: Method of measuring the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy. It is used to monitor the therapy in BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS; OSTEOMYELITIS and other serious bacterial infections. As commonly performed, the test is a variation of the broth dilution test. This test needs to be distinguished from testing of the naturally occurring BLOOD BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Salmonella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Complement Pathway, Alternative: Complement activation initiated by the interaction of microbial ANTIGENS with COMPLEMENT C3B. When COMPLEMENT FACTOR B binds to the membrane-bound C3b, COMPLEMENT FACTOR D cleaves it to form alternative C3 CONVERTASE (C3BBB) which, stabilized by COMPLEMENT FACTOR P, is able to cleave multiple COMPLEMENT C3 to form alternative C5 CONVERTASE (C3BBB3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Mannose-Binding Lectin: A specific mannose-binding member of the collectin family of lectins. It binds to carbohydrate groups on invading pathogens and plays a key role in the MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.Complement Factor B: A glycine-rich, heat-labile serum glycoprotein that contains a component of the C3 CONVERTASE ALTERNATE PATHWAY (C3bBb). Bb, a serine protease, is generated when factor B is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR D into Ba and Bb.Complement Pathway, Classical: Complement activation initiated by the binding of COMPLEMENT C1 to ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES at the COMPLEMENT C1Q subunit. This leads to the sequential activation of COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S subunits. Activated C1s cleaves COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 forming the membrane-bound classical C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Libraries: Collections of systematically acquired and organized information resources, and usually providing assistance to users. (ERIC Thesaurus, http://www.eric.ed.gov/ accessed 2/1/2008)Libraries, Digital: Libraries in which a major proportion of the resources are available in machine-readable format, rather than on paper or MICROFORM.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Advertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Psychodidae: Small, hairy, moth-like flies which are of considerable public health importance as vectors of certain pathogenic organisms. Important disease-related genera are PHLEBOTOMUS, Lutzomyia, and Sergentomyia.Salivary Proteins and Peptides: Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.Complement C3 Convertase, Alternative Pathway: A serine protease that is the complex of COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT FACTOR BB. It cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT C3B in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY.Complement Membrane Attack Complex: A product of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION cascade, regardless of the pathways, that forms transmembrane channels causing disruption of the target CELL MEMBRANE and cell lysis. It is formed by the sequential assembly of terminal complement components (COMPLEMENT C5B; COMPLEMENT C6; COMPLEMENT C7; COMPLEMENT C8; and COMPLEMENT C9) into the target membrane. The resultant C5b-8-poly-C9 is the "membrane attack complex" or MAC.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Surface Plasmon Resonance: A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.History, 16th Century: Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.

Sex-limited protein: in vitro and in vivo functions. (1/96)

Mouse complement component C4 exists in two isoforms, C4 and a protein with expression restricted to male animals called sex-limited protein (Slp). Although Slp is about 95% homologous to C4, it is generally believed to be non-functional, at least in conventional haemolytic complement assays. In a previous study, however, we showed that Slp is haemolytically active in a C1-inhibitor (C1INH)-regulated, EDTA-resistant mouse complement activation pathway. To study other possible implications of this finding, we generated constitutively expressing Slp-transgenic mice. The transgene was crossed into otherwise Slp-deficient C57Bl/6J and NZB mice. Members of the third backcross generation of C57Bl/6J mice were tested for functional Slp and classical and alternative complement pathway activities (CH50 and AP50 levels, respectively). Slp-transgenic C57Bl/6J mice showed enhanced CH50, but normal AP50 levels when compared with non-transgenic littermates. To discover a possible protective role for Slp in spontaneous systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in NZBxNZW (NZBxW) mice, the third backcross generation of Slp-transgenic NZB mice was mated with NZW mice and the development of SLE in the female offspring was followed. In these introductory experiments, Slp-transgenic NZBxW animals presented with a significantly extended life span. Our results imply that Slp is a mouse complement component with functions which partially resemble some of those of human C4A.  (+info)

Elevated serum levels of soluble membrane cofactor protein (CD46, MCP) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). (2/96)

Membrane cofactor protein (MCP, CD46) is a cell surface complement regulatory protein which acts as a cofactor for the factor I-mediated cleavage of the activated complement components C3b/C4b. To evaluate the clinical usefulness of serum soluble CD46 as a marker of disease activity in patients with SLE, serum levels of sCD46 were measured by ELISA, using two MoAbs (M160 and M177), each of which recognized two different epitopes on CD46 molecule in SLE, other autoimmune diseases and healthy controls. Serum sCD46 levels in active SLE patients (30.5 +/- 14.1 ng/ml) were significantly higher than those of inactive SLE (5.8 +/- 7.1 ng/ml; P = 0.0003), rheumatoid arthritis (14.9 +/- 11.6 ng/ml; P = 0.0218), primary Sjogren's syndrome (12.3 +/- 11.6 ng/ml; P = 0.0039) and normal controls (7.3 +/- 3.6 ng/ml; P = 0.0005). The elevated serum sCD46 levels in active SLE patients significantly decreased from 30.5 +/- 14.1 ng/ml to 8.0 +/- 6.3 ng/ml after effective corticosteroid and immunosuppressant therapy (P = 0.018). Additionally, we found a significant negative association between increasing concentration of sCD46 and decreasing levels of CH50 in SLE (r = -0.598, P = 0.0009). These results suggest that sCD46 reflects in vivo activation of complement system and provides an additional useful serum parameter of active SLE.  (+info)

Monomeric complement-activating IgG paraproteins. (3/96)

Three patients presented a unique syndrome of recurrent panniculitis with an IgGkappa paraprotein and depletion of the early components of the classical pathway of complement. The IgGkappa paraproteins were monomers with a normal structure, and with no evidence for aggregation, as assessed by electron microscopy and ultracentrifugation. Both heavy and light chains were of normal molecular size (SDS-PAGE), and the paraproteins were not heavily glycosylated. However, the paraproteins from all three patients had unusual features that included abnormal behavior on gel filtration chromatography and a heavy chain of high pI. When analyzed by fast protein liquid chromatography (Superdex 200), elution of the paraproteins was retarded, particularly when the ionic strength was increased. This retardation was partially reversed in 20% alcohol, and fully reversed in 6 M guanidine-HCl. Neither anti-C1 inhibitor nor anti-C1q autoantibodies were found in any of the patients' sera. However, the paraproteins bound to the globular heads of C1q at normal ionic strength. They activated C4 in normal human serum, but not in C1q-deficient serum. Activation led to the formation of C1s-C1 inhibitor complexes. Taken together, the data suggest that the unusual paraproteins have the capacity to bind C1q, which then leads to activation of C1. The ability of these paraproteins to activate C1, in spite of their being soluble monomers, is likely to be related to their unique physicochemical features.  (+info)

Enhanced anti-inflammatory activity of a liposomal intercellular adhesion molecule-1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide in an acute model of contact hypersensitivity. (4/96)

The anti-inflammatory activity of free and liposome-encapsulated oligonucleotide targeted against intercellular adhesion molecule-1 mRNA was investigated in a delayed type hypersensitivity model of acute inflammation in mice. Contact hypersensitivity reactions to 2, 4-dinitrofluorobenzene were monitored by measuring ear thickness and cellular infiltration, both of which were observed to be maximal 24 h after ear challenge. A murine-specific phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide and various control sequences were each passively encapsulated into 100-nm diameter large unilamellar vesicles composed of egg phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol. All formulations were administered as a single-bolus injection into the tail vein approximately 15 min after initiating ear inflammation. Oligodeoxynucleotide dose was varied from 5 to 50 mg/kg and the extent of inflammation was assessed 24 h later. Mice treated with free oligonucleotide, empty vesicles, or encapsulated control sequences showed no measurable effect on ear swelling or cellular infiltration compared with untreated controls. However, mice that received the active sequence encapsulated in lipid vesicles exhibited near baseline levels of ear thickness and leukocyte infiltration, similar to that observed in mice treated with a topical corticosteroid. These data demonstrate the utility of liposome-encapsulated intercellular adhesion molecule-1 antisense oligonucleotide as a novel anti-inflammatory therapeutic.  (+info)

Susceptibility of Vibrio cholerae O139 to antibody-dependent, complement-mediated bacteriolysis. (5/96)

Volunteer studies with Vibrio cholerae O1 have shown that the best correlate of a vaccine's protective efficacy is its propensity to elicit serum bactericidal responses in its recipients. Attempts to detect such responses following infection with V. cholerae O139, however, have met with varying success. Using a tube-based assay which involves viable counting, we now report that strains of serogroup O139 can appear to be sensitive or resistant to a fixed concentration of complement in the presence of antibody, depending on assay conditions. Susceptibility to lysis is critically dependent on the availability of complement, but with O139 indicator strains this is not simply determined by the concentration of serum added to the reaction mix. The nature of the assay diluent and the concentration of indicator bacteria can also dramatically affect bactericidal end points, whereas such variables have minimal significance with O1 indicator bacteria. Although some laboratories use unencapsulated mutant strains to seek evidence of seroconversion following exposure to V. cholerae O139, this is not necessary, and our findings question the significance of capsule expression as a determinant of complement sensitivity when antibody is present. The medium used for growth of the indicator strain and the particular strain used appeared to be unimportant. Each of seven O139 isolates tested was found to be lysed by antibody and complement in our standard assay system, which allowed the detection of significant serum bactericidal responses in 9 of 11 cases of O139 disease.  (+info)

Isolation, characterization, and cloning of porcine complement component C7. (6/96)

Activation of the complement system through the classical, alternative, or lectin pathway results in the formation of the terminal complement complex. C7 plays an integral role in the assembly of this complex with target cell membranes. To date, only human C7 has been cloned and characterized; thus, in this study, we characterized the porcine complement component C7. Porcine C7 was isolated by affinity chromatography as a single glycoprotein with an approximate molecular mass of 90 kDa and 100 kDa under reducing and nonreducing conditions, respectively. The full-length porcine C7 cDNA was isolated, and the predicted amino acid sequence exhibited 80% identity with human C7 with conservation of the cysteine backbone and two putative N-linked glycosylation sites. Porcine C7 mRNA expression was detected in all tissues investigated, except polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes. Addition of purified porcine C7 restored the hemolytic activity of C7-depleted human sera in a dose-dependent manner. A functionally inhibitory mAb against porcine C7 attenuated the hemolytic activity of human, rabbit, or rat sera, suggesting an important conserved C7 epitope among species. These data demonstrate that porcine and human C7 are highly conserved, sharing structural and functional characteristics.  (+info)

Chronic low level complement activation within the eye is controlled by intraocular complement regulatory proteins. (7/96)

PURPOSE: To explore the role of the complement system and complement regulatory proteins in an immune-privileged organ, the eye. METHODS: Eyes of normal Lewis rats were analyzed for the expression of complement regulatory proteins, membrane cofactor protein (MCP), decay-acceleration factor (DAF), membrane inhibitor of reactive lysis (MIRL, CD59), and cell surface regulator of complement (Crry), using immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Zymosan, a known activator of the alternative pathway of complement system was injected into the anterior chamber of the eye of Lewis rats. Animals were also injected intracamerally with 5 microl (25 microg) of neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb) against rat Crry (5I2) or CD59 (6D1) in an attempt to develop antibody induced anterior uveitis; control animals received 5 microl of sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), OX-18 (25 microg), G-16-510E3 (25 microg), or MOPC-21 (25 microg). The role of complement system in antibody-induced uveitis was explored by intraperitoneal injection of 35 U cobra venom factor (CVF), 24 hours before antibody injection. Immunohistochemical staining and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) with Western blot analysis were used to detect the presence of membrane attack complex (MAC) and C3 activation products, respectively, in normal and antibody-injected rat eyes. RESULTS: Complement activation product MAC was present in the normal rat eye, and intraocular injection of zymosan induced severe anterior uveitis. The complement regulatory proteins, MCP, DAF, CD59, and Crry, were identified in the normal rat eye. Soluble forms of Crry and CD59 were also detected in normal rat aqueous humor. Severe anterior uveitis developed in Lewis rats injected with a neutralizing mAb against Crry, with increased formation of C3 split products. Systemic complement depletion by CVF prevented the induction of anterior uveitis by anti-Crry mAb. Intracameral injection of anti-rat CD59 (6D1), anti-rat MHC class I antigen (OX-18), anti-rat Ig (G-16-510E3), or MOPC-21 caused no inflammatory reaction. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the complement system is continuously active at a low level in the normal eye and is tightly regulated by intraocular complement regulatory proteins.  (+info)

Complement regulatory activity of normal human intraocular fluid is mediated by MCP, DAF, and CD59. (8/96)

PURPOSE: To identify the molecules in normal human intraocular fluid (aqueous humor and vitreous) that inhibit the functional activity of the complement system. METHODS: Aqueous humor and vitreous were obtained from patients with noninflammatory ocular disease at the time of surgery. Samples were incubated with normal human serum (NHS), and the mixture assayed for inhibition of the classical and alternative complement pathways using standard CH(50) and AH(50) hemolytic assays, respectively. Both aqueous humor and vitreous were fractionated by microconcentrators and size exclusion column chromatography. The inhibitory molecules were identified by immunoblotting as well as by studying the effect of depletion of membrane cofactor protein (MCP), decay-accelerating factor (DAF), and CD59 on inhibitory activity. RESULTS: Both aqueous humor and vitreous inhibited the activity of the classical pathway (CH(50)). Microcentrifugation revealed the major inhibitory activity resided in the fraction with an M(r) >/= 3 kDa. Chromatography on an S-100-HR column demonstrated that the most potent inhibition was associated with the high-molecular-weight fractions (>/=19.5 kDa). In contrast to unfractionated aqueous and vitreous, fractions with an M(r) >/= 3 kDa also had an inhibitory effect on the alternative pathway activity (AH(50)). The complement regulatory activity in normal human intraocular fluid was partially blocked by monoclonal antibodies against MCP, DAF, and CD59. Immunoblot analysis confirmed the presence of these three molecules in normal intraocular fluid. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that normal human intraocular fluid (aqueous humor and vitreous) contains complement inhibitory factors. Furthermore, the high-molecular-weight factors appear to be the soluble forms of MCP, DAF, and CD59.  (+info)

Hi there: I want to establish a complement assay with porcine islet cells after incubation with certain antibodies to produce cell lysis! Does anyone have any protocols or hints? E.g. does it matter what species the complement is from, what concentration do I use etc.. Thanks in advance John ...
We previously described a simplified quantitative hemolytic assay for classical pathway (CP) hemolytic function in serum that has been shown to correlate with the 50% hemolytic complement (CH50) assay. In the present study, we used this assay to compare CP functions; plasma levels of C3, C4, and C3dg; and ratios of C3dg to C3 in healthy individuals and patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with different degrees of complement activation. A significant depression in CP function and levels of C4 and C3 and increased C3dg levels and C3dg/C3 ratios were observed in the SLE patients. In patients with RA, CP function was normal, whereas C3, C4, and C3dg levels and the C3dg/C3 ratio were elevated. The SLE results are compatible with systemic complement consumption, whereas the RA data suggest an acute-phase reaction with a normal C3 catabolic rate. To facilitate the handling of patient samples, we also developed a method to restore the hemolytic function of ...
Complement pathways function to identify and remove pathogens and infected cells. There are three complement pathways: the classical, lectin and alternative pathway (AP). While all pathways are activated following pathogen stimuli, the AP is constitutively active and tightly controlled by activators (e.g., Factor B, Factor D) and negative regulators (e.g., Factor H). Complement activity can be measured by well-established methods that are often used in a diagnostic setting to determine the CH50 (50% complement hemolytic activity) or AP50, specifically to measure AP activity. The protocol here has adapted the traditional AP50 method designed to measure AP activity in human sera, to measure the positive or negative AP regulatory activity within a given test sample. The assay relies on the ability of AP components in human serum to lyse rabbit erythrocytes under in vitro conditions specific for the AP with subsequent release of hemoglobin that is quantitated by measurement of optical density. Our method
Functional complement assays were developed to find patients suffering from complement deficiency. Today these assays are also widely used in drug development of new complement targeted drugs.
BiFC is developed base on the technique Protein-fragment Complement Assay, PCA (Barnard et al., 2008; Demidov and Broude, 2006). Protein-protein interactions coupled to refolding of a pair of split enzymes in the PCA technique. The enzyme used in PCA has it activity only when two split parts reconstruct together. The activities of enzyme act as a detector of protein-protein interaction (Remy and Michnick, 2007). While the BiFC technique use split fluorescent protein instead of split enzyme in the PCA. The split form of fluorescent protein alone has no fluorescence. Fluorescence appears when two split parts reassembly together immediately in few minutes. For mRNA detection, we design a system differ from BiFCs protein-protein interaction to RNA-protein interaction. Where a GFP is split into two inactive parts and fused with two parts of the split-eIF4A protein, a kind of RNA binding protein. On the other hand, we designed an mRNA aptamer that the eIF4A protein can bind to. EGFP will fluoresce ...
misc{7870232, abstract = {The complement system can be activated by three different pathways in the body. It is wanted to be able to detect deficiencies of these activation pathways and Bioporto A/S has acquired the commercial rights to a set of ELISA based assays. There is a need in these commercial assays for optimisation of dilution and wash buffers since the idea with the ELISA kit is to sell it as a "ready-to-use kit" and the dilution and wash buffer will be stored in small, concentrated volumes. In the concentrated volumes the reagent Tween-20 was a problem since it precipitated with CaCl2 in the buffers. The Tween-20 needed to be replaced and it was found that emulfogen had the same ability as Tween-20 to prevent unwanted binding in the wells without precipitating with CaCl2. Instead of 0,5% Tween-20 in the dilution buffer 0,1% emulfogen could be used and in the wash buffer 0,01% of emulfogen could be used instead of 0,05% Tween-20. Bioporto has also initiated to convert the complement ...
EN] The evaluation of animal welfare through innate immunity (Serum Bactericidal Activity - SBA, Hemolytic Complement Assay - HCA, lysozyme) and the antioxidant status of the body (Reactive Oxygen Substances - ROS and Antioxidant Power of plasma, AP) offers a reliable prognostic and diagnostic tool. The aim of the present study was to investigate trends and correlations between some traits of innate immunity and the oxidative status of fattening rabbits at different ages. Blood samples from 120 New Zealand White fattening rabbits at 45, 55, 65, and 75 d of age were collected and analyzed. The results showed that SBA did not have a normal distribution because of numerous 0 values. Data distribution was normal when only SBA , 0 values were considered. Lysozyme (mean value 27.19 microg/mL) and HCA (mean value 50.84 CH50% ) had stable trends at different ages and showed a tendency that was comparable to that obtained in other animal species. On the contrary, SBA (mean value 42.15%) showed an ...
Information on maculopapular rash, symptoms, causes, treatment. Maculopapular rash pictures indicate parts of the skin turning red with small bumps on it
Maculopapular rash needs to be first reported to the doctor before starting on any OTC medication. There are multiple causes for the rash.
After severe tissue injury, innate immunity mounts a robust systemic inflammatory response. However, little is known about the immediate impact of multiple trauma on early complement function in humans. In the present study, we hypothesized that multiple trauma results in immediate activation, consumption, and dysfunction of the complement cascade and that the resulting severe "complementopathy" may be associated with morbidity and mortality. Therefore, a prospective multicenter study with 25 healthy volunteers and 40 polytrauma patients (mean injury severity score = 30.3 ± 2.9) was performed. After polytrauma, serum was collected as early as possible at the scene, on admission to the emergency room (ER), and 4, 12, 24, 120, and 240 h post-trauma and analyzed for the complement profile. Complement hemolytic activity (CH-50) was massively reduced within the first 24 h after injury, recovered only 5 days after trauma, and discriminated between lethal and nonlethal 28-day outcome. Serum levels of ...
Zika virus is transmitted to humans by infected mosquitoes which causes mild fever with maculopapular rash. No treatment or vaccine is currently available.
Foodborne infectious diseases represent a major public health burden in terms of the number of cases and days lost to illness. We report a generic cialis india 4-month-old boy with seizure, a 1-day history of fever, and a generalized maculopapular rash ...
On the third to fifth day, maculopapular rash appears on the trunk and then spreads to the arms and legs, while sparing the palms and soles ...
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List of causes of Abdomen blister and Maculopapular rashes, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient stories, and much more.
UNLABELLED Many macromolecular compounds of vegetal polysaccharides type develop important immunostimulatory properties. MATERIALS AND METHODS Crude macromolecular fraction was isolated from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba L. (codified as PGfol) harvested from Botanical Gardens of Iaşi, Romania. The hot water extract was partially purified and submitted to chemical and immunopharmacological studies. The immunostimulatory activity of PGfol was further investigated by a series of tests on rats: phagocytosis capacity of PMN cells by NBT test, serum complement activity and determination of the activity of splenic T-lymphocytes. RESULTS PGfol has a good immunostimulatory activity which is equal or higher to Levamisole (positive control).
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase (HMGS) is one of the rate-limiting enzymes in the mevalonate pathway as it catalyzes the condensation of acetoacetyl-CoA to form 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA. In this study, A HMGS gene (designated as GbHMGS1) was cloned from Ginkgo biloba for the first time. GbHMGS1 contained a 1422-bp open-reading frame encoding 474 amino acids. Comparative and bioinformatics analysis revealed that GbHMGS1 was extensively homologous to HMGSs from other plant species. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the GbHMGS1 belonged to the plant HMGS superfamily, sharing a common evolutionary ancestor with other HMGSs, and had a further relationship with other gymnosperm species. The yeast complement assay of GbHMGS1 in HMGS-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain YSC6274 demonstrated that GbHMGS1 gene encodes a functional HMGS enzyme. The recombinant protein of GbHMGS1 was successfully expressed in E. coli. The in vitro enzyme activity assay showed that the kcat and Km values of
Regulation of complement activity by immunoglobulin. I. Effect of immunoglobulin isotype on C4 uptake on antibody-sensitized sheep erythrocytes and solid phase immune complexes.
1HFD: Structures of native and complexed complement factor D: implications of the atypical His57 conformation and self-inhibitory loop in the regulation of specific serine protease activity.
Background: Two ways of interrogate the insulin development element 1 receptor (IGF-1R) pathway were investigated: vertical inhibition with dalotuzumab and MK-2206 or ridaforolimus to potentiate PI3K pathway targeting and horizontal cross-talk inhibition with dalotuzumab and MK-0752 to exert results against cellular proliferation, angiogenesis, and stem cell propagation. whereas individuals with high manifestation colorectal tumor received dalotuzumab/MK-0752. Outcomes: A complete of 47 individuals had been enrolled: 29 partly A (18 in the dalotuzumab/MK-2206 arm and 11 in the dalotuzumab/MK-0752 arm) and 18 partly B (6 in each arm). Dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) for dalotuzumab/MK-2206 included quality 4 neutropenia and quality 3 serum sickness-like response, maculopapular rash, and gastrointestinal swelling. For dalotuzumab/MK-0752, DLTs included quality 3 dehydration, allergy, and diarrhoea. Seven individuals remained on research for 4 cycles. Conclusions: Dalotuzumab/MK-2206 and ...
A 72-year-old man comes to the physician because of a 3-day history of right-sided chest pain. He denies any shortness of breath, nausea or vomiting. Physical examination shows a unilateral, erythematous, maculopapular rash extending from the anterior chest wall around to the back in a dermatomal pattern. The remainder of the examination is normal. In conversation, [...]. ...
Hereditary Factors:, Life-History Effects:, Serology: Antigen, Genes: Hc - Hemolytic complement, MuBl,, Strains: A/HE, AKR, BALB/C, BSVS, CBA, CE, C57BL, C57BL/6, C57BR/CD, C57L, C58, DBA/1 (12), DBA/2 (212), MA (MARSH), MO, P, SIMPSON, PL (PLA, PLB), RF (W), SJL, SL, SM, SWR, T6T6, WHT (WH/HT), 129, BUB. ...
Over the last few decades, PwDs have organized themselves into organizations in 100 countries [11]. Disabled Peoples Organizations (DPOs) are important for PwDs as it is an important step towards their self-development by providing the opportunity "to develop skills in the negotiation process, organizational abilities, mutual support, information sharing and often vocational skills and opportunities" [12]. Given their vital importance in the process of participation, it is crucial to encourage the development of DPOs [13]. PwDs have been united under the DPOs to use advocacy to influence the decision-makers in government and the society at larger for their rights [14]. PwDs are their own best spokespersons and representatives, as they know best their needs and aspirations [15]. Advocacy is an important activity which is used to influence decisions within political, economic, and social systems and institutions by individual or groups in their interest [16].. Unlike issues relating to gender or ...
The previously healthy 31-year-old woman from Norway was admitted to the Oslo University Hospital, Norway, on December 13, 2013. Six days earlier, she had returned from a 14-day vacation to Tahiti, where she mainly stayed in the capital, Papeete, and took a short trip to the island of Moorea. One day after her return to Norway, she experienced fever, intense joint pain, and myalgia. Subsequently, a maculopapular rash developed. At the time of admission, her temperature was 37.7°C, and she had enlarged nuchal lymph nodes; injected conjunctivae; and a maculopapular rash on her trunk, extremities, and face (Technical Appendix[PDF - 194 KB - 1 page]). Clinical examination findings were otherwise unremarkable. Laboratory tests showed leukopenia of 2.7 × 109 cells/L (reference range 3.5-10 × 109/L), with mild lymphopenia of 1.0 × 109 cells/L (reference range 1.5.-4.0 × 109/L) and neutropenia of 1.4 ×109 cells/L (reference range 1.5-7.3 × 109/L). No thrombocytopenia or elevated liver enzyme ...
c-C3BP or rGAPDH was observed (Figure 3c, d). The H.c-C3BP or rGAPDH interaction with C3 was specific and strong, which was evident from the fact that the column-bound C3 was eluted at high salt wash (0·5 m NaCl) or by lowering the pH to 2·2. To test whether H.c-C3BP or rGAPDH binding to C3 would influence complement function, a simple haemolytic assay was performed where the lysis of sensitized sheep erythrocytes by serum complement proteins was measured. As shown in Figure 3(e, f), a dose-dependent inhibition of erythrocyte lysis by H.c-C3BP and rGAPDH was observed. To rule out that the observed inhibition was not due to suppression of the classical pathway, binding of C1q protein by H.c-C3BP was. measured. No interaction among these proteins was evident in the microtitre plate assay (not shown). To confirm check details whether the inhibition of erythrocyte lysis by H.c-C3BP or rGAPDH was due to suppression of C3 activation, the formation of membrane attack complex (MAC) was measured on the ...
Egan LJ et. al. (1994) Hereditary deficiency of the seventh component of complement and recurrent meningococcal infection: investigations of an Irish family using a novel haemolytic screening assay for complement activity and C7 M/N allotyping.. [^] ...
Title: CH50: A Revisited Hemolytic Complement Consumption Assay for Evaluation of Nanoparticles and Blood Plasma Protein Interaction. VOLUME: 8 ISSUE: 3. Author(s):Ameena Meerasa, Jasper G. Huang and Frank X. Gu. Affiliation:Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1.. Keywords:CH50 assay, complement activation, hemolytic assay, nanoparticles, opsonization, protein interaction, stealth, toxicity, Plasma Protein, vasculature. Abstract: The use of nanoparticles as platforms or vehicles for applications in nanomedicine, such as drug delivery and medical imaging, has been widely reported in the literature. A key area of potential improvement in the development and implementation of nanoparticles is the design of surface treatments to maximize residence time in the bloodstream. Major obstacles to the prolonged circulation of nanoparticles include complement activation and opsonization, both of which contribute to the removal of foreign ...
It has been estimated that over 50 million DENV infections occur globally each year (3). Most of these infections are clinically inapparent. Among symptomatic cases, the majority of subjects experience uncomplicated dengue fever (DF), an acute febrile illness typically lasting 3-7 days, accompanied by headache, myalgias, and, less often, a maculopapular rash. The headache and myalgias may be quite debilitating, which originated the name "break-bone fever" that was recorded prior to the 1900s (4). Laboratory findings in patients with DF include leukopenia thrombocytopenia, and mild elevations in serum hepatic transaminases (5). Fatigue may be prolonged for months after resolution of fever, but patients eventually recover without sequelae. None of these features is sufficiently specific for accurate clinical diagnosis of DF. Laboratory support for detection of IgM antibody or virus (by RT-PCR or virus isolation) is therefore important for recognition of outbreaks.. DHF represents the severe ...
Viral infection of the skin & mucous membrane Viral diseases associated with maculopapular rash. Viral disease associated with vesicular rash. Human warts.
What is Roseola Infantum: Roseola infantum is the sixth of the traditional exanthems of childhood. The condition is an acute benign disease of childhood characterized by a history of a prodromal febrile illness lasting approximately 3 days, followed by defervescence and the appearance of a faint pink maculopapular rash.
Although risk factors for poor prognosis in patients with IgAN have been reported previously [1, 2], it is still difficult to accurately estimate renal prognosis in these patients. Although serum levels of C3 and C4 frequently fluctuate within the normal range in IgAN patients, studies have increasingly focused on the role of complement in the pathogenesis of IgAN [14-17]. However, the relationship between serum complement levels and the renal prognosis of patients with IgAN remains controversial.. There were studies discussing the relationship between serum C3 levels and the prognosis of IgAN. Kim et al. reported that low serum C3 at the time of renal biopsy was an independent risk factor for poor prognosis [18]. Lbels et al. also found that higher serum C3 at the end of follow up were associated with adverse outcomes, but lower baseline serum C3 levels were unrelated to prognosis [19]. Conversely, Komatsu et al. did not identify any difference in serum C3 levels between patients with severe ...
A morbilliform rash appears as a generalized erythematous to pink maculopapular rash that blanches with pressure. Measles and rubella are classic infections (Table 97-1) representing this category. While widespread vaccination makes these diagnoses less likely, recent clusters of cases, particularly in unimmunized communities, should prompt consideration of these infections. Among immunized pediatric patients with morbilliform rash, a specific cause is identified in 37% to 48% of cases.1,2 Common culprits include parvovirus, human herpesvirus 6, enteroviruses, and group A Streptococcus. Other patients likely have unspecified self-limited viral infections, although drug eruption and Kawasaki disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Fever, rhinorrhea, and cough typically occur with these illnesses. ...
a ,Propecia,/a, propecia orderviagra urgent care ,a ,purchase viagra pe,/a, viagra online genuinestopping finasteride groin pain ,a. diflucan costo con.Maculopapular rash due to fluconazole Auteur(s) / Author(s) DI LEO E.; NETTIS E.; PRIORE M. G.; FERRANNINI A.; VACCA A.; Revue / Journal Title Clinical.If the disease is chronic and extensive, then ketoconazole, fluconazole,. Scrapings are mandatory in analysis of groin rashes since SD of the groin is common and.Does diflucan work. She was on Nestle is does diflucan work amazing herb! against pathogens is made. work with my milk not prescribe more you will need to.. ...
miR 146a was analyzed by miRNA qRT PCR using the TaqMan MicroRNA Reverse Transcription Kit, TaqMan Fast Advance PCR Master Mix, and TaqMan MicroRNA primers. All reactions were analyzed check this using StepOne Real Time PCR System. After Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries the collection of leukocytes with the LeukoLOCK fil ters, the leukocyte free blood was transferred to 10 ml Vacutainer SST plus blood collection tubes. Blood was centrifuged at 1,000 g for 20 minutes. The plasma was transferred to a 15 ml conical tube and stored at ?20 C. Anti dsDNA ELISA was per formed as previously described. In brief, anti human IgG secondary antibody was used and samples were con sidered positive when the absorbance was greater than the mean plus three SD from the healthy controls. Complement levels C3 and C4 complement Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries levels were obtained from clin ical data.. C3 levels lower than 90 mg dl and C4 levels less than 15 mg dl were considered as low complement levels in the ...
The relative contributions of humoral and cellmediated immune mechanisms in the rejection of renal homotransplants is an important but still unresolved issue. The diversity of the clinical and pathological pictures in different patients suggests that more than one mechanism may be operating at various times. This study determined serum immunoglobulin levels and complement activity in a series of renal transplant patients and attempted to assess the humoral contribution to rejection. Serial serum samples were obtained from 11 patients receiving renal homografts. Eight patients had clinically apparent episodes of rejection in the first week after surgery, and 3 of these had ...
Adult (18 years old or older) HIV-1-infected patient. Adequate venous access for apheresis or sufficient research blood collection. Positive HIV antibody immunoassay and a positive confirmatory HIV test as defined by current CDC criteria. Tests may be done in our clinic or by an outside provider. For individuals with suspected early infection; the following criteria may be used: a history of exposure to a known source of HIV-infected material or individual or clinical symptoms and signs consistent with acute HIV infection (such as fever, sore throat, malaise, maculopapular rash combined with one of the following: a positive HIV antibody immunoassay and confirmatory HIV test as defined by current CDC criteria); or a positive HIV antibody immunoassay, with negative confirmatory test that subsequently evolves to a positive result; or HIV RNA levels of ,2,000 copies/ml with a negative result from an HIV antibody immunoassay.. Willingness to be able to make follow up visits at least once in the next ...
Adult (18 years old or older) HIV-1-infected patient. Adequate venous access for apheresis or sufficient research blood collection. Positive HIV antibody immunoassay and a positive confirmatory HIV test as defined by current CDC criteria. Tests may be done in our clinic or by an outside provider. For individuals with suspected early infection; the following criteria may be used: a history of exposure to a known source of HIV-infected material or individual or clinical symptoms and signs consistent with acute HIV infection (such as fever, sore throat, malaise, maculopapular rash combined with one of the following: a positive HIV antibody immunoassay and confirmatory HIV test as defined by current CDC criteria); or a positive HIV antibody immunoassay, with negative confirmatory test that subsequently evolves to a positive result; or HIV RNA levels of ,2,000 copies/ml with a negative result from an HIV antibody immunoassay.. Willingness to be able to make follow up visits at least once in the next ...
Images of vaccine-preventable diseases are available from the Immunization ... Prodrome of low-grade fever. Maculopapular rash 14-17 days after exposure ... – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 1189db-MGViN
From NCBI Gene:. This gene encodes a member of the S1, or chymotrypsin, family of serine peptidases. This protease catalyzes the cleavage of factor B, the rate-limiting step of the alternative pathway of complement activation. This protein also functions as an adipokine, a cell signaling protein secreted by adipocytes, which regulates insulin secretion in mice. Mutations in this gene underlie complement factor D deficiency, which is associated with recurrent bacterial meningitis infections in human patients. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. At least one of these variants encodes a preproprotein that is proteolytically processed to generate the mature protease. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2015]. From UniProt: ...
Granulocytic infiltrate occurs in the absence of demyelination, terminal complement complex formation, and overt tissue destruction in NMO white matter. a H&
This is a rapid publication site that replaces Virtual Grand Rounds in Dermatology (vgrd.org). Please join and feel free to post cases. You can share the URL with friends. Since 2000, VGRD has been a valuable means to share cases in real time from ones home or office. "AND GLADLY WOLDE HE LERNE AND GLADLY TECHE" has served as an enduring and inspirational motto. For more information, see the "About Page.". ...
β-hemolytic activity of the OKB105 cells compared to NHY1, the ybdT mutant. Blood agar plate was streaked with a single colony of OKB105 (wild-type) or NHY1 (y
1, adequate supply of high protein and protein in children with enough heat, per kilogram of body weight 2.5 ~ 4 grams. Heat 100 to 120 thousand cards (per kg body weight per day), to complement consumption. 2, fat intake should not be too
New Delhi: A new biosensor can measure what is going on within HIV-infected cells in real-time and also provide insight on the interactions between the AIDS virus and the tuberculosis causing bacteria within the cells.
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How is the brain wired to produce behaviors critical for life? This is one of the central scientific questions being addressed at the Janelia Farm campus of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI). The HHMI scientists are making amazing progress at Janelia Farm, working in multidiscplinary teams are using both bottom-up and top-down approaches, in a new state-of-the-art $500M facility.. The ultimate aim, of course, is to understand behaviors of the human brain, but the sheer complexity of our brain makes this a daunting challenge. Instead, the HHMI scientists are studying organisms, such as fruit flies and C. elegans (a type of microscopic worm), with relatively simpler nervous systems. Since evolution tends to conserve form and function across species, lessons learned by studying the brains and behaviors of these animals can be used to understand that of humans.. Broadly speaking, the problem is being attacked from two directions. In the bottom-up approach, Drs. Scheffer, Chklovskii, and ...
For thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs), the diagnosis of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is made by ruling out Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC)-associated HUS and ADAMTS13 activity-deficient thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), often using the exclusion criteria for secondary TMAs. Nowadays, assays for ADAMTS13 activity and evaluation for STEC infection can be performed within a few hours. However, a confident diagnosis of aHUS often requires comprehensive gene analysis of the alternative complement activation pathway, which usually takes at least several weeks. However, predisposing genetic abnormalities are only identified in approximately 70% of aHUS. To facilitate the diagnosis of complement-mediated aHUS, we describe a quantitative hemolytic assay using sheep red blood cells (RBCs) and human citrated plasma, spiked with or without a novel inhibitory anti-complement factor H (CFH) monoclonal antibody. Among 45 aHUS patients in Japan, 24% (11/45) had moderate-to-severe (
Background. Chikungunya (CHIK-V) is a single-stranded RNA alpha virus of the family Togaviridae, first isolated from mosquitoes and humans during an outbreak in Tanzania in 1952 to 1953. The onset of symptoms of a CHIK-V infection is usually 3-7days after being bitten. Infection elicits an acute febrile and incapacitating Polyarthralgia typically affecting the hands and feet. Other manifestations include headache, myalgia, maculopapular rash, gastrointestinal involvement, and persistent rheumatologic symptoms [1]. The exact pathogenesis that accounts for persistent joint symptoms is uncertain, but it has been proposed that joint involvement may have a relationship with predisposing genetic profiles such as HLA B27 [2]. Macrophage-derived products such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-gamma, and macrophage chemo attractant protein-1 may be implicated in the damage of joint tissue. While fatalities associated with CHIK-V infection are rare, more severe clinical presentations have been ...
Patients can progress from the initial non-specific symptoms after about 5 days to develop gastrointestinal symptoms such as severe watery diarrhea, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. Other symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, headache or confusion, may also develop. Patients often have conjunctival injection. Hiccups have been reported. Seizures may occur, and cerebral edema has been reported. Bleeding is not universally present but can manifest later in the course as petechiae, ecchymosis/bruising, or oozing from venipuncture sites and mucosal hemorrhage. Frank hemorrhage is less common; in the current outbreak unexplained bleeding has been reported from only 18% of patients, most often blood in the stool (about 6%). Patients may develop a diffuse erythematous maculopapular rash by day 5 to 7 (usually involving the neck, trunk, and arms) that can desquamate. Pregnant women may experience spontaneous miscarriages. The most common signs and symptoms reported from West Africa ...
Adverse cutaneous reactions to itraconazole are known to be quite rare. We report a case of maculopapular reaction caused by itraconazole. On the 7th day of itraconazole therapy for hand onychomycosis, in a 39-year-old woman pruritus...
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Mouse Factor D ELISA Kit is a sensitive (0.03 ng/ml) immunoassay suitable for the quantification of Factor D in Cell culture supernatant, Urine, Serum, Plasma samples.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Measurement of hemolytic complement and the third component of complement in nonhuman primates. AU - Holmberg, C. A.. AU - Ellingsworth, L.. AU - Osburn, Bennie. AU - Grant, C. K.. PY - 1977/12/1. Y1 - 1977/12/1. N2 - Complement, determined by hemolytic assay, and the third component of complement (C3), determined by radial immunodiffusion assay, were measured in nine nonhuman primate species. The species studied were the titi (Callicebus mollach). The sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys), the thick-tailed galago or bushbaby (Galago crassicaudatus panganiensis), the crab-eating monkey (Macaca fascicularis), the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta), the bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata), the stumptailed macaque (Macaca speciosa), the yelllow baboon (Papio cynocephalus), and the black-and-red tamarin (Saguinus nigricollis). Both sheep and bovine erythrocytes were used in the hemolytic complement assays. With the sheep erythrocyte system sera from four species (yellow baboon, sooty mangabey, ...
natal hypoglycaemia in the infant. Placenta previa is a term that descirbes the placenta being implanted over the cervical os, it is a common cause of vaginal bleeding during pregnancy. Maternal hypertension and proteinuria indicate pre-eclampsia, pre-eclampsia can progress to eclampsia (seizures) or HELLP syndrome. Maternal megaloblastic anaemia can be caused be B12 deficiency or folate deficiency. Folate deficiency within the first trimester, is associated with fetal neural tube defects. Rubella presents with mild fever and a discrete maculopapular rash that resolves in 3-5 days. Occipital and posterior cervical lymphadenopathy is characteristic, the characteristic rash with rubella is a maculopapular rash spreading from the head inferiorly to the trunk and then the extremities. Scarlet fever is a GAS(Beta haemolytic) infection, it presents with fever, sore throat and an erythematous maculopapular sand paper like rash. Roseola infantum is caused by herpes virus type 6, affects children 6-15 ...
Diatec Monoclonals offers an excellent monoclonal antibody against human C5b-9, the Terminal Complement Complex (TCC). The antibody is produced in vitro by the aE11 hybridoma and purified with protein A to a purity more than 98%.. This antibody recognizes C5b-9, the terminal complement complex (TCC). TCC consist of C5b, C6, C7, C8 and C9 and contains neoantigens that are absent from the individual native components.. aE11 produces monoclonal antibodies against neoantigens of both membrane bound (MAC) and fluid phase (SC5b-9) complexes. This antibody is directed against a neoepitope exposed in C9 when incorporated into the terminal complement complex (TCC). For research customers we ask you to contact our international distributor:. BioPorto Diagnostics. If you are in need of larger amounts of C5b-9 (,20 mg), please contact us direct.. ...
An acute, short-lived, viral disease of infants and young children characterized by a high fever at onset that drops to normal after 3-4 days and the concomitant appearance of a macular or maculopapular rash that appears first on the trunk and then spreads to other areas. It is the sixth of the classical exanthematous diseases and is caused by HHV-6; (HERPESVIRUS 6, HUMAN). (From Dorland, 27th ed ...
... complement fixation tests MeSH E01.450.495.735.155 --- complement hemolytic activity assay MeSH E01.450.495.735.360 --- ... complement hemolytic activity assay MeSH E01.450.495.225 --- fluorescent antibody technique MeSH E01.450.495.225.050 --- ... local lymph node assay MeSH E01.370.750.600 --- passive cutaneous anaphylaxis MeSH E01.370.750.610 --- patch tests MeSH E01.370 ... local lymph node assay MeSH E01.450.495.750.600 --- passive cutaneous anaphylaxis MeSH E01.450.495.750.610 --- patch tests MeSH ...
In combination with the Alternative pathway hemolytic assay ("AH50") it can indicate terminal pathway deficiencies (C3, C5-C9; ... Total complement activity is a test performed to assess the level of functioning of the complement system. The terms "CH50" or ... "Complement: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". medlineplus.gov. Retrieved 11 February 2017. ...
Moreover, the complement inhibitory activities of factor H, and other complement regulators, are often used by pathogens to ... Atkinson JP, Goodship TH (Jun 2007). "Complement factor H and the hemolytic uremic syndrome". The Journal of Experimental ... and determinants of circulating complement factor H concentration determined by a high-throughput immunonephelometric assay". ... Factor H regulates complement activation on self cells and surfaces by possessing both cofactor activity for the Factor I ...
In whole serum, C4B alleles performed at a rate several fold greater during hemolytic activity, in direct comparison with C4A ... study, they utilized the real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR) as an assay to determine the copy number variance (CNV) ... an effect produced by the effector proteins of the complement system in which the C4 partakes). Complement system Complement ... Complement component 4 (C4), in humans, is a protein involved in the intricate complement system, originating from the human ...
... assays of chemotaxis, bactericidal activity. Due to the rarity of many primary immunodeficiencies, many of the above tests are ... Complement deficiencies are the result of a lack of any of these proteins. They may predispose to infections but also to ... haemolytic-uraemic syndrome, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis) Factor D deficiency (Neisserial infections) Properdin ... The complement system is part of the innate as well as the adaptive immune system; it is a group of circulating proteins that ...
The idea of molecular mimicry arose in the context of Rheumatic Fever, which follows infection with Group A beta-haemolytic ... These ligands include B cell receptor (for antigen), IgG Fc receptors, CD21, which binds complement C3d, Toll-like receptors 9 ... serological assays which can detect specific autoantibodies can be employed. Localised disorders are best diagnosed by ... parasite infection is associated with reduced activity of autoimmune disease.[17][18][19] ...
Nimmerjahn F, Ravetch JV (January 2007). "The antiinflammatory activity of IgG: the intravenous IgG paradox". J. Exp. Med. 204 ... and can interfere with many of the IgG-based assays often used to diagnose a patient with a particular infection. After ... "Hemolytic transfusion reactions after administration of intravenous immune (gamma) globulin: a case series analysis". ... the possibility that IgG stimulates the host's complement system, leading to enhanced removal of all antibodies, including the ...
... a first-in-class terminal complement inhibitor, has been shown in clinical studies to block terminal complement activity in ... and assays for fibrin degradation products such as "D-Dimers", are generally normal despite the low platelet count ( ... Orth D, Würzner R (September 2010). "Complement in typical hemolytic uremic syndrome". Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis. ... Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is a disease characterized by a triad of hemolytic anemia (anemia caused by destruction of red ...
... a first-in-class terminal complement inhibitor, has been shown in clinical studies to block terminal complement activity in ... and assays for fibrin degradation products such as "D-Dimers", are generally normal despite the low platelet count ( ... Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is a disease characterized by a triad of hemolytic anemia (anemia caused by destruction of red ... directly activates the alternative complement pathway and also interferes with complement regulation by binding to complement ...
... these phagocytes are attracted by certain complement molecules generated in the complement cascade. Second, some complement ... The base of the Y plays a role in modulating immune cell activity. This region is called the Fc (Fragment, crystallizable) ... Urbaniak S, Greiss M (2000). "RhD haemolytic disease of the fetus and the newborn". Blood Rev. 14 (1): 44-61. doi:10.1054/blre. ... For example, in biochemical assays for disease diagnosis, a titer of antibodies directed against Epstein-Barr virus or Lyme ...
... and can interfere with many of the IgG-based assays often used to diagnose a patient with a particular infection.[19] ... hemolytic anemia, thrombosis, hepatitis, anaphylaxis, backache, aseptic meningitis, acute kidney injury, hypokalemic ... the possibility that IgG stimulates the host's complement system, leading to enhanced removal of all antibodies, including the ... de-sialylated preparations of immunoglobulin lose their therapeutic activity and the anti-inflammatory effects of IVIG can be ...
The disorder can also be caused by a monoclonal immunoglobulin that acts as a autoantibody that activates the blood complement ... and cold-induced hemolytic anemia. IgM, IgG, and to lesser extents κ and λ free light chain myeloma proteins can cause Immune ... these cases are not plasma cell dyscrasias but rather appear to be caused by the over-activity of non-malignant immune cell ... more sensitive methods of detecting urinary and serum light chain myeloma proteins using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays ...
However, current latex assays and some typing antisera have shown cross reactions with non-E. coli O157 colonies. Furthermore, ... UPEC can evade the body's innate immune defences (e.g. the complement system) by invading superficial umbrella cells to form ... O157:H7 is also notorious for causing serious and even life-threatening complications such as hemolytic-uremic syndrome. This ... 5 October 2012). "Intestinal Inflammation Targets Cancer-Inducing Activity of the Microbiota". Science. 338: 120-123. doi: ...
Beta-2 comprises C3 (complement protein 3). It is raised in the acute phase response. Depression of C3 occurs in autoimmune ... There are typically low levels in haemolytic anaemia (haptoglobin is a suicide molecule which binds with free haemoglobin ... This eventually leads to emphysema from unregulated neutrophil elastase activity in the lung tissue. The alpha-1 fraction does ... disorders as the complement system is activated and the C3 becomes bound to immune complexes and removed from serum. Fibrinogen ...
... Nilsson, U R Uppsala University ... Simplified hemolytic assays for the classical (CP) and alternative (AP) pathways of complement (C) were developed. The CP ... In contrast to the commonly used hemolytic titration (CH50) assays, the present techniques tested the activity in reaction ... assays. The modified assays should offer less laborious alternatives for the functional assay of C than current routine ...
Assay of Serum Total Hemolytic C Activity (CH100). At fixed intervals, blood (200 μl) was withdrawn through the venous catheter ... of animals (CH100 = serum total hemolytic C activity at time 0 expressed as reduction relative to its normalized activity ... Serum total hemolytic C activities were determined as absolute CH100 units and are expressed here as relative changes ... Serum C levels were measured as total hemolytic C activity before and 18 h after CVF injection and expressed as CH100 units. In ...
Complement Hemolytic Activity Assay. A screening assay for circulating COMPLEMENT PROTEINS. Diluted SERUM samples are added to ... The values are expressed by the so called CH50, in HEMOLYTIC COMPLEMENT units per milliliter, which is the dilution of serum ... Assays An assay is an analytic procedure for qualitatively assessing or quantitatively measuring the presence or amount or the ... Colony-forming Units Assay. A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of stem cells by assaying their ...
... is an important down-regulating protein of the alternative pathway of the complement system. Presently, only 15 persons, ... Complement Factor H / genetics* * Complement Factor H / immunology * Complement Hemolytic Activity Assay ... C3 haemolytic activity, factor B and properdin levels (P , 0.0001) was found. Alternative pathway protein levels were ... Factor H, a 150-kD protein, is an important down-regulating protein of the alternative pathway of the complement system. ...
Study Complement Cascade flashcards from Paul Joshua Barcelona ... Routine screening test for complement activity Hemolytic assay ... Complement from 1 sp will react w/ immunoglobulin of another sp from the same taxonomic order ... Antigenic assay that is highly specific and require fewer specialized reagents and considerably less time ... Coating of antigen w/ specific complement peptide by specificreceptor on phagocytes for ingestion ...
Biological Activity of Complement and Its Fragments * Conclusion * Chapter 13. Antibody Production Requires Thymus-Derived and ... The Hemolytic Plaque Assay * T-B Lymphocyte Collaboration in Antibody Formation * T-Independent Antigens ...
Hemolytic complement assay.We estimated hemolytic complement activity in our samples using a published microassay that has been ... Serum hemolytic complement activity. Hemolytic complement activity against antibody-coated sheep erythrocytes was evaluated as ... had hemolytic complement activity that was equal to or greater than the activity of the reference complement used in the assay ... 6B). This sample also had hemolytic complement activity that was similar to that of the bactericidal samples, as well as levels ...
... is a member of the collectin protein family that binds a broad range of microorganisms and activates the lectin-complement ... Yano T (1992) Assays of hemolytic complement activity. In: Stolen JS, Fletcher TC, Anderson DP, Kaattari SL, Rowley AF (eds) ... Oswald IP, Lantier F, Bourgy G (1990) Classical and alternative pathway hemolytic activities of ovine complement: variations ... Characterization of alternative complement hemolytic pathway activity in Holstein bull serum. Acta Zool Sinica 52:698-705Google ...
Categories: Complement Hemolytic Activity Assay Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
With a C1q hemolytic assay, no residual hemolytic activity could be detected. ... C1q activity in the fractions was measured by a hemolytic assay (30); positive fractions were pooled, concentrated, and ... A novel assay for neutrophil clustering activity of human sera: relation to disease activity and neutropenia in systemic lupus ... First, it was shown earlier that binding of C1q to cC1qR/CaR results in a reduction of C1q hemolytic activity (22, 66). Second ...
Haemolytic assays for whole complement activity and individual components. A. W. Dodds, and R. B. Sim, eds. Complement: A ... Complement activation determines the therapeutic activity of Rituximab in vivo. J. Immunol. 171: 1581-1587. ... Complement activation determines the therapeutic activity of rituximab in vivo. J. Immunol. 171: 1581-1587. ... Complement activation and complemented-mediated killing of B cells promoted by anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) rituximab ...
Yano T (1992) Assays for haemolytic complement activity. In: Stolen JS, Fletcher TC, Anderson DP, Kaattari SL, Rowley AF (eds) ... Siwicki AK, Anderson DP (1993) Non-specific defense mechanisms assay in fish. II. Potential killing activity of neutrophils and ... Analytical applications to a colorimetric assay of lipid peroxidation. Chem Res Toxcol 11:1176-1183CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... The exceptions to this pattern included a significant decrease in alanine transaminase activity (P , 0.05) in the diet with 5 ...
Complement Assays. Laboratory investigations to support the diagnosis were performed at the Laboratoire dImmunologie ... Disease-associated N-terminal Complement Factor H Mutations Perturb Cofactor and Decay-accelerating Activities ... Complement Factor H-Related Protein 1 Deficiency and Factor H Antibodies in Pediatric Patients with Atypical Hemolytic Uremic ... Taylor CM: Complement factor H and the haemolytic uraemic syndrome. Lancet 358: 1200-1202, 2001. ...
Results from a pharmacodynamic assay that quantified serum complement activity by measuring the degree of hemolysis, as ... Inhibition of complement activity is indicated by 20% or lower hemolysis. Bars represent s.e. ... eculizumab inhibited terminal complement activity. In trial 1 with 17 patients, the platelet count was significantly improved ... Effect of eculizumab on serum complement inhibition over 2 years of treatment in trial 1 and trial 2. ...
Serum complement activity was determined by hemolytic assay. ELISA was used to detect the level of AChR specific antibodies. ... Modulation of complement activity with soluble or membrane bound regulators of complement activity represents a potentially ... Serum complement activity was reduced in Crry −/− EAMG mice and no substantial changes in deposition of C3, C3b/iC3b and C5b-9 ... Romi F, Kristoffersen EK, Aarli JA, Gilhus NE: The role of complement in myasthenia gravis: serological evidence of complement ...
The complement component C5 is not responsible for the alternative pathway activity in rabbit erythrocyte hemolytic assays ... Eculizumab in atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome: strategies toward restrictive use.. Wijnsma KL, Duineveld C, Wetzels JFM, van ... The bias between different albumin assays may affect clinical decision-making.. van de Logt AE, Rijpma SR, Vink CH, Prudon- ... Placental passage of eculizumab and complement blockade in a newborn.. Duineveld C, Wijnsma KL, Volokhina EB, van den Heuvel ...
... of the complement system. Here, we have identified Lufaxin, a protein component in saliva, as the inhibitor of the AP. Lufaxin ... mechanism that differs from previously described strategies used by other organisms to inhibit the AP of the host complement ... mechanism that differs from previously described strategies used by other organisms to inhibit the AP of the host complement ... of the complement system. Here, we have identified Lufaxin, a protein component in saliva, as the inhibitor of the AP. Lufaxin ...
This unit describes several assay methods that can be used to determine the functional status of the classical pathway of ... Basic Protocol 1: CH50 Assay for Total Classical Pathway Hemolytic Activity. MaterialsFor recipes, see Reagents and Solutions. ... Assay of complement components C1, C4, C2, C3 and C9 in whole rat serum. Int. Arch. Allergy Appl. Immunol. 43:887‐897. ... Testing of hemolytic complement and its components. In Veterinary Clinical Immunology Laboratory (O. Barta, ed.) pp. C6.1‐C6.40 ...
rhDAF treatment reduced complement hemolytic activity at 3 hours and tissue complement deposition at 3, 24, and 48 hours as ... rhDAF treatment reduced complement hemolytic activity at 3 hours and tissue complement deposition at 3, 24, and 48 hours as ... Interaction between complement cleavage component, C3a and C3a receptor and tau phosphorylation were also attenuated in rhDAF ... Interaction between complement cleavage component, C3a and C3a receptor and tau phosphorylation were also attenuated in rhDAF ...
Complement assay. Activity of the alternative pathway was studied using hemolytic assay for measurement of the alternative ... We analyzed the complement activity using functional hemolytic assay, dependent on the presence of C5, after arthritis ... the level of complement activity was up-regulated at day 70, which is consistent with the fact that several complement factors ... Complement lytic activity has no role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. Diabetes 42: 1574-1578. ...
1997) Haemolytic assays for whole complement activity and individual components. in Complement-a practical approach. eds Dodds ... Serum Complement Sensitivity as a Key Factor in Lyme Disease Ecology. Klaus Kurtenbach, Henna-Sisko Sewell, Nick H. Ogden, ... Serum Complement Sensitivity as a Key Factor in Lyme Disease Ecology. Klaus Kurtenbach, Henna-Sisko Sewell, Nick H. Ogden, ... Serum Complement Sensitivity as a Key Factor in Lyme Disease Ecology. Klaus Kurtenbach, Henna-Sisko Sewell, Nick H. Ogden, ...
... in particular for the therapy of diseases involving tissue damage deriving from uncontrolled activation of the complement ... present invention refers to recombinant antibodies of human origin specific for the C5 component of the activated complement ... and an haemolytic assay (panel B).. Panel A) The ELISA assay measures the amount of C5a fragment released in the supernatant ... have demonstrated that this antibody is able to inhibit complement hemolytic activity, to attenuate myocardial damage, ...
Both dusts were assayed for reduction of hemolytic complement activity (CH50) in-vitro. Quantifiable differences between the in ... activities of the airborne workplace dust and the artificial grain dust were observed; greater CH50 reductions were obtained by ...
... was assayed in a rabbit erythrocyte lysis assay for hemolytic activity mediated through the alternative pathway of complement ... we assayed sera collected from C5+/+ and C5−/− mice at various times after injury for ALT activity (Fig. 3⇓B). A comparable ... A Novel Role of Complement: Mice Deficient in the Fifth Component of Complement (C5) Exhibit Impaired Liver Regeneration. ... A Novel Role of Complement: Mice Deficient in the Fifth Component of Complement (C5) Exhibit Impaired Liver Regeneration ...
Hemolytic Assays.. The erythrocytes (107 Epnh or Erb) were incubated with 1:5 diluted human serum in Mg-EGTA-GVBS in a final ... C1-INH functional activity (white bars) and alternative-complement pathway activity (black bars) in normal human serum, serum ... Factor B Hemolytic Activity.. Rabbit red cells (1.5 × 108, 100 μl in Mg-EGTA buffer, pH 6.5) were incubated with 100 μl of a 1: ... Complement 1 Inhibitor Is a Regulator of the Alternative Complement Pathway. Haixiang Jiang, Eric Wagner, Huamei Zhang, Michael ...
  • Remarkably, we demonstrated by promoter expression analyses that the reduced hemolysis in the rstB mutant was accompanied by a strong decrease in transcription activities of the three hemolysin genes dly (damselysin), hlyA pl (phobalysin P) and hlyA ch (phobalysin C). Thus, RstB, encoded in the small chromosome, regulates plasmid and chromosomal virulence genes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Background Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is an acquired hemolytic anemia characterized by intravascular hemolysis which has been demonstrated to be effectively controlled with eculizumab. (haematologica.org)
  • Lactate dehydrogenase was assayed to assess the degree of hemolysis. (haematologica.org)
  • Conclusions These data demonstrate a previously masked mechanism of red cell clearance in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and suggests that blockade of complement at C5 allows C3 fragment accumulation on some paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria red cells, explaining the residual low-level hemolysis occurring in some eculizumab-treated patients. (haematologica.org)
  • 1 , 2 This lack of GPI expression results in the loss of the terminal complement inhibitor CD59 from the surface of hematopoietic cells, leaving red blood cells susceptible to complement-mediated intravascular hemolysis and unregulated activation of platelet and endothelial cells. (haematologica.org)
  • We studied complement-mediated hemolysis using normal and C3-depleted human sera, wild-type (WT) and C3-deficient rat sera, and WT and C3 knockout rat models. (ashpublications.org)
  • C3 has generated considerable interest as another promising target for the treatment of diseases in which complement is an integral pathogenic mechanism, including diseases associated with complement-mediated hemolysis. (ashpublications.org)
  • 4 This concept has been supported by studies including those using C3 knockout (KO) mice or C3 inhibitors in mice, in which complement-mediated hemolysis (both extravascular and intravascular) was shown to be significantly reduced in various models in the absence or inhibition of mouse C3. (ashpublications.org)
  • Anti-hemolytic activity was assessed using H 2 O 2 induced hemolysis of RBCs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Early signs of systemic complement-mediated TMA include thrombocytopenia (platelet count below 150,000 or a decrease from baseline of at least 25%) and evidence of microangiopathic hemolysis, which is characterized by elevated LDH levels, decreased haptoglobin, decreased hemoglobin (the oxygen-containing component of blood), and/or the presence of schistocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • We found that all but 1 of the 49 adult samples tested had robust bactericidal activity against S . Typhimurium in a standard in vitro assay. (asm.org)
  • The bactericidal activity was inhibited by competition with soluble lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from S . Typhimurium but not from Escherichia coli , consistent with recognition of a determinant in the O-antigen polysaccharide. (asm.org)
  • Sera from healthy children aged 10 to 48 months also had bactericidal activity, although it was significantly less than in the adults, correlating with lower levels of LPS-specific IgM and IgG. (asm.org)
  • The lone sample in our collection that lacked bactericidal activity was able to inhibit killing of S . Typhimurium by the other sera. (asm.org)
  • The molecular basis for the resistance of serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis to the bactericidal activity of normal human sera (NHS) was examined with a NHS-resistant, invasive serogroup B meningococcal isolate and genetically and structurally defined capsule-, lipooligosaccharide (LOS)-, and sialylation-altered mutants of the wild-type strain. (asm.org)
  • These data indicate that encapsulation is essential but that the LOS structure contributes to the ability of serogroup B N. meningitidis to resist the bactericidal activity of NHS. (asm.org)
  • A major mechanism inhibiting or preventing the multiplication of meningococci in the blood is the complement-mediated bactericidal activity of human sera ( 17 , 39 ). (asm.org)
  • The importance of this activity in the prevention of systemic meningococcal disease is reinforced by host factors that alter bactericidal activity and increase the risk for development of invasive disease. (asm.org)
  • The bactericidal activity of human sera against meningococci is also used as a surrogate marker for assessing meningococcal vaccine efficacy. (asm.org)
  • Meningococci have evolved mechanisms that protect them from the bactericidal activity of human sera. (asm.org)
  • In addition, all three complement pathways result in the formation of the membrane attack complex, which is vital to bactericidal activity. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • IgG1 showed higher bactericidal activity than IgG3 when directed against PorA (an abundant antigen), while IgG3 was more bactericidal than IgG1 when directed against FHbp (a sparsely and variably distributed antigen). (asm.org)
  • Here, we show for the first time that P. pneumotropica is able to survive the bactericidal activity of the human complement system. (jove.com)
  • Historically, people thought of complement deficiencies in relation to immunodeficiencies, manifesting with severe or frequent infections, Willrich said. (aacc.org)
  • Advanced Diagnostic Laboratories has a comprehensive menu of diagnostic tests that help clinicians determine whether complement defects or deficiencies are factors in patients with recurrent severe infections or symptoms of autoimmune disease. (nationaljewish.org)
  • The species-specific pattern of viability and/or lysis is highly consistent with the pattern of reservoir competence of hosts for B. burgdorferi sensu lato, suggesting a key role of complement in the global ecology of Lyme borreliosis. (asm.org)
  • The complement system is a key component of innate immunity contributing to host defenses against invading pathogens through multiple mechanisms, which include opsonization, cell lysis, and inflammatory cell recruitment, an action principally mediated through the anaphylatoxin C5a. (pnas.org)
  • Complement has many functions, including promoting phagocytosis of pathogens by acting as an opsonin, inducing lysis of bacteria or susceptible cells and generatinginflammation by products formed during complement activation. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • CD59 on hematologic cells is required to prevent unregulated complement lysis. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • Although there have been many studies carried out to characterize the molecular basis of the susceptibility and resistance of S . Typhimurium to killing by human serum, most have made use of pooled sera and have focused on the role of complement ( 10 ). (asm.org)
  • Lennon VA, Seybold ME, Lindstrom JM, Cochrane C, Ulevitch R: Role of complement in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. (springermedizin.de)
  • Prompted by these observations and anticipating a conserved role of complement in mammalian regeneration, we have now investigated the involvement of complement component C5 in liver regeneration, using a murine model of CCl 4 -induced liver toxicity and mice genetically deficient in C5. (jimmunol.org)
  • To investigate the potential role of complement in mammalian regeneration, we have examined the involvement of complement component C5 in the regenerative response of the liver to injury, using a murine model of CCl 4 -induced liver toxicity ( 15 ) and a congenic strain of mice genetically deficient in C5 ( 16 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Comprehensive and cutting-edge, Complement Methods and Protocols offers today's basic and clinical investigators powerful tools for the analysis of the role of complement in human pathophysiology and disease, as well as its therapeutic regulation. (springer.com)
  • FH6,7/Fc bound strongly to each of seven NTHi clinical isolates tested and efficiently promoted complement-mediated killing by normal human serum. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we evaluated if administration of the complement inhibitor recombinant human decay-accelerating factor (rhDAF) is beneficial on neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in a rat model of moderate BINT. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We investigated a strategy to exploit binding of the complement inhibitor Factor H (FH) to NTHi as a functional target for an immunotherapeutic containing the NTHi binding domain of FH fused to the Fc domain of IgG1. (frontiersin.org)
  • To facilitate the handling of patient samples, we also developed a method to restore the hemolytic function of EDTA-plasma by transferring it to Veronal-buffered saline containing the thrombin inhibitor lepirudin. (diva-portal.org)
  • The activity was dependent on complement and could be reproduced by immunoglobulin G (IgG) purified from the sera. (asm.org)
  • A pneumolysin neutralization assay was conducted on cholesterol-depleted complement-inactivated sera from 165 cases and 61 controls. (asm.org)
  • A multiplex opsonophagocytosis assay (MOPA) was conducted on sera from 20 cases and 20 controls. (asm.org)
  • hSBA titers of clinical trial sera were then determined using this complement sourcing method. (asm.org)
  • Quantitative SBA assays use serially diluted heat-inactivated sera with an exogenous complement source. (asm.org)
  • Exogenous sources include active human (hSBA) or animal sera, with the most common animal source being baby rabbit complement (rSBA). (asm.org)
  • Increases in nonelastic resistance and decreases in lung compliance were preceded or accompanied by decreases in the leukocyte count in both species, but the platelet count, fibrinogen, and total hemolytic complement had different changes in the two species. (uthscsa.edu)
  • These data show that not only arthritis but also C5-dependent complement activity is dominantly suppressed, confirming that C5 is one of the major genes explaining the Cia2 effect. (jimmunol.org)
  • Seven homologues genes ( SAP ) were also detected in C. dubliniensis by Southern analysis 5 but scarce studies were performed focusing proteinase activity in this species 6,10 . (scielo.br)
  • 3. Gongora R., Figueroa F., Klein J. (1998) Independent duplication of Bf and C3 complement genes in the zebrafish. (ijaah.ir)
  • 9. Kuroda N., Naruse K., Shima A., Nonaka M., Sasaki M., Nonaka M. (2000) Molecular cloning and linkage analysis of complement C3 and C4 genes of the Japanese medaka fish. (ijaah.ir)
  • Deletion of two adjacent genes with a high degree of homology to complement factor H, named complement factor H-related 3 and complement factor H-related 1, protects against age-related macular degeneration because of reduced competition for binding of CFH to vascular surface binding sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1 4 yglml) was found to increase HLA-DR antigen expression as quantitated by several methods, including flow cytometry, cell surface enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Western blotting. (docme.ru)
  • and ratios of C3dg to C3 in healthy individuals and patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with different degrees of complement activation. (diva-portal.org)
  • The test is also used to monitor the activity of Nephritis, Membranoproliferative Nephritis, Poststreptococcal Nephritis, or Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). (wbccount.org)
  • Herein we report that the only known naturally occurring positive regulator of complement, properdin, binds predominantly to late apoptotic and necrotic cells, but not to early apoptotic cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Properdin, discovered in 1954 ( 18 ), is the only known naturally occurring positive regulator of complement activation ( 19 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The samples were analyzed for gram negative bacterial endotoxins using the quantitative chromogenic limulus amebocyte assay. (cdc.gov)
  • It increases resistance of the GAS cell to complement-mediated killing by polymorphonuclear leukocytes ( 39 ), it is important for attachment to keratinocytes in skin infections ( 37 ), and it promotes bacterium-bacterium interaction following attachment to tonsillar epithelial cells during throat infections ( 7 ). (asm.org)