Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A disease of cattle caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA leading to abortion in late pregnancy. BRUCELLA ABORTUS is the primary infective agent.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
A species of the genus BRUCELLA whose natural hosts are cattle and other bovidae. Abortion and placentitis are frequently produced in the pregnant animal. Other mammals, including humans, may be infected.
Infection caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA mainly involving the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. This condition is characterized by fever, weakness, malaise, and weight loss.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes BRUCELLOSIS. Its cells are nonmotile coccobacilli and are animal parasites and pathogens. The bacterium is transmissible to humans through contact with infected dairy products or tissue.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.
A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
A mitosporic fungal genus which causes COCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS.
A bright bluish pink compound that has been used as a dye, biological stain, and diagnostic aid.
Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.
Infection resulting from inhalation or ingestion of spores of the fungus of the genus HISTOPLASMA, species H. capsulatum. It is worldwide in distribution and particularly common in the midwestern United States. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A bacterial vaccine for the prevention of brucellosis in man and animal. Brucella abortus vaccine is used for the immunization of cattle, sheep, and goats.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Interstitial pneumonia caused by extensive infection of the lungs (LUNG) and BRONCHI, particularly the lower lobes of the lungs, by MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE in humans. In SHEEP, it is caused by MYCOPLASMA OVIPNEUMONIAE. In CATTLE, it may be caused by MYCOPLASMA DISPAR.
Infection with a fungus of the genus COCCIDIOIDES, endemic to the SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES. It is sometimes called valley fever but should not be confused with RIFT VALLEY FEVER. Infection is caused by inhalation of airborne, fungal particles known as arthroconidia, a form of FUNGAL SPORES. A primary form is an acute, benign, self-limited respiratory infection. A secondary form is a virulent, severe, chronic, progressive granulomatous disease with systemic involvement. It can be detected by use of COCCIDIOIDIN.
The classic form of typhus, caused by RICKETTSIA PROWAZEKII, which is transmitted from man to man by the louse Pediculus humanus corporis. This disease is characterized by the sudden onset of intense headache, malaise, and generalized myalgia followed by the formation of a macular skin eruption and vascular and neurologic disturbances.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Short filamentous organism of the genus Mycoplasma, which binds firmly to the cells of the respiratory epithelium. It is one of the etiologic agents of non-viral primary atypical pneumonia in man.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Inflammation of the EPIDIDYMIS. Its clinical features include enlarged epididymis, a swollen SCROTUM; PAIN; PYURIA; and FEVER. It is usually related to infections in the URINARY TRACT, which likely spread to the EPIDIDYMIS through either the VAS DEFERENS or the lymphatics of the SPERMATIC CORD.
An acute infectious disease caused by COXIELLA BURNETII. It is characterized by a sudden onset of FEVER; HEADACHE; malaise; and weakness. In humans, it is commonly contracted by inhalation of infected dusts derived from infected domestic animals (ANIMALS, DOMESTIC).
A contagious disease of horses that can be transmitted to humans. It is caused by BURKHOLDERIA MALLEI and characterized by ulceration of the respiratory mucosa and an eruption of nodules on the skin.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that is widely distributed in TICKS and various mammals throughout the world. Infection with this genus is particularly prevalent in CATTLE; SHEEP; and GOATS.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
A mitosporic Onygenales fungal genus causing HISTOPLASMOSIS in humans and animals. Its single species is Histoplasma capsulatum which has two varieties: H. capsulatum var. capsulatum and H. capsulatum var. duboisii. Its teleomorph is AJELLOMYCES capsulatus.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A glycoprotein that is important in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C4 is cleaved by the activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C4A and COMPLEMENT C4B.
Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A species of gram-negative bacteria parasitic on HORSES and DONKEYS causing GLANDERS, which can be transmitted to humans.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A species of the genus BRUCELLA whose natural hosts are sheep and goats. Other mammals, including humans, may be infected. In general, these organisms tend to be more virulent for laboratory animals than BRUCELLA ABORTUS and may cause fatal infections.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
A genus of the family CHLAMYDIACEAE whose species cause a variety of diseases in vertebrates including humans, mice, and swine. Chlamydia species are gram-negative and produce glycogen. The type species is CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
A subcomponent of complement C1, composed of six copies of three polypeptide chains (A, B, and C), each encoded by a separate gene (C1QA; C1QB; C1QC). This complex is arranged in nine subunits (six disulfide-linked dimers of A and B, and three disulfide-linked homodimers of C). C1q has binding sites for antibodies (the heavy chain of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M). The interaction of C1q and immunoglobulin activates the two proenzymes COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S, thus initiating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION via the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.
A species of gram-negative bacteria that grows preferentially in the vacuoles of the host cell. It is the etiological agent of Q FEVER.
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.
Complement activation initiated by the interaction of microbial ANTIGENS with COMPLEMENT C3B. When COMPLEMENT FACTOR B binds to the membrane-bound C3b, COMPLEMENT FACTOR D cleaves it to form alternative C3 CONVERTASE (C3BBB) which, stabilized by COMPLEMENT FACTOR P, is able to cleave multiple COMPLEMENT C3 to form alternative C5 CONVERTASE (C3BBB3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
C5 plays a central role in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C5 is cleaved by C5 CONVERTASE into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. The smaller fragment C5a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of inflammatory process. The major fragment C5b binds to the membrane initiating the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components, C5-C9, into the MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
Molecules on the surface of some B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that recognize and combine with the C3b, C3d, C1q, and C4b components of complement.
The larger fragment generated from the cleavage of COMPLEMENT C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. It is a constituent of the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb), and COMPLEMENT C5 CONVERTASES in both the classical (C4b2a3b) and the alternative (C3bBb3b) pathway. C3b participates in IMMUNE ADHERENCE REACTION and enhances PHAGOCYTOSIS. It can be inactivated (iC3b) or cleaved by various proteases to yield fragments such as COMPLEMENT C3C; COMPLEMENT C3D; C3e; C3f; and C3g.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A 63-kDa serum glycoprotein encoded by gene C9. Monomeric C9 (mC9) binds the C5b-8 complex to form C5b-9 which catalyzes the polymerization of C9 forming C5b-p9 (MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX) and transmembrane channels leading to lysis of the target cell. Patients with C9 deficiency suffer from recurrent bacterial infections.
Complement activation initiated by the binding of COMPLEMENT C1 to ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES at the COMPLEMENT C1Q subunit. This leads to the sequential activation of COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S subunits. Activated C1s cleaves COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 forming the membrane-bound classical C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
The first complement component to act in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. It is a calcium-dependent trimolecular complex made up of three subcomponents: COMPLEMENT C1Q; COMPLEMENT C1R; and COMPLEMENT C1S at 1:2:2 ratios. When the intact C1 binds to at least two antibodies (involving C1q), C1r and C1s are sequentially activated, leading to subsequent steps in the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
A product of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION cascade, regardless of the pathways, that forms transmembrane channels causing disruption of the target CELL MEMBRANE and cell lysis. It is formed by the sequential assembly of terminal complement components (COMPLEMENT C5B; COMPLEMENT C6; COMPLEMENT C7; COMPLEMENT C8; and COMPLEMENT C9) into the target membrane. The resultant C5b-8-poly-C9 is the "membrane attack complex" or MAC.
Serum proteins that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host. The complement system is tightly regulated by inactivators that accelerate the decay of intermediates and certain cell surface receptors.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
The use of metallic devices inserted into or through bone to hold a fracture in a set position and alignment while it heals.
A component of the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C2 is cleaved by activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C2B and COMPLEMENT C2A. C2a, the COOH-terminal fragment containing a SERINE PROTEASE, combines with COMPLEMENT C4B to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).
A glycine-rich, heat-labile serum glycoprotein that contains a component of the C3 CONVERTASE ALTERNATE PATHWAY (C3bBb). Bb, a serine protease, is generated when factor B is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR D into Ba and Bb.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
An important soluble regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It is a 139-kDa glycoprotein expressed by the liver and secreted into the blood. It binds to COMPLEMENT C3B and makes iC3b (inactivated complement 3b) susceptible to cleavage by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I. Complement factor H also inhibits the association of C3b with COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form the C3bB proenzyme, and promotes the dissociation of Bb from the C3bBb complex (COMPLEMENT C3 CONVERTASE, ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY).
Compounds that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host.
The smaller fragment generated from the cleavage of complement C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. C3a, a 77-amino acid peptide, is a mediator of local inflammatory process. It induces smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION, and HISTAMINE RELEASE from MAST CELLS and LEUKOCYTES. C3a is considered an anaphylatoxin along with COMPLEMENT C4A; COMPLEMENT C5A; and COMPLEMENT C5A, DES-ARGININE.
The minor fragment formed when C5 convertase cleaves C5 into C5a and COMPLEMENT C5B. C5a is a 74-amino-acid glycopeptide with a carboxy-terminal ARGININE that is crucial for its spasmogenic activity. Of all the complement-derived anaphylatoxins, C5a is the most potent in mediating immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE), smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION; HISTAMINE RELEASE; and migration of LEUKOCYTES to site of INFLAMMATION.
A 105-kDa serum glycoprotein with significant homology to the other late complement components, C7-C9. It is a polypeptide chain cross-linked by 32 disulfide bonds. C6 is the next complement component to bind to the membrane-bound COMPLEMENT C5B in the assembly of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. It is encoded by gene C6.
Molecular sites on or in some B-lymphocytes and macrophages that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3B. The primary structure of these receptors reveal that they contain transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, with their extracellular portion composed entirely of thirty short consensus repeats each having 60 to 70 amino acids.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Enzymes that activate one or more COMPLEMENT PROTEINS in the complement system leading to the formation of the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX, an important response in host defense. They are enzymes in the various COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION pathways.
The large fragment formed when COMPLEMENT C4 is cleaved by COMPLEMENT C1S. The membrane-bound C4b binds COMPLEMENT C2A, a SERINE PROTEASE, to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).
Antibodies which elicit IMMUNOPRECIPITATION when combined with antigen.
The technique of using FIXATIVES in the preparation of cytologic, histologic, or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all the constituent elements.
A 302-amino-acid fragment in the alpha chain (672-1663) of C3b. It is generated when C3b is inactivated (iC3b) and its alpha chain is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I into C3c, and C3dg (955-1303) in the presence COMPLEMENT FACTOR H. Serum proteases further degrade C3dg into C3d (1002-1303) and C3g (955-1001).
Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.
Serine proteases that cleave COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, or cleave COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. These include the different forms of C3/C5 convertases in the classical and the alternative pathways of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Both cleavages take place at the C-terminal of an ARGININE residue.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The study of serum, especially of antigen-antibody reactions in vitro.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A 93-kDa serum glycoprotein encoded by C7 gene. It is a polypeptide chain with 28 disulfide bridges. In the formation of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX; C7 is the next component to bind the C5b-6 complex forming a trimolecular complex C5b-7 which is lipophilic, resembles an integral membrane protein, and serves as an anchor for the late complement components, C8 and C9.
A 150-kDa serum glycoprotein composed of three subunits with each encoded by a different gene (C8A; C8B; and C8G). This heterotrimer contains a disulfide-linked C8alpha-C8gamma heterodimer and a noncovalently associated C8beta chain. C8 is the next component to bind the C5-7 complex forming C5b-8 that binds COMPLEMENT C9 and acts as a catalyst in the polymerization of C9.

Complement fixation titers in cattle following intranasal inoculation of Hemophilus somnus. (1/1682)

Five bulls were inoculated intranasally with a live culture of Hemophilus somnus originally isolated from a clinical case of Hemophilus septicemia. Preinoculation and postinoculation blood samples were taken at weekly intervals for nine weeks for measuring complement fixation titers and daily postinoculation temperatures were taken for one week. Three animals had transient fever and slight lethargy was observed in two animals had a transitory rise in complement fixation titers in the second to fifth weeks postexposure while one animal which had been seronegative on preinoculation testing produced little serological response to the organism. The experiment demonstrated that the nasal instillation of young cattle using an originally pathogenic H. somnus isolate is capable of stimulating only transitory complement fixation antibody titer.  (+info)

Complement fixing hepatitis B core antigen immune complexes in the liver of patients with HBs antigen positive chronic disease. (2/1682)

One hundred and fifty-two biopsies from serologically HBsAg positive and negative patients with liver disease were studied in immunofluorescence: for the presence of the surface (HBs) and the core (HBc) antigenic determinants foeterminants of the hepatitis B virus, of immunoglobulins and complement (C) deposits, and for the capacity to fix human C. Circumstantial evidence is presented suggesting that HBc immune-complexes are a relevant feature in the establishment and progression of chronic HBSAg liver disease. C fixation by liver cells was shown in all HBC positive patients with chronic hepatitis; an active form was present in every case, except two with a persistent hepatitis, an inverse ratio of HBc to C binding fluorescence being noted between active chronic hepatitis and cirrhotic patients. HBc without C fixation was observed in only three patients in the incubation phase of infectious hepatitis. IgG deposits were often found in HBc containing, C fixing nuclei. No C binding or IgG deposits were observed in acute self-limited type B hepatitis, in serologically positive patients with normal liver or minimal histological lesions, with and without HBs cytoplasmic fluorescence in their biopsy, or in serologically negative individuals.  (+info)

Serum dilution neutralization test for California group virus identification and serology. (3/1682)

The serum dilution neutralization test was evaluated for serological diagnosis of California group arbovirus infections and identification of virus isolates. The technical advantages and the degree of subtype specificity of the serum dilution neutralization test over the hemagglutination inhibition test and the complement fixation test were demonstrated with paired specimens from human cases, single human survey sera, and sentinel rabbit sera. Twenty-one virus isolates from various geographical areas of the United States were also used to evaluate the efficacy of the serum dilution neutralization test for specific virus identification.  (+info)

Chagas' disease diagnosis: comparative analysis of parasitologic, molecular, and serologic methods. (4/1682)

During the course of chronic chagasic infection, low parasitemia levels prevent parasite detection by current techniques such as hemoculture and xenodiagnosis. Since serologic tests have sensitivity but lack specificity, molecular assays based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have been proposed as alternative tools for parasite detection in individuals with chronic Chagas' disease. A variable degree of PCR efficiency has been reported in the literature and illustrates the need for further evaluation of large numbers of chagasic patients. In this study, we compared an optimized PCR technique with hemoculture and complement-mediated lysis (CoML) in 113 individuals from or living in endemic areas of Brazil who had conventional serologic results that were either positive, negative, or inconclusive. The PCR amplification yielded positive results in 83.5% (66 of 79) of individuals with positive serology, 47.6% (10 of 21) with negative serology, and 46.2% (6 of 13) with inconclusive serology. Of 10 patients with negative serology and positive PCR result, eight (80%) had positive CoML, indicating that they could have been chagasic but were not mounting immune responses. The PCR results were also positive for all individuals who had positive hemoculture, for 37 individuals with negative hemoculture and positive serology, and for two of six individuals with inconclusive serology and negative hemoculture. Thirteen individuals living in nonendemic areas who had negative serology were used as a negative control group: 100% had negative PCR results. Our results show that the optimized PCR protocol used here was very sensitive in detecting the presence of Trypanosoma cruzi in chronic chagasic patients. The PCR and CoML results were well correlated in all of the groups studied, which suggests that our PCR protocol may be effective in the evaluation of cure in patients who receive anti-parasite treatment.  (+info)

Inhibition of K cell function by human breast cancer sera. (5/1682)

Sera from breast cancer patients and from female controls were tested for inhibition of lysis of antibody-coated target cells by human leukocytes (K cells). Sera from 39% of breast cancer patients, but from only 8% of controls, inhibited lysis by more than 30%. This inhibition was unrelated to the stage of the disease, the patient's age or whether the patient was pre- or post-operative. Inhibition was apparently not due to anti-HLA antibodies and did not correlate with the IgG level or anti-complementary activity of the serum. On fractionation by gel-filtration, inhibitory activity was found in fractions of higher molecular weight than IgG. As no IgG could be detected in these fractions, inhibition is probably not due to immune complexes containing IgG antibody. The inhibitory factor may well contribute to the immunosuppressed status of a proportion of breast cancer patients.  (+info)

Immune complexes and complement hypercatabolism in patients with leprosy. (6/1682)

The occurrence of immune complexes in the serum and the level of the C3 breakdown product C3d in the plasma from patients with leprosy were studied by quantitative methods and the results were compared in various forms of the disease. These studies were performed on sixty-two samples from twenty-six patients. The serum 125I-C1q binding activity was found to be increased by more than 2 s.d., as compared to the normal values, in most of the sera from patients with erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) (80%) and uncomplicated lepromatous leprosy (82%), but also in the sera from patients with tuberculoid leprosy (58%). In vitro studies suggested that immune complexes involving mycobacterial antigens were present in leprosy sera. An increased C3d level (greater than 2s.d.) was also found in most of the plasma from patients with ENL (70%), but rarely in the plasma from patients with uncomplicated lepromatous leprosy (18%) and never in tuberculoid leprosy patients' plasma. The absence of a significant correlation between the 125I-C1q binding activity and the C3d level in leprosy patients may suggest that extravascular immune complexes are involved in the complement activation occurring in ENL. The quantitation of C3d in plasma may be of some practical interest in the early diagnosis of ENL complications of leprosy.  (+info)

Studies on the immunogenicity of protamines in humans and experimental animals by means of a micro-complement fixation test. (7/1682)

A complement fixation study with human, monkey and rabbit sera, using purified sperm nuclear basic proteins as antigens, led to the following conclusions. (1) Protamines, the sperm-specific basic nuclear proteins, may be immunogenic in mammalians. (2) Antibodies detected in the indirect immunofluorescence test on human swollen sperm heads in sera from infertile and vasectomized men, are directed primarily against human protamines. (3) The results obtained suggested that differences in the immunization site and/or in the configuration of the immunizing protamine, may lead to the formation of antibodies directed against different antigenic determinants. Autoimmunity to protamines, following vasectomy or in infertile men, is accompanied by the formation of antibodies cross-reacting with common antigenic determinants present in protamines of other species. Induction of immunity to protamines by means of immunization with protamines-RNA complexes (in rabbits), or protamine-insulin complexes (in humans), leads to the formation of antibodies reacting more specifically with the immunizing protamine, showing only slight cross-reaction with other protamines. (4) The histone-like fraction present in mature human spermatozoa is composed mainly of histone fraction H2B.  (+info)

Detection of core antibody in hepatitis B infection. (8/1682)

Hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) is found on the decoated Dane particle and on a morphologically similar particle detected mainly in the nucleus of hepatocytes of patients with hepatitis B. HBcAg prepared from the liver of a chimpanzee infected with hepatitis B virus was used to test human serum for core antibody (anti-HBc) by complement fixation. Anti-HBc was found in serum collected from patients with hepatitis B in both the acute and convalescent stages, from carriers of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and from patients with chronic liver or renal disease who were carriers of HBsAg. It was not found in patients with hepatitis A or infectious mononucleosis, or in healthy persons who were not carriers of HBsAg.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - The coccidioidal complement fixation and immunodiffusion-complement fixation antigen is a chitinase. AU - Johnson, S. M.. AU - Pappagianis, Demosthenes. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - Culture filtrates and autolysates of Coccidioides immitis have provided suitable crude antigens for the serodiagnosis and prognosis of coccidioidomycosis. One of these, a heat-labile antigen which participates in the immunodiffusion reaction corresponding to the complement fixation reaction (IDCF), has been characterized as a 110-kDa native protein that, when subjected to reducing conditions and heat, yields a 48-kDa component. The present report provides serologic and biochemical evidence that this antigen is a chitinase. This chitinase, isolated from 48-h culture filtrate of the spherule-endospore-phase C. immitis by affinity adsorption to chitin, formed a line of identity with the IDCF reference antigen and participated in the complement fixation reaction with human serum. It lost its enzymatic as ...
Summary Complement fixation tests with a purified extract of adult Schistosoma mansoni were performed by a quantitative technique with the sera of 216 children (10 to 15 years of age) and 84 adults (20 to 40 years of age) passing eggs of S. mansoni in their stools. The test was positive in 88.9% of the children and 89.3% of the adults. The titers obtained for the two age groups did not differ significantly.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evaluation of the comparative accuracy of the complement fixation test, Western blot and five enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for serodiagnosis of glanders. AU - Elschner, Mandy Carolina. AU - Laroucau, Karine. AU - Singha, Harisankar. AU - Tripathi, Bhupendra Nath. AU - Saqib, Muhammad. AU - Gardner, Ian. AU - Saini, Sheetal. AU - Kumar, Subodh. AU - El-Adawy, Hosny. AU - Melzer, Falk. AU - Khan, Iahtasham. AU - Malik, Praveen. AU - Sauter- Louis, Carola. AU - Neubauer, Heinrich. PY - 2019/4/1. Y1 - 2019/4/1. N2 - Glanders is a zoonotic contagious disease of equids caused by Burkholderia (B.) mallei. Serodiagnosis of the disease is challenging because of false-positive and false-negative test results. The accuracy of the complement fixation test (CFT) which is prescribed for international trade by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), five ELISAs and a Western blot (WB) were compared for serodiagnosis of glanders using sera from 3,000 glandersfree and 254 glanderous ...
Looking for complement-fixing antibody? Find out information about complement-fixing antibody. protein produced by the immune system in response to the presence in the body of antigens: foreign proteins or polysaccharides such as bacteria, bacterial... Explanation of complement-fixing antibody
A complement fixation test to Coxiella burnetii checks the blood for bacteria called C burnetii, which causes Q fever. Learn more.
Wilson joined the UC Berkeley faculty of biochemistry in 1964, and was promoted to full professor in 1972.[8] His first major scientific contribution was published as Immunological Time-Scale For Hominid Evolution in the journal Science in December 1967.[16] With his student Vincent Sarich,[17][18] he showed that evolutionary relationships of the human species with other primates, in particular the Great apes (chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans), could be inferred from molecular evidence obtained from living species, rather than solely from fossils of extinct creatures. Their microcomplement fixation method (see complement system) measured the strength of the immune reaction between an antigen (serum albumin) from one species and an antibody raised against the same antigen in another species. The strength of the antibody-antigen reaction was known to be stronger between more closely related species: their innovation was to measure it quantitatively among many species pairs as an ...
Rapporteur: Grant McIntyre. Copes Rule states that body size increases during the evolutionary history of a lineage. This may be true from certain perspectives but is no longer generally accepted. The lecture examined several studies on the evolution of body size that shed light on the prevalence of exceptions to Copes Rule and concluded with a discussion of reasons for the apparent support for the rule.. The focal paper (Pianka 1995) used Felsensteins method of independent contrasts to evaluate the evolution of body size of varanid (monitor) lizards. This method requires a phylogeny which was developed in this case using immunological distances determine by microcomplement fixation. The phylogeny matched species distributions fairly well but was not rooted since no available outgroup cross-reacted immunologically with the ingroup. Within varanids there are examples of the evolution of both larger and smaller size. The main problem with the paper was that lack of an outgroup precluded ...
The use of the complement fixation reaction in the diagnosis of disease was first introduced by Bordet and Gengou in 1901. With serum s from individuals suspected of having typhoid fever, combined with typhoid antigens, they were able to demonstrate ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Anti-GD2 with an FC point mutation reduces complement fixation and decreases antibody-induced allodynia. AU - Sorkin, Linda S.. AU - Otto, Mario. AU - Baldwin, William M.. AU - Vail, Emily. AU - Gillies, Stephen D.. AU - Handgretinger, Rupert. AU - Barfield, Raymond C.. AU - Ming Yu, Hui. AU - Yu, Alice L.. N1 - Funding Information: We would like to thank Damon McCumber for performing the blinded tail vein injections and Julie Nguyen for secretarial support. This work was supported by the Cindy Matters Fund (L.S.S.) and NIH NS048563-04 (L.S.S.), and in part by a grant from FDA, FD-R-002319 (A.L.Y.). None of the authors has any financial arrangements that represent a conflict of interest. PY - 2010/4. Y1 - 2010/4. N2 - Monoclonal antibodies against GD2 ganglioside, such as ch14.18, the human-mouse chimeric antibody, have been shown to be effective for the treatment of neuroblastoma. However, treatment is associated with generalized, relatively opiate-resistant pain. We ...
CANDEIAS, J. A. N.; STEWIEN, Klaus E. and BARBOSA, Victório. Serological study of cytomegalovirus infections. Rev. Saúde Pública [online]. 1974, vol.8, n.3, pp.257-263. ISSN 1518-8787. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0034-89101974000300002.. The age and sex distribution of complement-fixing antibodies was studied in a sample of 1294 sera from adults and children of S. Paulo city, Brazil. The incidence of 33% by 15 years of age, with a maximum of 70% reached in the older age group (, 35 years), support the findings in other countries. An analysis of sera in terms of sex showed no significant differences in the distribution of complement-fixing antibodies to CMV. A comparative age distribution of CMV complement-fixing and neutralizing antibodies in a sample of 236 sera, using the AD 169 strain, confirmed the high correlation between these types of antibodies, being the per cent of positive sera consistently higher for neutralizing antibodies.. Keywords : Cytomegalovirus infections; Serological ...
There is no reliable clinical method to distinguish coronavirus colds from colds caused by rhinoviruses or less common agents. For research purposes, virus can be cultured from nasal swabs or washings by inoculating organ cultures of human fetal or nasal tracheal epithelium. The virus in these cultures is detected by electron microscopy or other methods. The most useful method for laboratory diagnosis is to collect paired sera (from the acute and convalescent phases of the disease) and to test by ELISA for a rise in antibodies against OC43 and 229E. Complement fixation tests are insensitive; other tests are inconvenient and can be used only for one serotype. Direct hybridization and polymerase chain reaction tests for viral nucleic acid have been developed and, particularly with the latter, are the most sensitive assays currently available for detecting virus .. ...
Comparision has been made between two human neuropathogenic and one commensal strains of herpes simplex virus. These terms are assigned to these viruses on the basis of their origin. The first two were related from patients with encephalitis and the third from a benign recurrent lesion. A number of physiochemical characteristics of these three strains were studied. The major differences observed between the pathogens and the commensal virus are: 1. The ability of the commensal herpes virus to infect adult mice while the pathogenic herpes could not. 2. The commensal herpes virus could not be neutralized by the hyperimmune sera of the pathogenic herpes and vice versa, although all crossreacted in complement fixation tests. 3. The commensal virus was significantly inactivated by chloroform, while the pathogens were not significantly affected under the same conditions. 4. Freezing and thawing followed by differential centrifugation rendered the commensal herpes vulnerable to inactivation of ...
Reiling L, Boyle MJ, White MT, Wilson DW, Feng G, Weaver R, Opi DH, Persson KEM, Richards JS, Siba PM, Fowkes FJI, Takashima E, Tsuboi T, Mueller I, Beeson JG
A nitrogenase-inspired biomimetic chalcogel system comprising double-cubane [Mo2Fe6S8(SPh)3] and single-cubane (Fe4S4) biomimetic clusters demonstrates photocatalytic N2 fixation and conversion to NH3 in ambient temperature and pressure conditions. Replacing the Fe4S4 clusters in this system with other inert ions such as Sb3+, Sn4+, Zn2+ also gave chalcogels that were photocatalytically active. Finally, molybdenum-free chalcogels containing only Fe4S4 clusters are also capable of accomplishing the N2 fixation reaction with even higher efficiency than their Mo2Fe6S8(SPh)3-containing counterparts. Our results suggest that redox-active iron-sulfide-containing materials can activate the N2 molecule upon visible light excitation, which can be reduced all of the way to NH3 using protons and sacrificial electrons in aqueous solution. Evidently, whereas the Mo2Fe6S8(SPh)3 is capable of N2 fixation, Mo itself is not necessary to carry out this process. The initial binding of N2 with chalcogels under ...
Synonyms for Bordet, Jules in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Bordet, Jules. 3 words related to complement fixation: immune reaction, immune response, immunologic response. What are synonyms for Bordet, Jules?
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Summary and Conclusions A complement-fixation test, using an antigen prepared from infectious mouse brains, is described for yellow fever. The test has been shown to be biologically specific. Nonspecific reactions, however, tend to occur with Wassermann-positive sera, but these can usually be avoided by inactivating the sera at 65°C. Complement-fixing antibodies were demonstrable in the serum of humans and monkeys recovered from infection with yellow fever virus. Following vaccination with the 17D strain, complement-fixing antibodies were uniformly present in monkey serum, but were detectable in only a small proportion of human sera. The application of this latter fact in making yellow fever surveys is discussed.
The complement fixation test is based on the use of complement, a biological substance present in the sera of normal animals. Its great value is its predictable activity in the presence of serologically reacting factors and its nonspecificity, that is, it is not like an antibody with a narrow range of reactions or increased concentration occurring in a host following immunization or infection. Furthermore, it is easily destroyed by heating at temperatures that have no deleterious effect on antibodies.
3 pages pp. 410-413 IN: Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, Volume. 44, no. 2. Thick 8vo, modern wrappers. N.Y., 1940. First Edition. Whole number 2 offered entire. Diagnosis of lymphogranuloma venereum by complement-fixation test. With G.W. Rake and M.F. Shaffer. GM 5223. Binding: Paperback Language: English
In 1979 an indirect haemagglutination test (gonococcal antibody test) using gonococcal pilus antigen replaced the gonococcal complement fixation test as our routine procedure to show gonococcal antibodies. In the diagnosis of current gonorrhoea the sensitivity of the gonococcal antibody test was far superior to that of the gonococcal complement fixation test (about 55% versus 9% for first episode gonorrhoea). To evaluate the usefulness of the test result the following population groups were studied: 1376 patients undergoing medical examination for gonorrhoea (386 had gonorrhoea), 1384 healthy people aged 15-65, 54 patients with meningococcal disease, 30 children with respiratory tract infection, and 254 patients with evidence of various diseases other than neisserial infections that might be associated with symptoms of arthritis. These investigations showed that (1) non-specific positive gonococcal antibody test results occur rarely, (2) at least half the people who have had gonorrhoea remain ...
Banked acute-phase and convalescent-phase serum samples from a previous study of respiratory illness in university students were examined for significant (≥2-fold) increases in ELISA titers of IgA and IgG antibody to Bordetella pertussis filamentous hemagglutinin, pertactin, and fimbriae-2 and ≥4-fold titer increases to agglutinogens by agglutination. ELISA titers of antibody to pertussis toxin could not be determined because of technical problems. Chlamydia pneumoniae infections were diagnosed by culture or by a ≥4-fold increase in immunofluorescence assay titer or a single high titer (≥512). Mycoplasma pneumoniae, influenza A and B, adenovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus infections were diagnosed by ≥4-fold increases in complement fixation titer or a single high titer (≥64). There were 319 subjects with cough of ≥5 days duration, and of these, 47 (15%) had significant increases in antibody to B. pertussis antigens; 26 (8%) had significant increases to fimbriae-2 or ...
Michaelsen, Terje Einar; Gilje, A; Samuelsen, Anne Berit; Høgaasen, K & Paulsen, BS (2000). Interaction between human complement and a pectin type polysaccharide fraction, PMII, from the leaves of Plantago major L. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology. ISSN 0300-9475. 52, s 482- 490 Vis sammendrag The interaction between a pectin type polysaccharide fraction, PMII, isolated from the leaves of Plantago major, and human complement was tested in two different hemolytic complement-fixation tests and in addition by two ELISA methods detecting complement-activation products. Sera were used as a complement source of 10 arbitrary human volunteers, individually and as a pool. The complement-fixation tests were designed to measure the concentration of the pectin necessary to inhibit 50% of the hemolysis (ICH(50)). The ELISA tests for complement-activation products were measured in AU/mg using a fully activated serum as a standard. We observed a more than 200-fold difference in ICH(50) activity of the PMII ...
Canine hepatitis is an infectious disease. This disease is found in dogs, wolves, coyotes, foxes, and in bears. This virus directly attacks on the kidney and liver of the animal. The word hepatitis is originated from the Greek word, which means the inflammation of the liver, caused by the infectious toxic. This disease is very Read more ...
When filtered alkaline extracts of pulverized bacteria of several varieties are precipitated with acid in the cold, boiled with acid, and all materials thrown down by these procedures removed, there remains a small amount of an alcohol-precipitable material which no longer gives any of the ordinary chemical reactions for proteins, such as the biuret, Hopkins-Cole, Millon, and sulfosalicylic acid reactions. The only protein reaction usually given by this material is a very weak xanthoproteic reaction. Nevertheless, the material, which is, as far as we can determine at present, free from coagulable protein, is specifically precipitable by homologous antiserum and gives specific complement fixation reactions.. Such material can also be obtained from organisms like the influenza bacillus, pneumococcus, and meningococcus by extraction without preliminary grinding of the bacteria, and is present in filtrates of young and old broth cultures of the organisms.. We believe that these acid- and ...
Modified indirect hemagglutination test for detection of treponemal antibodies in finger-prick blood.: A modified indirect hemagglutination test for the detecti
Thirty brucellosis free calves with zero titres to the serum agglutination test (SAT), complement fixation test (CFT) and antiglobulin test (ABGT) were vaccinated with strain 19 at ages from seven hours to 198 days. Calves 75 days of age and older responded with normal serological patterns, developing high titres to all three tests. At 45 days and younger most calves responded with much reduced titres, some were negative to the SAT and CFT but all develped titres to the ABGT. Two of the younger group were subjected to an anamnestic test at about a year old and gave a positive response, indicating that the calf may be effectively primed with S19 as early as the first day of life. Three of the group were colostrumdeprived yet the patterns of their responses were similar to those of the colostrum-fed calves. Seventy-four zero titres calves were vaccinated with killed 45/20 adjuvant vaccine at ages from 60 to 320 days. Up to 200 days of age only seven of 33 calves gave positive response. From 200 to ...
Background: In patients (pts) who are highly sensitized, desensitization therapy is commonly applied to reduce antibody (Abs) load and to reduce potential morbidity and mortality following heart transplant (HTx). It is not known as to what level of antibody binding is needed to initiate desensitization therapy. It is believed that high binding Abs may have the ability to fix complement and lead to cytotoxicity.. Methods: Between 2011 and 2012 we assessed 13 highly sensitized pts who were noted to have standardized fluorescence intensity (SFI) ,100,000 pretransplant.. A complement binding assay (C1q binding assay) was then applied to these Abs to assess for a correlation of binding to cytotoxicity. Correlation statistics were used to derive significance between higher antibody binding and capacity to bind complement.. Results: There seems to be no correlation between the different binding strength and C1q positivity. However, when evaluating Luminex 1:8 test, there seems to be correlation between ...
Some f the newer tests for mycology are serological tests, which include Agglutination Immunodiffusion (ID), Complement fixation test (CFT), Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Lateral flow assay (LFA), Counter immuno-electrophoresis (CIE) Radio immunosorbent assay (RIA).
The ICD-10 codes used to identify deaths were: J09 (influenza due to certain identified influenza viruses), J10 (influenza due to identified influenza virus) and J11 (influenza, virus not identified).. * The criteria of the national case definitions were revised and implemented in 2008. The revisions consisted of specifying that the influenza virus antigen detection has to be laboratory detection, and that the single high titre qualifying for notification has to be performed by complement fixation test (CFT) or by haemagglutination inhibition (HAI). ...
Date: 1906. : the process of binding serum complement to the product formed by the union of an antibody and the antigen for which it is specific that occurs when complement is.
This clearance establishes Tm as a unique supplier of CF tests to our rapidly expanding customer base against such competitors as ABI (NYSE:ABI - News) and Third Wave (NASDAQ:TWTI - News), said Greg Hines, President and CEO of Tm Bioscience. The Tag-It(TM) Cystic Fibrosis Kit is the only CF testing system that has performance characteristics which have been established through extensive studies reviewed by the FDA. Having the first CF test and second multiplexed genetic test behind Roches (RHHBF.PK) AmpliChip CYP450 to be cleared as an IVD, sets the regulatory pathway for other tests in our broad and growing pipeline and positions Tm as a leader in the commercial genetic testing market ...
lymph nodes, milk, and serum taken at slaughter from 86 cows not showing clinical signs of Johnes ... disease. The samples were tested by culture (feces, lymph nodes, and milk) and complement fixation, ELISA, ... shedders of MAP were more likely to have culture positive milk and lymph nodes than intermediate or light .... ...
lymph nodes, milk, and serum taken at slaughter from 86 cows not showing clinical signs of Johnes ... disease. The samples were tested by culture (feces, lymph nodes, and milk) and complement fixation, ELISA, ... shedders of MAP were more likely to have culture positive milk and lymph nodes than intermediate or light .... ...
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Immune adherence hemagglutination (IAHA) was compared to complement fixation (CF), using standard procedures, for serological testing of human sera with a number of commercially available antigens. The antigens included herpes simplex, measles, cytomegalo-, and influenza (type B) viruses, as well as Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia psittaci (Chlamydia group). The IAHA test was found to be as specific as the CF test, but 4 to 20 times as sensitive with all antigens tested. Antigen titers were also higher with the IAHA method, and the time required to complete the test was only 4 h for the IAHA method, compared with 20 h for the CF method. The increased sensitivity of the IAHA test should permit its use for determination of immunity, as well as for serodiagnosis of recent infections.
Effects of adding phenol to sera used for the card-agglutination test (CAT) and for the micro-complement-fixation test (CFT) for bovine anaplasmosis were studied. Sera were obtained from 14 recently infected cattle, 17 cattle vaccinated with a killed anaplasmosis vaccine, 5 cattle in the carrier phase of the disease, and 45 cattle of unknown anaplasmosis status. Aliquots of sera were tested with and without phenol (0.25% final concentration). Phenol adversely affected the CAT by causing false-negative results. The CAT reactions of nonphenolized sera from recently infected cattle were all positive 4 weeks after inoculation, whereas CAT reactions of phenolized sera were not all positive until 10 weeks after inoculation. Nine non-phenolized sera from vaccinated cattle that were CAT-positive were CAT-negative after being phenolized. Phenolized sera from carrier cattle and from cattle of unknown anaplasmosis status were less reactive on the CAT than were nonphenolized sera. Effects of phenol on the CFT were
Lab Reagents Cytomegalovirus Antibody Laboratories manufactures the cytomegalovirus antibodies igm reagents distributed by Genprice. The Cytomegalovirus Antibodies Igm reagent is RUO (Research Use Only) to test human serum or cell culture lab samples. To purchase these products, for the MSDS, Data Sheet, protocol, storage conditions/temperature or for the concentration, please contact cytomegalovirus Antibody. Other Cytomegalovirus products are available in stock. Specificity: Cytomegalovirus Category: Antibodies Group: Igm Igm information ...
The spleens of horses infected with equine infectious anemia contain an antigen that is useful for a diagnostic immunodiffusion test. This antigen was extracted from the spleen by homogenization of the tissue, centrifugation, and precipitation from the supernatant fluid at 50% saturation with (NH4)2SO4. The antigen was purified by subjecting it to two cycles of electrophoresis in a continuous free-flow electrophoresis cell and finally filtering through a column of Sephadex G-200 gel. The antigen was found to be a small protein with a molecular weight of 27,500 and sedimentation coefficient of 2.1S. Its density was about 1.18 and its isoelectric point 5.8. At 45 to 50 C, it coagulated, losing its antigenicity. The antigen was useful for assaying antibody in the serum from infected horses by using the complement fixation test or the immunodiffusion test. Complement-fixing antibodies were found to be more transient than the precipitating antibodies. ...
Abstract The objective of this study was to standardize and validate the dot-blot test for the serological diagnosis of bovine brucellosis, compare the results with those found in the 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) and complement fixation test (CF), and estimate the relative sensitivity and specificity of the dot-blot compared to these tests. Fifty bovine blood serum samples were used for the test standardization, and 1315 samples were used for evaluation and comparison between the tests; the results were compared using the Kappa indicator. At the end of standardization, it was established as optimal for the antigen obtained from Brucella abortus B19 after passing through a microorganism rupture process, the blood serum samples diluted at 1:100, and the ...
A study of 531 female patients attending a venereal disease clinic was undertaken to assess the incidence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in the cervix. The findings were as follows: (1) 35 of 531 patients had positive cervical cultures for CMV (6-6 per cent.). (2) 28 of 531 patients were positive for Herpes virus hominis (5-3 per cent.). (3) Excluding those who were pregnant, 20 of 28 with CMV were taking oral contraceptives (71 per cent.). (4) Seven babies born to infected mothers showed no signs of cytomegalic inclusion disease. (5) 28 of 35 with CMV had associated genital infections (80 per cent.). (6) Positive cultures were obtained in twenty cases for periods up to 10 months. (7) The CMV complement-fixation test was positive in all 23 patients with positive CMV cultures who were tested. (8) Seven male consorts were examined but CMV was not isolated from any of them. (9) A case of CMV mononucleosis was detected. It is suggested that the higher incidence in patients attending a VD clinic is due to ...
EPFL scientists have developed a uranium-based complex that allows nitrogen fixation reactions to take place in ambient conditions. The work lays the foundation to develop new processes for synthesizing nitrogen products like cyanamide.
The human endometrial epithelial cancer cell line Hec50 (Holinka et al., 1996) was used to prepare chromatin for X-ChIP and N-ChIP assays according to the Chromatrap® protocols. For the N-ChIP assay, 1 x 106 cells were grown to a confluency of 80%, scraped in ice-cold PBS, and finally collected through centrifugation. Cell lysis was performed in Hypotonic Buffer, before subjecting the separated nuclei to micrococcal nuclease digestion to yield chromatin fragments between 100 and 500 bp in length. Sample dialysis was carried out to remove unwanted impurities and these samples were processed for the ChIP method. For the X-ChIP assay, 1 x 106 cells were grown to a confluency of 80% and fixed in 1% formaldehyde for a period of 10 minutes. Glycine was used to quench the fixation reaction and cells were gathered in ice-cold PBS and then spun down, discarding the supernatant prior to re-suspension and lysis in Hypotonic Buffer. The nuclei thus released were gathered by centrifugation and lysed, and ...
RUBELLA-INFECTED cell cultures produce infectious virus, a hemagglutinin (HA), and two distinct complement-fixing (CF) antigens. Also, concentrates of infected
Med. 85, 202. 5. Tang, F. , Chang, H. , Huang, Y. , Wang, K. C. (1957) Chinese Med. J. 75, 429. 6. Burnet, F. M. (1936) Spec. Rep. Series, Med. Res. Council, London, No. 220. 7. Cox, H. R. (1952) Ann. Y. Acad. Sei. 55, 236. 8. Hirst, G. K. (1945) Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 58, 155. 9. Burnet, F. M. (1940) Brit. J. Exper. Path. 21, 147. 10. Beveridge, W. I. , Burnet, F. M. (1946) Spec. Rep. Series, Med. Res. Council, London, No. 256. 11. Levens, J. , Enders, J. F. (1945) Science, 102, 117. 12. Enders, J. J. Hyg. 60, 214. 28. Porterfield, J. S. (1960) Bull. Wld. Hlth. Org. 22, 373. 29. Cooper, P. D. (1961) Advances in Virus Research, 8, 319. CHAPTER SIX SEROLOGY THERE are five main types of serological reaction associated with viral investigations. Three of these, neutralisation, haemagglutinationinhibition (HI) and complement fixation (C-F) are used principally for diagnosis and epidemiology. The other two, agar-gel diffusion and fluorescent antibody staining are primarily research tools, only ...
CRP [ENSP00000255030]. C-reactive protein, pentraxin-related; Displays several functions associated with host defense: it promotes agglutination, bacterial capsular swelling, phagocytosis and complement fixation through its calcium-dependent binding to phosphorylcholine. Can interact with DNA and histones and may scavenge nuclear material released from damaged circulating cells; Short pentraxins. Synonyms: CRP, C9JRE9, P02741, Q5VVP7, C9JRE9p .... Linkouts: STRING Pharos UniProt OMIM ...
CRP [ENSP00000255030]. C-reactive protein, pentraxin-related; Displays several functions associated with host defense: it promotes agglutination, bacterial capsular swelling, phagocytosis and complement fixation through its calcium-dependent binding to phosphorylcholine. Can interact with DNA and histones and may scavenge nuclear material released from damaged circulating cells; Short pentraxins. Synonyms: CRP, C9JRE9, P02741, Q5VVP7, C9JRE9p .... Linkouts: STRING Pharos UniProt OMIM ...
Serpin B9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SERPINB9 gene.[1][2][3] PI9 belongs to the large superfamily of serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins), which bind to and inactivate serine proteinases. These interactions are involved in many cellular processes, including coagulation, fibrinolysis, complement fixation, matrix remodeling, and apoptosis (Sprecher et al., 1995).[supplied by OMIM][3] ...
1. A specific antibody, demonstrable by the technique of complement fixation, regularly appears, or increases in concentration, in the sera of human beings during an attack of mumps or during convalescence.. 2. Specific dermal hypersensitivity, demonstrable by the injection of heat-inactivated mumps virus, has been shown to develop in 6 human beings after recovery from mumps.. 3. Complement-fixing antibody and the hypersensitive state also emerge as a result of clinically inapparent infection with the virus of mumps.. 4. These two phenomena are apparently unrelated in respect to immunologic mechanisms.. 5. The data presented indicate that the complement fixation test should prove of value both in diagnosis and in the determination of immunity.. 6. The skin test for dermal hypersensitivity, on the other hand, becomes positive after recovery and therefore would appear to be useful only as an index of resistance.. ...
AIMS--To study the association between cytomegalovirus (CMV) excretion and interstitial pneumonitis in allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients, with reference to donor and recipient CMV antibody response. METHODS--The incidence of CMV excretion was prospectively studied in 62 allogeneic bone marrow transplantations performed on adults and children. All recipients received CMV seronegative blood products. Prophylaxis with high dose acyclovir and CMV immune globulin was given to high risk patients (donor or recipient, or both, CMV seropositive). RESULTS--CMV excretion was detected in eight of 26 (31%) high risk patients but in only one of 36 low risk patients (donor and recipient both CMV seronegative). Five of the eight (63%) excretors in the high risk category developed CMV, of whom four (80%) belonged to the seropositive recipient/seronegative donor group, and included the three CMV seropositive recipients whose CMV complement fixation antibody titres were 64 or greater before ...
Squalene. Oil Emulsions. In the 1960s, emulsified water-in-oil and water-in-vegetable-oil adjuvant preparations used experimentally showed special promise in providing exalted immunity of long duration (Hilleman, 1966). The development of Freund s adjuvants emerged from studies of tuberculosis. Several researchers noticed that immunological responses in animals to various antigens were enhanced by introduction into the animal of living Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In the presence of Mycobacterium, the reaction obtained was of the delayed type, transferrable with leukocytes. Freund measured the effect of mineral oil in causing delayed-type hypersensitivity to killed mycobacteria. There was a remarkable increase in complement-fixing antibody response as well as in delayed hypersensitivity reaction.. Freund s adjuvant consists of a water-in-oil emulsion of aqueous antigen in paraffin (mineral) oil of low specific gravity and low viscosity. Drakeol 6VR and Arlacel A (mannide monooleate) are ...
Abstract: : Purpose:We reported that patients with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease had immune responses specific to human melanocyte antigens, tyrosinase and gp100. This study was aimed at analyzing whether lymphocytes of patients with VKH disease have a cross-reaction between melanocyte peptides and virus antigens. Methods:The subjects of this study were patients with VKH disease and patients with other uveitis in 1989-2001at our hospital. We searched molecular mimicry between tyrosinase450-462, gp10044-59 and exogenous antigen, such as virus, using database screening. Then, crossreactivity to melanocyte peptides and virus antigen were examined by lymphocyte proliferation assay. The seroprevalence of various viruses in patients with VKH disease (n=109) was examined by complement fixation test. In order to examine if the virus infection in VKH patients were latent, genomic DNA of virus was measured by quantitative PCR using samples from serum, cerebro-spinal fluid, and aqueous humor. All ...
Summary A quantal microassay for the titration of LCM virus strains is described. It is based on the detection of virus-specific complement-fixing antigen in the medium of infected L cell microcultures.
Collagen-vascular diseases are connected with immune system dysregulation and inflammation, resulting in tissue destruction or compromise. a dormant condition, specifically the physical and immunologic hurdle shaped by granulomas in the lung and somewhere else. The most frequent illness reported using the TNF- inhibitors continues to be tuberculosis, which might express as pulmonary and/or extrapulmonary disease, using the second option becoming more prevalent and serious than usual. are also described in several instances, and their rate of recurrence is talked about. and fungal pathogens such as for example urine antigen titers, and got culture-positive disease or raised go with fixation titers. Amphotericin B may be the TH-302 drug of preference for moderate to serious histoplasmosis in immunocompromised individuals. Using the HIV/Helps model, chronic suppression with itraconazole will be suggested if further infliximab therapy had been necessary. Aspergillus Varieties is the typical reason ...
Deficient or decreased levels of serum complement activity of the classical pathway are associated with a number of diseases. A normal CH50 assay indicates that C1 through C9 are present and functional in the serum being tested. Although CH50 can be used to assess the integrity of the classical pathway, it must not be used as a sensitive test for in vivo complement fixation. In vitro degradation can also cause low CH50 activity.. ...
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These tests include ELISAs and complement fixation tests. Orbiviruses listed by serogroup Lebombo virus Pata virus African ... The serogroups are differentiated on the basis of a fourfold or greater difference in antibody based tests. ...
Alternatively diagnosis can be made by complement fixation tests. As of 2012[update] commercial serological tests have included ... Kinkel HF, Dittrich S, Bäumer B, Weitzel T (2012). "Evaluation of eight serological tests for diagnosis of imported ... Historically, antimonials and trichlorphon were tested against visceral schistosome infection in cattle. Antimony affects ... Exposure to any Schistosoma eggs or cercariae can cause false positive serological test results for individual Schistosoma ...
Alternatively diagnosis can be made by complement fixation tests. As of 2012[update], commercial blood tests included ELISA and ... Kinkel HF, Dittrich S, Bäumer B, Weitzel T (2012). "Evaluation of eight serological tests for diagnosis of imported ... an Indirect immunofluorescence test, but these have low sensitivity ranging from 21% to 71%. The main cause of schistomiasis is ...
Other methods of diagnosis included hemagglutination inhibition (HI), complement fixation, neutralization tests. However, new ... This study also found using immune response tests that birds and humans in the region appeared to have been exposed to the ...
Complement fixation assay. The complement fixation test was modified to assay Antiserum mediated RBC lysis. Chromium release ... A series of tests on cultured cells revealed that, within the "LA" group, a donor tissue might have some antigens but not ... By testing different anti-sera from recipients they were able to uncover some with unique reactivities. As a result, scientists ... To work around this problem a 'workshop' number "w#" was often assigned while testing continued to determine which series the ...
Many traditional serological tests such as hemagglutination or complement fixation employ this principle. Such tests can ... This means that the patient's serum gives a positive indirect Coombs test at any dilution down to 1/16 (1 part serum to 15 ... It is conventionally expressed as the inverse of the greatest dilution level that still gives a positive result on some test. ... For example, the indirect Coombs test detects the presence of anti-Rh antibodies in a pregnant woman's blood serum. A patient ...
August von Wassermann develops a complement fixation test for the diagnosis of syphilis. Walther Nernst presents a formulation ...
Antibody titers can also be measured with complement fixation tests, hemagglutination assays, and neutralization tests. In ... "Amylase Test". Lab Tests Online. Archived from the original on 29 March 2009. Retrieved 30 October 2020. "Changes in the ... Sensitivity to IgM testing is variable, ranging from as low as 24-51% to 75% in the first week and 100% thereafter. Throughout ... In laboratory tests on rodents, MuV appears to enter the CNS first through cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), then spreading to the ...
Complement fixation, precipitin, adhesion, mercuric chloride and Wassermann tests in equine trypanosomiasis of Panama (murrina ... They traveled three times to Panama to study malaria and on other trips they worked on a precipitin test for malaria and tests ... A precipitin test in malaria. J. Prev. Med., 1:343-57. Trypanosomiasis. In: A Textbook of Medicine, 2d ed., ed. R. L. Cecil, pp ... A precipitin test in malaria; Second report. J. Prev. Med., 2:147-67. 1929 With W. H. Taliaferro. Acquired immunity in avian ...
Ante mortem diagnosis may be made with the use of dermal sensitivity testing or complement fixation tests. Muscle biopsy is ...
Antiechinococcus antibodies can be detected with serodiagnostic tests - indirect fluorescent antibody, complement fixation, ...
The available tests include the tube-precipitin (TP) assays, complement fixation assays, and enzyme immunoassays. TP antibody ... Inmates Should Be Tested for Valley Fever Immunity". California HealthLine. 2014-07-28. Shehab, Ziad M. (2010). " ... Presently, Meridian Bioscience manufactures the so-called EIA test to diagnose the Valley fever, which however is known for ... and a serum precipitin test was developed by Charles E. Smith that was able to detect an acute form of the infection. In ...
However, some authors note that such complement-fixation tests are insensitive and should not be used for diagnosis. Dr. Clare ... Blood samples were obtained and tested for LCMV antibodies. Of the 82 workers that were tested, seven had definite serologic ... Serologic testing is not recommended for pet rodents, as it has been unreliable in detecting antibodies in animals with active ... The island of Vir in Croatia is one of the biggest described endemic places of origin of LCMV in the world, with IFA testing ...
Double diffusion in agar gel and complement fixation test, are amongst the most commonly used tests in serodiagnosis. Culture ... which might provide a basis for the development of a diagnostic test. Tests targeting the presence of serum antibodies to P. ... A number of serologic tests have been employed for the diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis. ... "Rapid and reliable method for production of a specific Paracoccidioides brasiliensis immunodiffucsion test antigen". J. Clin. ...
Bacterial culture, immunofluorescent antibody testing (IFAT), complement fixation test and haemagglutination can all be used to ...
August von Wassermann: Developed a complement fixation test for the diagnosis of syphilis in 1906 Felix Wankel: Inventor of the ...
... the complement fixation test. This test led to revolutionary findings in regards to detecting the differentiation of diseases ...
Electron microscopy, PCR, complement fixation, antibody fluorescence, neutralization test, and haemagglutination can be used to ...
... cells such as erythrocytes in advance of performing an immunological test such as a complement-fixation test or a Coombs test. ... to appropriate biological entities such as erythrocytes or particles made of gelatin or latex for passive aggregation tests. ...
... complement fixation test) in 1944. She observed that different strains had varying degree of virulence, and that the antibodies ... strains have been established in humans based on antigenic variation using serological tests such as complement fixation and ... More sensitive tests such as rapid immunochromatographic test (RICT), immunofluorescence assays (IFA), ELISA, and DNA analysis ... Weil-Felix is the simplest and most rapid test, but it is not sensitive or specific, as it detects any kind of rickettsial ...
Canada used serological tests such as complement fixation tests to detect trypanosomes, and have been very successful. Other ... Detection with this method is approx 85 trypanosomes per millilitre.[citation needed] Rather than using live animals as test ... tests used look at detecting antibodies generated by the host species against T.evansi antigens. This is done using the enzyme- ...
Diagnosis requires laboratory tests. Serological methods such as complement fixation, serum neutralization and PCR are ...
Serological testing is most commonly performed with an ELISA or complement fixation, and viral isolation can also be attempted ...
... direct and indirect fluorescent antibody tests, complement fixation tests (CFT), indirect haemagglutination test (IHA), ELISA ... Other procedures used for diagnosis include growth inhibition disc tests (GI), ...
A microtechnique for application of the SN test has been described. Immunodiffusion, a modified direct complement-fixation test ... Tests The HI test is frequently used for detection and quantitation of humoral antibody for PPV. Antibody sometimes can be ... Moreover, levels of antibody too low to be detected by the HI test may be detected by the SN test. The primary significance of ... Parameters of the HI test have been studied in detail. The SN test is occasionally used for detection and quantitation of ...
Some tests include complement fixation to Colorado tick virus, immunofluorescence for Colorado tick fever, and some other ... A combination of clinical signs, symptoms, and laboratory tests can confirm the likelihood of having CTF. ...
These studies became the basis for complement-fixation testing methods that enabled the development of serological tests for ... The same technique is used today in serologic testing for countless other diseases. With Octave Gengou, he isolated Bordetella ... but which are now known as complement). Four years later, in 1899, he described a similar destructive process involving ... complement, "hemolysis", in which foreign red blood cells are ruptured or "lysed" following exposure to immune serum. In 1900, ...
... complement fixation test). The bacteria can be recovered from the person only during the first three weeks of illness, ... This sample can then be tested by either culture or by polymerase chain reaction. Prevention is mainly by vaccination with the ...
"Reiter Complement Fixation Test" for syphilis. Nevertheless, the eponym Reiter's syndrome was used for the disease he described ...
... neutralization test), and CF (complement fixation test) tests and in-house-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for total ... Nevertheless, clinics in Brazil may not have adequate testing reliability as they rely on symptoms rather than PCR viral ...
Fixation of alleles most likely occurs through Muller's ratchet, when an asexual population's genome accumulates deleterious ... However, killing another male's cubs, upon the takeover, allows the new selected gene complement of the incoming alpha male to ... "Does morality have a biological basis? An empirical test of the factors governing moral sentiments relating to incest" ... "Fixation probability and time in subdivided populations". Genetics. 164 (2): 767-79. PMC 1462574. PMID 12807795 ...
Binding to these antigens within the kidney could cause inflammation and complement fixation, resulting in kidney damage. ... Anti-DFS70 antibody tests are available as CE-marked tests. Until now, no FDA cleared assay is available.[48] ... The ANA test detects the autoantibodies present in an individual's blood serum. The common tests used for detecting and ... The presence of ANAs in blood can be confirmed by a screening test. Although there are many tests for the detection of ANAs, ...
... "fixation" occurs. Shortly after fixation, the embryo proper (so called up to about 35 days) will become visible on trans-rectal ... Test breedings have been done with draft horse stallions bred to small mares with no increase in the number of difficult births ... The stallion should be chosen to complement the mare, with the goal of producing a foal that has the best qualities of both ...
... and Complement fixation test are methods of identifying different kinds of parasites by detecting the presence of their ...
Complement activation (fixation), in which antibodies that are latched onto a foreign cell encourage complement to attack it ... Product safety testing : Sterility (bacteria and fungi), In vitro and in vivo testing for adventitious viruses, Murine ... these phagocytes are attracted by certain complement molecules generated in the complement cascade. Second, some complement ... Preclinical pharmacology and toxicity testing : Preclinical safety testing of antibody is designed to identify possible ...
Gel immunodiffusion is commonly used in endemic areas, diagnoses 95% of cases with high specificity.[10] Complement fixation ... negative as well as negative autoantibody tests.[9]There is insufficient data to support the benefits of above drugs to treat ...
These tests include: detecting complement fixation, indirect hemagglutination, indirect fluorescence assays, radioimmunoassays ... While these tests are not required in US, an estimated 75-90% of the blood supply is currently tested for Chagas, including all ... "Infectious Disease Testing". American Red Cross. Archived from the original on 18 April 2010. Retrieved 12 May 2010.. ... Attempts to test Darwin's remains at Westminster Abbey by using modern PCR techniques were met with a refusal by the Abbey's ...
This is the principle of the complement fixation test.. Modulation by infectionsEdit. Recent research has suggested that the ... complement factor B, and complement factor I, as well as deletion of complement factor H-related 3 and complement factor H- ... The end result of this complement activation or complement fixation cascade is stimulation of phagocytes to clear foreign and ... Diagnostic tools to measure complement activity include the total complement activity test.[citation needed] ...
infinitival complements. Du solls net esou vill Kaffi drénken. (lit. "You should not so much coffee drink."). *infinitival ... The tests are administered by the Institut National des Langues Luxembourg.[24] ... 637-41: "Arrêté ministériel du 5 juin 1946 portant fixation d'un système officiel d'orthographe luxembourgeois"". Archived from ...
The variables for the proposed tests will be the frequency of the disturbance mechanism which will be either 2.5 Hz, 5 Hz, or ... The complement of microgravity research experiments is divided between two Mission-Peculiar Experiment Support Structures ( ... Freezer and the fixation hardware. Investigators in Ukraine and the United States selected the experiments as a model for ... The Confined Helium Experiment (CHeX) provides a test of theories of the influence of boundaries on matter by measuring the ...
Survey: accurate fixation and orientation of the guns, historically this involved specialists within field artillery units and ... Later versions introduced induction fuze setting and testing instead of physically placing a fuze setter on the fuze. The ... complementing the clinometers for indirect laying in elevation which already existed. Despite conservative opposition within ... The Global Positioning System (GPS) provided a smaller and cheaper means of quick and accurate fixation for target acquisition ...
Complement fixation test. *Immunocytochemistry. *Immunohistochemistry *Direct fluorescent antibody. *Epitope mapping. *Skin ... A radioallergosorbent test (RAST) is a blood test using radioimmunoassay test to detect specific IgE antibodies, to determine ... Allergy Blood Testing - Lab Tests Online. *Radioallergosorbent+Test at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ... However, skin testing techniques have improved. Most skin testing does not involve needles and typically skin testing results ...
... complement fixation test).[35] The bacteria can be recovered from the person only during the first three weeks of illness, ... In 1925 Danish physician Thorvald Madsen was the first to test a whole-cell vaccine on a wide scale.[72] Madsen used the ... This sample can then be tested by either culture or by polymerase chain reaction.[5] ...
Complement fixation test. *Immunocytochemistry. *Immunohistochemistry *Direct fluorescent antibody. *Epitope mapping. *Skin ... As with all assays, empirical testing is required to determine which method is optimal for a given application. ...
Fixation on trust results in folly. Dependence on the strength of courage results in violence. Excessive discipline and ... Testing a dual attachment model". Organizational Behavior and Human Performance. 30 (1): 109-131. doi:10.1016/0030-5073(82) ... engage in behaviors that complement subordinates' environments and abilities in a manner that compensates for deficiencies and ...
A latex fixation test, also called a latex agglutination assay or test (LA assay or test), is an assay used clinically in the ... Singer JM, Edberg SC, Selinger M, Amram M (1979). "Quality control of the latex-fixation test". Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 72 (4): ... Complement fixation test. *Immunocytochemistry. *Immunohistochemistry *Direct fluorescent antibody. *Epitope mapping. *Skin ... Latex+fixation+test at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
She and Nate become close friends, with Nate confiding to her his fears about his and Brenda's unborn child after blood tests ... Bettina's brash personality and Ruth's reserved nature complement each other and they form a strong friendship. She prides ... Billy has a strong fixation on Brenda's life and their relationship at times bordered on incest. ... After two weeks of Durrell testing the waters and Keith's patience, Keith believes it is time for the brothers to go. David ...
區分不同類型的腦膜炎還需要幾種其他的特殊檢測方法。乳膠凝集試驗(英語:Latex fixation test)可能由於肺炎鏈球菌、腦膜炎雙球菌、流感嗜血桿
They can be confirmed using virus isolation, complement fixation, ELISA, immunodiffusion or histopathology (following ... The other four tests detect group antigens.[15] Maternal antibodies[edit]. Maternal antibodies have displayed protection ... Confirming infection of avian reovirus can be detected through an ELISA test by using and observing the expression of σC and σB ...
4) through the process of biological nitrogen fixation. Prior to the advent of the Haber-Bosch process, an energy-intensive ... The same was true when scientists tested seeding rates on legumes and oats; a higher density of seeds planted per acre ... pointing toward the need for detailed information on specific cover crop types and management practices to best complement a ... Jensen, E. S.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, H. (2003). "How can increased use of biological N-2 fixation in agriculture benefit the ...
Complement fixation test. *Immunocytochemistry. *Immunohistochemistry *Direct fluorescent antibody. *Epitope mapping. *Skin ... Furthermore, autofluorescence may be due to the nature of the tissue or the fixation method. These aspects of IHC tissue prep ... This requires proper tissue collection, fixation and sectioning. A solution of paraformaldehyde is often used to fix tissue, ... There are commercially available immunohistochemical tests, Dako HercepTest, Leica Biosystems Oracle[16] and Ventana Pathway.[ ...
Anticoccidioidal complement fixation IgG titers of 1:16 or higher. *Absence of dermal hypersensitivity to coccidioidal antigens ... Blood or urine tests are administered, which aim to discover Coccidioides antigens. However, because the Coccidioides creates a ... Susceptibility testing of Coccidioides species in one report revealed uniform susceptibility to most antifungal agents, ...
ComplementingEdit. Accurate interpretation of messages is made easier when nonverbal and verbal communication complement each ... Their scores were the highest of any subgroup.[89] Rape victims were next tested. It was reported that women who had been raped ... The length of a gaze, the frequency of glances, patterns of fixation, pupil dilation, and blink rate are all important cues in ... In some subjects tested for ability to read nonverbal cues, intuitive paradigms were apparently employed while in others a ...
"Hiring a DNA Testing Company Genealogy". Family Search. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 2016. Retrieved 2 ... Lehmann G, Segal E, Muradian KK, Fraifeld VE (April 2008). "Do mitochondrial DNA and metabolic rate complement each other in ... Nass MM, Nass S (December 1963). "INTRAMITOCHONDRIAL FIBERS WITH DNA CHARACTERISTICS: I. Fixation and Electron Staining ... Garlicki, Debbie (11 March 1998). "DNA Tests Got Rorrer Life in Jail". The Morning Call. Pellegrino, Peter; Thomas, Peter; ...
But the strategic alliance could be a test of compatibility for the forming of a joint venture company and a precedent step. ... results from its fixation on physical media. Copyright owners of musical works are granted exclusive rights to license over-the ... it is non-interactive it does not exceed the sound recording performance complement it is accompanied by information on the ... Costs considered could include R&D expenditures, pilot-plant and test-marketing costs, technology upgrading expenses, patent ...
Fixation of alleles most likely occurs through Muller's ratchet, when an asexual population's genome accumulates deleterious ... However, killing another male's cubs, upon the takeover, allows the new selected gene complement of the incoming alpha male to ... Lieberman D, Tooby J, Cosmides L (April 2003). "Does morality have a biological basis? An empirical test of the factors ... S2CID 881556.[page needed] Whitlock MC (June 2003). "Fixation probability and time in subdivided populations". Genetics. 164 (2 ...
Intravascular hemolysis may occur when red blood cells are targeted by autoantibodies, leading to complement fixation, or by ... In vitro hemolysis during specimen collection can cause inaccurate laboratory test results by contaminating the surrounding ... potentially life-threatening disease of the blood characterized by complement-induced intravascular hemolytic anemia. Extrinsic ... red blood cells is much higher than in the plasma and so an elevated potassium level is usually found in biochemistry tests of ...
... complement 3A - complement 5A - complement factor B - complement membrane attack complex - complement receptor - complex - ... Ames test - amide - amine - amino - amino acid - amino acid receptor - amino acid sequence - amino acid sequence homology - ... Carbon fixation - Carboxylic acid - carcinoembryonic antigen - carrier - carrier protein - CAS registry number - casein - ...
CSF coccidioides complement fixation is a test that checks for infection due to the fungus coccidioides in the cerebrospinal ( ... CSF coccidioides complement fixation is a test that checks for infection due to the fungus coccidioides in the cerebrospinal ( ... There, it is examined for coccidioides antibodies using a laboratory method called complement fixation. This technique checks ... For this reason, this test may be repeated several weeks after the first test. ...
... is a blood test that checks for infection due to bacteria called C burnetii, which causes Q fever. ... The complement fixation test to Coxiella burnetii (C burnetii) ... complement fixation test; C burnetii - complement fixation test ... The complement fixation test to Coxiella burnetii (C burnetii) is a blood test that checks for infection due to bacteria called ... Complement fixation (Cf) - serum. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures. 6th ed. St ...
... based on the fixing of a known quantity of complement to the antigen being tested and the specific antibody that combines with ... a test for diagnosing an infectious disease by detecting the presence of antibody in the blood, ... Origin of complement-fixation test. First recorded in 1910-15. Dictionary.com Unabridged Based on the Random House Unabridged ... complement fixation test. complement fixation test. noun. med a serological test for detecting the presence of a specific ...
The complement fixation test is an immunological medical test that can be used to detect the presence of either specific ... "Animation Quiz 4 - Complement Fixation Test". highered.mheducation.com. C. Vaman Rao (2005). Immunology: a textbook. Alpha ... The basic steps of a complement fixation test are as follows: Serum is separated from the patient. Patients naturally have ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Complement+Fixation+Tests at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ...
DIAGNOSIS OF EPIDEMIC ENCEPHALITIS BY COMPLEMENT-FIXATION TEST Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
... is a blood test that checks for infection due to bacterium called C burnetii, which causes Q... ... The complement fixation test to Coxiella burnetii (C burnetti) ... Complement fixation test to C burnetii. Complement fixation ... test to C burnetii. Definition. The complement fixation test to Coxiella burnetii (C burnetti) is a blood test that checks for ... How the Test is Performed. A blood sample is needed.. The sample is sent to a laboratory. There, a method called complement ...
The complement fixation test is an immunological test wherein the binding of the complement is observed to detect the presence ... The complement fixation test is a two-step process. The antibody from the patient serum and the antigen are mixed with fresh ... However, ELISA and PCR methods are now preferred over complement fixation test as serological method for clinical diagnosis. ... Retrieved from "https://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/index.php?title=Complement_fixation_test&oldid=99558" ...
... haemagglutination-inhibition and complement-fixation tests*. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 38 (‎4)‎, 547 - 563. ... haemagglutination-inhibition and complement-fixation tests*. ...
Results on 303 cases tested for amebiasis with this method show that an amebic complement fixation test can be useful in ... modification of the Kolmer-Wassermann complement fixation method, for the detection of Endamoeba histolytica antibodies is ... Results on 303 cases tested for amebiasis with this method show that an amebic complement fixation test can be useful in ... A Micro-Kolmer technique, modification of the Kolmer-Wassermann complement fixation method, for the detection of Endamoeba ...
The test was positive in 88.9% of the children and 89.3% of the adults. The titers obtained for the two age groups did not ... Summary Complement fixation tests with a purified extract of adult Schistosoma mansoni were performed by a quantitative ... Quantitative Complement Fixation Test in Schistosomiasis Mansoni * Authors: J. Pellegrino, J. L. Pedreira de Freitas ... Complement fixation tests with a purified extract of adult Schistosoma mansoni were performed by a quantitative technique with ...
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If patients could recognise themselves, or anyone else could recognise a patient from your description, please obtain the patients written consent to publication and send them to the editorial office before submitting your response [Patient consent forms] ...
Clapp (1955) showed the complement fixation test (C.F.T.) for Brucella ovis in sheep to be well correlated to bacteriological ... This paper outlines the method of automation and its correlation with the manual test. Access to the full text of this article ... His observations were confirmed by Biberstein and McGowan (1958) who found the agglutination test to be less reliable than the ... and in the light of experience gained during the New Zealand Bovine Brucellosis Testing Scheme with automated serology, the ...
... test is based on the use of complement, a biological substance present in the sera of normal animals. Its great value is its ... The complement fixation test is based on the use of complement, a biological substance present in the sera of normal animals. ... render the complement fixation test rather difficult and time consuming. An actual test requires 2 days to complete. It is this ... In the Molecular and Serological Analysis Group a specially standardized complement fixation test, the Laboratory Branch ...
... was screened by the Complement Fixation test (CF) in sera from asymptomatic goats and animals with mild respiratory symptoms. ... The CF registered 251 positive goats (30.35%) and 576 (69.65%) negative; the test showed high sensitivity (93.33%) and ... the CF proved to be a good diagnosis test, this study determined that 30% of the goat population showed antibody titers against ... capri in Goats with the Complement Fixation Test. José L. Corona-Vargas1, Myrna A. Vicencio-Mallén1, Frida Salmerón-Sosa1, ...
... été recherchée par les tests de fixation du complément (CF) et des anticorps fluorescents (IFA). Deux séries déchantillons ... A group of animals tested within 4 months of importation gave 60.4% positive reactions by IFA and 62.5% by CF toB. equi; 6.3% ... The discrepancy between the results obtained by the 2 serological tests was probably due to the greater sensitivity of the IFA ... test and the faster decay of the antibodies detectable by the CF test. La présence danticorps contreBabesia equi etBabesia ...
... and for the micro-complement-fixation test (CFT) for bovine anaplasmosis were studied. Sera were obtained from 14 recently ... Aliquots of sera were tested with and without phenol (0.25% final concentration). Phenol adversely affected the CAT by causing ... Effects of adding phenol to sera used for the card-agglutination test (CAT) ... Effects of adding phenol to sera used for the card-agglutination test (CAT) and for the micro-complement-fixation test (CFT) ...
Platelets Count Test. Fragility Test. Urine Culture. ??? :????? ??? ????????? ( Insulin). ??? : ???????? ????????? Sex Hormones ... Complement fixation test ??? ?? ?? ????? ?? ?? COMPLEMENT FIXATION TEST ?????? ... Foam test, strip test And Ictotest for bilirubin Dr. Dr. ?? ??????? ??????? ????????? [Biochemistry & Hormones]. 4. 09-25-2009 ... The Complement System 2 Portrait. ?? ??????? ???????? [Immunology & Serology]. 6. 01-16-2011 07:24 PM. ...
Complement fixation test, Gel diffusion test, infectious disease, Leptospirosis, Liver function test, liver infection, Nasal ... ammonia Appetite Loss blood test chronic infection coma dark urine Diarrhea disease DNA Fatigue fever Headache Hepatic ... Tagged as : Acute form, Animal inoculation test, canine health specialist, Canine Hepatitis, ... discharge, Neutralization test, Sore throat, Swollen lymph nodes, toxic, vaccinations, Warfarin poisoning. ...
... complement fixation test; Coxiella burnetii - complement fixation test; C burnetii - complement fixation test. The complement ... This is why the test is called "fixation.". Complement. Complement is a blood test that measures the activity of certain ... Complement fixation (Cf) - serum. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures. 6th ed. St ... Complement fixation test to C burnetii. Q fever - ... Tests for Complement fixation test to C burnetii. *Complement ...
Diagnosis of lymphogranuloma venereum by complement-fixation test. With G.W. Rake and M.F. Shaffer. GM 5223. Binding: Paperback ... Complement Fixation Test in Lymphogranuloma Venereum.. 3 pages (pp. 410-413) IN: Proceedings of the Society for Experimental ... Diagnosis of lymphogranuloma venereum by complement-fixation test. With G.W. Rake and M.F. Shaffer. GM 5223.. Binding: ...
This test is based on the use of ... The complete fixation test (CFT) is used to detect the presence ... Principle of complement fixation test. It is the nature of the complement to be activated when there is formation of antigen- ... Complement Fixation Test : principle, procedure and interpretation. By Editorial Team on January 6, 2019 in Bacteriology, ... So the test is positive for presence of antibodies.. In the negative test : No Ag-Ab reaction occurs and the complement is free ...
Quantitatively standardized complement-fixation methods for critical evaluation of antigens prepared from Trypanosoma cruzi / ...
Results of search for su:{Complement fixation tests} and available No results found! No results found for that in WHO HQ ...
Complement Fixation Test. This animation demonstrates the complement fixation test for specific antibodies in a patients serum ... Could CBD Make You Fail a Drug Test?. This video explores the chemistry behind whether using cannabidiol (CBD)-a non- ... psychoactive compound produced by the marijuana plant-could make you fail a drug test. Credit: Reactions/American Chemical ...
Comparative evaluation of indirect haemagglutination and complement fixation tests in serodiagnosis of cysticercosis. Indian ... Comparative evaluation of indirect haemagglutination and complement fixation tests in serodiagnosis of cysticercosis. ...
Complement-fixation test: Ascitic fluid Antigens Ntaya ArB 209 * Maximum titer of antibody/optimum titer of antigen. ... CF test - homologous = 128/16. Institut Pasteur (Dakar) Y. Robin: ArB 209 gives positive results with the following sera; Group ...
Cross-CF and neutralizaton test with Botambi gave the following results: COMPLEMENT- FIXATION TEST ...
Hemagglutination inhibition test. KFR. Complement fixation test. NIR. Indirect immunofluorescence assay. ELISA. Enzyme-linked ... Leck I, Steward J (1971) Further tests of hypothesis that influenza in pregnancy causes malformations. HSMHA Health Rep 86:265- ... Prince HE, Lapé-Nixon M (2014) Role of Cytomegalovirus IgG Avidity Testing in Diagnosing Primary CMV Infection during pregnancy ... enlinked immunosorbent assay and sensitive hemaglutination inhibition test. J Hyg Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol 31:409-422PubMed ...
  • There, it is examined for coccidioides antibodies using a laboratory method called complement fixation. (medlineplus.gov)
  • There, a method called complement fixation is used to check if the body has produced substances called antibodies to a specific foreign substance ( antigen ), in this case, C burnetii . (medlineplus.gov)
  • An immunological test for determining the presence of a particular antibody in which serum is treated in a manner that allows existing antibodies to accept and bind to a known amount of antigen. (dictionary.com)
  • The serum is heated in such a way that all of the complement proteins-but none of the antibodies-within it are destroyed. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is possible because complement proteins are much more susceptible to destruction by heat than antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, if no antibodies against the antigen of interest are present, the complement will not be depleted and it will react with the sRBC-antibody complexes added in step 4, lysing the sRBCs and spilling their contents into the solution, thereby turning the solution pink. (wikipedia.org)
  • While detection of antibodies is the more common test format, it is equally possible to test for the presence of antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibody titer is a laboratory test that measures the level of antibodies in a blood sample. (scripps.org)
  • A Micro-Kolmer technique, modification of the Kolmer-Wassermann complement fixation method, for the detection of Endamoeba histolytica antibodies is presented. (ajtmh.org)
  • The complete fixation test (CFT) is used to detect the presence of specific antibodies in the patient's serum. (laboratoryinfo.com)
  • To determine whether the complement has been fixed, sheep RBCs and antibodies against sheep RBCs are added. (laboratoryinfo.com)
  • So the test is positive for presence of antibodies. (laboratoryinfo.com)
  • This test determines whether antibodies to the Colorado tick fever virus are present in the blood. (aarp.org)
  • A test apparatus for the determination of immunoassays of antigens and their antibodies which comprises a receptacle tray having a plurality of wells for receiving and samples, a holder for receiving and holding balls, coated with an immunologic composition and for depositing the balls into the wells. (google.com)
  • Viral hepatitis, including so called serum hepatitis, which is a relatively common disease, has not been heretofore easily detected by a sensitive test which is both specific and reproducible for quickly determining whether or not the serum from a patient or a donor contains hepatitis associated antigens or antibodies. (google.com)
  • A complement fixation test modified by the addition of porcine serum and an indirect haemagglutination test were used to detect antibodies to Pseudomonas pseudomallei in pigs. (qld.gov.au)
  • Type 7 adenovirus was isolated from 14 children, and in the other 13, the rise in the titer of complement-fixing antibodies to adenovirus was fourfold or greater. (nih.gov)
  • Eighty-four ovarian cancer (OCa) patients and 84 controls with nonmalignant conditions matched by age and ethnic origin were interviewed with regard to clinical mumps history and their sera were tested for complement fixation (CF) mumps antibodies. (nih.gov)
  • Serological test , also called serology test or antibody test , any of several laboratory procedures carried out on a sample of blood serum (the clear liquid that separates from the blood when it is allowed to clot) for the purpose of detecting antibodies or antibody-like substances that appear specifically in association with certain diseases. (britannica.com)
  • Some of the advantages and disadvantages of two serologic tests for antibodies are described in the following paragraphs. (cdc.gov)
  • antiglobulin test (AGT) a test for nonagglutinating antibodies against red cells, using antihuman globulin antibody to agglutinate red cells coated with the nonagglutinating antibody. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The direct antiglobulin test detects antibodies bound to circulating red cells in vivo. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The indirect antiglobulin test detects serum antibodies that bind to red cells in an in vitro incubation step. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Plasma or serum from convalescing patients enhanced the infection of primate kidney cells by the Zaire virus, and this enhancement was mediated by antibodies to the viral glycoprotein and by complement component C1q. (asm.org)
  • Here we present evidence indicating that antibodies able to enhance infectivity of authentic Ebola Zaire virus are produced in humans and propose a novel mechanism for this antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) in which the complement protein C1q mediates the enhancement. (asm.org)
  • The complement system is a part of the immune system that enhances (complements) the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear microbes and damaged cells from an organism, promotes inflammation, and attacks the pathogen's cell membrane . (wikipedia.org)
  • The complement system can be recruited and brought into action by antibodies generated by the adaptive immune system . (wikipedia.org)
  • In the early 20th century, this controversy was resolved when it became understood that complement can act in combination with specific antibodies, or on its own in a non-specific way. (wikipedia.org)
  • The complement fixation test relies on obtaining parasites and blood with antibodies from infected live horses. (usda.gov)
  • Strain RB51 apparently does not result in antibodies detectable by current serological tests. (fao.org)
  • The recent development of specific assays for viral DNA and antibodies has expanded and improved the inventory of laboratory tests and opened new opportunities for use of MCF diagnostics. (mdpi.com)
  • Antiechinococcus antibodies can be detected with serodiagnostic tests - indirect fluorescent antibody , complement fixation, ELISA , Western blot , and other methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study was conducted to determine the serum antibodies against toxoplasma in swine from breeding-pig farm, pig farm and abattoir by latex agglutination(LA) test. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • positive rates of toxoplasma antibodies in 823 swine sera were 17.0%(140 cases) by LA test. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Then there is the step of introducing AFP receptor antibodies or AFP into the patient to react with cancer cells in the patient if the testing indicates AFP receptor are in the patient. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • These standardizations, which involve titrations of sheep red blood cells, hemolysin, complement, and antigens before the test proper can be performed, render the complement fixation test rather difficult and time consuming. (tx.us)
  • It is this reason, as well as the fact that many of the test antigens and antisera are not available commercially, that the test is not often incorporated into the test program of the average clinical laboratory. (tx.us)
  • Quantitatively standardized complement-fixation methods for critical evaluation of antigens prepared from Trypanosoma cruzi / José O. Almeida and Earl H. Fife. (who.int)
  • Four ELISA tests are based on recombinant antigens (TssA, TssB, BimA and Hcp1), the IDVet ELISA is based on a semi-purified fraction of B. mallei and WB makes use of a purified LPS-containing B. mallei-antigen. (elsevier.com)
  • agglutination test cells containing antigens to a given antibody are mixed into the solution being tested for a particular antibody, with agglutination indicative of antibody presence. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It is used in typing of erythrocyte antigens and in compatibility testing (cross-match). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Antigens for serological tests should be standardized against standard sera calibrated against the International Standard B. abortus serum. (fao.org)
  • However, ELISA and PCR methods are now preferred over complement fixation test as serological method for clinical diagnosis. (biology-online.org)
  • p = 0.000) and a high correspondence between high RBT scores and positive FPA results suggesting that sera with high RBT score may not require confirmation with tests such as competitive-ELISA or CFT. (springer.com)
  • They can be differentiated by various serological tests, including the virus neutralization test (VNT), the complement fixation test (CFT) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (fao.org)
  • The reactivity of positive samples should be confirmed by the complement fixation test or by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), both of which can also be used for both screening and confirmation. (fao.org)
  • The milk ring test and indirect ELISA performed on bulk milk samples are effective for screening and monitoring dairy cattle for brucellosis, but are less reliable in large herds and less sensitive with B. melitensis . (fao.org)
  • Indirect methods include immunological test like skin tests and complement fixation tests or more specific tests like immunoelectrophoresis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ( ELISA ). (hubpages.com)
  • Complement fixation (Cf) - serum. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The complement fixation test is an immunological medical test that can be used to detect the presence of either specific antibody or specific antigen in a patient's serum, based on whether complement fixation occurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The complement system is a system of serum proteins that react with antigen-antibody complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basic steps of a complement fixation test are as follows: Serum is separated from the patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients naturally have different levels of complement proteins in their serum. (wikipedia.org)
  • To negate any effects this might have on the test, the complement proteins in the patient's serum must be destroyed and replaced by a known amount of standardized complement proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • A known amount of standard complement proteins are added to the serum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus when the sRBC-antibody complexes are added in step 4, there will be no complement left in the serum. (wikipedia.org)
  • The test can be made quantitative by setting up a series of dilutions of patient serum and determining the highest dilution factor that will still yield a positive CF test. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antibody from the patient serum and the antigen are mixed with fresh complement. (biology-online.org)
  • Furthermore, to rule out cross reaction during complement fixation (CF), it was also performed with polyclonal serum against mycoides subsp. (scirp.org)
  • This test is based on the use of complement, a Biologically labile serum factor that causes the immune cytolysis i.e. lysis of antibody coated cells. (laboratoryinfo.com)
  • The first step is to heat the serum at 56°C to destroy patient's complement. (laboratoryinfo.com)
  • A measured amount of complement and antigen are then added to the serum. (laboratoryinfo.com)
  • If there is presence of antibody in the serum, the complement is fixed due to the formation of Ag-Ab complex. (laboratoryinfo.com)
  • And although the serum lost its power to kill the red cells when heated to 55 degrees centigrade, its potency was restored when alexine (or complement) was added. (faqs.org)
  • When red cells were added to a normal serum mixed with a specific form of bacteria in a test tube, the bacteriaremained active while the red cells were destroyed through the fixation of alexine. (faqs.org)
  • 293 and Vero E6 cells were grown in Dulbecco's minimal Eagle's medium complemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, l -glutamine, and antibiotics. (asm.org)
  • Over 30 proteins and protein fragments make up the complement system, including serum proteins , and cell membrane receptors . (wikipedia.org)
  • Please provide 0.1 ml serum per test. (criver.com)
  • Please provide 0.025 ml serum per hemagglutination (HA) and hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test. (criver.com)
  • The serum agglutination test is inferior to other tests in specificity and sensitivity, and is not recommended if other procedures are available. (fao.org)
  • Cell culture, real‐time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), flow cytometry, direct and indirect immunofluorescence methods, and the quick diagnosis test are all valuable approaches for the diagnosis of influenza. (intechopen.com)
  • Evaluation of the indirect immunofluorescence and complement fixation tests for the serodiagnosis of. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 2) A complement fixation test to determine the immunoglobulin G titer. (ca.gov)
  • These tests are reliable in determining immune status in healthy persons but may not be as reliable in determining the immune status of immunocompromised persons in whom a positive but low titer may not correlate with protection. (aappublications.org)
  • In the specific case of diagnosis for mycoplasmosis associated with respiratory problems in goats, the CF proved to be a good diagnosis test, this study determined that 30% of the goat population showed antibody titers against Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. (scirp.org)
  • Diagnosis of lymphogranuloma venereum by complement-fixation test. (argosybooks.com)
  • Effectiveness of Rose Bengal test and fluorescence polarization assay in the diagnosis of Brucella spp. (springer.com)
  • Your doctor can make a Colorado tick fever diagnosis by doing a physical examination and performing various laboratory tests. (aarp.org)
  • Antigen selection is of critical importance with regard to the specificity and sensitivity of these methods, especially the serological and rapid diagnosis tests. (intechopen.com)
  • The steps involved in the workup of a patient include naming, meshing, office testing, specific and nonspecific laboratory tests, specialty consultations, therapeutic tests, and diagnosis and treatment. (medscape.com)
  • Complement fixation and circumoval precipitin reactions for diagnosis and as tests of core in schistosomiasis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Serological testing is particularly helpful in the diagnosis of certain bacterial, parasitic, and viral diseases, including Rocky Mountain spotted fever , influenza , measles , polio , yellow fever , and infectious mononucleosis . (britannica.com)
  • Therefore, the use of a combination of antibody- and antigen-detection methods for the diagnosis of chlamydiosis is recommended, particularly when only one bird is tested. (cdc.gov)
  • A variety of laboratory tests for diagnosis of histoplasmosis, including fungal culture, histopathology, serologic tests, antigen detection, and molecular methods, have different sensitivities based on clinical manifestations and host status (9). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • There are different types of serological tests-for example, flocculation tests, neutralization tests, hemagglutinin-inhibition tests, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), and chemiluminescence immunoassays. (britannica.com)
  • Among flocculation tests, complement-fixation tests are the most common. (britannica.com)
  • Serologic tests include enzyme immunoassay (EIA), latex agglutination (LA), indirect fluorescent antibody, and fluorescent antibody membrane antigen assays. (aappublications.org)
  • Fedová O, Bručková M, Plesník V, Slonim D, Šejda J, Švandová E, Kubínová I (1987) Detection of postvaccination mumps virus antibody by neutralization test, enlinked immunosorbent assay and sensitive hemaglutination inhibition test. (springer.com)
  • However, hemagglutination inhibition, complement fixation, and neutralization tests identified Powassan virus (POW) as the pathogen. (nih.gov)
  • It is the nature of complement not to react with an antigen or an antibody alone but to enter into combination with antigen-antibody complexes. (tx.us)
  • The classical complement pathway typically requires antigen-antibody complexes for activation (specific immune response), whereas the alternative pathway can be activated by spontaneous C3 hydrolysis, foreign material, pathogens, or damaged cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complement fixation tests with a purified extract of adult Schistosoma mansoni were performed by a quantitative technique with the sera of 216 children (10 to 15 years of age) and 84 adults (20 to 40 years of age) passing eggs of S. mansoni in their stools. (ajtmh.org)
  • The complement fixation test is based on the use of complement, a biological substance present in the sera of normal animals. (tx.us)
  • The serological profile of the goat population, from nine regions in seven states of Mexico, was screened by the Complement Fixation test (CF) in sera from asymptomatic goats and animals with mild respiratory symptoms. (scirp.org)
  • Effects of adding phenol to sera used for the card-agglutination test (CAT) and for the micro-complement-fixation test (CFT) for bovine anaplasmosis were studied. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The accuracy of the complement fixation test (CFT) which is prescribed for international trade by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), five ELISAs and a Western blot (WB) were compared for serodiagnosis of glanders using sera from 3,000 glandersfree and 254 glanderous equids. (elsevier.com)
  • Sera were tested using the Rose Bengal plate test and complement fixation test. (who.int)
  • His observations were confirmed by Biberstein and McGowan (1958) who found the agglutination test to be less reliable than the C.F.T. in this respect, and stressed the usefulness of the C.F.T. in the detection of asymptomatic shedders of the organism and animals in the incubation stages of the disease. (sciquest.org.nz)
  • Bordet was also responsible for developing complement fixation tests,which made possible the early detection of many disease-causing bacteria in human and animal blood. (faqs.org)
  • As a practical mass-screening tool, serological testing has proved valuable in the detection of diseases such as syphilis , HIV / AIDS , and epidemic and pandemic infectious diseases (e.g., influenza and coronavirus disease). (britannica.com)
  • Comparison of commercial enzyme immunoassay kits with plaque reduction neutralization test for detection of measles virus antibody. (asm.org)
  • and developing the complement fixation test still in use for the detection and differentiation of rickettsial diseases such as endemic and epidemic typhus, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and Q fever. (nih.gov)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Comparative evaluation of indirect haemagglutination and complement fixation tests in serodiagnosis of cysticercosis. (who.int)
  • Serodiagnosis of the disease is challenging because of false-positive and false-negative test results. (elsevier.com)
  • On a complement fixation test, all patients with lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) have complement-fixing antibody titers higher than 1:16. (medscape.com)
  • In this study, the usefulness of the complement fixation assay was assessed to determine the serological status of nine regions. (scirp.org)
  • The effectiveness of Rose Bengal test (RBT) and fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) in diagnosing cattle brucellosis in endemic areas was assessed and RBT and FPA test agreement was compared (n = 319). (springer.com)
  • Validation of a fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) performed in microplates and comparison with other tests used for diagnosing B. melitensis infection in sheep and goats. (springer.com)
  • The manual C.F.T. places considerable demands on trained and experienced laboratory staff, and in the light of experience gained during the New Zealand Bovine Brucellosis Testing Scheme with automated serology, the test for Brucella ovis has been automated. (sciquest.org.nz)
  • Analysis of 506 consecutive positive serologic tests for brucellosis in Saudi Arabia. (springer.com)
  • The demonstration by modified acid-fast or immunospecific staining of organisms of Brucella morphology in abortion material or vaginal discharges provides presumptive evidence of brucellosis, especially if supported by serological tests. (fao.org)
  • Diagnostic consideration of brucellosis was confirmed by complement fixation test (CFT). (srce.hr)
  • The buffered Brucella antigen tests (Rose Bengal plate agglutination test and buffered plate agglutination test) are suitable for screening herds and individual animals. (fao.org)
  • 20 Therefore, all patients with syphilis represent a critical HIV prevention opportunity and should be counseled and encouraged to undergo HIV testing. (glowm.com)
  • Syphilis remains a common cause of morbidity and mortality during pregnancy, despite the continued sensitivity of T. pallidum to penicillin, the widespread availability of inexpensive, accurate tests, and substantial efforts to encourage routine screening through early prenatal care. (glowm.com)
  • Effects of phenol on card-agglutination and complement-fixation tests for bovine anaplasmosis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The complement fixation test is an immunological test wherein the binding of the complement is observed to detect the presence of an antigen or antibody as a result of their interaction. (biology-online.org)
  • Another immunological test is the brucellin skin test, which can be used for screening unvaccinated herds, provided that a standardized allergen preparation (e.g., brucellin INRA) is available. (fao.org)
  • The complement fixation test to Coxiella burnetii ( C burnetii ) is a blood test that checks for infection due to bacteria called C burnetii, which causes Q fever . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Although there have been methods for determining the presence of antigenically active macromolecules such as intact viruses, virus capsids, subunits, bacteria, membranes, cell walls, hormones, etc., there has been a lack of a simple yet sensitive test method and apparatus for determining the presence of these materials. (google.com)
  • Moreover,the bacteriolysis did not take place when the bacteria and the antiserum weremixed in a test tube unless fresh antiserum was used. (faqs.org)
  • Genetic material used in the new tests can be grown in bacteria. (usda.gov)
  • Ehrlich believed that each antigen-specific amboceptor has its own specific complement, whereas Bordet believed that there is only one type of complement. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the patient antibody is absent, the complement will be able to bind to the antibody-coated sheep cells and cause hemolysis. (biology-online.org)
  • But when the antibody is present, the antigen-antibody complex binds to the complement, and therefore, no hemolysis will occur. (biology-online.org)
  • 100% hemolysis was regarded with two units of complement (UC), and two hemolysis units in Triethanolamine Buffer Solution (TBS), pH 7.2. (scirp.org)
  • The available complement is fixed by Ag-Ab complex and no hemolysis of sheep RBCs occurs. (laboratoryinfo.com)
  • This free complement binds to the complex of sheep RBC and it's antibody to cause hemolysis, causing the development of pink color. (laboratoryinfo.com)
  • In an area of El Salvador moderately endemic for malaria, use of the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFA) showed that 44% of the infants born to mothers who had IFA responses to Plasmodium vivax of 1:20 or higher during the latter part of their pregnancy had positive IFA responses of 1:10 or higher to this antigen. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Clapp (1955) showed the complement fixation test (C.F.T.) for Brucella ovis in sheep to be well correlated to bacteriological findings in cases where lesions were minimal or absent. (sciquest.org.nz)
  • The lack of specificity of complement allows it to react with almost any antigen-antibody complex. (tx.us)
  • Sensitivity and specificity of tests were estimated using cut-off values recommended by the test developers. (elsevier.com)
  • The sensitivity and specificity values were 79.3 and 99.5% and 82.8 and 93.2% for the modified complement fixation and haemagglutination tests, respectively. (qld.gov.au)
  • When used with cloacal or fecal smears, the sensitivity and specificity of the test are questioned by some authorities. (cdc.gov)
  • coccidioidomycosis tests to ensure comparable sensitivity and specificity among laboratories, among other things. (ca.gov)
  • Charles River offers a wide array of avian diagnostic and regulatory testing services, including serological profiling, virus isolation and vaccine testing. (criver.com)
  • VMRD, a Pullman company that produces diagnostic test kits, plans to sell the tests under a patent license within the next 5 years. (usda.gov)
  • This section provides a summary of identification, serological and other tests, vaccines and diagnostic biologicals drawn from Chapter 2.3.1 of the OIE Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines (OIE, 2000). (fao.org)
  • Evaluation of three disk tests for identification of enterococci, leuconostocs, and pediococci. (asm.org)
  • alkali denaturation test a spectrophotometric method for determining the concentration of fetal (F) hemoglobin. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Sputum can be tested with DNA probes (nucleic acid hybridization). (brainscape.com)
  • Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from symptomatic individuals for nucleic acid testing. (health.gov.au)
  • The use of an expanded "gold standard" with a second NAA test that targets a different gene ( 78 , 79 ) is needed to accurately validate new nucleic acid-based techniques since culture may lack sufficient sensitivity. (asm.org)
  • Some of this activity, such as the production of mallein used in testing horses for glanders, was an outgrowth of operations during World War I. Another activity of the laboratories was the use of their personnel in the Medical Department's training program, particularly at the Army Medical Center. (army.mil)
  • automated reagin test (ART) a modification of the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test for use with automated analyzers used in clinical chemistry. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Also reviewed are methods for recognition and prevention of false-positive and false-negative results, evaluations of new and old tests, and clinical applications. (asm.org)
  • This test is done to detect Q fever. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The methods detect the response of the microorganisms to the test substrates. (google.com)
  • Six of the ten children with normal chest x-ray films and ten of the 12 with abnormal chest roentgenograms had abnormal pulmonary function tests. (nih.gov)
  • CSF coccidioides complement fixation is a test that checks for infection due to the fungus coccidioides in the cerebrospinal (CSF) fluid. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This test checks if your central nervous system has an active infection from coccidioides. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If the test is positive for fungus, there may be an active infection in the central nervous system. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Further testing may be needed to distinguish between current, previous, and long-term (chronic) infection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The PHU monitored outbreak progression and provided recommendations on infection control, laboratory testing and use of antivirals. (health.gov.au)
  • a test for diagnosing an infectious disease by detecting the presence of antibody in the blood, based on the fixing of a known quantity of complement to the antigen being tested and the specific antibody that combines with it. (dictionary.com)
  • 1) An immunodiffusion test to determine the presence of immunoglobulin M antibody or immunoglobulin G antibody. (ca.gov)
  • Brucellin preparations for the intradermal test must be free of lipopolysaccharide and must not produce non-specific inflammatory reactions or interfere with serological tests. (fao.org)
  • Therefore, in this test procedure, unless complement is fixed by the particular antigen and antibody system in question, it will remain free to react as an indicator, resulting in a "negative" test. (tx.us)
  • Ames test a strain of Salmonella typhimurium that lacks the enzyme necessary for histidine synthesis is cultured in the absence of histidine and in the presence of the suspected mutagen and certain enzymes known to activate procarcinogens. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Three biochemical pathways activate the complement system: the classical complement pathway , the alternative complement pathway , and the lectin pathway . (wikipedia.org)
  • A single testing method may not be adequate because of the diversity of reactions with immunoglobulins from the various avian species. (cdc.gov)
  • The complement proteins will react with these complexes and be depleted. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complement is a blood test that measures the activity of certain proteins in the liquid portion of your blood. (adam.com)
  • These tests evaluate how well the liver is working by measuring levels of proteins, liver enzymes, and bilirubin in the blood. (aarp.org)
  • The complement system consists of a number of small proteins found in the blood, in general synthesized by the liver , and normally circulating as inactive precursors ( pro-proteins ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of the proteins and glycoproteins that constitute the complement system are synthesized by hepatocytes . (wikipedia.org)
  • Saturation analysis relies upon progressive saturation by the test compound of a specific reagent. (google.co.uk)
  • Results on 303 cases tested for amebiasis with this method show that an amebic complement fixation test can be useful in intestinal amebiasis and in obscure cases in which no amebae can be detected in the stools. (ajtmh.org)
  • When results from the combination of both tests were considered, the values were 86.2 and 92.8%, respectively. (qld.gov.au)
  • A major problem with serologic testing is the interpretation of results. (cdc.gov)
  • When specimens are obtained from a single bird, serologic testing is most useful when a) signs of disease and the history of the flock or aviary are considered and b) serologic results are compared with the white blood cell counts and liver-enzyme activities. (cdc.gov)
  • That can be costly, because horses must be quarantined while they are awaiting test results and must often be retested to ensure accurate results. (usda.gov)
  • The new tests rely on molecular techniques that give more accurate results. (usda.gov)
  • Test results for HIV and antinuclear antibody were negative. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • This polyclonal antiserum was evaluated by double immunodiffusion test (DIT) and counter-immune electrophoresis (CIE) against Mycoplasma bovis, Acholeplasma laidlawii and Ureaplasma diversum. (scirp.org)