Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A disease of cattle caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA leading to abortion in late pregnancy. BRUCELLA ABORTUS is the primary infective agent.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
A species of the genus BRUCELLA whose natural hosts are cattle and other bovidae. Abortion and placentitis are frequently produced in the pregnant animal. Other mammals, including humans, may be infected.
Infection caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA mainly involving the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. This condition is characterized by fever, weakness, malaise, and weight loss.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes BRUCELLOSIS. Its cells are nonmotile coccobacilli and are animal parasites and pathogens. The bacterium is transmissible to humans through contact with infected dairy products or tissue.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.
A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
A mitosporic fungal genus which causes COCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS.
A bright bluish pink compound that has been used as a dye, biological stain, and diagnostic aid.
Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.
Infection resulting from inhalation or ingestion of spores of the fungus of the genus HISTOPLASMA, species H. capsulatum. It is worldwide in distribution and particularly common in the midwestern United States. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A bacterial vaccine for the prevention of brucellosis in man and animal. Brucella abortus vaccine is used for the immunization of cattle, sheep, and goats.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Interstitial pneumonia caused by extensive infection of the lungs (LUNG) and BRONCHI, particularly the lower lobes of the lungs, by MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE in humans. In SHEEP, it is caused by MYCOPLASMA OVIPNEUMONIAE. In CATTLE, it may be caused by MYCOPLASMA DISPAR.
Infection with a fungus of the genus COCCIDIOIDES, endemic to the SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES. It is sometimes called valley fever but should not be confused with RIFT VALLEY FEVER. Infection is caused by inhalation of airborne, fungal particles known as arthroconidia, a form of FUNGAL SPORES. A primary form is an acute, benign, self-limited respiratory infection. A secondary form is a virulent, severe, chronic, progressive granulomatous disease with systemic involvement. It can be detected by use of COCCIDIOIDIN.
The classic form of typhus, caused by RICKETTSIA PROWAZEKII, which is transmitted from man to man by the louse Pediculus humanus corporis. This disease is characterized by the sudden onset of intense headache, malaise, and generalized myalgia followed by the formation of a macular skin eruption and vascular and neurologic disturbances.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Short filamentous organism of the genus Mycoplasma, which binds firmly to the cells of the respiratory epithelium. It is one of the etiologic agents of non-viral primary atypical pneumonia in man.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Inflammation of the EPIDIDYMIS. Its clinical features include enlarged epididymis, a swollen SCROTUM; PAIN; PYURIA; and FEVER. It is usually related to infections in the URINARY TRACT, which likely spread to the EPIDIDYMIS through either the VAS DEFERENS or the lymphatics of the SPERMATIC CORD.
An acute infectious disease caused by COXIELLA BURNETII. It is characterized by a sudden onset of FEVER; HEADACHE; malaise; and weakness. In humans, it is commonly contracted by inhalation of infected dusts derived from infected domestic animals (ANIMALS, DOMESTIC).
A contagious disease of horses that can be transmitted to humans. It is caused by BURKHOLDERIA MALLEI and characterized by ulceration of the respiratory mucosa and an eruption of nodules on the skin.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that is widely distributed in TICKS and various mammals throughout the world. Infection with this genus is particularly prevalent in CATTLE; SHEEP; and GOATS.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
A mitosporic Onygenales fungal genus causing HISTOPLASMOSIS in humans and animals. Its single species is Histoplasma capsulatum which has two varieties: H. capsulatum var. capsulatum and H. capsulatum var. duboisii. Its teleomorph is AJELLOMYCES capsulatus.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A glycoprotein that is important in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C4 is cleaved by the activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C4A and COMPLEMENT C4B.
Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A species of gram-negative bacteria parasitic on HORSES and DONKEYS causing GLANDERS, which can be transmitted to humans.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A species of the genus BRUCELLA whose natural hosts are sheep and goats. Other mammals, including humans, may be infected. In general, these organisms tend to be more virulent for laboratory animals than BRUCELLA ABORTUS and may cause fatal infections.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
A genus of the family CHLAMYDIACEAE whose species cause a variety of diseases in vertebrates including humans, mice, and swine. Chlamydia species are gram-negative and produce glycogen. The type species is CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
A subcomponent of complement C1, composed of six copies of three polypeptide chains (A, B, and C), each encoded by a separate gene (C1QA; C1QB; C1QC). This complex is arranged in nine subunits (six disulfide-linked dimers of A and B, and three disulfide-linked homodimers of C). C1q has binding sites for antibodies (the heavy chain of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M). The interaction of C1q and immunoglobulin activates the two proenzymes COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S, thus initiating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION via the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.
A species of gram-negative bacteria that grows preferentially in the vacuoles of the host cell. It is the etiological agent of Q FEVER.
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.
Complement activation initiated by the interaction of microbial ANTIGENS with COMPLEMENT C3B. When COMPLEMENT FACTOR B binds to the membrane-bound C3b, COMPLEMENT FACTOR D cleaves it to form alternative C3 CONVERTASE (C3BBB) which, stabilized by COMPLEMENT FACTOR P, is able to cleave multiple COMPLEMENT C3 to form alternative C5 CONVERTASE (C3BBB3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
C5 plays a central role in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C5 is cleaved by C5 CONVERTASE into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. The smaller fragment C5a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of inflammatory process. The major fragment C5b binds to the membrane initiating the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components, C5-C9, into the MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
Molecules on the surface of some B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that recognize and combine with the C3b, C3d, C1q, and C4b components of complement.
The larger fragment generated from the cleavage of COMPLEMENT C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. It is a constituent of the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb), and COMPLEMENT C5 CONVERTASES in both the classical (C4b2a3b) and the alternative (C3bBb3b) pathway. C3b participates in IMMUNE ADHERENCE REACTION and enhances PHAGOCYTOSIS. It can be inactivated (iC3b) or cleaved by various proteases to yield fragments such as COMPLEMENT C3C; COMPLEMENT C3D; C3e; C3f; and C3g.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A 63-kDa serum glycoprotein encoded by gene C9. Monomeric C9 (mC9) binds the C5b-8 complex to form C5b-9 which catalyzes the polymerization of C9 forming C5b-p9 (MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX) and transmembrane channels leading to lysis of the target cell. Patients with C9 deficiency suffer from recurrent bacterial infections.
Complement activation initiated by the binding of COMPLEMENT C1 to ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES at the COMPLEMENT C1Q subunit. This leads to the sequential activation of COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S subunits. Activated C1s cleaves COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 forming the membrane-bound classical C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
The first complement component to act in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. It is a calcium-dependent trimolecular complex made up of three subcomponents: COMPLEMENT C1Q; COMPLEMENT C1R; and COMPLEMENT C1S at 1:2:2 ratios. When the intact C1 binds to at least two antibodies (involving C1q), C1r and C1s are sequentially activated, leading to subsequent steps in the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
A product of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION cascade, regardless of the pathways, that forms transmembrane channels causing disruption of the target CELL MEMBRANE and cell lysis. It is formed by the sequential assembly of terminal complement components (COMPLEMENT C5B; COMPLEMENT C6; COMPLEMENT C7; COMPLEMENT C8; and COMPLEMENT C9) into the target membrane. The resultant C5b-8-poly-C9 is the "membrane attack complex" or MAC.
Serum proteins that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host. The complement system is tightly regulated by inactivators that accelerate the decay of intermediates and certain cell surface receptors.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
The use of metallic devices inserted into or through bone to hold a fracture in a set position and alignment while it heals.
A component of the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C2 is cleaved by activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C2B and COMPLEMENT C2A. C2a, the COOH-terminal fragment containing a SERINE PROTEASE, combines with COMPLEMENT C4B to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).
A glycine-rich, heat-labile serum glycoprotein that contains a component of the C3 CONVERTASE ALTERNATE PATHWAY (C3bBb). Bb, a serine protease, is generated when factor B is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR D into Ba and Bb.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
An important soluble regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It is a 139-kDa glycoprotein expressed by the liver and secreted into the blood. It binds to COMPLEMENT C3B and makes iC3b (inactivated complement 3b) susceptible to cleavage by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I. Complement factor H also inhibits the association of C3b with COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form the C3bB proenzyme, and promotes the dissociation of Bb from the C3bBb complex (COMPLEMENT C3 CONVERTASE, ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY).
Compounds that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host.
The smaller fragment generated from the cleavage of complement C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. C3a, a 77-amino acid peptide, is a mediator of local inflammatory process. It induces smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION, and HISTAMINE RELEASE from MAST CELLS and LEUKOCYTES. C3a is considered an anaphylatoxin along with COMPLEMENT C4A; COMPLEMENT C5A; and COMPLEMENT C5A, DES-ARGININE.
The minor fragment formed when C5 convertase cleaves C5 into C5a and COMPLEMENT C5B. C5a is a 74-amino-acid glycopeptide with a carboxy-terminal ARGININE that is crucial for its spasmogenic activity. Of all the complement-derived anaphylatoxins, C5a is the most potent in mediating immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE), smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION; HISTAMINE RELEASE; and migration of LEUKOCYTES to site of INFLAMMATION.
A 105-kDa serum glycoprotein with significant homology to the other late complement components, C7-C9. It is a polypeptide chain cross-linked by 32 disulfide bonds. C6 is the next complement component to bind to the membrane-bound COMPLEMENT C5B in the assembly of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. It is encoded by gene C6.
Molecular sites on or in some B-lymphocytes and macrophages that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3B. The primary structure of these receptors reveal that they contain transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, with their extracellular portion composed entirely of thirty short consensus repeats each having 60 to 70 amino acids.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Enzymes that activate one or more COMPLEMENT PROTEINS in the complement system leading to the formation of the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX, an important response in host defense. They are enzymes in the various COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION pathways.
The large fragment formed when COMPLEMENT C4 is cleaved by COMPLEMENT C1S. The membrane-bound C4b binds COMPLEMENT C2A, a SERINE PROTEASE, to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).
Antibodies which elicit IMMUNOPRECIPITATION when combined with antigen.
The technique of using FIXATIVES in the preparation of cytologic, histologic, or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all the constituent elements.
A 302-amino-acid fragment in the alpha chain (672-1663) of C3b. It is generated when C3b is inactivated (iC3b) and its alpha chain is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I into C3c, and C3dg (955-1303) in the presence COMPLEMENT FACTOR H. Serum proteases further degrade C3dg into C3d (1002-1303) and C3g (955-1001).
Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.
Serine proteases that cleave COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, or cleave COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. These include the different forms of C3/C5 convertases in the classical and the alternative pathways of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Both cleavages take place at the C-terminal of an ARGININE residue.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The study of serum, especially of antigen-antibody reactions in vitro.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A 93-kDa serum glycoprotein encoded by C7 gene. It is a polypeptide chain with 28 disulfide bridges. In the formation of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX; C7 is the next component to bind the C5b-6 complex forming a trimolecular complex C5b-7 which is lipophilic, resembles an integral membrane protein, and serves as an anchor for the late complement components, C8 and C9.
A 150-kDa serum glycoprotein composed of three subunits with each encoded by a different gene (C8A; C8B; and C8G). This heterotrimer contains a disulfide-linked C8alpha-C8gamma heterodimer and a noncovalently associated C8beta chain. C8 is the next component to bind the C5-7 complex forming C5b-8 that binds COMPLEMENT C9 and acts as a catalyst in the polymerization of C9.

Complement fixation titers in cattle following intranasal inoculation of Hemophilus somnus. (1/1682)

Five bulls were inoculated intranasally with a live culture of Hemophilus somnus originally isolated from a clinical case of Hemophilus septicemia. Preinoculation and postinoculation blood samples were taken at weekly intervals for nine weeks for measuring complement fixation titers and daily postinoculation temperatures were taken for one week. Three animals had transient fever and slight lethargy was observed in two animals had a transitory rise in complement fixation titers in the second to fifth weeks postexposure while one animal which had been seronegative on preinoculation testing produced little serological response to the organism. The experiment demonstrated that the nasal instillation of young cattle using an originally pathogenic H. somnus isolate is capable of stimulating only transitory complement fixation antibody titer.  (+info)

Complement fixing hepatitis B core antigen immune complexes in the liver of patients with HBs antigen positive chronic disease. (2/1682)

One hundred and fifty-two biopsies from serologically HBsAg positive and negative patients with liver disease were studied in immunofluorescence: for the presence of the surface (HBs) and the core (HBc) antigenic determinants foeterminants of the hepatitis B virus, of immunoglobulins and complement (C) deposits, and for the capacity to fix human C. Circumstantial evidence is presented suggesting that HBc immune-complexes are a relevant feature in the establishment and progression of chronic HBSAg liver disease. C fixation by liver cells was shown in all HBC positive patients with chronic hepatitis; an active form was present in every case, except two with a persistent hepatitis, an inverse ratio of HBc to C binding fluorescence being noted between active chronic hepatitis and cirrhotic patients. HBc without C fixation was observed in only three patients in the incubation phase of infectious hepatitis. IgG deposits were often found in HBc containing, C fixing nuclei. No C binding or IgG deposits were observed in acute self-limited type B hepatitis, in serologically positive patients with normal liver or minimal histological lesions, with and without HBs cytoplasmic fluorescence in their biopsy, or in serologically negative individuals.  (+info)

Serum dilution neutralization test for California group virus identification and serology. (3/1682)

The serum dilution neutralization test was evaluated for serological diagnosis of California group arbovirus infections and identification of virus isolates. The technical advantages and the degree of subtype specificity of the serum dilution neutralization test over the hemagglutination inhibition test and the complement fixation test were demonstrated with paired specimens from human cases, single human survey sera, and sentinel rabbit sera. Twenty-one virus isolates from various geographical areas of the United States were also used to evaluate the efficacy of the serum dilution neutralization test for specific virus identification.  (+info)

Chagas' disease diagnosis: comparative analysis of parasitologic, molecular, and serologic methods. (4/1682)

During the course of chronic chagasic infection, low parasitemia levels prevent parasite detection by current techniques such as hemoculture and xenodiagnosis. Since serologic tests have sensitivity but lack specificity, molecular assays based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have been proposed as alternative tools for parasite detection in individuals with chronic Chagas' disease. A variable degree of PCR efficiency has been reported in the literature and illustrates the need for further evaluation of large numbers of chagasic patients. In this study, we compared an optimized PCR technique with hemoculture and complement-mediated lysis (CoML) in 113 individuals from or living in endemic areas of Brazil who had conventional serologic results that were either positive, negative, or inconclusive. The PCR amplification yielded positive results in 83.5% (66 of 79) of individuals with positive serology, 47.6% (10 of 21) with negative serology, and 46.2% (6 of 13) with inconclusive serology. Of 10 patients with negative serology and positive PCR result, eight (80%) had positive CoML, indicating that they could have been chagasic but were not mounting immune responses. The PCR results were also positive for all individuals who had positive hemoculture, for 37 individuals with negative hemoculture and positive serology, and for two of six individuals with inconclusive serology and negative hemoculture. Thirteen individuals living in nonendemic areas who had negative serology were used as a negative control group: 100% had negative PCR results. Our results show that the optimized PCR protocol used here was very sensitive in detecting the presence of Trypanosoma cruzi in chronic chagasic patients. The PCR and CoML results were well correlated in all of the groups studied, which suggests that our PCR protocol may be effective in the evaluation of cure in patients who receive anti-parasite treatment.  (+info)

Inhibition of K cell function by human breast cancer sera. (5/1682)

Sera from breast cancer patients and from female controls were tested for inhibition of lysis of antibody-coated target cells by human leukocytes (K cells). Sera from 39% of breast cancer patients, but from only 8% of controls, inhibited lysis by more than 30%. This inhibition was unrelated to the stage of the disease, the patient's age or whether the patient was pre- or post-operative. Inhibition was apparently not due to anti-HLA antibodies and did not correlate with the IgG level or anti-complementary activity of the serum. On fractionation by gel-filtration, inhibitory activity was found in fractions of higher molecular weight than IgG. As no IgG could be detected in these fractions, inhibition is probably not due to immune complexes containing IgG antibody. The inhibitory factor may well contribute to the immunosuppressed status of a proportion of breast cancer patients.  (+info)

Immune complexes and complement hypercatabolism in patients with leprosy. (6/1682)

The occurrence of immune complexes in the serum and the level of the C3 breakdown product C3d in the plasma from patients with leprosy were studied by quantitative methods and the results were compared in various forms of the disease. These studies were performed on sixty-two samples from twenty-six patients. The serum 125I-C1q binding activity was found to be increased by more than 2 s.d., as compared to the normal values, in most of the sera from patients with erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) (80%) and uncomplicated lepromatous leprosy (82%), but also in the sera from patients with tuberculoid leprosy (58%). In vitro studies suggested that immune complexes involving mycobacterial antigens were present in leprosy sera. An increased C3d level (greater than 2s.d.) was also found in most of the plasma from patients with ENL (70%), but rarely in the plasma from patients with uncomplicated lepromatous leprosy (18%) and never in tuberculoid leprosy patients' plasma. The absence of a significant correlation between the 125I-C1q binding activity and the C3d level in leprosy patients may suggest that extravascular immune complexes are involved in the complement activation occurring in ENL. The quantitation of C3d in plasma may be of some practical interest in the early diagnosis of ENL complications of leprosy.  (+info)

Studies on the immunogenicity of protamines in humans and experimental animals by means of a micro-complement fixation test. (7/1682)

A complement fixation study with human, monkey and rabbit sera, using purified sperm nuclear basic proteins as antigens, led to the following conclusions. (1) Protamines, the sperm-specific basic nuclear proteins, may be immunogenic in mammalians. (2) Antibodies detected in the indirect immunofluorescence test on human swollen sperm heads in sera from infertile and vasectomized men, are directed primarily against human protamines. (3) The results obtained suggested that differences in the immunization site and/or in the configuration of the immunizing protamine, may lead to the formation of antibodies directed against different antigenic determinants. Autoimmunity to protamines, following vasectomy or in infertile men, is accompanied by the formation of antibodies cross-reacting with common antigenic determinants present in protamines of other species. Induction of immunity to protamines by means of immunization with protamines-RNA complexes (in rabbits), or protamine-insulin complexes (in humans), leads to the formation of antibodies reacting more specifically with the immunizing protamine, showing only slight cross-reaction with other protamines. (4) The histone-like fraction present in mature human spermatozoa is composed mainly of histone fraction H2B.  (+info)

Detection of core antibody in hepatitis B infection. (8/1682)

Hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) is found on the decoated Dane particle and on a morphologically similar particle detected mainly in the nucleus of hepatocytes of patients with hepatitis B. HBcAg prepared from the liver of a chimpanzee infected with hepatitis B virus was used to test human serum for core antibody (anti-HBc) by complement fixation. Anti-HBc was found in serum collected from patients with hepatitis B in both the acute and convalescent stages, from carriers of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and from patients with chronic liver or renal disease who were carriers of HBsAg. It was not found in patients with hepatitis A or infectious mononucleosis, or in healthy persons who were not carriers of HBsAg.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - The coccidioidal complement fixation and immunodiffusion-complement fixation antigen is a chitinase. AU - Johnson, S. M.. AU - Pappagianis, Demosthenes. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - Culture filtrates and autolysates of Coccidioides immitis have provided suitable crude antigens for the serodiagnosis and prognosis of coccidioidomycosis. One of these, a heat-labile antigen which participates in the immunodiffusion reaction corresponding to the complement fixation reaction (IDCF), has been characterized as a 110-kDa native protein that, when subjected to reducing conditions and heat, yields a 48-kDa component. The present report provides serologic and biochemical evidence that this antigen is a chitinase. This chitinase, isolated from 48-h culture filtrate of the spherule-endospore-phase C. immitis by affinity adsorption to chitin, formed a line of identity with the IDCF reference antigen and participated in the complement fixation reaction with human serum. It lost its enzymatic as ...
Summary Complement fixation tests with a purified extract of adult Schistosoma mansoni were performed by a quantitative technique with the sera of 216 children (10 to 15 years of age) and 84 adults (20 to 40 years of age) passing eggs of S. mansoni in their stools. The test was positive in 88.9% of the children and 89.3% of the adults. The titers obtained for the two age groups did not differ significantly.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evaluation of the comparative accuracy of the complement fixation test, Western blot and five enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for serodiagnosis of glanders. AU - Elschner, Mandy Carolina. AU - Laroucau, Karine. AU - Singha, Harisankar. AU - Tripathi, Bhupendra Nath. AU - Saqib, Muhammad. AU - Gardner, Ian. AU - Saini, Sheetal. AU - Kumar, Subodh. AU - El-Adawy, Hosny. AU - Melzer, Falk. AU - Khan, Iahtasham. AU - Malik, Praveen. AU - Sauter- Louis, Carola. AU - Neubauer, Heinrich. PY - 2019/4/1. Y1 - 2019/4/1. N2 - Glanders is a zoonotic contagious disease of equids caused by Burkholderia (B.) mallei. Serodiagnosis of the disease is challenging because of false-positive and false-negative test results. The accuracy of the complement fixation test (CFT) which is prescribed for international trade by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), five ELISAs and a Western blot (WB) were compared for serodiagnosis of glanders using sera from 3,000 glandersfree and 254 glanderous ...
Looking for complement-fixing antibody? Find out information about complement-fixing antibody. protein produced by the immune system in response to the presence in the body of antigens: foreign proteins or polysaccharides such as bacteria, bacterial... Explanation of complement-fixing antibody
A complement fixation test to Coxiella burnetii checks the blood for bacteria called C burnetii, which causes Q fever. Learn more.
Wilson joined the UC Berkeley faculty of biochemistry in 1964, and was promoted to full professor in 1972.[8] His first major scientific contribution was published as Immunological Time-Scale For Hominid Evolution in the journal Science in December 1967.[16] With his student Vincent Sarich,[17][18] he showed that evolutionary relationships of the human species with other primates, in particular the Great apes (chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans), could be inferred from molecular evidence obtained from living species, rather than solely from fossils of extinct creatures. Their microcomplement fixation method (see complement system) measured the strength of the immune reaction between an antigen (serum albumin) from one species and an antibody raised against the same antigen in another species. The strength of the antibody-antigen reaction was known to be stronger between more closely related species: their innovation was to measure it quantitatively among many species pairs as an ...
Rapporteur: Grant McIntyre. Copes Rule states that body size increases during the evolutionary history of a lineage. This may be true from certain perspectives but is no longer generally accepted. The lecture examined several studies on the evolution of body size that shed light on the prevalence of exceptions to Copes Rule and concluded with a discussion of reasons for the apparent support for the rule.. The focal paper (Pianka 1995) used Felsensteins method of independent contrasts to evaluate the evolution of body size of varanid (monitor) lizards. This method requires a phylogeny which was developed in this case using immunological distances determine by microcomplement fixation. The phylogeny matched species distributions fairly well but was not rooted since no available outgroup cross-reacted immunologically with the ingroup. Within varanids there are examples of the evolution of both larger and smaller size. The main problem with the paper was that lack of an outgroup precluded ...
The use of the complement fixation reaction in the diagnosis of disease was first introduced by Bordet and Gengou in 1901. With serum s from individuals suspected of having typhoid fever, combined with typhoid antigens, they were able to demonstrate ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Anti-GD2 with an FC point mutation reduces complement fixation and decreases antibody-induced allodynia. AU - Sorkin, Linda S.. AU - Otto, Mario. AU - Baldwin, William M.. AU - Vail, Emily. AU - Gillies, Stephen D.. AU - Handgretinger, Rupert. AU - Barfield, Raymond C.. AU - Ming Yu, Hui. AU - Yu, Alice L.. N1 - Funding Information: We would like to thank Damon McCumber for performing the blinded tail vein injections and Julie Nguyen for secretarial support. This work was supported by the Cindy Matters Fund (L.S.S.) and NIH NS048563-04 (L.S.S.), and in part by a grant from FDA, FD-R-002319 (A.L.Y.). None of the authors has any financial arrangements that represent a conflict of interest. PY - 2010/4. Y1 - 2010/4. N2 - Monoclonal antibodies against GD2 ganglioside, such as ch14.18, the human-mouse chimeric antibody, have been shown to be effective for the treatment of neuroblastoma. However, treatment is associated with generalized, relatively opiate-resistant pain. We ...
CANDEIAS, J. A. N.; STEWIEN, Klaus E. and BARBOSA, Victório. Serological study of cytomegalovirus infections. Rev. Saúde Pública [online]. 1974, vol.8, n.3, pp.257-263. ISSN 1518-8787. The age and sex distribution of complement-fixing antibodies was studied in a sample of 1294 sera from adults and children of S. Paulo city, Brazil. The incidence of 33% by 15 years of age, with a maximum of 70% reached in the older age group (, 35 years), support the findings in other countries. An analysis of sera in terms of sex showed no significant differences in the distribution of complement-fixing antibodies to CMV. A comparative age distribution of CMV complement-fixing and neutralizing antibodies in a sample of 236 sera, using the AD 169 strain, confirmed the high correlation between these types of antibodies, being the per cent of positive sera consistently higher for neutralizing antibodies.. Keywords : Cytomegalovirus infections; Serological ...
There is no reliable clinical method to distinguish coronavirus colds from colds caused by rhinoviruses or less common agents. For research purposes, virus can be cultured from nasal swabs or washings by inoculating organ cultures of human fetal or nasal tracheal epithelium. The virus in these cultures is detected by electron microscopy or other methods. The most useful method for laboratory diagnosis is to collect paired sera (from the acute and convalescent phases of the disease) and to test by ELISA for a rise in antibodies against OC43 and 229E. Complement fixation tests are insensitive; other tests are inconvenient and can be used only for one serotype. Direct hybridization and polymerase chain reaction tests for viral nucleic acid have been developed and, particularly with the latter, are the most sensitive assays currently available for detecting virus .. ...
Comparision has been made between two human neuropathogenic and one commensal strains of herpes simplex virus. These terms are assigned to these viruses on the basis of their origin. The first two were related from patients with encephalitis and the third from a benign recurrent lesion. A number of physiochemical characteristics of these three strains were studied. The major differences observed between the pathogens and the commensal virus are: 1. The ability of the commensal herpes virus to infect adult mice while the pathogenic herpes could not. 2. The commensal herpes virus could not be neutralized by the hyperimmune sera of the pathogenic herpes and vice versa, although all crossreacted in complement fixation tests. 3. The commensal virus was significantly inactivated by chloroform, while the pathogens were not significantly affected under the same conditions. 4. Freezing and thawing followed by differential centrifugation rendered the commensal herpes vulnerable to inactivation of ...
Reiling L, Boyle MJ, White MT, Wilson DW, Feng G, Weaver R, Opi DH, Persson KEM, Richards JS, Siba PM, Fowkes FJI, Takashima E, Tsuboi T, Mueller I, Beeson JG
A nitrogenase-inspired biomimetic chalcogel system comprising double-cubane [Mo2Fe6S8(SPh)3] and single-cubane (Fe4S4) biomimetic clusters demonstrates photocatalytic N2 fixation and conversion to NH3 in ambient temperature and pressure conditions. Replacing the Fe4S4 clusters in this system with other inert ions such as Sb3+, Sn4+, Zn2+ also gave chalcogels that were photocatalytically active. Finally, molybdenum-free chalcogels containing only Fe4S4 clusters are also capable of accomplishing the N2 fixation reaction with even higher efficiency than their Mo2Fe6S8(SPh)3-containing counterparts. Our results suggest that redox-active iron-sulfide-containing materials can activate the N2 molecule upon visible light excitation, which can be reduced all of the way to NH3 using protons and sacrificial electrons in aqueous solution. Evidently, whereas the Mo2Fe6S8(SPh)3 is capable of N2 fixation, Mo itself is not necessary to carry out this process. The initial binding of N2 with chalcogels under ...
Synonyms for Bordet, Jules in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Bordet, Jules. 3 words related to complement fixation: immune reaction, immune response, immunologic response. What are synonyms for Bordet, Jules?
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Summary and Conclusions A complement-fixation test, using an antigen prepared from infectious mouse brains, is described for yellow fever. The test has been shown to be biologically specific. Nonspecific reactions, however, tend to occur with Wassermann-positive sera, but these can usually be avoided by inactivating the sera at 65°C. Complement-fixing antibodies were demonstrable in the serum of humans and monkeys recovered from infection with yellow fever virus. Following vaccination with the 17D strain, complement-fixing antibodies were uniformly present in monkey serum, but were detectable in only a small proportion of human sera. The application of this latter fact in making yellow fever surveys is discussed.
The complement fixation test is based on the use of complement, a biological substance present in the sera of normal animals. Its great value is its predictable activity in the presence of serologically reacting factors and its nonspecificity, that is, it is not like an antibody with a narrow range of reactions or increased concentration occurring in a host following immunization or infection. Furthermore, it is easily destroyed by heating at temperatures that have no deleterious effect on antibodies.
3 pages pp. 410-413 IN: Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, Volume. 44, no. 2. Thick 8vo, modern wrappers. N.Y., 1940. First Edition. Whole number 2 offered entire. Diagnosis of lymphogranuloma venereum by complement-fixation test. With G.W. Rake and M.F. Shaffer. GM 5223. Binding: Paperback Language: English
In 1979 an indirect haemagglutination test (gonococcal antibody test) using gonococcal pilus antigen replaced the gonococcal complement fixation test as our routine procedure to show gonococcal antibodies. In the diagnosis of current gonorrhoea the sensitivity of the gonococcal antibody test was far superior to that of the gonococcal complement fixation test (about 55% versus 9% for first episode gonorrhoea). To evaluate the usefulness of the test result the following population groups were studied: 1376 patients undergoing medical examination for gonorrhoea (386 had gonorrhoea), 1384 healthy people aged 15-65, 54 patients with meningococcal disease, 30 children with respiratory tract infection, and 254 patients with evidence of various diseases other than neisserial infections that might be associated with symptoms of arthritis. These investigations showed that (1) non-specific positive gonococcal antibody test results occur rarely, (2) at least half the people who have had gonorrhoea remain ...
Banked acute-phase and convalescent-phase serum samples from a previous study of respiratory illness in university students were examined for significant (≥2-fold) increases in ELISA titers of IgA and IgG antibody to Bordetella pertussis filamentous hemagglutinin, pertactin, and fimbriae-2 and ≥4-fold titer increases to agglutinogens by agglutination. ELISA titers of antibody to pertussis toxin could not be determined because of technical problems. Chlamydia pneumoniae infections were diagnosed by culture or by a ≥4-fold increase in immunofluorescence assay titer or a single high titer (≥512). Mycoplasma pneumoniae, influenza A and B, adenovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus infections were diagnosed by ≥4-fold increases in complement fixation titer or a single high titer (≥64). There were 319 subjects with cough of ≥5 days duration, and of these, 47 (15%) had significant increases in antibody to B. pertussis antigens; 26 (8%) had significant increases to fimbriae-2 or ...
Michaelsen, Terje Einar; Gilje, A; Samuelsen, Anne Berit; Høgaasen, K & Paulsen, BS (2000). Interaction between human complement and a pectin type polysaccharide fraction, PMII, from the leaves of Plantago major L. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology. ISSN 0300-9475. 52, s 482- 490 Vis sammendrag The interaction between a pectin type polysaccharide fraction, PMII, isolated from the leaves of Plantago major, and human complement was tested in two different hemolytic complement-fixation tests and in addition by two ELISA methods detecting complement-activation products. Sera were used as a complement source of 10 arbitrary human volunteers, individually and as a pool. The complement-fixation tests were designed to measure the concentration of the pectin necessary to inhibit 50% of the hemolysis (ICH(50)). The ELISA tests for complement-activation products were measured in AU/mg using a fully activated serum as a standard. We observed a more than 200-fold difference in ICH(50) activity of the PMII ...
Canine hepatitis is an infectious disease. This disease is found in dogs, wolves, coyotes, foxes, and in bears. This virus directly attacks on the kidney and liver of the animal. The word hepatitis is originated from the Greek word, which means the inflammation of the liver, caused by the infectious toxic. This disease is very Read more ...
When filtered alkaline extracts of pulverized bacteria of several varieties are precipitated with acid in the cold, boiled with acid, and all materials thrown down by these procedures removed, there remains a small amount of an alcohol-precipitable material which no longer gives any of the ordinary chemical reactions for proteins, such as the biuret, Hopkins-Cole, Millon, and sulfosalicylic acid reactions. The only protein reaction usually given by this material is a very weak xanthoproteic reaction. Nevertheless, the material, which is, as far as we can determine at present, free from coagulable protein, is specifically precipitable by homologous antiserum and gives specific complement fixation reactions.. Such material can also be obtained from organisms like the influenza bacillus, pneumococcus, and meningococcus by extraction without preliminary grinding of the bacteria, and is present in filtrates of young and old broth cultures of the organisms.. We believe that these acid- and ...
Modified indirect hemagglutination test for detection of treponemal antibodies in finger-prick blood.: A modified indirect hemagglutination test for the detecti
Thirty brucellosis free calves with zero titres to the serum agglutination test (SAT), complement fixation test (CFT) and antiglobulin test (ABGT) were vaccinated with strain 19 at ages from seven hours to 198 days. Calves 75 days of age and older responded with normal serological patterns, developing high titres to all three tests. At 45 days and younger most calves responded with much reduced titres, some were negative to the SAT and CFT but all develped titres to the ABGT. Two of the younger group were subjected to an anamnestic test at about a year old and gave a positive response, indicating that the calf may be effectively primed with S19 as early as the first day of life. Three of the group were colostrumdeprived yet the patterns of their responses were similar to those of the colostrum-fed calves. Seventy-four zero titres calves were vaccinated with killed 45/20 adjuvant vaccine at ages from 60 to 320 days. Up to 200 days of age only seven of 33 calves gave positive response. From 200 to ...
Background: In patients (pts) who are highly sensitized, desensitization therapy is commonly applied to reduce antibody (Abs) load and to reduce potential morbidity and mortality following heart transplant (HTx). It is not known as to what level of antibody binding is needed to initiate desensitization therapy. It is believed that high binding Abs may have the ability to fix complement and lead to cytotoxicity.. Methods: Between 2011 and 2012 we assessed 13 highly sensitized pts who were noted to have standardized fluorescence intensity (SFI) ,100,000 pretransplant.. A complement binding assay (C1q binding assay) was then applied to these Abs to assess for a correlation of binding to cytotoxicity. Correlation statistics were used to derive significance between higher antibody binding and capacity to bind complement.. Results: There seems to be no correlation between the different binding strength and C1q positivity. However, when evaluating Luminex 1:8 test, there seems to be correlation between ...
Some f the newer tests for mycology are serological tests, which include Agglutination Immunodiffusion (ID), Complement fixation test (CFT), Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Lateral flow assay (LFA), Counter immuno-electrophoresis (CIE) Radio immunosorbent assay (RIA).
The ICD-10 codes used to identify deaths were: J09 (influenza due to certain identified influenza viruses), J10 (influenza due to identified influenza virus) and J11 (influenza, virus not identified).. * The criteria of the national case definitions were revised and implemented in 2008. The revisions consisted of specifying that the influenza virus antigen detection has to be laboratory detection, and that the single high titre qualifying for notification has to be performed by complement fixation test (CFT) or by haemagglutination inhibition (HAI). ...
Date: 1906. : the process of binding serum complement to the product formed by the union of an antibody and the antigen for which it is specific that occurs when complement is.
This clearance establishes Tm as a unique supplier of CF tests to our rapidly expanding customer base against such competitors as ABI (NYSE:ABI - News) and Third Wave (NASDAQ:TWTI - News), said Greg Hines, President and CEO of Tm Bioscience. The Tag-It(TM) Cystic Fibrosis Kit is the only CF testing system that has performance characteristics which have been established through extensive studies reviewed by the FDA. Having the first CF test and second multiplexed genetic test behind Roches (RHHBF.PK) AmpliChip CYP450 to be cleared as an IVD, sets the regulatory pathway for other tests in our broad and growing pipeline and positions Tm as a leader in the commercial genetic testing market ...
lymph nodes, milk, and serum taken at slaughter from 86 cows not showing clinical signs of Johnes ... disease. The samples were tested by culture (feces, lymph nodes, and milk) and complement fixation, ELISA, ... shedders of MAP were more likely to have culture positive milk and lymph nodes than intermediate or light .... ...
lymph nodes, milk, and serum taken at slaughter from 86 cows not showing clinical signs of Johnes ... disease. The samples were tested by culture (feces, lymph nodes, and milk) and complement fixation, ELISA, ... shedders of MAP were more likely to have culture positive milk and lymph nodes than intermediate or light .... ...
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Immune adherence hemagglutination (IAHA) was compared to complement fixation (CF), using standard procedures, for serological testing of human sera with a number of commercially available antigens. The antigens included herpes simplex, measles, cytomegalo-, and influenza (type B) viruses, as well as Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia psittaci (Chlamydia group). The IAHA test was found to be as specific as the CF test, but 4 to 20 times as sensitive with all antigens tested. Antigen titers were also higher with the IAHA method, and the time required to complete the test was only 4 h for the IAHA method, compared with 20 h for the CF method. The increased sensitivity of the IAHA test should permit its use for determination of immunity, as well as for serodiagnosis of recent infections.
Effects of adding phenol to sera used for the card-agglutination test (CAT) and for the micro-complement-fixation test (CFT) for bovine anaplasmosis were studied. Sera were obtained from 14 recently infected cattle, 17 cattle vaccinated with a killed anaplasmosis vaccine, 5 cattle in the carrier phase of the disease, and 45 cattle of unknown anaplasmosis status. Aliquots of sera were tested with and without phenol (0.25% final concentration). Phenol adversely affected the CAT by causing false-negative results. The CAT reactions of nonphenolized sera from recently infected cattle were all positive 4 weeks after inoculation, whereas CAT reactions of phenolized sera were not all positive until 10 weeks after inoculation. Nine non-phenolized sera from vaccinated cattle that were CAT-positive were CAT-negative after being phenolized. Phenolized sera from carrier cattle and from cattle of unknown anaplasmosis status were less reactive on the CAT than were nonphenolized sera. Effects of phenol on the CFT were
Lab Reagents Cytomegalovirus Antibody Laboratories manufactures the cytomegalovirus antibodies igm reagents distributed by Genprice. The Cytomegalovirus Antibodies Igm reagent is RUO (Research Use Only) to test human serum or cell culture lab samples. To purchase these products, for the MSDS, Data Sheet, protocol, storage conditions/temperature or for the concentration, please contact cytomegalovirus Antibody. Other Cytomegalovirus products are available in stock. Specificity: Cytomegalovirus Category: Antibodies Group: Igm Igm information ...
The spleens of horses infected with equine infectious anemia contain an antigen that is useful for a diagnostic immunodiffusion test. This antigen was extracted from the spleen by homogenization of the tissue, centrifugation, and precipitation from the supernatant fluid at 50% saturation with (NH4)2SO4. The antigen was purified by subjecting it to two cycles of electrophoresis in a continuous free-flow electrophoresis cell and finally filtering through a column of Sephadex G-200 gel. The antigen was found to be a small protein with a molecular weight of 27,500 and sedimentation coefficient of 2.1S. Its density was about 1.18 and its isoelectric point 5.8. At 45 to 50 C, it coagulated, losing its antigenicity. The antigen was useful for assaying antibody in the serum from infected horses by using the complement fixation test or the immunodiffusion test. Complement-fixing antibodies were found to be more transient than the precipitating antibodies. ...
Abstract The objective of this study was to standardize and validate the dot-blot test for the serological diagnosis of bovine brucellosis, compare the results with those found in the 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) and complement fixation test (CF), and estimate the relative sensitivity and specificity of the dot-blot compared to these tests. Fifty bovine blood serum samples were used for the test standardization, and 1315 samples were used for evaluation and comparison between the tests; the results were compared using the Kappa indicator. At the end of standardization, it was established as optimal for the antigen obtained from Brucella abortus B19 after passing through a microorganism rupture process, the blood serum samples diluted at 1:100, and the ...
A study of 531 female patients attending a venereal disease clinic was undertaken to assess the incidence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in the cervix. The findings were as follows: (1) 35 of 531 patients had positive cervical cultures for CMV (6-6 per cent.). (2) 28 of 531 patients were positive for Herpes virus hominis (5-3 per cent.). (3) Excluding those who were pregnant, 20 of 28 with CMV were taking oral contraceptives (71 per cent.). (4) Seven babies born to infected mothers showed no signs of cytomegalic inclusion disease. (5) 28 of 35 with CMV had associated genital infections (80 per cent.). (6) Positive cultures were obtained in twenty cases for periods up to 10 months. (7) The CMV complement-fixation test was positive in all 23 patients with positive CMV cultures who were tested. (8) Seven male consorts were examined but CMV was not isolated from any of them. (9) A case of CMV mononucleosis was detected. It is suggested that the higher incidence in patients attending a VD clinic is due to ...
EPFL scientists have developed a uranium-based complex that allows nitrogen fixation reactions to take place in ambient conditions. The work lays the foundation to develop new processes for synthesizing nitrogen products like cyanamide.
The human endometrial epithelial cancer cell line Hec50 (Holinka et al., 1996) was used to prepare chromatin for X-ChIP and N-ChIP assays according to the Chromatrap® protocols. For the N-ChIP assay, 1 x 106 cells were grown to a confluency of 80%, scraped in ice-cold PBS, and finally collected through centrifugation. Cell lysis was performed in Hypotonic Buffer, before subjecting the separated nuclei to micrococcal nuclease digestion to yield chromatin fragments between 100 and 500 bp in length. Sample dialysis was carried out to remove unwanted impurities and these samples were processed for the ChIP method. For the X-ChIP assay, 1 x 106 cells were grown to a confluency of 80% and fixed in 1% formaldehyde for a period of 10 minutes. Glycine was used to quench the fixation reaction and cells were gathered in ice-cold PBS and then spun down, discarding the supernatant prior to re-suspension and lysis in Hypotonic Buffer. The nuclei thus released were gathered by centrifugation and lysed, and ...
RUBELLA-INFECTED cell cultures produce infectious virus, a hemagglutinin (HA), and two distinct complement-fixing (CF) antigens. Also, concentrates of infected
Med. 85, 202. 5. Tang, F. , Chang, H. , Huang, Y. , Wang, K. C. (1957) Chinese Med. J. 75, 429. 6. Burnet, F. M. (1936) Spec. Rep. Series, Med. Res. Council, London, No. 220. 7. Cox, H. R. (1952) Ann. Y. Acad. Sei. 55, 236. 8. Hirst, G. K. (1945) Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 58, 155. 9. Burnet, F. M. (1940) Brit. J. Exper. Path. 21, 147. 10. Beveridge, W. I. , Burnet, F. M. (1946) Spec. Rep. Series, Med. Res. Council, London, No. 256. 11. Levens, J. , Enders, J. F. (1945) Science, 102, 117. 12. Enders, J. J. Hyg. 60, 214. 28. Porterfield, J. S. (1960) Bull. Wld. Hlth. Org. 22, 373. 29. Cooper, P. D. (1961) Advances in Virus Research, 8, 319. CHAPTER SIX SEROLOGY THERE are five main types of serological reaction associated with viral investigations. Three of these, neutralisation, haemagglutinationinhibition (HI) and complement fixation (C-F) are used principally for diagnosis and epidemiology. The other two, agar-gel diffusion and fluorescent antibody staining are primarily research tools, only ...
CRP [ENSP00000255030]. C-reactive protein, pentraxin-related; Displays several functions associated with host defense: it promotes agglutination, bacterial capsular swelling, phagocytosis and complement fixation through its calcium-dependent binding to phosphorylcholine. Can interact with DNA and histones and may scavenge nuclear material released from damaged circulating cells; Short pentraxins. Synonyms: CRP, C9JRE9, P02741, Q5VVP7, C9JRE9p .... Linkouts: STRING Pharos UniProt OMIM ...
CRP [ENSP00000255030]. C-reactive protein, pentraxin-related; Displays several functions associated with host defense: it promotes agglutination, bacterial capsular swelling, phagocytosis and complement fixation through its calcium-dependent binding to phosphorylcholine. Can interact with DNA and histones and may scavenge nuclear material released from damaged circulating cells; Short pentraxins. Synonyms: CRP, C9JRE9, P02741, Q5VVP7, C9JRE9p .... Linkouts: STRING Pharos UniProt OMIM ...
Serpin B9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SERPINB9 gene.[1][2][3] PI9 belongs to the large superfamily of serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins), which bind to and inactivate serine proteinases. These interactions are involved in many cellular processes, including coagulation, fibrinolysis, complement fixation, matrix remodeling, and apoptosis (Sprecher et al., 1995).[supplied by OMIM][3] ...
1. A specific antibody, demonstrable by the technique of complement fixation, regularly appears, or increases in concentration, in the sera of human beings during an attack of mumps or during convalescence.. 2. Specific dermal hypersensitivity, demonstrable by the injection of heat-inactivated mumps virus, has been shown to develop in 6 human beings after recovery from mumps.. 3. Complement-fixing antibody and the hypersensitive state also emerge as a result of clinically inapparent infection with the virus of mumps.. 4. These two phenomena are apparently unrelated in respect to immunologic mechanisms.. 5. The data presented indicate that the complement fixation test should prove of value both in diagnosis and in the determination of immunity.. 6. The skin test for dermal hypersensitivity, on the other hand, becomes positive after recovery and therefore would appear to be useful only as an index of resistance.. ...
AIMS--To study the association between cytomegalovirus (CMV) excretion and interstitial pneumonitis in allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients, with reference to donor and recipient CMV antibody response. METHODS--The incidence of CMV excretion was prospectively studied in 62 allogeneic bone marrow transplantations performed on adults and children. All recipients received CMV seronegative blood products. Prophylaxis with high dose acyclovir and CMV immune globulin was given to high risk patients (donor or recipient, or both, CMV seropositive). RESULTS--CMV excretion was detected in eight of 26 (31%) high risk patients but in only one of 36 low risk patients (donor and recipient both CMV seronegative). Five of the eight (63%) excretors in the high risk category developed CMV, of whom four (80%) belonged to the seropositive recipient/seronegative donor group, and included the three CMV seropositive recipients whose CMV complement fixation antibody titres were 64 or greater before ...
Squalene. Oil Emulsions. In the 1960s, emulsified water-in-oil and water-in-vegetable-oil adjuvant preparations used experimentally showed special promise in providing exalted immunity of long duration (Hilleman, 1966). The development of Freund s adjuvants emerged from studies of tuberculosis. Several researchers noticed that immunological responses in animals to various antigens were enhanced by introduction into the animal of living Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In the presence of Mycobacterium, the reaction obtained was of the delayed type, transferrable with leukocytes. Freund measured the effect of mineral oil in causing delayed-type hypersensitivity to killed mycobacteria. There was a remarkable increase in complement-fixing antibody response as well as in delayed hypersensitivity reaction.. Freund s adjuvant consists of a water-in-oil emulsion of aqueous antigen in paraffin (mineral) oil of low specific gravity and low viscosity. Drakeol 6VR and Arlacel A (mannide monooleate) are ...
Abstract: : Purpose:We reported that patients with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease had immune responses specific to human melanocyte antigens, tyrosinase and gp100. This study was aimed at analyzing whether lymphocytes of patients with VKH disease have a cross-reaction between melanocyte peptides and virus antigens. Methods:The subjects of this study were patients with VKH disease and patients with other uveitis in 1989-2001at our hospital. We searched molecular mimicry between tyrosinase450-462, gp10044-59 and exogenous antigen, such as virus, using database screening. Then, crossreactivity to melanocyte peptides and virus antigen were examined by lymphocyte proliferation assay. The seroprevalence of various viruses in patients with VKH disease (n=109) was examined by complement fixation test. In order to examine if the virus infection in VKH patients were latent, genomic DNA of virus was measured by quantitative PCR using samples from serum, cerebro-spinal fluid, and aqueous humor. All ...
Summary A quantal microassay for the titration of LCM virus strains is described. It is based on the detection of virus-specific complement-fixing antigen in the medium of infected L cell microcultures.
Collagen-vascular diseases are connected with immune system dysregulation and inflammation, resulting in tissue destruction or compromise. a dormant condition, specifically the physical and immunologic hurdle shaped by granulomas in the lung and somewhere else. The most frequent illness reported using the TNF- inhibitors continues to be tuberculosis, which might express as pulmonary and/or extrapulmonary disease, using the second option becoming more prevalent and serious than usual. are also described in several instances, and their rate of recurrence is talked about. and fungal pathogens such as for example urine antigen titers, and got culture-positive disease or raised go with fixation titers. Amphotericin B may be the TH-302 drug of preference for moderate to serious histoplasmosis in immunocompromised individuals. Using the HIV/Helps model, chronic suppression with itraconazole will be suggested if further infliximab therapy had been necessary. Aspergillus Varieties is the typical reason ...
Deficient or decreased levels of serum complement activity of the classical pathway are associated with a number of diseases. A normal CH50 assay indicates that C1 through C9 are present and functional in the serum being tested. Although CH50 can be used to assess the integrity of the classical pathway, it must not be used as a sensitive test for in vivo complement fixation. In vitro degradation can also cause low CH50 activity.. ...
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