Complement C3: A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.Complement C4: A glycoprotein that is important in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C4 is cleaved by the activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C4A and COMPLEMENT C4B.Complement C4a: The smaller fragment formed when complement C4 is cleaved by COMPLEMENT C1S. It is an anaphylatoxin that causes symptoms of immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE) but its activity is weaker than that of COMPLEMENT C3A or COMPLEMENT C5A.Complement C3a: The smaller fragment generated from the cleavage of complement C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. C3a, a 77-amino acid peptide, is a mediator of local inflammatory process. It induces smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION, and HISTAMINE RELEASE from MAST CELLS and LEUKOCYTES. C3a is considered an anaphylatoxin along with COMPLEMENT C4A; COMPLEMENT C5A; and COMPLEMENT C5A, DES-ARGININE.Complement C1q: A subcomponent of complement C1, composed of six copies of three polypeptide chains (A, B, and C), each encoded by a separate gene (C1QA; C1QB; C1QC). This complex is arranged in nine subunits (six disulfide-linked dimers of A and B, and three disulfide-linked homodimers of C). C1q has binding sites for antibodies (the heavy chain of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M). The interaction of C1q and immunoglobulin activates the two proenzymes COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S, thus initiating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION via the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.Complement C5a: The minor fragment formed when C5 convertase cleaves C5 into C5a and COMPLEMENT C5B. C5a is a 74-amino-acid glycopeptide with a carboxy-terminal ARGININE that is crucial for its spasmogenic activity. Of all the complement-derived anaphylatoxins, C5a is the most potent in mediating immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE), smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION; HISTAMINE RELEASE; and migration of LEUKOCYTES to site of INFLAMMATION.Complement Activation: The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.Complement C4b: The large fragment formed when COMPLEMENT C4 is cleaved by COMPLEMENT C1S. The membrane-bound C4b binds COMPLEMENT C2A, a SERINE PROTEASE, to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).Complement C5: C5 plays a central role in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C5 is cleaved by C5 CONVERTASE into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. The smaller fragment C5a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of inflammatory process. The major fragment C5b binds to the membrane initiating the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components, C5-C9, into the MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Complement C3b: The larger fragment generated from the cleavage of COMPLEMENT C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. It is a constituent of the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb), and COMPLEMENT C5 CONVERTASES in both the classical (C4b2a3b) and the alternative (C3bBb3b) pathway. C3b participates in IMMUNE ADHERENCE REACTION and enhances PHAGOCYTOSIS. It can be inactivated (iC3b) or cleaved by various proteases to yield fragments such as COMPLEMENT C3C; COMPLEMENT C3D; C3e; C3f; and C3g.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Complement C6: A 105-kDa serum glycoprotein with significant homology to the other late complement components, C7-C9. It is a polypeptide chain cross-linked by 32 disulfide bonds. C6 is the next complement component to bind to the membrane-bound COMPLEMENT C5B in the assembly of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. It is encoded by gene C6.Complement C3c: A 206-amino-acid fragment in the alpha chain (672-1663) of C3b. It is generated when C3b is inactivated (iC3b) and its alpha chain is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I into C3c (749-954), and C3dg (955-1303) in the presence COMPLEMENT FACTOR H.Complement C3d: A 302-amino-acid fragment in the alpha chain (672-1663) of C3b. It is generated when C3b is inactivated (iC3b) and its alpha chain is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I into C3c, and C3dg (955-1303) in the presence COMPLEMENT FACTOR H. Serum proteases further degrade C3dg into C3d (1002-1303) and C3g (955-1001).Complement C2: A component of the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C2 is cleaved by activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C2B and COMPLEMENT C2A. C2a, the COOH-terminal fragment containing a SERINE PROTEASE, combines with COMPLEMENT C4B to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).Complement C9: A 63-kDa serum glycoprotein encoded by gene C9. Monomeric C9 (mC9) binds the C5b-8 complex to form C5b-9 which catalyzes the polymerization of C9 forming C5b-p9 (MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX) and transmembrane channels leading to lysis of the target cell. Patients with C9 deficiency suffer from recurrent bacterial infections.Receptors, Complement: Molecules on the surface of some B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that recognize and combine with the C3b, C3d, C1q, and C4b components of complement.Complement C1s: A 77-kDa subcomponent of complement C1, encoded by gene C1S, is a SERINE PROTEASE existing as a proenzyme (homodimer) in the intact complement C1 complex. Upon the binding of COMPLEMENT C1Q to antibodies, the activated COMPLEMENT C1R cleaves C1s into two chains, A (heavy) and B (light, the serine protease), linked by disulfide bonds yielding the active C1s. The activated C1s, in turn, cleaves COMPLEMENT C2 and COMPLEMENT C4 to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL C3 CONVERTASE).Complement Membrane Attack Complex: A product of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION cascade, regardless of the pathways, that forms transmembrane channels causing disruption of the target CELL MEMBRANE and cell lysis. It is formed by the sequential assembly of terminal complement components (COMPLEMENT C5B; COMPLEMENT C6; COMPLEMENT C7; COMPLEMENT C8; and COMPLEMENT C9) into the target membrane. The resultant C5b-8-poly-C9 is the "membrane attack complex" or MAC.Complement C1r: A 80-kDa subcomponent of complement C1, existing as a SERINE PROTEASE proenzyme in the intact complement C1 complex. When COMPLEMENT C1Q is bound to antibodies, the changed tertiary structure causes autolytic activation of complement C1r which is cleaved into two chains, A (heavy) and B (light, the serine protease), connected by disulfide bonds. The activated C1r serine protease, in turn, activates COMPLEMENT C1S proenzyme by cleaving the Arg426-Ile427 bond. No fragment is released when either C1r or C1s is cleaved.Complement Inactivator Proteins: Serum proteins that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host. The complement system is tightly regulated by inactivators that accelerate the decay of intermediates and certain cell surface receptors.Complement C7: A 93-kDa serum glycoprotein encoded by C7 gene. It is a polypeptide chain with 28 disulfide bridges. In the formation of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX; C7 is the next component to bind the C5b-6 complex forming a trimolecular complex C5b-7 which is lipophilic, resembles an integral membrane protein, and serves as an anchor for the late complement components, C8 and C9.Complement C3-C5 Convertases: Serine proteases that cleave COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, or cleave COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. These include the different forms of C3/C5 convertases in the classical and the alternative pathways of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Both cleavages take place at the C-terminal of an ARGININE residue.Complement Factor B: A glycine-rich, heat-labile serum glycoprotein that contains a component of the C3 CONVERTASE ALTERNATE PATHWAY (C3bBb). Bb, a serine protease, is generated when factor B is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR D into Ba and Bb.Complement Pathway, Alternative: Complement activation initiated by the interaction of microbial ANTIGENS with COMPLEMENT C3B. When COMPLEMENT FACTOR B binds to the membrane-bound C3b, COMPLEMENT FACTOR D cleaves it to form alternative C3 CONVERTASE (C3BBB) which, stabilized by COMPLEMENT FACTOR P, is able to cleave multiple COMPLEMENT C3 to form alternative C5 CONVERTASE (C3BBB3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Complement Pathway, Classical: Complement activation initiated by the binding of COMPLEMENT C1 to ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES at the COMPLEMENT C1Q subunit. This leads to the sequential activation of COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S subunits. Activated C1s cleaves COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 forming the membrane-bound classical C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Complement C8: A 150-kDa serum glycoprotein composed of three subunits with each encoded by a different gene (C8A; C8B; and C8G). This heterotrimer contains a disulfide-linked C8alpha-C8gamma heterodimer and a noncovalently associated C8beta chain. C8 is the next component to bind the C5-7 complex forming C5b-8 that binds COMPLEMENT C9 and acts as a catalyst in the polymerization of C9.Complement C1: The first complement component to act in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. It is a calcium-dependent trimolecular complex made up of three subcomponents: COMPLEMENT C1Q; COMPLEMENT C1R; and COMPLEMENT C1S at 1:2:2 ratios. When the intact C1 binds to at least two antibodies (involving C1q), C1r and C1s are sequentially activated, leading to subsequent steps in the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Receptors, Complement 3b: Molecular sites on or in some B-lymphocytes and macrophages that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3B. The primary structure of these receptors reveal that they contain transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, with their extracellular portion composed entirely of thirty short consensus repeats each having 60 to 70 amino acids.Complement Factor H: An important soluble regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It is a 139-kDa glycoprotein expressed by the liver and secreted into the blood. It binds to COMPLEMENT C3B and makes iC3b (inactivated complement 3b) susceptible to cleavage by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I. Complement factor H also inhibits the association of C3b with COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form the C3bB proenzyme, and promotes the dissociation of Bb from the C3bBb complex (COMPLEMENT C3 CONVERTASE, ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY).Complement C5b: The larger fragment generated from the cleavage of C5 by C5 CONVERTASE that yields COMPLEMENT C5A and C5b (beta chain + alpha' chain, the residual alpha chain, bound by disulfide bond). C5b remains bound to the membrane and initiates the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components to form C5b-8-poly-C9, the MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Complement C2a: The COOH-terminal fragment of COMPLEMENT 2, released by the action of activated COMPLEMENT C1S. It is a SERINE PROTEASE. C2a combines with COMPLEMENT C4B to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).Receptor, Anaphylatoxin C5a: A G-protein-coupled receptor that signals an increase in intracellular calcium in response to the potent ANAPHYLATOXIN peptide COMPLEMENT C5A.Complement Activating Enzymes: Enzymes that activate one or more COMPLEMENT PROTEINS in the complement system leading to the formation of the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX, an important response in host defense. They are enzymes in the various COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION pathways.Anaphylatoxins: Serum peptides derived from certain cleaved COMPLEMENT PROTEINS during COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. They induce smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION; mast cell HISTAMINE RELEASE; PLATELET AGGREGATION; and act as mediators of the local inflammatory process. The order of anaphylatoxin activity from the strongest to the weakest is C5a, C3a, C4a, and C5a des-arginine.Complement Inactivating Agents: Compounds that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host.Complement Hemolytic Activity Assay: A screening assay for circulating COMPLEMENT PROTEINS. Diluted SERUM samples are added to antibody-coated ERYTHROCYTES and the percentage of cell lysis is measured. The values are expressed by the so called CH50, in HEMOLYTIC COMPLEMENT units per milliliter, which is the dilution of serum required to lyse 50 percent of the erythrocytes in the assay.Complement C1 Inactivator Proteins: Serum proteins that inhibit, antagonize, or inactivate COMPLEMENT C1 or its subunits.Arginine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of the guanidine nitrogen of arginine in the presence of ATP and a divalent cation with formation of phosphorylarginine and ADP. EC 2.7.3.3.Arginine Vasopressin: The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.Receptors, Complement 3d: Molecular sites on or in B-lymphocytes, follicular dendritic cells, lymphoid cells, and epithelial cells that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3D. Human complement receptor 2 (CR2) serves as a receptor for both C3dg and the gp350/220 glycoprotein of HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN, and binds the monoclonal antibody OKB7, which blocks binding of both ligands to the receptor.Diethylstilbestrol: A synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen used in the treatment of menopausal and postmenopausal disorders. It was also used formerly as a growth promoter in animals. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), diethylstilbestrol has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck, 11th ed)Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Complement Factor D: A serum protein which is important in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. This enzyme cleaves the COMPLEMENT C3B-bound COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form C3bBb which is ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Complement Factor I: A plasma serine proteinase that cleaves the alpha-chains of C3b and C4b in the presence of the cofactors COMPLEMENT FACTOR H and C4-binding protein, respectively. It is a 66-kDa glycoprotein that converts C3b to inactivated C3b (iC3b) followed by the release of two fragments, C3c (150-kDa) and C3dg (41-kDa). It was formerly called KAF, C3bINF, or enzyme 3b inactivator.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Complement C4b-Binding Protein: A serum protein that regulates the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. It binds as a cofactor to COMPLEMENT FACTOR I which then hydrolyzes the COMPLEMENT C4B in the CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C4bC2a).Complement C3b Inactivator Proteins: Endogenous proteins that inhibit or inactivate COMPLEMENT C3B. They include COMPLEMENT FACTOR H and COMPLEMENT FACTOR I (C3b/C4b inactivator). They cleave or promote the cleavage of C3b into inactive fragments, and thus are important in the down-regulation of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and its cytolytic sequence.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Complement C3-C5 Convertases, Classical Pathway: Important enzymes in the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. They cleave COMPLEMENT C3 and COMPLEMENT C5.Complement C2b: The N-terminal fragment of COMPLEMENT 2, released by the action of activated COMPLEMENT C1S.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Ornithine: An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.Complement C5a, des-Arginine: A derivative of complement C5a, generated when the carboxy-terminal ARGININE is removed by CARBOXYPEPTIDASE B present in normal human serum. C5a des-Arg shows complete loss of spasmogenic activity though it retains some chemotactic ability (CHEMOATTRACTANTS).Cobra Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.CitrullineAntigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Steroid 21-Hydroxylase: An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Complement C3-C5 Convertases, Alternative Pathway: Important enzymes in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. They cleave COMPLEMENT C3 and COMPLEMENT C5.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein: An endogenous 105-kDa plasma glycoprotein produced primarily by the LIVER and MONOCYTES. It inhibits a broad spectrum of proteases, including the COMPLEMENT C1R and the COMPLEMENT C1S proteases of the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY, and the MANNOSE-BINDING PROTEIN-ASSOCIATED SERINE PROTEASES. C1-INH-deficient individuals suffer from HEREDITARY ANGIOEDEMA TYPES I AND II.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Complement C3 Convertase, Alternative Pathway: A serine protease that is the complex of COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT FACTOR BB. It cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT C3B in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY.Complement C5 Convertase, Classical Pathway: A serine protease that cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT 5 into COMPLEMENT 5A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT 5B in the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. It is a complex of CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C4b2a) with an additional COMPLEMENT C3B, or C4b2a3b.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Drug-Eluting Stents: Stents that are covered with materials that are embedded with chemicals that are gradually released into the surrounding milieu.Complement C3 Convertase, Classical Pathway: A serine protease that cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT 3 into COMPLEMENT 3A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT 3B in the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. It is a complex of COMPLEMENT 4B and COMPLEMENT 2A (C4b2a).Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Opsonin Proteins: Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Complement C5 Convertase, Alternative Pathway: A serine protease that cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT C5B in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. It is the complex of ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb) with an additional COMPLEMENT C3B, or C3bBb3b.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Arginase: A ureahydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of arginine or canavanine to yield L-ornithine (ORNITHINE) and urea. Deficiency of this enzyme causes HYPERARGININEMIA. EC 3.5.3.1.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Phenylglyoxal: A reagent that is highly selective for the modification of arginyl residues. It is used to selectively inhibit various enzymes and acts as an energy transfer inhibitor in photophosphorylation.Hydrolases: Any member of the class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of the substrate and the addition of water to the resulting molecules, e.g., ESTERASES, glycosidases (GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASES), lipases, NUCLEOTIDASES, peptidases (PEPTIDE HYDROLASES), and phosphatases (PHOSPHORIC MONOESTER HYDROLASES). EC 3.Complement Pathway, Mannose-Binding Lectin: Complement activation triggered by the interaction of microbial POLYSACCHARIDES with serum MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN resulting in the activation of MANNOSE-BINDING PROTEIN-ASSOCIATED SERINE PROTEASES. As in the classical pathway, MASPs cleave COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 to form C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Properdin: A 53-kDa protein that is a positive regulator of the alternate pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It stabilizes the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb) and protects it from rapid inactivation, thus facilitating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and the formation of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Individuals with mutation in the PFC gene exhibit properdin deficiency and have a high susceptibility to infections.Mice, Inbred C57BLNeutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Ornithine Carbamoyltransferase: A urea cycle enzyme that catalyzes the formation of orthophosphate and L-citrulline (CITRULLINE) from CARBAMOYL PHOSPHATE and L-ornithine (ORNITHINE). Deficiency of this enzyme may be transmitted as an X-linked trait. EC 2.1.3.3.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Macrophage-1 Antigen: An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Kidney Glomerulus: A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Argininosuccinate Synthase: An enzyme of the urea cycle that catalyzes the formation of argininosuccinic acid from citrulline and aspartic acid in the presence of ATP. Absence or deficiency of this enzyme causes the metabolic disease CITRULLINEMIA in humans. EC 6.3.4.5.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Estrogens, Non-Steroidal: Non-steroidal compounds with estrogenic activity.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Serum: The clear portion of BLOOD that is left after BLOOD COAGULATION to remove BLOOD CELLS and clotting proteins.Glomerulonephritis, Membranoproliferative: Chronic glomerulonephritis characterized histologically by proliferation of MESANGIAL CELLS, increase in the MESANGIAL EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX, and a thickening of the glomerular capillary walls. This may appear as a primary disorder or secondary to other diseases including infections and autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Various subtypes are classified by their abnormal ultrastructures and immune deposits. Hypocomplementemia is a characteristic feature of all types of MPGN.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Schistosoma: A genus of trematode flukes belonging to the family Schistosomatidae. There are over a dozen species. These parasites are found in man and other mammals. Snails are the intermediate hosts.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Glomerulonephritis: Inflammation of the renal glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) that can be classified by the type of glomerular injuries including antibody deposition, complement activation, cellular proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These structural and functional abnormalities usually lead to HEMATURIA; PROTEINURIA; HYPERTENSION; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Arteriolosclerosis: Thickening of the walls of small ARTERIES or ARTERIOLES due to cell proliferation or HYALINE deposition.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Coronary Restenosis: Recurrent narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery following surgical procedures performed to alleviate a prior obstruction.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Agmatine: Decarboxylated arginine, isolated from several plant and animal sources, e.g., pollen, ergot, herring sperm, octopus muscle.Mice, Inbred BALB CCanavanineCarrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Argininosuccinate Lyase: An enzyme of the urea cycle which splits argininosuccinate to fumarate plus arginine. Its absence leads to the metabolic disease ARGININOSUCCINIC ACIDURIA in man. EC 4.3.2.1.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Phosphotransferases (Carboxyl Group Acceptor): A class of enzymes that transfers phosphate groups and has a carboxyl group as an acceptor. EC 2.7.2.Vasotocin: A nonapeptide that contains the ring of OXYTOCIN and the side chain of ARG-VASOPRESSIN with the latter determining the specific recognition of hormone receptors. Vasotocin is the non-mammalian vasopressin-like hormone or antidiuretic hormone regulating water and salt metabolism.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Metals: Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Peptides, Cyclic: Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Blood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Mannose-Binding Lectin: A specific mannose-binding member of the collectin family of lectins. It binds to carbohydrate groups on invading pathogens and plays a key role in the MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Surface Plasmon Resonance: A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.Complement C3 Nephritic Factor: An IgG autoantibody against the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE, found in serum of patients with MESANGIOCAPILLARY GLOMERULONEPHRITIS. The binding of this autoantibody to C3bBb stabilizes the enzyme thus reduces the actions of C3b inactivators (COMPLEMENT FACTOR H; COMPLEMENT FACTOR I). This abnormally stabilized enzyme induces a continuous COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and generation of C3b thereby promoting the assembly of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX and cytolysis.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Haptoglobins: Plasma glycoproteins that form a stable complex with hemoglobin to aid the recycling of heme iron. They are encoded in man by a gene on the short arm of chromosome 16.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.ZymosanSirolimus: A macrolide compound obtained from Streptomyces hygroscopicus that acts by selectively blocking the transcriptional activation of cytokines thereby inhibiting cytokine production. It is bioactive only when bound to IMMUNOPHILINS. Sirolimus is a potent immunosuppressant and possesses both antifungal and antineoplastic properties.Receptors, Vasopressin: Specific molecular sites or proteins on or in cells to which VASOPRESSINS bind or interact in order to modify the function of the cells. Two types of vasopressin receptor exist, the V1 receptor in the vascular smooth muscle and the V2 receptor in the kidneys. The V1 receptor can be subdivided into V1a and V1b (formerly V3) receptors.Lupus Nephritis: Glomerulonephritis associated with autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Lupus nephritis is histologically classified into 6 classes: class I - normal glomeruli, class II - pure mesangial alterations, class III - focal segmental glomerulonephritis, class IV - diffuse glomerulonephritis, class V - diffuse membranous glomerulonephritis, and class VI - advanced sclerosing glomerulonephritis (The World Health Organization classification 1982).Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Diacetyl: Carrier of aroma of butter, vinegar, coffee, and other foods.Cosmids: Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Peste-des-Petits-Ruminants: A highly fatal contagious disease of goats and sheep caused by PESTE-DES-PETITS-RUMINANTS VIRUS. The disease may be acute or subacute and is characterized by stomatitis, conjunctivitis, diarrhea, and pneumonia.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary: Dilation of an occluded coronary artery (or arteries) by means of a balloon catheter to restore myocardial blood supply.Mannose-Binding Protein-Associated Serine Proteases: Serum serine proteases which participate in COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. They are activated when complexed with the MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN, therefore also known as Mannose-binding protein-Associated Serine Proteases (MASPs). They cleave COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 to form C4b2a, the CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE.Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital: A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.Cyclohexanones: Cyclohexane ring substituted by one or more ketones in any position.Protein PrecursorsExons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Immunologic Factors: Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Amino-Acid N-Acetyltransferase: A mitochondrial matrix enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of L-GLUTAMATE to N-acetyl-L-glutamate in the presence of ACETYL-COA.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.

Requirements for C5a receptor-mediated IL-4 and IL-13 production and leukotriene C4 generation in human basophils. (1/45)

Anaphylatoxin derived from the fifth complement component (C5a) in the presence of IL-3 induces continuous leukotriene C4 generation and IL-4 and IL-13 expression in human basophils for a period of 16-18 h. This indicates that the G protein-coupled C5a receptor (C5aR) can induce long-lasting cellular responses. Using anti-N-terminal C5aR Abs, C-terminal C5a hexapeptide analogs, and pertussis toxin, we demonstrate that the putative activation site of the C5aR is both necessary and sufficient for these late cellular responses. Furthermore, continuous pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein-coupled receptor activation and receptor-ligand interaction is ongoing and required during the entire period of product release. However, the late basophil responses have a more stringent requirement for optimal receptor activation. Leukotriene C4 generation appears to be influenced mostly by the way the receptor is activated, because the most active hexapeptide is a superagonist for this response. By contrast, C5adesarg, lacking the C-terminal arginine, induces minimal lipid mediator formation but is fully active to induce IL-4 production and is even a superagonist for IL-13 release. Nevertheless, IL-4/IL-13 synthesis in response to C5adesarg could be blocked by both C-terminal antagonistic peptide as well as anti-N-terminal C5aR Abs, indicating only minor differences of ligand-receptor interactions between C5a and C5adesarg. Taken together, our data demonstrate that long-lasting and continuous signaling occurs through a limited activation domain of the C5aR, which can differentially promote separate basophil functions.  (+info)

Altered expression of CD88 and associated impairment of complement 5a-induced neutrophil responses in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients with and without pulmonary tuberculosis. (2/45)

The effect of infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV patient group), infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB patient group), and coinfection with both of these organisms (HIV/TB patient group) on the expression of CD88 on polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) was determined by using a receptor-specific monoclonal antibody and flow cytometry. A significant reduction in the fluorescence intensity of CD88 on PMNL was observed in the HIV and HIV/TB groups, compared with both the healthy donor (HD) and TB groups. Furthermore, when degranulation of PMNL was induced by ligation of CD88 by complement 5a (C5a), a large proportion of patients in the HIV and the HIV/TB groups was found to have reciprocal degranulation responses. Patients in the 2 HIV groups also were found to have significantly reduced C5a-induced chemotactic responses and significantly elevated peripheral levels of C5a des Arg, compared with the HD and TB groups. These differences may contribute to the increased susceptibility of HIV-1-infected individuals to secondary microbial infections.  (+info)

C5a and C5a(desArg) enhance the susceptibility of monocyte-derived macrophages to HIV infection. (3/45)

Mononuclear phagocytes, which include circulating blood monocytes and differentiated tissue macrophages, are believed to play a central role in the sexual transmission of HIV infection. The ability of HIV to productively infect these cells may be influenced by action of exogenous or host-derived substances at the site of viral entry. Given the potent capacities of inflammatory mediators to stimulate anaphylatoxic and immunomodulatory functions in mucosa, the effects of complement-derived anaphylatoxins on the susceptibility of monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) to HIV-1 infection were examined. In our in vitro system, the susceptibility to infection was up to 40 times increased in MDM that had been exposed to C5a or C5a(desArg), but not to C3a or C3a(desArg), for 2 days before adding of virus. By contrast, the treatment with complement anaphylatoxins did not affect HIV replication in fresh monocytes. Stimulatory effect of C5a and its desArg derivative on HIV infection correlated with the increase of TNF-alpha and IL-6 secretion from MDM. All these functional effects of C5a and C5a(desArg) were reversible by treatment of cells with the mAb that functionally blocks C5aR. Taken together, these results indicate that C5a and C5a(desArg) may increase the susceptibility of MDM to HIV infection through stimulation of TNF-alpha and IL-6 secretion from these cells.  (+info)

Contribution of anaphylatoxin C5a to late airway responses after repeated exposure of antigen to allergic rats. (4/45)

We attempted to elucidate the contribution of complement to allergic asthma. Rat sensitized to OVA received repeated intratracheal exposures to OVA for up to 3 consecutive days, and pulmonary resistance was then estimated for up to 6 h after the last exposure. Whereas the immediate airway response (IAR) in terms of R(L) tended to decrease in proportion to the number of OVA exposures, late airway response (LAR) became prominent only after three. Although premedication with two kinds of complement inhibitors, soluble complement receptor type 1 (sCR1) or nafamostat mesylate, resulted in inhibition of the IAR after either a single or a double exposure, the LAR was inhibited after the triple. Premedication with a C5a receptor antagonist (C5aRA) before every exposure to OVA also inhibited the LAR after three. Repeated OVA exposure resulted in eosinophil and neutrophil infiltration into the bronchial submucosa which was suppressed by premedication with sCR1 or C5aRA. Up-regulation of C5aR mRNA was shown in lungs after triple OVA exposure, but almost no up-regulation of C3aR. Pretreatment with sCR1 or C5aRA suppressed the up-regulation of C5aR expression as well as cytokine messages in the lungs. The suppression of LAR by pretreatment with sCR1 was reversed by intratracheal instillation of rat C5a desArg the action of which was inhibited by C5aRA. In contrast, rat C3a desArg or cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 induced cellular infiltration into the bronchial submucosa by costimulation with OVA, but these had no influence on the LAR. These differences might be explained by the fact that costimulation with OVA and C5a synergistically potentiated IAR, whereas that with OVA and either C3a or cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 did not. C5a generated by Ag-Ab complexes helps in the production of cytokines and contributes to the LAR after repeated exposure to Ag.  (+info)

The orphan receptor C5L2 has high affinity binding sites for complement fragments C5a and C5a des-Arg(74). (5/45)

The substantial variations in the responses of cells to the anaphylatoxin C5a and its desarginated form, C5adR(74), suggest that more than one type of cell surface receptor for these ligands might exist. However, only a single receptor for C5a and C5adR(74), CD88, has been characterized to date. Here we report that the orphan receptor C5L2/gpr77, which shares 35% amino acid identity with CD88, binds C5a with high affinity but has a 10-fold higher affinity for C5adR(74) than CD88. C5L2 also has a moderate affinity for anaphylatoxin C3a, but cross-competition studies suggest that C3a binds to a distinct site from C5a. C4a was able to displace C3a, suggesting that C5L2, like the C3a receptor, may have a low binding affinity for this anaphylatoxin. Unlike CD88 and C3a receptor, C5L2 transfected into RBL-2H3 cells does not support degranulation or increases in intracellular [Ca(2+)] and is not rapidly internalized in response to ligand binding. However, ligation of C5L2 by anaphylatoxin did potentiate the degranulation response to cross-linkage of the high affinity IgE receptor by a pertussis toxin-sensitive mechanism. These results suggest that C5L2 is an anaphylatoxin-binding protein with unique ligand binding and signaling properties.  (+info)

A functional C5a anaphylatoxin receptor in a teleost species. (6/45)

The anaphylatoxins are potent, complement-derived low m.w. proteins that bind to specific seven-transmembrane receptors to elicit and amplify a variety of inflammatory reactions. C5a is the most potent of these phlogistic peptides and is a strong chemoattractant for neutrophils and macrophages/monocytes. Although lower vertebrates possess complement systems that are believed to function similarly to those of mammals, anaphylatoxin receptors have not previously been characterized in any nonmammalian vertebrate. To study the functions of C5a in teleost fish, we generated recombinant C5a of the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (tC5a), and used fluoresceinated tC5a (tC5aF) and flow cytometry to identify the C5a receptor (C5aR) on trout leukocytes. Granulocytes/Macrophages present in cell suspensions of the head kidney (HKL), the main hemopoietic organ in teleosts, showed a univariate type of receptor expression, whereas those from the peripheral blood demonstrated either a low or high level of expression. The binding of tC5aF was inhibited by excess amounts of unlabeled tC5a or tC5a(desArg), demonstrating that sites other than the C-terminal of tC5a interact with the C5aR. Both tC5a and tC5a(desArg) were able to induce chemotactic responses in granulocytes in a concentration-dependent manner, but the desArg derivative was at least 10-fold less active. Homologous desensitization occurred after HKL were exposed to continuous or high concentrations of tC5a, with a loss of tC5aF binding and an 80% reduction in chemotactic responses toward tC5a. Pertussis toxin reduced the migration of HKL toward tC5a by 40%, suggesting only a partial involvement of pertussis toxin-sensitive G(i) proteins in tC5a-mediated chemotaxis.  (+info)

The role of the N-terminal domain of the complement fragment receptor C5L2 in ligand binding. (7/45)

C5L2 is a new cellular receptor found to interact with the human anaphylatoxins complement factor C5a and its C-terminal cleavage product C5a des Arg. The classical human C5a receptor (C5aR) preferentially binds C5a, with a 10-100-fold lower affinity for C5a des Arg. In contrast, C5L2 binds both ligands with nearly equal affinity. C5aR presents acidic and tyrosine residues in its N terminus that interact with the core of C5a while a hydrophobic pocket formed by the transmembrane helices interacts with residues in the C terminus of C5a. Here, we have investigated the molecular basis for the increased affinity of C5L2 for C5a des Arg. Rat and mouse C5L2 preferentially bound C5a des Arg, whereas rodent C5aR showed much higher affinity for intact C5a. Effective peptidic and non-peptidic ligands for the transmembrane hydrophobic pocket of C5aR were poor inhibitors of ligand binding to C5L2. An antibody raised against the N terminus of human C5L2 did not affect the binding of C5a to C5L2 but did inhibit C5a des Arg binding. A chimeric C5L2, containing the N terminus of C5aR, had little effect on the affinity for C5a des Arg. Mutation of acidic and tyrosine residues in the N terminus of human C5L2 revealed that 3 residues were critical for C5a des Arg binding but had little involvement in C5a binding. C5L2 thus appears to bind C5a and C5a des Arg by different mechanisms, and, unlike C5aR, C5L2 uses critical residues in its N-terminal domain for binding only to C5a des Arg.  (+info)

Complement C5a receptors in the pituitary gland: expression and function. (8/45)

 (+info)

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.124)

... complement c5a MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.024.270.255 -- complement c5a, des-arginine MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.050 -- complement ... complement c5a, des-arginine MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.450.625 -- complement c5b MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.550 -- complement c6 ... complement c4b MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.450 -- complement c5 MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.450.250 -- complement c5a MeSH D12.776. ... complement c1r MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.050.290 -- complement c1s MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.150 -- complement c2 MeSH D12.776. ...

*C3a (complement)

C3a has a regulatory process and a structure homologous to complement component C5a, with which it shares 36% of its sequence ... C3a, like other anaphylatoxins, has a C-terminal arginine residue. Serum carboxypeptidase B, a protease, cleaves the arginine ... C3a desarginine). C3a is an effector of the complement system with a range of functions including T cell activation and ... 12th European Meeting on Complement in Human Disease12th European Meeting on CHD12th European Meeting on Complement in Human ...

*Complement component 5a

C5a is rapidly metabolised by a serum enzyme carboxypeptidase B to a 72 amino acid form C5a des-Arg without C terminal arginine ... C5a des-Arg is a much less potent anaphylatoxin. Both C5a and C5a des-Arg can trigger mast cell degranulation, releasing ... C5a is a protein fragment released from cleavage of complement component C5 by protease C5-convertase into C5a and C5b ... C5a, the other cleavage product of C5, acts as a highly inflammatory peptide, encouraging complement activation, formation of ...

*Porphyromonas gingivalis

2011). "The C5a receptor impairs IL-12-dependent clearance of Porphyromonas gingivalis and is required for induction of ... Other studies have found that P. gingivalis can subvert the complement pathway through C5αR and C3αR, which modulates the ... It contains the enzyme peptidyl-arginine deiminase, which is involved in citrullination. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis ... Fouts DE, Eisen JA, Daugherty SC, Dodson RJ, Durkin AS, Gwinn M, Haft DH, Kolonay JF, Nelson WC, Mason T, Tallon L, Gray J, ...

*Pattern recognition receptor

Similarly again, C5b is bound and C5a is released. C5b recruits C6, C7, C8 and multiple C9s. C5, C6, C7, C8 and C9 form the ... "Non-arginine-aspartate (non-RD) kinases are associated with innate immune receptors that recognize conserved microbial ... Complement receptors, collectins, ficolins, pentraxins such as serum amyloid and C-reactive protein, lipid transferases, ... Kigerl, Kristina A.; Vaccari, Juan Pablo de Rivero; Dietrich, W. Dalton; Popovich, Phillip G.; Keane, Robert W. "Pattern ...
C5a / C5a des Arg antibody [2942] (complement component 5) for IA, WB. Anti-C5a / C5a des Arg mAb (GTX11877) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
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SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 1kxp.1. CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF HUMAN VITAMIN D-BINDING PROTEIN IN COMPLEX WITH SKELETAL ACTIN
title: Relationship between vitamin D-binding protein polymorphisms and blood vitamin D level in Korean patients with COPD., doi: 10.2147/COPD.S96985, category: Article
RTI uses cookies to offer you the best experience online. By continuing to use our website, you agree to the use of cookies. If you would like to know more about cookies and how to manage them please view our Privacy Policy. Learn More.. Got it! ...
Relationship between vitamin D-binding protein polymorphisms and blood vitamin D level in Korean patients with COPD Youngmok Park,1 Young Sam Kim,1 Young Ae Kang,1 Ju Hye Shin,1 Yeon Mok Oh,2 Joon Beom Seo,3 Ji Ye Jung,1 Sang Do Lee2 On behalf of the KOLD study 1Division of Pulmonology, Department of Internal Medicine, Severance Hospital, Institute of Chest Diseases, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 2Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Clinical Research Center for Chronic Obstructive Airway Diseases, 3Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the blood vitamin D3 level is generally low, and genetic polymorphisms of vitamin D-binding protein encoded by the GC gene are associated with COPD development. In this study, we examined the relationship between GC polymorphisms and plasma vitamin D3 level in Korean patients
1 reviews. Compare Complement C5a desArg ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
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1869 Highly activated macrophages are tumoricidal. Inflammation-derived macrophage activation is the principal macrophage activation process that requires serum vitamin D-binding protein (known as Gc protein) and participation of B and T lymphocytes. A trisaccharide composed of N-acetylgalactosamine with dibranched galactose and sialic acid termini at 420 threonine residue of Gc protein is hydrolyzed by the inducible ß-galactosidase (Bgl) of inflammation-primed B cells and the Neu-1 sialidase of T cells to yield the macrophage activating factor (MAF). Thus, Gc protein is the precursor for the principal MAF. However, the MAF precursor activity of Gc protein of cancer patients was lost or reduced because Gc protein is deglycosylated by serum α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (Nagalase) secreted from cancerous cells but not from healthy cells. Thus, serum Nagalase activity is proportional to tumor burden and serves as a prognostic index. Exogenously given macrophage activating factor can bypass ...
Now, they may soon add a new risk factor to the list: activation of the complement system. The complement system is usually implicated in immune responses, but now theres a role for it in cardiovascular disease. In a new research report appearing in the January 2011 print issue of the FASEB Journal (http://www.fasebj.org), scientists from Europe and the United States show that anaphylatoxin C5a, a protein released when complement is activated, contributes to atherosclerotic disease. C5a causes plaques to break free from where they would be anchored to ultimately cause blockages elsewhere in the body. This new discovery not only shows that C5a is a new marker for identifying risk for heart attack and stroke, but it also establishes C5a as a new therapeutic target for preventing these problems.. "Given the huge impact of cardiovascular disease in general, and atherosclerosis in particular, on public health, we feel that unraveling mechanisms involved in the development and progression of the ...
Purchase quality tested Progesterone Receptor C262 antibodies at Immuquest. Quality Progesterone Receptor C262 antibodies are available online from technical experts in production
Bachem offers H-6322 C5a Anaphylatoxin (human) for your research. Find all specific details here. Find product specific information including available pack sizes, CAS, detailed description and references here.
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Die Tochter des Regiments film online kijken, Die Tochter des Regiments online kijken met nederlandse ondertiteling, Die Tochter des Regiments nederlands online kijken, Die Tochter des Regiments film legaal ...
Archives de pédiatrie - Vol. 14 - N° 3 - p. 239-243 - Distribution des sérotypes de pneumocoques responsables des pleuropneumopathies de lenfant en France - EM|consulte
Die Sedimentationskonstante S20.w° des Kartoffelvirus M (KVM) beträgt 167±1 S. Die Konzentrationsabhängigkeit ergibt sich aus der Beziehung s20.wc=(167−33×c) S. Die Schwebedichte des KVM in...
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Black Americans had lower levels of total 25-hydroxyvitamin D and vitamin D-binding protein than whites, but similar levels of bioavailable 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and higher bone density.
The normal range of human serum albumin in adults (, 3 y.o.) is 3.5 to 5 g/dL. For children less than three years of age, the normal range is broader, 2.9-5.5 g/dL.[9] Low albumin (hypoalbuminemia) may be caused by liver disease, nephrotic syndrome, burns, protein-losing enteropathy, malabsorption, malnutrition, late pregnancy, artefact, genetic variations and malignancy. High albumin (hyperalbuminemia) is almost always caused by dehydration. In some cases of retinol (Vitamin A) deficiency, the albumin level can be elevated to high-normal values (e.g., 4.9 g/dL). This is because retinol causes cells to swell with water (this is also the reason too much Vitamin A is toxic).[10] This swelling also likely occurs during treatment with 13-cis retinoic acid (isotretnoin), a pharmaceutical for treating severe acne, amongst other conditions. In lab experiments it has been shown that all-trans retinoic acid down regulates human albumin production.[11] ...
Rahier, Jacques ; Guiot, Yves ; Sempoux, Christine. Diabète de type 2 et déficit des cellules B.. In: Journées annuelles de diabétologie de lHôtel-Dieu, , p. 19-27 (2004 ...

des-Arg-(77) complement C3a
     Summary Report | CureHunterdes-Arg-(77) complement C3a Summary Report | CureHunter

... complement C3a: C3a without the COOH-terminal arginine at the 77-position; also known as the acylation-stimulating protein or ... C3a des arg, C4a des arg, C5a des arg, C1rC1s-C1-inhibitor complex, and terminal C complex (C5b-9). ". ... complement C3a, des-Arg-(77); C3a des-Arg; C3a des-Arg(77); C3a des-Arg77; complement 3a, des-Arg-; complement 3a, des-arginine ... Complement System Proteins: 21537*Complement C3: 812*Complement C3a: 43*des-Arg-(77) complement C3a: 14 ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryC044541.do

Austin Bassett Thompson, MD - Research Output
     - Research NebraskaAustin Bassett Thompson, MD - Research Output - Research Nebraska

des-Arginine Complement C5a Neutrophil Infiltration Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Tobacco Products Respiratory System ... De Blasio, F., Daughton, D. M., Thompson, A. B., Robbins, R. A., Spurzem, J. R., Sisson, J. H., Von Essen, S. G., Romberger, D. ... Paul, S., Said, S. I., Thompson, A. B., Volle, D. J., Agrawal, D. K., Foda, H. & de la Rocha, S., Jul 1989, In : Journal of ... De Blasio, F., Pezza, A. & Rennard, S. I., Dec 1 1992, In : Archivio Monaldi per le malattie del torace. 47, 1-6, p. 17-29 13 p ...
more infohttps://nebraska.pure.elsevier.com/en/persons/austin-bassett-thompson/publications/?type=%2Fdk%2Fatira%2Fpure%2Fresearchoutput%2Fresearchoutputtypes%2Fcontributiontojournal%2Farticle&ordering=title&descending=false

List of MeSH codes (D12.776.124) - WikipediaList of MeSH codes (D12.776.124) - Wikipedia

... complement c5a MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.024.270.255 -- complement c5a, des-arginine MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.050 -- complement ... complement c5a, des-arginine MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.450.625 -- complement c5b MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.550 -- complement c6 ... complement c4b MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.450 -- complement c5 MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.450.250 -- complement c5a MeSH D12.776. ... complement c1r MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.050.290 -- complement c1s MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.150 -- complement c2 MeSH D12.776. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(D12.776.124)

Shopping Page. Buy or upgrade website.   - Healthmatics | Page 241Shopping Page. Buy or upgrade website. - Healthmatics | Page 241

C3a is considered an anaphylatoxin along with COMPLEMENT C4A; COMPLEMENT C5A; and COMPLEMENT C5A, DES-ARGININE.. MSH ... Uitgebreide planning van de gezondheidszorg medical and nursing care program designed for a particular patient providing for ... The smaller fragment generated from the cleavage of complement C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. C3a, a 77-amino acid peptide, is a mediator ...
more infohttp://healthmatics.info/products-page/241/

NAVER Academic > Search...NAVER Academic > Search...

Antibodies, Monoclonal, Antibody Specificity, Complement Activation, Complement C5a, des-Arginine, immunology, isolation & ... Surprisingly high levels of anaphylatoxin C5a des Arg are extractable from psoriatic scales.. 1993 K Bergh et al. Archives of ...
more infohttps://academic.naver.com/search.naver?field=3&query=Archives+of+Dermatological+Research+285%EA%B6%8C+3%ED%98%B8

NAVER Academic > Search...NAVER Academic > Search...

Complement C3a, Complement C5, Complement C5a, des-Arginine,... ... 1987 R A De La Cadena et al. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical ... Adult, Aged, Antigen-Antibody Complex, analysis, Cell Aggregation, Complement C3, analogs & derivatives, ...
more infohttps://academic.naver.com/search.naver?field=3&query=Journal+of+Laboratory+and+Clinical+Medicine+109%EA%B6%8C+5%ED%98%B8

Complement anaphylatoxin C5a neuroprotects through mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent inhibition of caspase 3. -...Complement anaphylatoxin C5a neuroprotects through mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent inhibition of caspase 3. -...

In this study we explored the potential mechanisms involved in C5a-mediated neuroprotection. We found that C5a neuroprotects in ... The study suggests that C5a may protect against glutamate-induced apoptosis in neurons through MAPK-mediated regulation of ... Also, hrC5a-mediated responses appeared to be receptor-mediated because pretreatment of cultures with the specific C5a receptor ... vitro through inhibition of apoptotic death because pretreatment with human recombinant (hr)C5a prevented nuclear DNA ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Complement-anaphylatoxin-C5a-neuroprotects-through-Mukherjee-Pasinetti/0d005805ac4d1088481d79208afe57710a8a3c6d

Immunoassays for and monoclonal antibodies to prothrombin activation peptide F1.2 - Akzo Nobel N.V.Immunoassays for and monoclonal antibodies to prothrombin activation peptide F1.2 - Akzo Nobel N.V.

3171 (1968)), who have demonstrated a des-R form of complement component C5a and fibrinopeptide B, which are known substrates ... arginine ("R"), to generate degradation products des-R F1.2 or des-R F2. This is postulated based on the work of Chenowith and ... Des-R-PF2-OVA designates a conjugate of ovalbumin with a synthetic peptide emulating the carboxyl terminal of des-R F1.2. ... To produce monoclonal antibodies to the degradation fragments des-R F1.2 and des-R F2, the preferred sequence is Ser-Asp-Arg- ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/5830681.html

C3a (complement) - WikipediaC3a (complement) - Wikipedia

C3a has a regulatory process and a structure homologous to complement component C5a, with which it shares 36% of its sequence ... C3a, like other anaphylatoxins, has a C-terminal arginine residue. Serum carboxypeptidase B, a protease, cleaves the arginine ... C3a desarginine). C3a is an effector of the complement system with a range of functions including T cell activation and ... 12th European Meeting on Complement in Human Disease12th European Meeting on CHD12th European Meeting on Complement in Human ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C3a_(complement)

Anaphylatoxins | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard CatalystAnaphylatoxins | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst

The order of anaphylatoxin activity from the strongest to the weakest is C5a, C3a, C4a, and C5a des-arginine. ... Complement induction in spinal cord microglia results in anaphylatoxin C5a-mediated pain hypersensitivity. J Neurosci. 2007 Aug ... Human C3a and C3a desArg anaphylatoxins have conserved structures, in contrast to C5a and C5a desArg. Protein Sci. 2013 Feb; 22 ... Serum peptides derived from certain cleaved COMPLEMENT PROTEINS during COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. They induce smooth MUSCLE ...
more infohttps://connects.catalyst.harvard.edu/Profiles/display/Concept/Anaphylatoxins

Gc-globulin (vitamin D-binding protein) enhances the neutrophil chemotactic activity of C5a and C5a des Arg.  - PubMed - NCBIGc-globulin (vitamin D-binding protein) enhances the neutrophil chemotactic activity of C5a and C5a des Arg. - PubMed - NCBI

Complement C5a, des-Arginine. *Vitamin D-Binding Protein. *Complement C5a. Grant support. *HL-01542/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/United ... C5a des Arg over a wide concentration range. The effect was most pronounced at nonchemotactic doses of C5a (0.01 nM) and C5a ... Finally, radioiodinated C5a or C5a des Arg formed a 1:1 complex with purified Gc-globulin when analyzed by gel filtration ... Gc-globulin (vitamin D-binding protein) enhances the neutrophil chemotactic activity of C5a and C5a des Arg.. Kew RR1, Webster ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3392213?dopt=Abstract

Application # 2018/0016327. A Combination of Two or More Anti-C5 Antibodies and Methods of Use - Patents.comApplication # 2018/0016327. A Combination of Two or More Anti-C5 Antibodies and Methods of Use - Patents.com

... carboxypeptidase N that removes the carboxy-terminal arginine from C5a forming C5a-des-Arg derivative. C5a-des-Arg exhibits ... 0007] Mature C5 is cleaved into the C5a and C5b fragments during activation of the complement pathways. C5a is cleaved from the ... generation of the terminal complement complex C5b-9. Both C5a and C5b-9 cause the terminal complement-mediated events that are ... Approximately 20% of the 11 kDa mass of C5a is attributed to carbohydrate. [0008] C5a is another anaphylatoxin. C5b combines ...
more infohttp://patents.com/us-20180016327.html

Frontiers | Maternal-Fetal Conflict During Infection: Lessons From a Mouse Model of Placental Malaria | MicrobiologyFrontiers | Maternal-Fetal Conflict During Infection: Lessons From a Mouse Model of Placental Malaria | Microbiology

... falciparum during pregnancy increases levels of these angiopoietins and complement C5a while reducing nitric oxide ... Rodrigues-Duarte, L., de Moraes, L. V., Barboza, R., Marinho, C. R., Franke-Fayard, B., Janse, C. J., et al. (2012). Distinct ... 2018). Malaria in pregnancy alters l-arginine bioavailability and placental vascular development. Sci. Transl. Med. 10:eaan6007 ... Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência, Oeiras, Portugal. Infections that reach the placenta via maternal blood can target the fetal- ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2019.01126/full

The degradation product of C5a anaphylatoxin C5a desarg retains potent basophil-activating propertiesThe degradation product of C5a anaphylatoxin C5a desarg retains potent basophil-activating properties

The complement cleavage product C5a is a potent agonist of different leukocyte types and also has anaphylatoxic properties ... C5a is very rapidly degraded by serum carboxypeptidase N which cleaves the functionally important carboxy-terminal arginine, ... The complement cleavage product C5a is a potent agonist of different leukocyte types and also has anaphylatoxic properties ... C5a is very rapidly degraded by serum carboxypeptidase N which cleaves the functionally important carboxy-terminal arginine, ...
more infohttps://kops.uni-konstanz.de/handle/123456789/14330

Frontiers | Porphyromonas gingivalis: An Overview of Periodontopathic Pathogen below the Gum Line | MicrobiologyFrontiers | Porphyromonas gingivalis: An Overview of Periodontopathic Pathogen below the Gum Line | Microbiology

de Diego, I., Veillard, F., Sztukowska, M. N., Guevara, T., Potempa, B., Pomowski, A., et al. (2014). Structure and mechanism ... Hajishengallis, G., Abe, T., Maekawa, T., Hajishengallis, E., and Lambris, J. D. (2013). Role of complement in host-microbe ... These proteinases are commonly known as gingipains, namely gingipain R and K, that cleave after arginine and lysine, ... by interfering cross-talk between C5a receptor and toll-like receptor signaling to prevent bacterial clearance. In vitro ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2016.00053/full

Substrate recognition by complement convertases revealed in the C5-cobra venom factor complex | The EMBO JournalSubstrate recognition by complement convertases revealed in the C5-cobra venom factor complex | The EMBO Journal

Ebanks RO, Isenman DE (1995) Evidence for the involvement of arginine 462 and the flanking sequence of human C4 beta‐chain in ... or the disordered C5a loop (red dashed line, residues 744-750). (D) Close‐up of the suggested C5-Bb interface with C5a in red ... Bestebroer J, Aerts PC, Rooijakkers SH, Pandey MK, Kohl J, van Strijp JA, de Haas CJ (2010) Functional basis for complement ... Complement activation and the structure of the C5-CVF complex. (A) The three activation pathways of complement (left) induce ...
more infohttp://emboj.embopress.org/content/30/3/606

001976 - NOD/ShiLtJ001976 - NOD/ShiLtJ

... and C5 complement. These defects make the NOD background a common choice for immunodeficient mouse strains. ,a href=https:// ... Hc, hemolytic complement. Gene Synonym(s). He; CPAMD4; ECLZB; C5b; He; C5; C5a; C5D; C5; Hfib2; hepatic fibrogenesis 2; Hfib2. ... Sun W; Lee S; Zhabotynsky V; Zou F; Wright FA; Crowley JJ; Yun Z; Buus RJ; Miller DR; Wang J; McMillan L; Pardo-Manuel de ... mt-Tr, mitochondrially encoded tRNA arginine. Gene Synonym(s). tRNA-Arg; tRNA; TrnR tRNA; MTTR. ...
more infohttps://www.jax.org/strain/001976

Labcorp C4aLabcorp C4a

complement c4 , complement c4 , complement c4a , c4 complement test , labcorp complement c4 , positive complement c4 , ... de online-stream datum dat het in de EU wordt uitgezonden) dat de c4a betrouwbaarder is dan de CD57 in de zin van : de situatie ... ment system include the receptors for C1q, C3a/C4a, C5a, CR1, CR2, and CR3 (C3b, C3b i, and C3d receptors). Question 2. ... Research on the use of L-arginine for specific conditions shows: Angina. 80794430794424. When C3 and C4a Are elevated, this ...
more infohttp://tlnd.alterauto.fr/labcorp-c4a.html

dict.md | Ddict.md | D

des-Arginine C5a. des-Arginine Complement 5a. des-Arginine Complement C5a. des-Arginine, C5a. ... des-AA(1,2,5)-(Glu(7),D-Trp(8),IAmp(9),m-I-Tyr(11),hhLys(12))SRIF. ... des-AA(7-24)-5-D-Ala-6-Aoc-32-D-Trp-NPY. ... des-arginine(11)-T-kinin, rat. des-arginine(166)-erythropoietin ...
more infohttp://en.dict.md/D/90

Muteins of the c5a anaphylatoxin, nucleic acid molecules encoding such muteins, and pharmaceutical uses of muteins of the c5a...Muteins of the c5a anaphylatoxin, nucleic acid molecules encoding such muteins, and pharmaceutical uses of muteins of the c5a...

C5a) which are C5a receptor antagonists, to nucleic acid molecules comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding such muteins of ... The present invention refers to muteins of the C5a anaphylatoxin ( ... 19] Hennecke M., Untersuchung zur C5a-C5a Rezeptor-Interaktion unter Verwendung des Phage-Displays, PhD thesis, Medical School ... C5a has been found to be a principal inflammatory mediator produced by complement activation by virtue of additional activities ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/y2006/0052294.html

Study of oxidative stress in pre- and post-hemodialysis in chronic renal
failure patients.Study of oxidative stress in pre- and post-hemodialysis in chronic renal failure patients.

... such as the complement components C3 and C5a or platelet activating factor (PAF), which may then stimulate neutrophils. Second ... Many mechanism are likely to be responsible, including substrate limitation, L-arginine is the precursor in the biosynthesis of ... In : Burtis CA, Ashwood ER, Bruns DE, editor. Tietz textbook of clinical chemistry and molecular diagnostics. 4th ed. Missouri ... dialysis membrane is subjected to immunologic response by low molecular weight plasma constituents such as IgG and complement ...
more infohttp://www.alliedacademies.org/articles/study-of-oxidative-stress-in-pre-and-posthemodialysis-in-chronic-renalfailure-patients.html

Neutrophils Play an Important Role in Protective Immunity against Coxiella burnetii Infection | Infection and ImmunityNeutrophils Play an Important Role in Protective Immunity against Coxiella burnetii Infection | Infection and Immunity

Voth DE. . 2013. Virulent Coxiella burnetii pathotypes productively infect primary human alveolar macrophages. Cell Microbiol ... Cytokines of the CXC family, which have a glutamic acid-leucine-arginine (ELR) motif immediately before the CXC sequence, are ... Multiple chemokines which do not act through CXCR2 are produced at the site of infection, including MIP-1, complement factors ( ... C5a), and leukotriene B4 (LTB4). Neutrophils likely used these pathways to migrate into the lung tissue in CXCR2−/− mice. Mice ...
more infohttps://iai.asm.org/content/83/8/3104?ijkey=1567799b29e0c48c2bfb86ebd845de4e3f4a2c28&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Bench-to-bedside research in Australian research institutes:  a snapshot | The Medical Journal of AustraliaBench-to-bedside research in Australian research institutes: a snapshot | The Medical Journal of Australia

Model of the inflammatory protein C5a and a small molecule C5a receptor antagonist. Antagonist (yellow) mimics a key turn ... 74. James DE, Kraegen EW, Chisholm DJ. Effects of exercise training on in vivo insulin action in individual tissues of the rat ... l-Arginine and vascular adhesion. Research by Mark Adams, David Celermajer and Wendy Jessup, in a collaboration between the ... an anti-inflammatory drug which blocks an important component of the complement system) was designed and developed by David ...
more infohttps://www.mja.com.au/journal/2003/179/11/bench-bedside-research-australian-research-institutes-snapshot

Inhibition of Nitric Oxide Biosynthesis Promotes P-selectin Expression in Platelets | Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and...Inhibition of Nitric Oxide Biosynthesis Promotes P-selectin Expression in Platelets | Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and...

All of the following reagents were purchased from Sigma: thrombin, l-NAME, d-NAME, l-arginine, d-arginine, 8-bromo-cGMP, SNP, ... C5a-induced expression of P-selectin in endothelial cells. J Clin Invest.. 1994;94:1147-1155. ... Lorant DE, Patel KD, McIntyre TM, McEver RP, Prescott SM, Zimmerman GA. Coexpression of GMP-140 and PAF by endothelium ... Complement protein C5b-9 induce secretion of high molecular weight multimers of endothelial von Willebrand factor and ...
more infohttp://atvb.ahajournals.org/content/15/11/2068

Labs and Clinics | PRA Health SciencesLabs and Clinics | PRA Health Sciences

Complement C5 (C5) Cromoglycate. Complement C5 alpha des arg (C5a des arg) Cromolyn Disodium Salt ... Acitretin Asymmetric Dimethylarginine (ADMA)/arginine. Active Renin Asenapine + desmethyl asenapine. Adalimumab List ... Complement pathway in serum using a bead assay C3c,C4d. Cell-cycle determination, cell proliferation (determination of DNA ... Data analysis using De Novo FCS Express 21 CFR Part 21 compliant software ...
more infohttp://praintl.com/labs-and-clinics
  • This enhancing activity was not due to a nonspecific effect of anionic proteins since other purified serum proteins, of similar size and charge as Gc-globulin (alpha 1 acid glycoprotein, alpha 2 HS glycoprotein, alpha 2 histidine-rich glycoprotein), could not increase the chemotactic activity of C5a des Arg. (nih.gov)
  • It has been shown to have both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses, its activity able to counteract the proinflammatory effects of C5a. (wikipedia.org)
  • Traditionally thought to serve a strictly pro-inflammatory role, recent investigations have shown that C3a can also work against C5a to serve an anti-inflammatory role. (wikipedia.org)
  • l -NAME, thrombin, and PMA also significantly increased polymorphonuclear leukocyte adherence to the coronary artery endothelium, an effect that was significantly attenuated by the anti-P-selectin monoclonal antibody PB1.3 or by UCN-01, l -arginine, 8-bromo-cGMP or SNP but not by d -arginine or the nonblocking anti-P-selectin monoclonal antibody NBP1.6. (ahajournals.org)
  • Thus, C5adesarg is a stable inducer of release of inflammatory mediators by human basophils, particularly in primed cells, and complement may, therefore, play a role in immediate-type hypersensitivity diseases in allergic late-phase reactions. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • 6 Furthermore, either l -arginine, a precursor of NO, or 8-bromo-cGMP, a stable cGMP analogue, significantly attenuated the l -NAME-induced increase in P-selectin expression. (ahajournals.org)
  • The efficacy of C5a and C5adesarg at inducing histamine and LTC4 release by primed basophils was similar. (uni-konstanz.de)