Complement C3: A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.Complement C4: A glycoprotein that is important in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C4 is cleaved by the activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C4A and COMPLEMENT C4B.Complement C4a: The smaller fragment formed when complement C4 is cleaved by COMPLEMENT C1S. It is an anaphylatoxin that causes symptoms of immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE) but its activity is weaker than that of COMPLEMENT C3A or COMPLEMENT C5A.Complement C3a: The smaller fragment generated from the cleavage of complement C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. C3a, a 77-amino acid peptide, is a mediator of local inflammatory process. It induces smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION, and HISTAMINE RELEASE from MAST CELLS and LEUKOCYTES. C3a is considered an anaphylatoxin along with COMPLEMENT C4A; COMPLEMENT C5A; and COMPLEMENT C5A, DES-ARGININE.Complement C1q: A subcomponent of complement C1, composed of six copies of three polypeptide chains (A, B, and C), each encoded by a separate gene (C1QA; C1QB; C1QC). This complex is arranged in nine subunits (six disulfide-linked dimers of A and B, and three disulfide-linked homodimers of C). C1q has binding sites for antibodies (the heavy chain of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M). The interaction of C1q and immunoglobulin activates the two proenzymes COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S, thus initiating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION via the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.Complement C5a: The minor fragment formed when C5 convertase cleaves C5 into C5a and COMPLEMENT C5B. C5a is a 74-amino-acid glycopeptide with a carboxy-terminal ARGININE that is crucial for its spasmogenic activity. Of all the complement-derived anaphylatoxins, C5a is the most potent in mediating immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE), smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION; HISTAMINE RELEASE; and migration of LEUKOCYTES to site of INFLAMMATION.Complement Activation: The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.Complement C4b: The large fragment formed when COMPLEMENT C4 is cleaved by COMPLEMENT C1S. The membrane-bound C4b binds COMPLEMENT C2A, a SERINE PROTEASE, to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).Complement C5: C5 plays a central role in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C5 is cleaved by C5 CONVERTASE into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. The smaller fragment C5a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of inflammatory process. The major fragment C5b binds to the membrane initiating the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components, C5-C9, into the MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Complement C3b: The larger fragment generated from the cleavage of COMPLEMENT C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. It is a constituent of the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb), and COMPLEMENT C5 CONVERTASES in both the classical (C4b2a3b) and the alternative (C3bBb3b) pathway. C3b participates in IMMUNE ADHERENCE REACTION and enhances PHAGOCYTOSIS. It can be inactivated (iC3b) or cleaved by various proteases to yield fragments such as COMPLEMENT C3C; COMPLEMENT C3D; C3e; C3f; and C3g.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Complement C6: A 105-kDa serum glycoprotein with significant homology to the other late complement components, C7-C9. It is a polypeptide chain cross-linked by 32 disulfide bonds. C6 is the next complement component to bind to the membrane-bound COMPLEMENT C5B in the assembly of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. It is encoded by gene C6.Complement C3c: A 206-amino-acid fragment in the alpha chain (672-1663) of C3b. It is generated when C3b is inactivated (iC3b) and its alpha chain is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I into C3c (749-954), and C3dg (955-1303) in the presence COMPLEMENT FACTOR H.Complement C3d: A 302-amino-acid fragment in the alpha chain (672-1663) of C3b. It is generated when C3b is inactivated (iC3b) and its alpha chain is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I into C3c, and C3dg (955-1303) in the presence COMPLEMENT FACTOR H. Serum proteases further degrade C3dg into C3d (1002-1303) and C3g (955-1001).Complement C2: A component of the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C2 is cleaved by activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C2B and COMPLEMENT C2A. C2a, the COOH-terminal fragment containing a SERINE PROTEASE, combines with COMPLEMENT C4B to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).Complement C9: A 63-kDa serum glycoprotein encoded by gene C9. Monomeric C9 (mC9) binds the C5b-8 complex to form C5b-9 which catalyzes the polymerization of C9 forming C5b-p9 (MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX) and transmembrane channels leading to lysis of the target cell. Patients with C9 deficiency suffer from recurrent bacterial infections.Receptors, Complement: Molecules on the surface of some B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that recognize and combine with the C3b, C3d, C1q, and C4b components of complement.Complement C1s: A 77-kDa subcomponent of complement C1, encoded by gene C1S, is a SERINE PROTEASE existing as a proenzyme (homodimer) in the intact complement C1 complex. Upon the binding of COMPLEMENT C1Q to antibodies, the activated COMPLEMENT C1R cleaves C1s into two chains, A (heavy) and B (light, the serine protease), linked by disulfide bonds yielding the active C1s. The activated C1s, in turn, cleaves COMPLEMENT C2 and COMPLEMENT C4 to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL C3 CONVERTASE).Complement Membrane Attack Complex: A product of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION cascade, regardless of the pathways, that forms transmembrane channels causing disruption of the target CELL MEMBRANE and cell lysis. It is formed by the sequential assembly of terminal complement components (COMPLEMENT C5B; COMPLEMENT C6; COMPLEMENT C7; COMPLEMENT C8; and COMPLEMENT C9) into the target membrane. The resultant C5b-8-poly-C9 is the "membrane attack complex" or MAC.Complement C1r: A 80-kDa subcomponent of complement C1, existing as a SERINE PROTEASE proenzyme in the intact complement C1 complex. When COMPLEMENT C1Q is bound to antibodies, the changed tertiary structure causes autolytic activation of complement C1r which is cleaved into two chains, A (heavy) and B (light, the serine protease), connected by disulfide bonds. The activated C1r serine protease, in turn, activates COMPLEMENT C1S proenzyme by cleaving the Arg426-Ile427 bond. No fragment is released when either C1r or C1s is cleaved.Complement Inactivator Proteins: Serum proteins that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host. The complement system is tightly regulated by inactivators that accelerate the decay of intermediates and certain cell surface receptors.Complement C7: A 93-kDa serum glycoprotein encoded by C7 gene. It is a polypeptide chain with 28 disulfide bridges. In the formation of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX; C7 is the next component to bind the C5b-6 complex forming a trimolecular complex C5b-7 which is lipophilic, resembles an integral membrane protein, and serves as an anchor for the late complement components, C8 and C9.Complement C3-C5 Convertases: Serine proteases that cleave COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, or cleave COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. These include the different forms of C3/C5 convertases in the classical and the alternative pathways of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Both cleavages take place at the C-terminal of an ARGININE residue.Complement Factor B: A glycine-rich, heat-labile serum glycoprotein that contains a component of the C3 CONVERTASE ALTERNATE PATHWAY (C3bBb). Bb, a serine protease, is generated when factor B is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR D into Ba and Bb.Complement Pathway, Alternative: Complement activation initiated by the interaction of microbial ANTIGENS with COMPLEMENT C3B. When COMPLEMENT FACTOR B binds to the membrane-bound C3b, COMPLEMENT FACTOR D cleaves it to form alternative C3 CONVERTASE (C3BBB) which, stabilized by COMPLEMENT FACTOR P, is able to cleave multiple COMPLEMENT C3 to form alternative C5 CONVERTASE (C3BBB3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Complement Pathway, Classical: Complement activation initiated by the binding of COMPLEMENT C1 to ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES at the COMPLEMENT C1Q subunit. This leads to the sequential activation of COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S subunits. Activated C1s cleaves COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 forming the membrane-bound classical C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Complement C8: A 150-kDa serum glycoprotein composed of three subunits with each encoded by a different gene (C8A; C8B; and C8G). This heterotrimer contains a disulfide-linked C8alpha-C8gamma heterodimer and a noncovalently associated C8beta chain. C8 is the next component to bind the C5-7 complex forming C5b-8 that binds COMPLEMENT C9 and acts as a catalyst in the polymerization of C9.Complement C1: The first complement component to act in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. It is a calcium-dependent trimolecular complex made up of three subcomponents: COMPLEMENT C1Q; COMPLEMENT C1R; and COMPLEMENT C1S at 1:2:2 ratios. When the intact C1 binds to at least two antibodies (involving C1q), C1r and C1s are sequentially activated, leading to subsequent steps in the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Receptors, Complement 3b: Molecular sites on or in some B-lymphocytes and macrophages that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3B. The primary structure of these receptors reveal that they contain transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, with their extracellular portion composed entirely of thirty short consensus repeats each having 60 to 70 amino acids.Complement Factor H: An important soluble regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It is a 139-kDa glycoprotein expressed by the liver and secreted into the blood. It binds to COMPLEMENT C3B and makes iC3b (inactivated complement 3b) susceptible to cleavage by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I. Complement factor H also inhibits the association of C3b with COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form the C3bB proenzyme, and promotes the dissociation of Bb from the C3bBb complex (COMPLEMENT C3 CONVERTASE, ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY).Complement C5b: The larger fragment generated from the cleavage of C5 by C5 CONVERTASE that yields COMPLEMENT C5A and C5b (beta chain + alpha' chain, the residual alpha chain, bound by disulfide bond). C5b remains bound to the membrane and initiates the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components to form C5b-8-poly-C9, the MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Complement C2a: The COOH-terminal fragment of COMPLEMENT 2, released by the action of activated COMPLEMENT C1S. It is a SERINE PROTEASE. C2a combines with COMPLEMENT C4B to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).Receptor, Anaphylatoxin C5a: A G-protein-coupled receptor that signals an increase in intracellular calcium in response to the potent ANAPHYLATOXIN peptide COMPLEMENT C5A.Complement Activating Enzymes: Enzymes that activate one or more COMPLEMENT PROTEINS in the complement system leading to the formation of the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX, an important response in host defense. They are enzymes in the various COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION pathways.Complement Inactivating Agents: Compounds that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host.Complement Hemolytic Activity Assay: A screening assay for circulating COMPLEMENT PROTEINS. Diluted SERUM samples are added to antibody-coated ERYTHROCYTES and the percentage of cell lysis is measured. The values are expressed by the so called CH50, in HEMOLYTIC COMPLEMENT units per milliliter, which is the dilution of serum required to lyse 50 percent of the erythrocytes in the assay.Complement C1 Inactivator Proteins: Serum proteins that inhibit, antagonize, or inactivate COMPLEMENT C1 or its subunits.Receptors, Complement 3d: Molecular sites on or in B-lymphocytes, follicular dendritic cells, lymphoid cells, and epithelial cells that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3D. Human complement receptor 2 (CR2) serves as a receptor for both C3dg and the gp350/220 glycoprotein of HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN, and binds the monoclonal antibody OKB7, which blocks binding of both ligands to the receptor.Anaphylatoxins: Serum peptides derived from certain cleaved COMPLEMENT PROTEINS during COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. They induce smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION; mast cell HISTAMINE RELEASE; PLATELET AGGREGATION; and act as mediators of the local inflammatory process. The order of anaphylatoxin activity from the strongest to the weakest is C5a, C3a, C4a, and C5a des-arginine.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Complement Factor D: A serum protein which is important in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. This enzyme cleaves the COMPLEMENT C3B-bound COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form C3bBb which is ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE.Complement Factor I: A plasma serine proteinase that cleaves the alpha-chains of C3b and C4b in the presence of the cofactors COMPLEMENT FACTOR H and C4-binding protein, respectively. It is a 66-kDa glycoprotein that converts C3b to inactivated C3b (iC3b) followed by the release of two fragments, C3c (150-kDa) and C3dg (41-kDa). It was formerly called KAF, C3bINF, or enzyme 3b inactivator.Complement C4b-Binding Protein: A serum protein that regulates the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. It binds as a cofactor to COMPLEMENT FACTOR I which then hydrolyzes the COMPLEMENT C4B in the CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C4bC2a).Complement C3b Inactivator Proteins: Endogenous proteins that inhibit or inactivate COMPLEMENT C3B. They include COMPLEMENT FACTOR H and COMPLEMENT FACTOR I (C3b/C4b inactivator). They cleave or promote the cleavage of C3b into inactive fragments, and thus are important in the down-regulation of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and its cytolytic sequence.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Complement C3-C5 Convertases, Classical Pathway: Important enzymes in the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. They cleave COMPLEMENT C3 and COMPLEMENT C5.Complement C2b: The N-terminal fragment of COMPLEMENT 2, released by the action of activated COMPLEMENT C1S.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Cobra Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Steroid 21-Hydroxylase: An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Complement C3-C5 Convertases, Alternative Pathway: Important enzymes in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. They cleave COMPLEMENT C3 and COMPLEMENT C5.Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein: An endogenous 105-kDa plasma glycoprotein produced primarily by the LIVER and MONOCYTES. It inhibits a broad spectrum of proteases, including the COMPLEMENT C1R and the COMPLEMENT C1S proteases of the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY, and the MANNOSE-BINDING PROTEIN-ASSOCIATED SERINE PROTEASES. C1-INH-deficient individuals suffer from HEREDITARY ANGIOEDEMA TYPES I AND II.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Complement C3 Convertase, Alternative Pathway: A serine protease that is the complex of COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT FACTOR BB. It cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT C3B in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY.Complement C5 Convertase, Classical Pathway: A serine protease that cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT 5 into COMPLEMENT 5A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT 5B in the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. It is a complex of CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C4b2a) with an additional COMPLEMENT C3B, or C4b2a3b.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Complement C3 Convertase, Classical Pathway: A serine protease that cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT 3 into COMPLEMENT 3A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT 3B in the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. It is a complex of COMPLEMENT 4B and COMPLEMENT 2A (C4b2a).Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Opsonin Proteins: Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Complement C5 Convertase, Alternative Pathway: A serine protease that cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT C5B in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. It is the complex of ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb) with an additional COMPLEMENT C3B, or C3bBb3b.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Complement Pathway, Mannose-Binding Lectin: Complement activation triggered by the interaction of microbial POLYSACCHARIDES with serum MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN resulting in the activation of MANNOSE-BINDING PROTEIN-ASSOCIATED SERINE PROTEASES. As in the classical pathway, MASPs cleave COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 to form C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Properdin: A 53-kDa protein that is a positive regulator of the alternate pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It stabilizes the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb) and protects it from rapid inactivation, thus facilitating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and the formation of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Individuals with mutation in the PFC gene exhibit properdin deficiency and have a high susceptibility to infections.Complement C5a, des-Arginine: A derivative of complement C5a, generated when the carboxy-terminal ARGININE is removed by CARBOXYPEPTIDASE B present in normal human serum. C5a des-Arg shows complete loss of spasmogenic activity though it retains some chemotactic ability (CHEMOATTRACTANTS).Mice, Inbred C57BLMacrophage-1 Antigen: An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Kidney Glomerulus: A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.Serum: The clear portion of BLOOD that is left after BLOOD COAGULATION to remove BLOOD CELLS and clotting proteins.Glomerulonephritis, Membranoproliferative: Chronic glomerulonephritis characterized histologically by proliferation of MESANGIAL CELLS, increase in the MESANGIAL EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX, and a thickening of the glomerular capillary walls. This may appear as a primary disorder or secondary to other diseases including infections and autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Various subtypes are classified by their abnormal ultrastructures and immune deposits. Hypocomplementemia is a characteristic feature of all types of MPGN.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Schistosoma: A genus of trematode flukes belonging to the family Schistosomatidae. There are over a dozen species. These parasites are found in man and other mammals. Snails are the intermediate hosts.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Glomerulonephritis: Inflammation of the renal glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) that can be classified by the type of glomerular injuries including antibody deposition, complement activation, cellular proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These structural and functional abnormalities usually lead to HEMATURIA; PROTEINURIA; HYPERTENSION; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Arteriolosclerosis: Thickening of the walls of small ARTERIES or ARTERIOLES due to cell proliferation or HYALINE deposition.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mice, Inbred BALB CBinding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Blood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Mannose-Binding Lectin: A specific mannose-binding member of the collectin family of lectins. It binds to carbohydrate groups on invading pathogens and plays a key role in the MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Complement C3 Nephritic Factor: An IgG autoantibody against the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE, found in serum of patients with MESANGIOCAPILLARY GLOMERULONEPHRITIS. The binding of this autoantibody to C3bBb stabilizes the enzyme thus reduces the actions of C3b inactivators (COMPLEMENT FACTOR H; COMPLEMENT FACTOR I). This abnormally stabilized enzyme induces a continuous COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and generation of C3b thereby promoting the assembly of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX and cytolysis.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Haptoglobins: Plasma glycoproteins that form a stable complex with hemoglobin to aid the recycling of heme iron. They are encoded in man by a gene on the short arm of chromosome 16.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Surface Plasmon Resonance: A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.Peptides, Cyclic: Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).Lupus Nephritis: Glomerulonephritis associated with autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Lupus nephritis is histologically classified into 6 classes: class I - normal glomeruli, class II - pure mesangial alterations, class III - focal segmental glomerulonephritis, class IV - diffuse glomerulonephritis, class V - diffuse membranous glomerulonephritis, and class VI - advanced sclerosing glomerulonephritis (The World Health Organization classification 1982).Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cosmids: Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Mannose-Binding Protein-Associated Serine Proteases: Serum serine proteases which participate in COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. They are activated when complexed with the MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN, therefore also known as Mannose-binding protein-Associated Serine Proteases (MASPs). They cleave COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 to form C4b2a, the CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE.Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital: A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Immunologic Factors: Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.ZymosanTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Proteinuria: The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Collectins: A class of C-type lectins that target the carbohydrate structures found on invading pathogens. Binding of collectins to microorganisms results in their agglutination and enhanced clearance. Collectins form trimers that may assemble into larger oligomers. Each collectin polypeptide chain consists of four regions: a relatively short N-terminal region, a collagen-like region, an alpha-helical coiled-coil region, and carbohydrate-binding region.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Protein PrecursorsSteroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Macular Degeneration: Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Immune Adherence Reaction: A method for the detection of very small quantities of antibody in which the antigen-antibody-complement complex adheres to indicator cells, usually primate erythrocytes or nonprimate blood platelets. The reaction is dependent on the number of bound C3 molecules on the C3b receptor sites of the indicator cell.Mice, Inbred DBAEscherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal: A condition characterized by the recurrence of HEMOGLOBINURIA caused by intravascular HEMOLYSIS. In cases occurring upon cold exposure (paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria), usually after infections, there is a circulating antibody which is also a cold hemolysin. In cases occurring during or after sleep (paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria), the clonal hematopoietic stem cells exhibit a global deficiency of cell membrane proteins.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.

C5a receptor and interleukin-6 are expressed in tissue macrophages and stimulated keratinocytes but not in pulmonary and intestinal epithelial cells. (1/771)

The anaphylatoxin derived from the fifth component of the human complement system (C5a) mediates its effects by binding to a single high-affinity receptor (C5aR/CD88), the expression of which has been traditionally thought to be restricted to granulocytes, monocytes, macrophages (Mphi), and cell lines of myeloid origin. Recent immunohistochemical data suggested that human bronchial and alveolar cells express C5aR as well. To reexamine the tissue distribution of human C5aR expression, transcription of the C5aR gene was investigated in normal and pathologically affected human lung (bronchopneumonia, tuberculosis), large intestine (acute appendicitis, Crohn's disease), and skin (pyogenic granuloma, lichen planus) using in situ hybridization. In contrast to previous evidence, C5aR mRNA could not be detected in pulmonary or intestinal epithelial cells, whereas keratinocytes in inflamed but not in normal skin revealed detectable levels of C5aR transcripts. Additionally, it could be documented that only migrating Mphi express C5aR mRNA, whereas sessile Mphi in normal tissues and epithelioid/multinucleated Mphi found in granulomatous lesions do not. Because C5a has been demonstrated to upregulate the expression of interleukin (IL)-6 in human monocytes, we also studied IL-6 gene transcription in parallel to the C5aR. IL-6 mRNA was detectable in many tissue Mphi. Surprisingly, a tight co-expression of C5aR and IL-6 mRNA was observed in keratinocytes from lesions of pyogenic granuloma and lichen planus. These results point to an as yet unknown role for C5a in the pathogenesis of skin disorders beyond its well-defined function as a chemoattractant and activator of leukocytes.  (+info)

Chimeric receptors of the human C3a receptor and C5a receptor (CD88). (2/771)

Chimeras were generated between the human anaphylatoxin C3a and C5a receptors (C3aR and C5aR, respectively) to define the structural requirements for ligand binding and discrimination. Chimeric receptors were generated by systematically exchanging between the two receptors four receptor modules (the N terminus, transmembrane regions 1 to 4, the second extracellular loop, and transmembrane region 5 to the C terminus). The mutants were transiently expressed in HEK-293 cells (with or without Galpha-16) and analyzed for cell surface expression, binding of C3a and C5a, and functional responsiveness (calcium mobilization) toward C3a, C5a, and a C3a as well as a C5a analogue peptide. The data indicate that in both anaphylatoxin receptors the transmembrane regions and the second extracellular loop act as a functional unit that is disrupted by any reciprocal exchange. N-terminal substitution confirmed the two-binding site model for the human C5aR, in which the receptor N terminus is required for high affinity binding of the native ligand but not a C5a analogue peptide. In contrast, the human C3a receptor did not require the original N terminus for high affinity binding of and activation by C3a, a result that was confirmed by N-terminal deletion mutants. This indicates a completely different binding mode of the anaphylatoxins to their corresponding receptors. The C5a analogue peptide, but not C5a, was an agonist of the C3aR. Replacement of the C3aR N terminus by the C5aR sequence, however, lead to the generation of a true hybrid C3a/C5a receptor, which bound and functionally responded to both ligands, C3a and C5a.  (+info)

Regulatory effects of endogenous protease inhibitors in acute lung inflammatory injury. (3/771)

Inflammatory lung injury is probably regulated by the balance between proteases and protease inhibitors together with oxidants and antioxidants, and proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Rat tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease-2 (TIMP-2) and secreted leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI) were cloned, expressed, and shown to be up-regulated at the levels of mRNA and protein during lung inflammation in rats induced by deposition of IgG immune complexes. Using immunoaffinity techniques, endogenous TIMP-2 in the inflamed lung was shown to exist as a complex with 72- and 92-kDa metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9). In inflamed lung both TIMP-2 and SLPI appeared to exist as enzyme inhibitor complexes. Lung expression of both TIMP-2 and SLPI appeared to involve endothelial and epithelial cells as well as macrophages. To assess how these endogenous inhibitors might affect the lung inflammatory response, animals were treated with polyclonal rabbit Abs to rat TIMP-2 or SLPI. This intervention resulted in significant intensification of lung injury (as revealed by extravascular leak of albumin) and substantially increased neutrophil accumulation, as determined by cell content in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids. These events were correlated with increased levels of C5a-related chemotactic activity in BAL fluids, while BAL levels of TNF-alpha and chemokines were not affected by treatment with anti-TIMP-2 or anti-SLPI. The data suggest that endogenous TIMP-2 and SLPI dynamically regulate the intensity of lung inflammatory injury, doing so at least in part by affecting the generation of the inflammatory mediator, C5a.  (+info)

Effects of a new C5a receptor antagonist on C5a- and endotoxin-induced neutropenia in the rat. (4/771)

A new C5a receptor antagonist, the cyclic peptide Phe-[Orn-Pro-D-cyclohexylalanine-Trp-Arg], (F-[OPdChaWR]), was tested for its ability to antagonize the neutropenic effects of both C5a and endotoxin in rats. Human recombinant C5a (2 microg kg(-1) i.v.) caused rapid neutropenia, characterized by an 83% decrease in circulating polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) at 5 min. Administration of F-[OPdChaWR] (0.3-3 mg kg(-1) i.v.), did not affect the levels of circulating PMNs but, when given 10 min prior to C5a, it inhibited the C5a-induced neutropenia by up to 70%. Administration of E. Coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 mg kg(-1) i.v.) also caused neutropenia with an 88% decrease in circulating PMNs after 30 min. When rats were pretreated with F-[OPdChaWR] (0.3 - 10 mg kg(-1) i.v.) 10 min prior to LPS, there was a dose-dependent antagonism of the neutropenia caused by LPS, with up to 69% reversal of neutropenia observed 30 min after LPS administration. These findings suggest that C5a receptor antagonists may have therapeutic potential in the many diseases known to involve either endotoxin or C5a.  (+info)

Dynamics of a chemoattractant receptor in living neutrophils during chemotaxis. (5/771)

Persistent directional movement of neutrophils in shallow chemotactic gradients raises the possibility that cells can increase their sensitivity to the chemotactic signal at the front, relative to the back. Redistribution of chemoattractant receptors to the anterior pole of a polarized neutrophil could impose asymmetric sensitivity by increasing the relative strength of detected signals at the cell's leading edge. Previous experiments have produced contradictory observations with respect to receptor location in moving neutrophils. To visualize a chemoattractant receptor directly during chemotaxis, we expressed a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged receptor for a complement component, C5a, in a leukemia cell line, PLB-985. Differentiated PLB-985 cells, like neutrophils, adhere, spread, and polarize in response to a uniform concentration of chemoattractant, and orient and crawl toward a micropipette containing chemoattractant. Recorded in living cells, fluorescence of the tagged receptor, C5aR-GFP, shows no apparent increase anywhere on the plasma membrane of polarized and moving cells, even at the leading edge. During chemotaxis, however, some cells do exhibit increased amounts of highly folded plasma membrane at the leading edge, as detected by a fluorescent probe for membrane lipids; this is accompanied by an apparent increase of C5aR-GFP fluorescence, which is directly proportional to the accumulation of plasma membrane. Thus neutrophils do not actively concentrate chemoattractant receptors at the leading edge during chemotaxis, although asymmetrical distribution of membrane may enrich receptor number, relative to adjacent cytoplasmic volume, at the anterior pole of some polarized cells. This enrichment could help to maintain persistent migration in a shallow gradient of chemoattractant.  (+info)

Human T cells express the C5a receptor and are chemoattracted to C5a. (6/771)

The anaphylatoxin C5a is a potent mediator of inflammation that exerts a broad range of activity on cells of the myeloid lineage. In this study, we present the first evidence that human T cells express the C5a receptor (C5aR) and are chemotactic to C5a. Using FACS analysis, we found that the C5aR was expressed at a low basal level on unstimulated T cells and was strikingly up-regulated upon PHA stimulation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. CD3+ sorted T cells as well as Jurkat T cells were shown to express C5aR mRNA as assessed by RT-PCR. Moreover, semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that C5aR mRNA was down-regulated in purified T cells upon long-term PHA stimulation. To demonstrate that C5a was biologically active on T cells, we investigated the chemotactic activity of C5a and observed that purified CD3+ T cells are chemotactic to C5a at nanomolar concentrations. Finally, using a combination of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, we showed that the T cells infiltrating the central nervous system during experimental allergic encephalomyelitis express the C5aR mRNA. In summary, these results suggest that C5a exerts direct effects on T cells and could be involved in the trafficking of T cells under physiological and pathological conditions, including inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system.  (+info)

Hemodynamic changes induced by liposomes and liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin in pigs: a model for pseudoallergic cardiopulmonary reactions to liposomes. Role of complement and inhibition by soluble CR1 and anti-C5a antibody. (7/771)

BACKGROUND: Intravenous administration of some liposomal drugs can trigger immediate hypersensitivity reactions that include symptoms of cardiopulmonary distress. The mechanism underlying the cardiovascular changes has not been clarified. METHODS AND RESULTS: Anesthetized pigs (n=18) were injected intravenously with 5-mg boluses of large multilamellar liposomes, and the ensuing hemodynamic, hematologic, and laboratory changes were recorded. The significant (P<0.01) alterations included 79+/-9% (mean+/-SEM) rise in pulmonary arterial pressure, 30+/-7% decline in cardiac output, 11+/-2% increase in heart rate, 236+/-54% increase in pulmonary vascular resistance, 71+/-27% increase in systemic vascular resistance, and up to a 100-fold increase in plasma thromboxane B2. These changes peaked between 1 and 5 minutes after injection, subsided within 10 to 20 minutes, were lipid dose-dependent (ED50=4. 5+/-1.4 mg), and were quantitatively reproducible in the same animal several times over 7 hours. The liposome-induced rises of pulmonary arterial pressure showed close quantitative and temporal correlation with elevations of plasma thromboxane B2 and were inhibited by an anti-C5a monoclonal antibody (GS1), by sCR1, or by indomethacin. Liposomes caused C5a production in pig serum in vitro through classic pathway activation and bound IgG and IgM natural antibodies. Zymosan- and hemoglobin-containing liposomes and empty liposomes caused essentially identical pulmonary changes. CONCLUSIONS: The intense, nontachyphylactic, highly reproducible, complement-mediated pulmonary hypertensive effect of minute amounts of intravenous liposomes in pigs represents a unique, unexplored phenomenon in circulation physiology. The model provides highly sensitive detection and study of cardiopulmonary side effects of liposomal drugs and many other pharmaceutical products due to "complement activation-related pseudoallergy" (CARPA).  (+info)

Inhibition of a membrane complement regulatory protein by a monoclonal antibody induces acute lethal shock in rats primed with lipopolysaccharide. (8/771)

Rats pretreated with traces of LPS developed acute fatal shock syndrome after i.v. administration of a mAb that inhibits the function of a membrane complement regulatory molecule. Such a shock was not observed after the administration of large amounts of LPS instead of the mAb following LPS pretreatment. The lethal response did not occur in rats depleted of either leukocytes or complement, and a C5a receptor antagonist was found to inhibit the reaction. Furthermore, LPS-treated rats did not suffer fatal shock following the injection of cobra venom factor, which activates complement in the fluid phase so extensively as to exhaust complement capacity. Therefore, complement activation on cell membranes is a requirement for this type of acute reaction.  (+info)

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Cleavage of C5 requires complement fragment C3b which binds C5 and renders it susceptible to cleavage by the C4b,2a complex. Includes former EC 3.4.21.44. Complement component C2a is in peptidase family S1 (trypsin family). Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MEROPS, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 56626-15-4. References 1. Kerr, M.A. The second component of human complement. Methods Enzymol. 80 (1980) 54-64. [PMID: 7043188]. 2. Müller-Eberhard, H.J. Molecular organization and function of the complement system. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 57 (1988) 321-347. [PMID: 3052276]. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Transcriptional transactivation functions localized to the glucocorticoid receptor N terminus are necessary for steroid induction of lymphocyte apoptosis. AU - Dieken, E. S.. AU - Miesfeld, R. L.. PY - 1992/1/1. Y1 - 1992/1/1. N2 - Genetic studies have suggested that transcriptional regulation of specific target genes (by either induction or repression) is the molecular basis of glucocorticoid-mediated lymphocyte apoptosis. To examine the role of transcriptional regulation more directly, we developed a complementation assay utilizing stable transfection of wild-type (wt) and mutant (nt(i)) glucocorticoid receptor (GR) cDNA constructs into a GR-deficient S49 murine cell line (7r). Our data confirm that the level of functional GR is rate limiting for S49 apoptosis and moreover that the GR amino terminus (N terminus), which has been deleted from the nt(i) GR, is absolutely required for complementation in this system. Surprisingly, we found that at physiological levels of receptor, ...
In severe preeclampsia, heightened activation of downstream complement protein C5 leads to excess generation of C5a and C5b-9.13-16 C5a propagates a potent proinflammatory response,13,24-26 whereas C5b-9 incorporates into cell membranes, including villous trophoblast,27 and contributes to platelet activation, procoagulant effects, and lytic cell death.28-31 In addition, C5a stimulates monocytes to release soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1,32 which sequesters vascular endothelial growth factor and PlGF, contributing to hypertension and glomerular endotheliosis.33,34. Our results introduce the novel finding that complement activation products C3a, C5a, and C5b-9 are excreted in urine in association with severe preeclampsia. Although urinary excretion of C3a, C5a, and C5b-9 was exaggerated in cases with severe preeclampsia compared with healthy controls, excretion of C5b-9 distinguished most clearly between severe preeclampsia and chronic hypertension. As a biomarker of disease, urinary C5b-9 was ...
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The putative role of the N-terminal region of rhodopsin-like 7 transmembrane biogenic amine receptors in agonist-induced signaling has not yet been clarified despite recent advances in 7 transmembrane receptor structural biology. Given the existence of N-terminal nonsynonymous polymorphisms (R6G;E42G) within the HTR2B gene in a drug-abusing population, we assessed whether these polymorphisms affect 5-hydroxytryptamine 2B (5-HT2B) receptor in vitro pharmacologic and coupling properties in transfected COS-7 cells. Modification of the 5-HT2B receptor N terminus by the R6G;E42G polymorphisms increases such agonist signaling pathways as inositol phosphate accumulation as assessed by either classic or operational models. The N-terminal R6G;E42G mutations of the 5-HT2B receptor also increase cell proliferation and slow its desensitization kinetics compared with the wild-type receptor, further supporting a role for the N terminus in transduction efficacy. Furthermore, by coexpressing a tethered wild-type 5-HT2B
Activation of complement C5 generates the potent anaphylatoxin C5a and leads to pathogen lysis, inflammation and cell damage. The therapeutic potential of C5 inhibition has been demonstrated by eculizumab, one of the worlds most expensive drugs. However, the mechanism of C5 activation by C5 convertases remains elusive, thus limiting development of therapeutics. Here we identify and characterize a new protein family of tick-derived C5 inhibitors. Structures of C5 in complex with the new inhibitors, the phase I and phase II inhibitor OmCI, or an eculizumab Fab reveal three distinct binding sites on C5 that all prevent activation of C5. The positions of the inhibitor-binding sites and the ability of all three C5-inhibitor complexes to competitively inhibit the C5 convertase conflict with earlier steric-inhibition models, thus suggesting that a priming event is needed for activation.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - An anti-inflammatory function for the complement anaphylatoxin C5a-binding protein, C5L2. AU - Gerard, Norma P.. AU - Lu, Bao. AU - Liu, Pixu. AU - Craig, Stewart. AU - Fujiwara, Yuko. AU - Okinaga, Shoji. AU - Gerard, Craig. PY - 2005/12/2. Y1 - 2005/12/2. N2 - C5L2 is an enigmatic serpentine receptor that is co-expressed with the C5a receptor on many cells including polymorphonuclear neutrophils. The apparent absence of coupling of C5L2 with G proteins suggests that this receptor may modulate the biological activity of C5a, perhaps by acting as a decoy receptor. Alternatively, C5L2 may affect C5a function through formation of a heteromeric complex with the C5aR, or it may utilize a G protein-independent signaling pathway. Here we show that in mice bearing a targeted deletion of C5L2, the biological activity of C5a/C5adesArg is enhanced both in vivo and in vitro. The biological role of C5L2 thus appears to be limiting to the pro-inflammatory response to the anaphylatoxin. ...
The structure of the human C5aR antagonist, C5a-A8, reveals a three-helix bundle conformation similar to that observed for human C5a-desArg, whereas murine C5a and C5a-desArg both form the canonical four-helix bundle. These conformational differences are discussed in light of the differential C5aR activation properties observed for the human and murine complement anaphylatoxins across species. Complement is an ancient part of the innate immune system that plays a pivotal role in protection against invading pathogens and helps to clear apoptotic and necrotic cells. Upon complement activation, a cascade of proteolytic events generates the complement effectors, including the anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. Signalling through their cognate G-protein coupled receptors, C3aR and C5aR, leads to a wide range of biological events promoting inflammation at the site of complement activation. The function of anaphylatoxins is regulated by circulating carboxypeptidases that remove their C-terminal arginine ...
Now, they may soon add a new risk factor to the list: activation of the complement system. The complement system is usually implicated in immune responses, but now theres a role for it in cardiovascular disease. In a new research report appearing in the January 2011 print issue of the FASEB Journal (http://www.fasebj.org), scientists from Europe and the United States show that anaphylatoxin C5a, a protein released when complement is activated, contributes to atherosclerotic disease. C5a causes plaques to break free from where they would be anchored to ultimately cause blockages elsewhere in the body. This new discovery not only shows that C5a is a new marker for identifying risk for heart attack and stroke, but it also establishes C5a as a new therapeutic target for preventing these problems.. "Given the huge impact of cardiovascular disease in general, and atherosclerosis in particular, on public health, we feel that unraveling mechanisms involved in the development and progression of the ...
Background: Elevated interleukin-6 (IL-6) and complement activation are associated with detrimental effects of inflammation in coronary artery disease (CAD). The complement anaphylatoxins C5a and C3a interact with their receptors; the highly inflammatory C5aR1, and the C5aR2 and C3aR. We evaluated the effect of the IL-6 receptor (IL-6R)-antagonist tocilizumab on the expression of the anaphylatoxin receptors in whole blood from non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients. Separately, anaphylatoxin receptor expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients with different entities of CAD was investigated. Materials and Methods: NSTEMI patients were randomized to one dose of tocilizumab (n = 28) or placebo (n = 32) and observed for 6 months. Whole blood samples drawn at inclusion, at day 2, 3 and after 6 months were used for mRNA isolation. Plasma was prepared for analysis of complement activation measured as sC5b-9 by ELISA. Furthermore, patients with different CAD ...
Innate immunity is the first line of defense in human beings against pathogen infection; monocytes/macrophages are the primary cells of the innate immune system. Recently, macrophages/monocytes have been discovered to participate in LPS clearance, and the clearance efficiency determines the magnitude of the inflammatory response and subsequent organ injury. Previously, we reported that artesunate (AS) protected sepsis mice against heat-killed E. coli challenge. Herein, we further confirmed that AS protected cecal ligation/puncture (CLP) sepsis mice. Its protection on sepsis mice was related to not only reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and serum LPS levels but also improvement of liver function. Based on the fact that AS did not directly bind and neutralize LPS, we hypothesized that the reduction of serum LPS level might be related to enhancement of LPS internalization and subsequent detoxification. Our results showed that AS increased FITC-LPS internalization by peritoneal macrophage and liver
Patzelt, J.; Mueller, K. A. L.; Breuning, S.; Karathanos, A.; Schleicher, R.; Seizer, P.; Gawaz, M.; Langer, H. F.; Geisler, T. ...
The role of complement activation products in sepsis and in complications such as MOF is a debatable issue. There is fairly good evidence to suggest that, in the absence of complement such as in complement-depleted animals (14) or in C3 or C4 mutant mice lacking this critical complement component (18, 19), animals are highly susceptible to the early and lethal effects of experimental sepsis. These observations reinforce the long-standing concept that the complement system functions as a critical protective pathway via products such as C3b and iC3b. Evidence also exists that, during sepsis, extensive activation of the complement system occurs resulting in loss of homeostasis, which may in some manner compromise survival. Intravenous infusion of C5a into dogs generated a shock syndrome characterized by portal blood pooling and an associated decrease in venous return, cardiac output, and arterial pressure (20). In experimental sepsis caused by massive i.v. infusion of live, Gram-negative bacteria ...
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Purpose : Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the major cause of impaired vision in developed countries. The first indication of this disease is the formation of basal deposits (BD) between the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the Bruchs membrane. We recently demonstrated the roles of complement C3a and extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover in an in vitro model for deposit formation in inherited macular degeneration using primary mouse RPE cells. For this study we tested the hypothesis that C3a can cause the formation of BD in vitro by human RPE cells. Methods : Human fetal RPE cells were isolated from the eyes of 14-18 week old fetuses and grown on transwells for 2 weeks when homogeneous pigmentation was observed. RPE cultures were treated with different doses of recombinant human C3a protein every 72 hours for 1, 2 or 4 weeks. The formation of BD was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence. The presence of complement components, ECM proteins and other ...
Results : CNV resulted in an increase in splenic IL-17-producing γδT- and Th17-cells; yet in the CNV eye, only elevated levels of γδT-cells could be observed. Administration of anti-C5 or anti-C5a-blocking antibodies to reduce levels of C5a production in the eye, blunted the CNV-induced production of splenic Th17- and γδT-cells, reduced CNV size (anti-C5: 3666 ± 359.9 pixels; anti-C5a: 3453 ± 253.8) when compared to control (12B4: 5572 ± 630.6; p ≤ 0.01) and eliminated ocular γδT-cell infiltration. In ARPE-19 cell monolayers, IL-17 triggered a pro-inflammatory state; and T-cell proliferation was elevated in response to ocular proteins Conclusions : Taken together, we demonstrated that CNV lesions trigger a systemic immune response, augmenting local ocular inflammation via the infiltration of IL-17-producing γδT-cells, which are presumably recruited to the eye in a C5a-dependent manner. Finally, understanding complement-mediated pathological mechanisms will aid in the development ...
Activation of the complement cascade is clearly implicated in the pathology of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the extent and nature of its involvement in specific athological processes remains uncertain. We describe a detailed immunohistochemical study to localise a strategically selected set of complement proteins, activation products and regulators in brain and spinal cord tissue of 17 patients with progressive MS, examining 35 different plaques, and 16 control donors, including 9 with CNS disease. Plaques were consistently positive for complement proteins (C3, factor B, C1q), activation products (C3b, iC3b, C4d, TCC) and regulators (factor H, C1-inhibitor, clusterin), suggesting continuing local complement synthesis, activation and regulation despite no other evidence of on-going inflammation. Complement immunolabelling was most apparent in plaque and peri-plaque areas but also present in normal appearing white matter and cortical areas to a greater extent than in control tissue. Cellular ...
Recombinant Human C1 Esterase Inhibitor/ conestat alfa].. The ongoing pediatric study is an open label Phase II clinical trial assessing safety, immunogenicity and efficacy in children 2-13 years of age with C1INH deficiency. Eight children were treated on demand for 28 HAE attacks at 50 IU/kg body weight (up to a maximum of 4200 IU). Efficacy endpoints were time to onset of relief and to minimal symptoms, assessed by the patient (assisted by their parent), using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and by physicians using an Investigator Score. Median time to beginning of relief was 60 minutes as determined by the patients and the investigators. Using the VAS, 93% of patients had onset of relief within 2 hours. No related serious adverse events, including hypersensitivity reactions, were reported.. "We believe the additional body of pediatric clinical data in children under 13 years of age are in line with the excellent data in adolescents (13-18 years of age) and adult HAE patients treated with ...
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Esophageal carcinoma is a common malignancy worldwide, with a low 5‑year survival rate. As the majority of cases are diagnosed at an advanced stage, there is an urgent need for an effective biomarker for early diagnosis of esophageal cancer patients. Surface‑enhanced laser desorption ionization time‑of‑flight mass spectrometry (SELDI‑TOF‑MS) was applied to detect the serum protein expression in esophageal cancer patients using ProteinChip software, and the results were analyzed and screened using Biomarker Patterns and SPSS16.0 software. The ELISA method was conducted to determine the concentration of anaphylatoxin C3a, which is one of the complement proteins, in the serum of esophageal cancer patients and non‑esophageal cancer participants. A total of 144 effective differential expression protein peaks in the window of 1‑10 kDa were obtained ( ...
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This gene encodes a G-protein coupled receptor 1 family member involved in the complement system of the innate immune response. Unlike classical G-protein coupled receptors, the encoded protein does not associate with intracellular G-proteins. It may instead modulate signal transduction through the beta-arrestin pathway, and may alternatively act as a decoy receptor. This gene may be involved in coronary artery disease and in the pathogenesis of sepsis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012 ...
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In addition to being a component of innate immunity and an ancient defense mechanism against invading pathogens, complement activation also participates in the adaptive immune response, inflammation, hemostasis, embryogenesis, and organ repair and development. Activation of the complement system via classical, lectin, or alternative pathways generates anaphylatoxins (C3a and C5a) and membrane attack complex (C5b-9) and opsonizes targeted cells. Complement activation end products and their receptors mediate cell-cell interactions that regulate several biological functions in the extravascular tissue. Signaling of anaphylatoxin receptors or assembly of membrane attack complex promotes cell dedifferentiation, proliferation, and migration in addition to reducing apoptosis. As a result, complement activation in the tumor microenvironment enhances tumor growth and increases metastasis. In this Review, I discuss immune and nonimmune functions of complement proteins and the tumor-promoting effect of ...
In addition to being a component of innate immunity and an ancient defense mechanism against invading pathogens, complement activation also participates in the adaptive immune response, inflammation, hemostasis, embryogenesis, and organ repair and development. Activation of the complement system via classical, lectin, or alternative pathways generates anaphylatoxins (C3a and C5a) and membrane attack complex (C5b-9) and opsonizes targeted cells. Complement activation end products and their receptors mediate cell-cell interactions that regulate several biological functions in the extravascular tissue. Signaling of anaphylatoxin receptors or assembly of membrane attack complex promotes cell dedifferentiation, proliferation, and migration in addition to reducing apoptosis. As a result, complement activation in the tumor microenvironment enhances tumor growth and increases metastasis. In this Review, I discuss immune and nonimmune functions of complement proteins and the tumor-promoting effect of ...
Fibrin formation and turnover are intimately associated with inflammation and wound healing. To explore whether fibrin(ogen)-derived peptides exert direct effects upon cells involved in inflammation and tissue repair we examined the capacity of human fibrinopeptide B (hFpB), a thrombin-derived proteolytic cleavage product of the fibrinogen B beta-chain, to stimulate neutrophils (PMN), monocytes, and fibroblasts. hFpB caused directed cell migration of PMN and fibroblasts that was optimal at approximately 10(-8) M. This chemotactic activity was blocked by preincubating hFpB with antiserum to hFpB. hFpB was not chemotactic for monocytes. The chemotactic potency of hFpB for PMN was equivalent to that of anaphylatoxin from the fifth component of human complement (C5a), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP), and for fibroblasts its chemotactic activity was comparable to that of platelet-derived growth factor. hFpB did not interact with PMN receptors for C5a, LTB4, or ...
This case-control study was conducted from January 2013 to July 2015 at the endocrinology clinics of the Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH), Karachi, and comprised adult patients with T2DM. Similar number of gender and age-matched (within 5 years) healthy controls were also recruited from the personnel of AKUH and other 3 healthcare institutions in Karachi. The sample in each group (T2DM patients and healthy controls) would achieve a power of 80% and was based on the assumption that the frequency of any of the 6 diplotypes among healthy controls would range between 25% and 65%, anticipated matched odds ratio (OR) of 2.25 or more, correlation coefficient of exposure between matched case-control subjects = 0.2 and a = 0.05.10 Patients diagnosed with T2DM on the basis of guidelines set by the International Diabetes Federation13 (fasting serum glucose > 126mg/dl; clinical history), who were not taking vitamin D supplements during the last 6 months, were not suffering from tuberculosis, or liver ...
Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping. ...
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It has been suggested that the human C1qRp is a receptor for the complement component C1q; however, there is no direct evidence for an interaction between C1q and C1qRp. In this study, we demonstrate that C1q does not show enhanced binding to C1qRp-transfected cells compared with control cells. Furthermore, a soluble recombinant C1qRp-Fc chimera failed to interact with immobilized C1q. The proposed role of C1qRp in the phagocytic response in vivo is also unsupported in that we demonstrate that this molecule is not expressed by macrophages in a variety of human tissues and the predominant site of expression is on endothelial cells. Studies on the rodent homolog of C1qRp, known as AA4, have suggested that this molecule may function as an intercellular adhesion molecule. Here we show that C1qRp is the Ag recognized by several previously described mAbs, mNI-11 and two anti-CD93 Abs (clones X2 and VIMD2b). Interestingly, mNI-11 (Fab) has been shown to promote monocyte-monocyte and ...
https://luminusdiagnostics.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Luminus-Full-color-header-1.png 0 0 Daniel Battaglia https://luminusdiagnostics.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Luminus-Full-color-header-1.png Daniel Battaglia2018-10-01 20:08:262018-12-11 20:21:53COMPLEMENT C3 ...
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C3a is an anaphylatoxin that triggers a response by stimulating inflammatory cells to release histamine, enzymes, cytokines and other mediators.
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inproceedings{428936, author = {Robberecht, Eddy and Declercq, Dimitri and Genetello, Marleen and Dewaele, K and Van Biervliet, Stephanie}, booktitle = {JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC GASTROENTEROLOGY AND NUTRITION}, issn = {0277-2116}, language = {eng}, location = {Barcelona, Spain}, number = {suppl. 1}, pages = {344--344}, title = {Vitamin D binding protein in cystic fibrosis patients in relation to serum vitamin D}, volume = {44}, year = {2007 ...
Introduction: Various forms of vitamin D and factors involved in their metabolism can play a role in the etiopathogenesis of metabolic disorders. This paper aims to define the relationship between concentration of the hydroxylated form of vitamin D (25(OH)D), the fraction of free and...
Receptors for IgG provide the best characterized and most detailed examples of the coordinate and opposing roles displayed by activating and inhibitory receptors (22, 23). Studies on these receptors have defined several general paradigms for the class of inhibitory receptors as a whole and pointed to the physiological relevance of these pathways in the immune response. IgG immune complexes were recognized as potent inhibitory ligands more than 30 years ago with the observation that B cell activation could be attenuated by immune complexes (24). A molecular basis for this activity was suggested with the cloning of two genes for murine low-affinity IgG Fc receptors, now referred to as FcγRIIB and FcγRIII (25). The extracellular domains were found to be 95% identical in their primary amino acid sequence and to mediate low-affinity binding to IgG immune complexes with similar specificity. However, these nearly identical domains were coupled to distinctly different intracytoplasmic domains, which ...
Scientific background: Activated macrophages, present in excess during natural inflammatory responses, bear the potential to kill and eradicate cancer cells. Efranat has developed cancer immunotherapy based on macrophage activation using a plasma protein designated EF-022, a modified Vitamin D Binding Protein Macrophage Activator.. Methods: We performed an open label single-center phase I study in patients diagnosed with inoperable, recurrent or metastatic malignant solid tumors, deemed incurable, and who have failed to respond to standard therapy or for whom no standard therapy is available. The dose-escalation study was comprised of three cohorts, each receiving intramuscular (IM) injections of EF-022, once weekly for two cycles of treatment. Each cycle consisted of 4 weekly injections. Three dose levels were evaluated: 100 ng, 500ng and 1000ng. Patients were followed for up to 12 months from the start of treatment. The primary study objectives were to determine the safety and tolerability and ...
Walk-In Labs complement C3 serum test helps determine causes of recurrent infections, autoimmune disorders & more. A cheap, convenient online blood test.
Content - SummaryComplement C5 (C3 And PZP Like Alpha 2 Macroglobulin Domain Containing Protein 4 or C5) pipeline Target constitutes close to 33 molec
Glomerular mesangial cells (MCs) are central to the pathogenesis of progressive glomeruli-associated renal diseases. However, molecular mechanisms underlying changes in MC functions still remain poorly understood. Here, we show that in MCs, the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) induces, via its specific receptor (uPAR, CD87), upregulated expression of the complement anaphylatoxin C5a receptor (C5aR, CD88), and modulates C5a-dependent functional responses. This effect is mediated via the interaction of the uPA-specific receptor (uPAR, CD87) and gp130, a signal transducing subunit of the receptor complexes for the IL-6 cytokine family. The Janus kinase Tyk2 and the transcription factor Stat3 serve as downstream components in the signaling cascade resulting in upregulation of C5aR expression. In vivo, expression of C5aR and uPAR was increased in the mesangium of wild-type mice in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced model of inflammation, whereas in uPAR -/- animals C5aR expression remained ...
Complement C3-C5 Convertases: Serine proteases that cleave COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, or cleave COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. These include the different forms of C3/C5 convertases in the classical and the alternative pathways of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Both cleavages take place at the C-terminal of an ARGININE residue.
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
In this study, we showed that blocking complement activation accelerates the early healing rate in a mouse model of cutaneous wound healing. We also found that the components of the complement system responsible for this effect include C3, C5, and signaling through C5aR1, but not C5aR2 or C3aR. Furthermore, reconstitution of C3-deficient animals with purified human C3 or serum from C3+/+ mice abrogated the effect, confirming the involvement of complement in the process. The absence of these molecules resulted in a reduction in the intensity of inflammation involved in the initial events of healing. We postulate that the reduced inflammation allowed the process to advance faster to the subsequent events of healing (proliferation, maturation), thus accelerating the whole process. Moreover, we observed an increase of vascularization accompanied by a significantly higher presence of mast cells in complement-deficient mice.. A major role of complement effectors is to attract, activate, and control ...
This study provides the first evidence implicating excessive activation of the complement system, in particular C5a, in mediating experimental CM. We demonstrate a spectrum of differential susceptibility to PbA-induced CM associated with the presence or absence of C5 (Fig. 1 and Fig. 2). A role for C5 was confirmed by reciprocal transfer of C5-defective or -sufficient alleles in recombinant congenic mice and by parasite challenge of genetically identical mice that differ only at the C5 locus (Fig. 4 and Fig. 5). In vitro experiments suggest that the mechanism by which C5a contributes to CM includes the potentiation of host inflammatory responses to malaria products such as PfGPI (Fig. 6). Additionally, our findings that disruption of C5a-C5aR interactions blocks augmented inflammatory responses in vitro and leads to protection from CM in vivo (Fig. 6 and Fig. 7) demonstrate that complement activation has a pivotal and causative role in mediating or amplifying the CM syndrome. Collectively, these ...
Molecular, biochemical and functional characterizations of C1q/TNF family members: adipose-tissue-selective expression patterns, regulation by PPAR-gamma agonist, cysteine-mediated oligomerizations, combinatorial associations and metabolic functions ...
Reports of the Surgeon General: Offers over 70 reports from the years 1964 to 2000, as well as workshop proceedings, pamphlets, and other documents. Read the 1964 report in which Luther Terry indicted cigarettes for causing lung cancer, or page through C. Everett Koops 1986 volume on the AIDS epidemic, which outraged political conservatives by calling for sex education in the schools ...
...Histology MCQ Online With Answers...Which of the following is not a granulocyte? a. Lymphocytes b. Neutrophil c. PMN d. Eosinophils e. Basophils Answer: a
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Complement C9 Polyclonal Antibody from Invitrogen for Western Blot and Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin) applications. This antibody reacts with Human samples. Supplied as 100 µg purified antibody (1 mg/ml) in PBS with 1% BSA and 0.02% sodium azide; pH 7.4.
Complement C6 Polyclonal Antibody from Invitrogen for Western Blot and Immunohistochemistry (Frozen) applications. This antibody reacts with Mouse samples. Supplied as 100 µg purified antibody (0.1 mg/ml) in PBS with 0.1% BSA and 0.02% sodium azide.
The complement system is an important part of the humoral response in innate immunity, consisting of three different pathways. The third complement…
|strong|Goat anti Human C4 antibody|/strong| recognises human C4, a secreted protein that plays a central role in activation of the classical pathway of the complement system.|br||br|C4 is split into …
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Citigroup notes that following through on their call into what they thought would be the last good Q before big risk develops, they are downgrading SPWRA from Hold to Sell taking advantage of ~25% move post-earnings. The Street is already negative on this sector (firm highlighted 09 supply shock back in May 08), but this is a 100% stock-specific call. The bottom line here is that they think a big miss is coming in CQ1 as classic signs of inventory risk are developing in its components biz, while CQ4 should represent a multi-year peak in its margin structure. With respect to liquidity, it has access to cheap money through a term-loan but will continue to skate on thin ice as it looks unlikely to generate FCF through C2010. Risks to the call include potential for SPWRA to self-finance projects very near-term, which could mute some channel risk (albeit w/other ramifications). F09 (GAAP) from $2.29 to $1.92, F10 from $3.06 to $2.60. Target $55 to $30 on lower multiple on GAAP EPS ...
Citigroup notes that following through on their call into what they thought would be the last good Q before big risk develops, they are downgrading SPWRA from Hold to Sell taking advantage of ~25% move post-earnings. The Street is already negative on this sector (firm highlighted 09 supply shock back in May 08), but this is a 100% stock-specific call. The bottom line here is that they think a big miss is coming in CQ1 as classic signs of inventory risk are developing in its components biz, while CQ4 should represent a multi-year peak in its margin structure. With respect to liquidity, it has access to cheap money through a term-loan but will continue to skate on thin ice as it looks unlikely to generate FCF through C2010. Risks to the call include potential for SPWRA to self-finance projects very near-term, which could mute some channel risk (albeit w/other ramifications). F09 (GAAP) from $2.29 to $1.92, F10 from $3.06 to $2.60. Target $55 to $30 on lower multiple on GAAP EPS ...
C4a and C5a) that are produced as part of the activation of the complement system. Complement components C3, C4 and C5 are ... C3a works with C5a to activate mast cells, recruit antibody, complement and phagocytic cells and increase fluid in the tissue, ... coded for by a single exon within the complement protein gene. The C3a, C4a and C5a components are referred to as ... "C5a fragment of bovine complement. Purification, bioassays, amino-acid sequence and other structural studies". European Journal ...
Complement peptide C5a, C4a, and C3a receptors". Pharmacol. Rev. 65 (1): 500-43. doi:10.1124/pr.111.005223. PMID 23383423. ... Complement 3 (C3) through its interaction with factors B and D (adipsin) generates C3a. In the human body, C3a is rapidily ...
Cain SA, Monk PN (2002). "The orphan receptor C5L2 has high affinity binding sites for complement fragments C5a and C5a des-Arg ... Complement peptide C5a, C4a, and C3a receptors". Pharmacol. Rev. 65 (1): 500-43. doi:10.1124/pr.111.005223. PMID 23383423. Ohno ... The anaphylatoxins C3a, C4a, and C5a are cationic fragments generated during the complement cascade that participate in host ... 2004). "C5a mutants are potent antagonists of the C5a receptor (CD88) and of C5L2: position 69 is the locus that determines ...
... the C5a receptor (also termed CD88), which binds and is activated by complement component 5a (C5a) and GPR77, a second C5a ... bacteria-induced complement activation also causes the formation of complement component 3a (C3a) by cleavage from complement ... Complement peptide C5a, C4a, and C3a receptors". Pharmacological Reviews. 65 (1): 500-43. doi:10.1124/pr.111.005223. PMID ... Li R, Coulthard LG, Wu MC, Taylor SM, Woodruff TM (Mar 2013). "C5L2: a controversial receptor of complement anaphylatoxin, C5a ...
Complement peptide C5a, C4a, and C3a receptors". Pharmacological Reviews. 65 (1): 500-43. doi:10.1124/pr.111.005223. PMID ... "Expression of the complement anaphylatoxin C3a and C5a receptors on bronchial epithelial and smooth muscle cells in models of ... is a G protein-coupled receptor protein involved in the complement system. The receptor binds to complement component C3a, ... Cravedi P, Leventhal J, Lakhani P, Ward SC, Donovan MJ, Heeger PS (October 2013). "Immune cell-derived C3a and C5a costimulate ...
Li R, Coulthard LG, Wu MC, Taylor SM, Woodruff TM (Mar 2013). "C5L2: a controversial receptor of complement anaphylatoxin, C5a ... the C5a receptor (also termed CD88) and GPR77, and a second C5a receptor, C5a2 (C5L2), which has the structure of a G protein ... Bao L, Gerard NP, Eddy RL, Shows TB, Gerard C (Jun 1992). "Mapping of genes for the human C5a receptor (C5AR), human FMLP ... "Mapping of genes for the human C5a receptor (C5AR), human FMLP receptor (FPR), and two FMLP receptor homologue orphan receptors ...
Li R, Coulthard LG, Wu MC, Taylor SM, Woodruff TM (Mar 2013). "C5L2: a controversial receptor of complement anaphylatoxin, C5a ... the G protein-coupled C5a receptor (also termed CD88) and a second C5a receptor, GPR77 (i.e. C5a2 or C5L2), which has the ... Bao L, Gerard NP, Eddy RL, Shows TB, Gerard C (Jun 1992). "Mapping of genes for the human C5a receptor (C5AR), human FMLP ... Bao L, Gerard NP, Eddy RL, Shows TB, Gerard C (Jun 1992). "Mapping of genes for the human C5a receptor (C5AR), human FMLP ...
Synthesis of P-selectin can be induced by thrombin, leukotriene B4, complement fragment C5a, histamine, TNFα or LPS. These ... Monk PN, Scola AM, Madala P, Fairlie DP (October 2007). "Function, structure and therapeutic potential of complement C5a ... IL-1, TNFα and C5a cause the endothelial cells of blood vessels near the site of infection to express cellular adhesion ...
"Opposing roles for complement component C5a in tumor progression and the tumor microenvironment". Journal of Immunology. 189 (6 ... Plasma derived complement C3b and antibodies that exude into the inflamed tissue during the vascular phase bind to and coat the ... These include the complement system activated by bacteria and the coagulation and fibrinolysis systems activated by necrosis, e ... The complement system, when activated, creates a cascade of chemical reactions that promotes opsonization, chemotaxis, and ...
C3a and C5a, proteins produced from the complement system, attract neutrophils to the vessels. Once activated, neutrophils then ... immune complexes deposit in vessel walls leading to activation of the complement system. ...
Complement 3a (C3a) and complement 5a (C5a) are intermediate products of the complement cascade.[citation needed] Their ... Leukocytes also move toward chemoattractants C5a, a complement component, and pathogen-specific ligands on bacteria. Mechanisms ... The availability of this technology led to the discovery of C5a, a major chemotactic factor involved in acute inflammation. The ... "Interactions of the complement system with endotoxic lipopolysaccharide. Generation of a factor chemotactic for ...
In addition, OSCS induced generation of C3a and C5a, potent anaphylatoxins derived from complement proteins. Chondroitin ...
Spiegelmers have been obtained for the chemokines CCL2 and CXCL12, the complement components C5a and ghrelin. They are ...
"C5a fragment of bovine complement. Purification, bioassays, amino-acid sequence and other structural studies". Eur. J. Biochem. ... 4,0 4,1 Rosa PA, Ogata RT, Zepf NE (1989). "Sequence of the gene for murine complement component C4". J. Biol. Chem. 264 (28): ... C3a, C4a i C5a komponente se nazivaju anafilatoksinima.[4][5] Oni izazivaju kontrakcije glatkih mišića, otpuštanje histamina iz ... Anafilatoksini, ili anafilotoksini, su fragmenti (C3a, C4a i C5a) koji se formiraju tokom aktivacije sistema komplementa[2]. ...
Both C5a and C5b-9 cause the complement-mediated events that are characteristic of PNH and aHUS. The metabolism of eculizumab ... By inhibiting the complement cascade at this point, the normal, disease-preventing functions of proximal complement system are ... Eculizumab specifically binds to the terminal complement component 5, or C5, which acts at a late stage in the complement ... Eculizumab inhibits terminal complement activation and therefore makes people vulnerable to infection with encapsulated ...
The complement component C5 can be also activated by fluid phase C5 convertase. C5 is activated by CVFBb in the presence of ... There are three disulfide bonds in C5a, the α-chain has 15 half-Cystines, and the β-chain has only 6 half-Cystines. This ... In these respects, the mode of action of C5 is completely analogous to that of the other components of complement. The C5 step ... The binding of C5 is influenced by C6 and C7, components which are thought to act subsequent to it in the complement sequence. ...
Staphopain A was shown to inhibit activation of the complement system activation by cleaving components that are part of all ... It shows a duplex role in affecting chemotaxis; while inactivating neutrophil CXCR2 receptor, generates an active C5a fragment ... Staphopain A can cleave and lower the activity α1-antitrypsin, and inactivate several complement system components. ... "Staphylococcal proteases aid in evasion of the human complement system". Journal of Innate Immunity. 6 (1): 31-46. doi:10.1159/ ...
... complement components C5a and C3a which are chemotactic factors formed during the activation of the host's blood complement ...
Abramson, S.B., Belmont, H.M., Hopkins, P., Buyon, J., Winchester, R. and Weissmann, G. Complement activation and vascular ... He has also pioneered studies in leukocyte activation (via C5a, immune complexes, etc.), the role of salicylates and ... Complement and immunoglobulins stimulate superoxide production by human leukocytes independently of phagocytosis, J. Clin. ... His laboratory found that crises in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus are provoked by intravascular complement activation. ...
... s have a variety of specific receptors, including ones for complement, cytokines like interleukins and IFN-γ, ... C5a, fMLP, Leukotriene B4 and H2O2 in a process called chemotaxis. They are the predominant cells in pus, accounting for its ... C5a, and Leukotriene B4, which these cells use to direct the path of their migration. ...
... complement c4a MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.024.270 -- complement c5a MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.024.270.255 -- complement c5a, des- ... complement c5 MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.450.250 -- complement c5a MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.450.250.255 -- complement c5a, des- ... complement c6 MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.650 -- complement c7 MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.750 -- complement c8 MeSH D12.776.124.486. ... complement c1r MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.050.290 -- complement c1s MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.150 -- complement c2 MeSH D12.776. ...
Antibodies are produced against the RBCs, which leads to complement activation. Complement fragments, such as C3a, C4a and C5a ... Cases may also arise with complement alone or with IgA, IgM or a combination of these three antibody classes and complement. ... IgM is a potent activator of the classical complement pathway, thus, AIHA involving IgM is characterized by complement mediated ... When these RBCs return to central regions, they are damaged by complement. Patients may present with one or both types of ...
... histamine-inducers Complement proteins C3a, C4a, and C5a work by triggering histamine release from mast cells and basophil ...
The cause of damage is as a result of the action of cleaved complement anaphylotoxins C3a and C5a, which, respectively, mediate ... are far more capable of interacting with complement; these medium-sized complexes, formed in the slight excess of antigen, are ... leading to small immune complexes being formed that fix complement and are not cleared from the circulation. It involves ...
Activation of complement primarily results in cleavage of soluble complement proteins forming C5a and C3a, which activate ... An Arthus reaction is a local vasculitis associated with deposition of immune complexes and activation of complement. Immune ...
Zipfel, P. F., Hallström, T., & Riesbeck, K. (2013). Human complement control and complement evasion by pathogenic microbes- ... Komplemendisüsteemi osade hulka kuulub ka kemotaktiline valk C5a, mis kutsub infektsioonisaidile fagotsüüte ja indutseerib ... 1,0 1,1 1,2 1,3 Rus, H., Cudrici, C., & Niculescu, F. (2005). The role of the complement system in innate immunity. Immunologic ... 7,0 7,1 Lambris, J. D., Ricklin, D., & Geisbrecht, B. V. (2008). Complement evasion by human pathogens. Nature Reviews. ...
Upon complement activation, a cascade of proteolytic events generates the complement effectors, including the anaphylatoxins ... Here, the crystal structures of an antagonist version of human C5a, A8{sup Δ71-73}, and of murine C5a and C5a-desArg are ... reveals a three-helix bundle conformation similar to that observed for human C5a-desArg, whereas murine C5a and C5a-desArg both ... The role of the different C5a conformations is discussed in relation to the differential activation of C5a receptors across ...
The membrane attack complex is initiated when the complement protein C5 convertase cleaves C5 into C5a and C5b. All three ... Media related to Complement membrane attack complex at Wikimedia Commons. *Complement+Membrane+Attack+Complex at the US ... The membrane attack complex (MAC) or terminal complement complex (TCC) is a structure typically formed on the surface of ... Reid K. B. M., The complement system, in: B. D. Hames and D. M. Glover (eds.), Molecular Immunology, Oxford: IRL Press, 1988, ...
Compare Complement C5a desArg ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews ... Your search returned 190 Complement C5a desArg ELISA ELISA Kit across 11 suppliers. ... We consider that the increase of C5a in our samples is an indication of an increase in inflammation. It is a very accurate kit. ... Mouse Complement C5a ELISA Kit (Sandwich ELISA) *Detection Target: Complement C5a. *Detection Range: 15.6 - 1000 Picograms per ...
Generation of C5a in the absence of C3: a new complement activation pathway.. Huber-Lang M1, Sarma JV, Zetoune FS, Rittirsch D ... This linkage between the complement and coagulation pathways may represent a new pathway of complement activation. ... Complement-mediated tissue injury in humans occurs upon deposition of immune complexes, such as in autoimmune diseases and ... Human C5 incubated with thrombin generated C5a that was biologically active. These data suggest that, in the genetic absence of ...
Browse our Complement Component C5a Antibody catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... Complement Component C5a Antibodies available through Novus Biologicals. ... Alternate Names for Complement Component C5a Antibodies. anti-Complement Component C5a antibody, anti-Hc antibody, anti-C5A ... Complement Component C5a Antibodies. We offer Complement Component C5a Antibodies for use in common research applications: ...
Browse our Complement Component C5a R1 RNAi catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... Complement Component C5a R1 RNAi available through Novus Biologicals. ... Complement Component C5a R1 RNAi, C5AR1 RNAi, C5a anaphylatoxin chemotactic receptor RNAi, C5A RNAi, C5a-R RNAi, C5aR RNAi, ... We offer Complement Component C5a R1 RNAi for use in common research applications. Each Complement Component C5a R1 RNAi is ...
Browse our Complement Component C5/C5a product catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... Complement Component C5/C5a products available through Novus Biologicals. ... PTMs for Complement Component C5/C5a. Learn more about PTMs related to Complement Component C5/C5a.. Cleavage. Methylation. ... Diseases related to Complement Component C5/C5a. Discover more about diseases related to Complement Component C5/C5a.. Spinal ...
Complement factor C5a mediates renal ischemia-reperfusion injury independent from neutrophils. de Vries, B., Kohl, J., Leclercq ... However, the contribution of complement factor C5a to I/R injury, in particular in the kidney, remains to be established. In ... These data provide evidence that C5a is crucially involved in the pathogenesis of renal I/R injury by modulation of neutrophil- ... Blocking the C5aR pathway by a specific C5a receptor antagonist (C5aRA) abrogated up-regulation of CXC chemokines but not of ...
Combining with the C5a product of the complement cascade and transmitting the signal from one side of the membrane to the other ...
A and F, +C5a, no inhibitor; B and G, +C5a + Y27632; C and H, +C5a + PT; D and I, +C5a + AG 1478; E and J, +C5a + PP2. Middle ... Complement C3a and C5a Induce Different Signal Transduction Cascades in Endothelial Cells. Ingrid U. Schraufstatter, Khanh ... Complement activation leads to the production of the anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a, which are basic polypeptides of 74-77 aa ... Coupling of the C5a receptor to Gi in U-937 cells and in cells transfected with the C5a receptor cDNA. Mol. Pharmacol. 46: 832 ...
For example, C5a, the only described ligand for the C5a receptor, is probably only generated during complement activation, ... B, C5a. C, Preincubation with a specific C5aR antagonist before C5a addition. D, Preincubation with pertussis toxin before C5a ... A critical role for C5a in such neuroprotection is reasonable, since C5a is readily generated during complement activation ... Neuronal C5a receptors bound C5a-coated fluorescent microspheres, and primary rodent hippocampal neurons responded to C5a with ...
... complement component 5a receptor 1(C5aR, Mm00500292_s1), complement factor b (Cfb, Mm00433909_m1), and complement factor d (Cfd ... Complement C5a receptor knockout has diminished light-induced microglia/macrophage retinal migration. Delu Song,1 Michael E. ... complement component 3 (C3, Mm01232779_m1), complement component 5 (C5, Mm00439275_m1), complement component 3a receptor 1 ( ... Upregulation of complement genes after light damage. Several genes in the complement pathway were upregulated in the neural ...
Activation of the complement cascade generates anaphylatoxins including C5a and C3a. C5a exerts a pro-inflammatory effect via ... Structure of the complement C5a receptor bound to the extra-helical antagonist NDT9513727. ... The complement system is a crucial component of the host response to infection and tissue damage. ... Here, to study the mechanism of action of C5a antagonists, we determine the structure of a thermostabilized C5aR1 (known as ...
A complement 5a (C5a) revealed a very high concentration in acute-phase of wound infections. It was found that C5a was serially ... Complement activation leads to the generation of many potent effectors including anaphylatoxin C5a. C5a has induced synthesis ... and the mean value of C5a was 4898 pg/ml. 4661 pg/ml of C5a was recorded among patients with acute-phase infection compared to ... C5a was highly elevated with wound infection by Gram-negative bacteria compared to infections by Gram-negatives. ...
C5a receptor (C5aR; also termed CD88). In 2000, a second C5a receptor, C5L2 (previously known as GPR77), was discovered; yet, ... C5a is the paramount proinflammatory mediator of the complement cascade, and has been previously thought to act only through a ... C5L2: A Controversial Receptor of Complement Anaphylatoxin, C5a Rui Li 1 , Liam G Coulthard, M C L Wu, Stephen M Taylor, Trent ... Receptors for complement C5a. The importance of C5aR and the enigmatic role of C5L2. Lee H, Whitfeld PL, Mackay CR. Lee H, et ...
... complement activation results in the formation of anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. These N-terminal fragments of complement proteins ... Jessica M. Skeie, John H. Fingert, Stephen R. Russell, Edwin M. Stone, Robert F. Mullins; Complement Component C5a Activates ... Nozaki M Raisler BJ Sakurai E . Drusen complement components C3a and C5a promote choroidal neovascularization. Proc Natl Acad ... These results suggest that complement cascade component C5a is more likely to be responsible for activating endothelial cells ...
Induction of Lysosomal Enzyme Secretion by Alveolar Macrophages in Response to the Purified Complement Fragments C5a and C5a ... Induction of Lysosomal Enzyme Secretion by Alveolar Macrophages in Response to the Purified Complement Fragments C5a and C5a ... Induction of Lysosomal Enzyme Secretion by Alveolar Macrophages in Response to the Purified Complement Fragments C5a and C5a ... Induction of Lysosomal Enzyme Secretion by Alveolar Macrophages in Response to the Purified Complement Fragments C5a and C5a ...
Complement peptides C3a- and C5a-induced mediator release from dissociated human skin mast cells. J. Invest. Dermatol. 102: 803 ... Expression of the Complement Anaphylatoxin C3a and C5a Receptors on Bronchial Epithelial and Smooth Muscle Cells in Models of ... Expression of the Complement Anaphylatoxin C3a and C5a Receptors on Bronchial Epithelial and Smooth Muscle Cells in Models of ... Expression of the Complement Anaphylatoxin C3a and C5a Receptors on Bronchial Epithelial and Smooth Muscle Cells in Models of ...
... which is a peptide agonist of the biologically active C-terminal region of human complement componen … ... An agonist of human complement fragment C5a enhances vaccine immunity against Coccidioides infection Vaccine. 2012 Jun 29;30(31 ... which is a peptide agonist of the biologically active C-terminal region of human complement component C5a. The EP67 peptide was ...
Methods: The role of complement receptor C5a (CD88) was evaluated after cataract surgery in mice. An antagonist specific to C5a ... A complement receptor C5a antagonist regulates epithelial to mesenchymal transition and crystallin expression after lens ... Among the regulated genes are members of the complement system [15]. It is obvious then that the effects of the operation could ... A specific antagonist of C5a receptor (PMX53), cyclic hexapeptide Ac-Phe-[Orn-Pro-dCha-Trp-Arg], was used [7]. Following ...
Inhibition by C5a (•), 1 (▪), 18 (○), and 38 (□) of binding of 125I-C5a to human PMNLs (A) and C5a-induced myeloperoxidase ... C5a, complement factor 5a; C5aR, C5a receptor; Boc, N-tert-butoxycarbonyl; Fmoc, fluoromethyloxycarbonyl; TOCSY, total ... C5a formation or action is inhibited in vivo by soluble recombinant complement receptor type I (sCR1) (Hill et al., 1992), C5 ... Sustained or aberrant complement activation is associated with tissue damage and inflammatory disease. Elevated levels of C5a ...
Objective To investigate expression of terminal complement components C3a and C5a on circulating myeloperoxidase (MPO)-positive ... Microparticles expressing myeloperoxidase and complement C3a and C5a as markers of renal involvement in antineutrophil ... Microparticles expressing myeloperoxidase and complement C3a and C5a as markers of renal involvement in antineutrophil ... Microparticles expressing myeloperoxidase and complement C3a and C5a as markers of renal involvement in antineutrophil ...
In this study we explored the potential mechanisms involved in C5a-mediated neuroprotection. We found that C5a neuroprotects in ... The study suggests that C5a may protect against glutamate-induced apoptosis in neurons through MAPK-mediated regulation of ... Also, hrC5a-mediated responses appeared to be receptor-mediated because pretreatment of cultures with the specific C5a receptor ... vitro through inhibition of apoptotic death because pretreatment with human recombinant (hr)C5a prevented nuclear DNA ...
C5a binds to its G protein-coupled receptor (C5aR) on polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) through a high-affinity helical ... Potent and selective C5a antagonists are predicted to be effective anti-inflammatory drugs, but no pharmacophore for small ... We have hypothesized that a turn conformation is important for activity of the C terminus of C5a and herein report small cyclic ... Competition between a cyclic antagonist and either C5a or an acyclic agonist for C5aR on PMNLs supports a common or overlapping ...
C5a p , 0.03).. Figure 4 C5a mediated protection against glutamate mediated GluR2 depletion in vitro is specific for both C5a ... Complement has long been hypothesized to play a role in neuroinflammation and C5a has been postulated to have several different ... Complement anaphylatoxin C5a neuroprotects through regulation of glutamate receptor subunit 2 in vitro and in vivo. ... In conclusion we found that the complement C5a protects against apoptotic pathways in neurons in vitro and in vivo through ...
  • The structure of the human C5aR antagonist, C5a-A8, reveals a three-helix bundle conformation similar to that observed for human C5a-desArg, whereas murine C5a and C5a-desArg both form the canonical four-helix bundle. (osti.gov)
  • These conformational differences are discussed in light of the differential C5aR activation properties observed for the human and murine complement anaphylatoxins across species. (osti.gov)
  • The function of anaphylatoxins is regulated by circulating carboxypeptidases that remove their C-terminal arginine residue, yielding C3a-desArg and C5a-desArg. (osti.gov)
  • Here, the crystal structures of an antagonist version of human C5a, A8{sup Δ71-73}, and of murine C5a and C5a-desArg are reported. (osti.gov)
  • A cell-based functional assay reveals that murine C5a-desArg, in contrast to its human counterpart, exerts the same level of activition as murine C5a on its cognate receptor. (osti.gov)
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