A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.
Complement Pathway, Alternative
Complement activation initiated by the interaction of microbial ANTIGENS with COMPLEMENT C3B. When COMPLEMENT FACTOR B binds to the membrane-bound C3b, COMPLEMENT FACTOR D cleaves it to form alternative C3 CONVERTASE (C3BBB) which, stabilized by COMPLEMENT FACTOR P, is able to cleave multiple COMPLEMENT C3 to form alternative C5 CONVERTASE (C3BBB3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
Complement C3-C5 Convertases
Serine proteases that cleave COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, or cleave COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. These include the different forms of C3/C5 convertases in the classical and the alternative pathways of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Both cleavages take place at the C-terminal of an ARGININE residue.
The larger fragment generated from the cleavage of COMPLEMENT C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. It is a constituent of the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb), and COMPLEMENT C5 CONVERTASES in both the classical (C4b2a3b) and the alternative (C3bBb3b) pathway. C3b participates in IMMUNE ADHERENCE REACTION and enhances PHAGOCYTOSIS. It can be inactivated (iC3b) or cleaved by various proteases to yield fragments such as COMPLEMENT C3C; COMPLEMENT C3D; C3e; C3f; and C3g.
Complement Factor B
C5 plays a central role in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C5 is cleaved by C5 CONVERTASE into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. The smaller fragment C5a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of inflammatory process. The major fragment C5b binds to the membrane initiating the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components, C5-C9, into the MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
Complement C3 Convertase, Alternative Pathway
The smaller fragment generated from the cleavage of complement C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. C3a, a 77-amino acid peptide, is a mediator of local inflammatory process. It induces smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION, and HISTAMINE RELEASE from MAST CELLS and LEUKOCYTES. C3a is considered an anaphylatoxin along with COMPLEMENT C4A; COMPLEMENT C5A; and COMPLEMENT C5A, DES-ARGININE.
Complement System Proteins
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
A subcomponent of complement C1, composed of six copies of three polypeptide chains (A, B, and C), each encoded by a separate gene (C1QA; C1QB; C1QC). This complex is arranged in nine subunits (six disulfide-linked dimers of A and B, and three disulfide-linked homodimers of C). C1q has binding sites for antibodies (the heavy chain of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M). The interaction of C1q and immunoglobulin activates the two proenzymes COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S, thus initiating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION via the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.
Complement Pathway, Classical
Complement activation initiated by the binding of COMPLEMENT C1 to ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES at the COMPLEMENT C1Q subunit. This leads to the sequential activation of COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S subunits. Activated C1s cleaves COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 forming the membrane-bound classical C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
Proprotein Convertase 2
The minor fragment formed when C5 convertase cleaves C5 into C5a and COMPLEMENT C5B. C5a is a 74-amino-acid glycopeptide with a carboxy-terminal ARGININE that is crucial for its spasmogenic activity. Of all the complement-derived anaphylatoxins, C5a is the most potent in mediating immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE), smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION; HISTAMINE RELEASE; and migration of LEUKOCYTES to site of INFLAMMATION.
A component of the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C2 is cleaved by activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C2B and COMPLEMENT C2A. C2a, the COOH-terminal fragment containing a SERINE PROTEASE, combines with COMPLEMENT C4B to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).
Proprotein Convertase 1
Complement Activating Enzymes
Complement Inactivator Proteins
Serum proteins that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host. The complement system is tightly regulated by inactivators that accelerate the decay of intermediates and certain cell surface receptors.
A 53-kDa protein that is a positive regulator of the alternate pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It stabilizes the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb) and protects it from rapid inactivation, thus facilitating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and the formation of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Individuals with mutation in the PFC gene exhibit properdin deficiency and have a high susceptibility to infections.
A 105-kDa serum glycoprotein with significant homology to the other late complement components, C7-C9. It is a polypeptide chain cross-linked by 32 disulfide bonds. C6 is the next complement component to bind to the membrane-bound COMPLEMENT C5B in the assembly of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. It is encoded by gene C6.
Complement Factor H
An important soluble regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It is a 139-kDa glycoprotein expressed by the liver and secreted into the blood. It binds to COMPLEMENT C3B and makes iC3b (inactivated complement 3b) susceptible to cleavage by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I. Complement factor H also inhibits the association of C3b with COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form the C3bB proenzyme, and promotes the dissociation of Bb from the C3bBb complex (COMPLEMENT C3 CONVERTASE, ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY).
A 302-amino-acid fragment in the alpha chain (672-1663) of C3b. It is generated when C3b is inactivated (iC3b) and its alpha chain is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I into C3c, and C3dg (955-1303) in the presence COMPLEMENT FACTOR H. Serum proteases further degrade C3dg into C3d (1002-1303) and C3g (955-1001).
Complement Factor D
A 63-kDa serum glycoprotein encoded by gene C9. Monomeric C9 (mC9) binds the C5b-8 complex to form C5b-9 which catalyzes the polymerization of C9 forming C5b-p9 (MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX) and transmembrane channels leading to lysis of the target cell. Patients with C9 deficiency suffer from recurrent bacterial infections.
Proprotein Convertase 5
Complement Membrane Attack Complex
A product of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION cascade, regardless of the pathways, that forms transmembrane channels causing disruption of the target CELL MEMBRANE and cell lysis. It is formed by the sequential assembly of terminal complement components (COMPLEMENT C5B; COMPLEMENT C6; COMPLEMENT C7; COMPLEMENT C8; and COMPLEMENT C9) into the target membrane. The resultant C5b-8-poly-C9 is the "membrane attack complex" or MAC.
A 77-kDa subcomponent of complement C1, encoded by gene C1S, is a SERINE PROTEASE existing as a proenzyme (homodimer) in the intact complement C1 complex. Upon the binding of COMPLEMENT C1Q to antibodies, the activated COMPLEMENT C1R cleaves C1s into two chains, A (heavy) and B (light, the serine protease), linked by disulfide bonds yielding the active C1s. The activated C1s, in turn, cleaves COMPLEMENT C2 and COMPLEMENT C4 to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL C3 CONVERTASE).
Complement C3b Inactivator Proteins
Endogenous proteins that inhibit or inactivate COMPLEMENT C3B. They include COMPLEMENT FACTOR H and COMPLEMENT FACTOR I (C3b/C4b inactivator). They cleave or promote the cleavage of C3b into inactive fragments, and thus are important in the down-regulation of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and its cytolytic sequence.
A 93-kDa serum glycoprotein encoded by C7 gene. It is a polypeptide chain with 28 disulfide bridges. In the formation of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX; C7 is the next component to bind the C5b-6 complex forming a trimolecular complex C5b-7 which is lipophilic, resembles an integral membrane protein, and serves as an anchor for the late complement components, C8 and C9.
The first complement component to act in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. It is a calcium-dependent trimolecular complex made up of three subcomponents: COMPLEMENT C1Q; COMPLEMENT C1R; and COMPLEMENT C1S at 1:2:2 ratios. When the intact C1 binds to at least two antibodies (involving C1q), C1r and C1s are sequentially activated, leading to subsequent steps in the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
Receptors, Complement 3b
Molecular sites on or in some B-lymphocytes and macrophages that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3B. The primary structure of these receptors reveal that they contain transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, with their extracellular portion composed entirely of thirty short consensus repeats each having 60 to 70 amino acids.
Complement C3 Nephritic Factor
An IgG autoantibody against the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE, found in serum of patients with MESANGIOCAPILLARY GLOMERULONEPHRITIS. The binding of this autoantibody to C3bBb stabilizes the enzyme thus reduces the actions of C3b inactivators (COMPLEMENT FACTOR H; COMPLEMENT FACTOR I). This abnormally stabilized enzyme induces a continuous COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and generation of C3b thereby promoting the assembly of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX and cytolysis.
A 80-kDa subcomponent of complement C1, existing as a SERINE PROTEASE proenzyme in the intact complement C1 complex. When COMPLEMENT C1Q is bound to antibodies, the changed tertiary structure causes autolytic activation of complement C1r which is cleaved into two chains, A (heavy) and B (light, the serine protease), connected by disulfide bonds. The activated C1r serine protease, in turn, activates COMPLEMENT C1S proenzyme by cleaving the Arg426-Ile427 bond. No fragment is released when either C1r or C1s is cleaved.
The larger fragment generated from the cleavage of C5 by C5 CONVERTASE that yields COMPLEMENT C5A and C5b (beta chain + alpha' chain, the residual alpha chain, bound by disulfide bond). C5b remains bound to the membrane and initiates the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components to form C5b-8-poly-C9, the MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
A 150-kDa serum glycoprotein composed of three subunits with each encoded by a different gene (C8A; C8B; and C8G). This heterotrimer contains a disulfide-linked C8alpha-C8gamma heterodimer and a noncovalently associated C8beta chain. C8 is the next component to bind the C5-7 complex forming C5b-8 that binds COMPLEMENT C9 and acts as a catalyst in the polymerization of C9.
A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
Complement Factor I
A plasma serine proteinase that cleaves the alpha-chains of C3b and C4b in the presence of the cofactors COMPLEMENT FACTOR H and C4-binding protein, respectively. It is a 66-kDa glycoprotein that converts C3b to inactivated C3b (iC3b) followed by the release of two fragments, C3c (150-kDa) and C3dg (41-kDa). It was formerly called KAF, C3bINF, or enzyme 3b inactivator.
Complement C3-C5 Convertases, Alternative Pathway
Complement Inactivating Agents
Complement Hemolytic Activity Assay
A screening assay for circulating COMPLEMENT PROTEINS. Diluted SERUM samples are added to antibody-coated ERYTHROCYTES and the percentage of cell lysis is measured. The values are expressed by the so called CH50, in HEMOLYTIC COMPLEMENT units per milliliter, which is the dilution of serum required to lyse 50 percent of the erythrocytes in the assay.
Complement C5 Convertase, Alternative Pathway
Receptors, Complement 3d
Molecular sites on or in B-lymphocytes, follicular dendritic cells, lymphoid cells, and epithelial cells that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3D. Human complement receptor 2 (CR2) serves as a receptor for both C3dg and the gp350/220 glycoprotein of HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN, and binds the monoclonal antibody OKB7, which blocks binding of both ligands to the receptor.
Receptor, Anaphylatoxin C5a
Complement C4b-Binding Protein
Serum peptides derived from certain cleaved COMPLEMENT PROTEINS during COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. They induce smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION; mast cell HISTAMINE RELEASE; PLATELET AGGREGATION; and act as mediators of the local inflammatory process. The order of anaphylatoxin activity from the strongest to the weakest is C5a, C3a, C4a, and C5a des-arginine.
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Complement C1 Inactivator Proteins
Complement C3 Convertase, Classical Pathway
Neuroendocrine Secretory Protein 7B2
Amino Acid Sequence
Complement C5 Convertase, Classical Pathway
Complement Fixation Tests
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Complement Pathway, Mannose-Binding Lectin
Complement activation triggered by the interaction of microbial POLYSACCHARIDES with serum MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN resulting in the activation of MANNOSE-BINDING PROTEIN-ASSOCIATED SERINE PROTEASES. As in the classical pathway, MASPs cleave COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 to form C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein
An endogenous 105-kDa plasma glycoprotein produced primarily by the LIVER and MONOCYTES. It inhibits a broad spectrum of proteases, including the COMPLEMENT C1R and the COMPLEMENT C1S proteases of the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY, and the MANNOSE-BINDING PROTEIN-ASSOCIATED SERINE PROTEASES. C1-INH-deficient individuals suffer from HEREDITARY ANGIOEDEMA TYPES I AND II.
Chronic glomerulonephritis characterized histologically by proliferation of MESANGIAL CELLS, increase in the MESANGIAL EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX, and a thickening of the glomerular capillary walls. This may appear as a primary disorder or secondary to other diseases including infections and autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Various subtypes are classified by their abnormal ultrastructures and immune deposits. Hypocomplementemia is a characteristic feature of all types of MPGN.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Complement C3-C5 Convertases, Classical Pathway
Blood Bactericidal Activity
The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.
Protein Structure, Tertiary
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Inflammation of the renal glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) that can be classified by the type of glomerular injuries including antibody deposition, complement activation, cellular proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These structural and functional abnormalities usually lead to HEMATURIA; PROTEINURIA; HYPERTENSION; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
Protein Processing, Post-Translational
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Mannose-Binding Protein-Associated Serine Proteases
Serum serine proteases which participate in COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. They are activated when complexed with the MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN, therefore also known as Mannose-binding protein-Associated Serine Proteases (MASPs). They cleave COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 to form C4b2a, the CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE.
An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).
Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
A condition characterized by the recurrence of HEMOGLOBINURIA caused by intravascular HEMOLYSIS. In cases occurring upon cold exposure (paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria), usually after infections, there is a circulating antibody which is also a cold hemolysin. In cases occurring during or after sleep (paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria), the clonal hematopoietic stem cells exhibit a global deficiency of cell membrane proteins.
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases
Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.
A class of C-type lectins that target the carbohydrate structures found on invading pathogens. Binding of collectins to microorganisms results in their agglutination and enhanced clearance. Collectins form trimers that may assemble into larger oligomers. Each collectin polypeptide chain consists of four regions: a relatively short N-terminal region, a collagen-like region, an alpha-helical coiled-coil region, and carbohydrate-binding region.
The common precursor polypeptide of pancreatic GLUCAGON and intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Proglucagon is the 158-amino acid segment of preproglucagon without the N-terminal signal sequence. Proglucagon is expressed in the PANCREAS; INTESTINES; and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Posttranslational processing of proglucagon is tissue-specific yielding numerous bioactive peptides.
Surface Plasmon Resonance
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.
Disease Models, Animal
Gene Expression Regulation
Polymerase Chain Reaction
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).
Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Genetic Complementation Test
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Complement C5a, des-Arginine
Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
NF-kappa B p52 Subunit
Recombinant Fusion Proteins
A 69-amino acid peptide derived from the N-terminal of PROGLUCAGON. It is mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. Further processing of glicentin yield a 30-amino acid N-terminal peptide (glicentin-related polypeptide) and a 37-amino acid peptide OXYNTOMODULIN. Both glicentin and oxyntomodulin can reduce digestive secretions and delay gastric emptying.
Animal Testing Alternatives
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
Major Histocompatibility Complex
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Structural and functional analysis of a C3b-specific antibody that selectively inhibits the alternative pathway of complement. (1/1)(+info)
Complement regulation of T cell immunity | SpringerLink
Results of studies published since 2002 reveal that T cells and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) produce complement proteins. The immune cell-derived, alternative pathway complement components activate
The term C3 convertase may refer to: C3-convertase, an enzyme Alternative-complement-pathway C3/C5 convertase, an enzyme This ...
Alternative complement pathway
... a stable compound which can bind an additional C3b to form alternative pathway C5-convertase. The C5-convertase of the ... The alternative pathway is one of three complement pathways that opsonize and kill pathogens. The pathway is triggered when the ... This complex is also known as a fluid-phase C3-convertase. This convertase, the alternative pathway C3-convertase, although ... After the creation of C5 convertase (either as (C3b)2BbP or C4b2a3b from the classical pathway), the complement system follows ...
... or the alternative pathway (C3bBbC3b) of complement system. Two fluid phase C5 convertases have been described: the classical ... The target of C5 convertase is complement protein C5. C5 is a two-chain (α, β) plasma glycoprotein (Mr = 196,000). C5 and C3 ... The complement component C5 can be also activated by fluid phase C5 convertase. C5 is activated by CVFBb in the presence of ... "Alternative pathway of complement: Recruitment of precursor properdin by the labile C3/C5 convertase and the potentiation of ...
Complement membrane attack complex
... two regulators of complement. The membrane attack complex is initiated when the complement protein C5 convertase cleaves C5 ... All three pathways of the complement system (classical, lectin and alternative pathways) initiate the formation of MAC. Another ... Terminal complement pathway deficiency Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria Perforin Pore-forming toxin Janeway, CA Jr; Travers ... ISBN 978-0-323-54943-1. Media related to Complement membrane attack complex at Wikimedia Commons Complement+Membrane+Attack+ ...
Classical complement pathway
C3b binds to the C3 convertase (C4b2b), to form C5 convertase (C4b2b3b). C5 convertase then cleaves C5 into C5a and C5b. Like ... Alternative complement pathway - another complement system pathway Lectin pathway - another complement system pathway Noris, ... Activation of the complement pathway through the classical, lectin or alternative complement pathway is followed by a cascade ... The classical complement pathway is one of three pathways which activate the complement system, which is part of the immune ...
C5 convertase formation and cell lysis. C3 convertase can be used to refer to the form produced in the alternative pathway ( ... Hourcade D (2006). "The Role of Properdin in the Assembly of the Alternative Pathway C3 Convertases of Complement". J Biol Chem ... It is a membrane protein and regulates also C5 convertase of the classical and alternative pathway. DAF protects host cells ... Since C3 convertases cleave C3 to produce C3b which can then form an additional C3 convertase through the alternative pathway, ...
List of EC numbers (EC 3)
... complement factor I EC 220.127.116.11: complement factor D EC 18.104.22.168: alternative-complement-pathway C3/C5 convertase EC 3.4. ... classical-complement-pathway C3/C5 convertase EC 22.214.171.124: Transferred entry: complement component C5 convertase. Now EC 3.4. ... 21.43, classical-complement-pathway C3/C5 convertase EC 126.96.36.199: ... Proprotein convertase 1 EC 188.8.131.52: Proprotein convertase 2 EC 184.108.40.206: Snake venom factor V activator EC 220.127.116.11: ...
Complement factor B
... components of the alternative-pathway C3 convertase of complement". The Biochemical Journal. 253 (3): 667-75. doi:10.1042/ ... Rawal N, Pangburn MK (March 2001). "Structure/function of C5 convertases of complement". International Immunopharmacology. 1 (3 ... This gene encodes complement factor B, a component of the alternative pathway of complement activation. Factor B circulates in ... The active subunit Bb is a serine protease that associates with C3b to form the alternative pathway C3 convertase. Bb is ...
Outline of immunology
... iC3b C5 - C5a C3-convertase C5-convertase Late stage Membrane attack complex (MAC) C6 C7 C8 C9 Complement pathway inhibitors C1 ... C4a C2 Mannan-binding lectin pathway MASP1 / MASP2 Mannan-binding lectin Alternative complement pathway Factor B Factor D ... system Complement system Classical complement pathway Mannan-binding lectin pathway Alternate complement pathway Complement ... divided by pathway) Classical complement pathway C1Q complex - C1R / C1S C4 - ...
Alternative-complement-pathway C3/C5 convertase. *Aqualysin 1. *Assemblin. *ATP-dependent Clp protease proteolytic subunit ...
C3b later joins with C4b2b to make C5 convertase (C4b2b3b complex).. Alternative pathwayEdit. Main article: Alternative ... Three biochemical pathways activate the complement system: the classical complement pathway, the alternative complement pathway ... The complex of C3b(2)Bb is a protease which cleaves C5 into C5b and C5a. C5 convertase is also formed by the Classical Pathway ... Reaction Cascade of the Complement System: Classical, Alternative and Lectin Pathway, Amplification Loop, Terminal Pathway, and ...
C3b later joins with C4b2b to make C5 convertase (C4b2b3b complex). The alternative pathway is continuously activated at a low ... the classical complement pathway, the alternative complement pathway, and the lectin pathway. The alternative pathway accounts ... the alternative complement pathway is one element of innate immunity. Once the alternative C3 convertase ... The complex of C3b(2)Bb is a protease which cleaves C5 into C5b and C5a. C5 convertase is also formed by the classical pathway ...
... alternative pathway and lectin pathway) that ultimately lead to the formation of a C3 convertase. Formation of a C3 convertase ... In such cases treatment with the complement-inhibitory anti-C5 monoclonal antibody, eculizumab, is found to be highly effective ... Additionally, C3b plays a role in forming a C3 convertase when bound to Factor B (C3bBb complex), or a C5 convertase when bound ... Binding of a C3b molecule to the C4bC2b complex (C4b2b3b) results in the formation of a C5 convertase, which cleaves C5 into ...
Complement component 4
... participates in all three of the complement pathways (classical, alternative, and lectin); the alternative pathway is " ... C5 binding sites, 4) private allelic residues. Additionally, the same study identified the expression of human complement C4 ... the C4b-C2a complex with protease activity has been termed the C3 convertase. Protein 4b can be further cleaved into 4c and 4d ... Complement component 4A Complement component 4B HLA A1-B8-DR3-DQ2 haplotype Complement system Complement deficiency Sekar A, ...
List of MeSH codes (D12.776.124)
... complement c3-c5 convertases MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.860.387.500 - complement c3-c5 convertases, alternative pathway MeSH ... complement c5 convertase, alternative pathway MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.860.387.750 - complement c3-c5 convertases, classical ... complement c3 convertase, classical pathway MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.860.387.750.750 - complement c5 convertase, classical ... complement c3 convertase, alternative pathway MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.860.387.500.750 - ...
... amongst other complement proteins and factors, leading to regulation of the alternative pathway of complement in particular. ... and decay accelerating activity against the alternative pathway C3-convertase, C3bBb. Factor H exerts its protective action on ... January 2011). "The development of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome depends on complement C5". Journal of the American ... Its principal function is to regulate the alternative pathway of the complement system, ensuring that the complement system is ...
Komplemendisüsteem - Vikipeedia
Xu, Y., Narayana, S. V, & Volanakis, J. E. (2001). Structural biology of the alternative pathway convertase. Immunological ... Zipfel, P. F., Hallström, T., & Riesbeck, K. (2013). Human complement control and complement evasion by pathogenic microbes- ... Tekkinud C3b seondub omakorda C4b-ga, mille tulemusena tekib C5-konvertaas. C3b ja selle edasised seondumisproduktid- iCb3 ja ... 1,0 1,1 1,2 1,3 Rus, H., Cudrici, C., & Niculescu, F. (2005). The role of the complement system in innate immunity. Immunologic ...
Formation of High-Affinity C5 Convertases of the Alternative Pathway of Complement | The Journal of Immunology
The conversion of human complement component C5 into fragment C5b by the alternative pathway C5 convertase. Biochem. J. 199: ... Reconstitution of C5 convertase of the alternative complement pathway with isolated C3b dimer and factors B and D. J. Immunol. ... C5 convertase of the alternative pathway of complement: kinetic analysis of the free and surface-bound forms of the enzyme. J. ... C5 convertases of the alternative and classical pathways of complement are complex serine proteases that are made up of two or ...
Molecular insights into the surface-specific arrangement of complement C5 convertase enzymes | BMC Biology | Full Text
Alternative pathway (AP) C5 convertases were generated on small streptavidin beads that were coated with purified C3b molecules ... The C5 convertase is a multi-molecular protease complex that catalyses the cleavage of native C5 into its biologically ... Finally, we define two interfaces on C5 important for its recognition by surface-bound C5 convertases. We establish a highly ... Through development of a highly purified model system for C5 convertases, we here aim to provide insights into the surface- ...
Complement membrane attack complex - Wikipedia
... two regulators of complement. The membrane attack complex is initiated when the complement protein C5 convertase cleaves C5 ... All three pathways of the complement system (classical, lectin and alternative pathways) initiate the formation of MAC. Another ... Terminal complement pathway deficiency Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria Perforin Pore-forming toxin Janeway, CA Jr; Travers ... ISBN 978-0-323-54943-1. Media related to Complement membrane attack complex at Wikimedia Commons Complement+Membrane+Attack+ ...
Complement C3-C5 Convertases - C3 Convertase Summary Report | CureHunter
These include the different forms of C3/C5 convertases in the classical and the alternative pathways of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. ... Serine proteases that cleave COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, or cleave COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A ... C3 Convertases, Complement; C3-C5 Convertases, Complement; C5 Convertases, Complement; Complement C3 C5 Convertases; Convertase ... Convertase, C3-C5; Convertase, Complement 3; Convertases, Complement C3; Convertases, Complement C3-C5; Convertases, Complement ...
Frontiers | Chemical Equilibrium at the Tick-Host Feeding Interface:A Critical Examination of Biological Relevance in...
Rawal, N., and Pangburn, M. (2001). Formation of high-affinity C5 convertases of the alternative pathway of complement. J. ... C3/C5 convertase) show Km values of 5-16 nM for the classical and alternative complement pathways (Rawal and Pangburn, 2001, ... Rawal, N., and Pangburn, M. K. (2003). Formation of high affinity C5 convertase of the classical pathway of complement. J. Biol ... For example, targeting of complement C5 and LTB4 allows OMCI and its homologs to inhibit both complement and LTB4 mediated ...
JCI - Targeted and restricted complement activation on acrosome-reacted spermatozoa
Preferential inactivation of the C5 convertase of the alternative complement pathway by factor I and membrane cofactor protein ... Mouse Crry/p65 is a regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation. Eur. J. Immunol. 1993. 23:1381-1384. View ... This pattern is consistent with engagement of the classical pathway followed by amplification through the alternative pathway. ... MCP limits complement activation, especially C5 convertase activity. However, blocking MCP function with mAb did not increase ...
Substrate recognition by complement convertases revealed in the C5-cobra venom factor complex | The EMBO Journal
Kinoshita T, Takata Y, Kozono H, Takeda J, Hong KS, Inoue K (1988) C5 convertase of the alternative complement pathway: ... Activation of complement component C5: comparison of C5 convertases of the lectin pathway and the classical pathway of ... C5-CVF as a model for substrate-convertase complexes. Proteolysis of complement components C3 and C5 by the convertases leads ... The CP C5 convertase. The high Km value of the C3 convertases for C5 implies that the convertases will primarily cleave C3 and ...
Alternative complement pathway - Wikipedia
... a stable compound which can bind an additional C3b to form alternative pathway C5-convertase. The C5-convertase of the ... The alternative pathway is one of three complement pathways that opsonize and kill pathogens. The pathway is triggered when the ... This complex is also known as a fluid-phase C3-convertase. This convertase, the alternative pathway C3-convertase, although ... After the creation of C5 convertase (either as (C3b)2BbP or C4b2a3b from the classical pathway), the complement system follows ...
Vimentin Expressed on Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Infected Human Monocytes Is Involved in Binding to the NKp46 Receptor | The...
The crystal structure of cobra venom factor, a cofactor for C3- and C5-convertase CVFBb
... is a functional analog of human complement component C3b, the active fragment of C3. Similar to C3b, in human and mammalian ... Complement C3 Convertase, Alternative Pathway / metabolism* * Complement C3-C5 Convertases / genetics * Complement C3-C5 ... The crystal structure of cobra venom factor, a cofactor for C3- and C5-convertase CVFBb Structure. 2009 Apr 15;17(4):611-9. doi ... Unlike the latter, CVFBb is a stable complex and an efficient C5 convertase. We solved the crystal structure of CVF, isolated ...
Pathophysiology of Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura | Springer for Research & Development
Kinoshita T, Takata Y, Kozono H, Takeda J, Hong KS, Inoue K. C5 convertase of the alternative complement pathway: covalent ... Rawal N, Pangburn M. Formation of high-affinity C5 convertases of the alternative pathway of complement. J Immunol. 2001;166: ... Initiation of the alternative pathway of complement: recognition of activators by bound C3b and assembly of the entire pathway ... Whaley K, Ruddy S. Modulation of the alternative complement pathways by beta 1 H globulin. J Exp Med. 1976;144:1147-63.PubMed ...
Derivatives of Human Complement Component C3 for Therapeutic Complement Depletion: A Novel Class of Therapeutic Agents |...
To obtain proteins with the complement-depleting activity of Cobra Venom Factor (CVF), but with less immunogenicity, we have ... The serine protease nature of the C3 and C5 convertases of the classical and alternative complement pathways. Scand J Immunol 5 ... Pangburn, M. K. and Müller-Eberhard, H. J. (1986). The C3 convertase of the alternative pathway of human complement. Enzymic ... Whaley, K., and Ruddy, S. (1976). Modulation of the alternative complement pathways by beta1H globulin. J Exp Med 144, 1147- ...
Acquired Partial Lipodystrophy: Background, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology
C5-9).The IgG antibody, C3Nef, prevents the alternative complement C3-convertase C3Bb from dissociative inactivation, resulting ... Adipocytes synthesize factor D, the limiting component of the alternative complement pathway, which cleaves C3-bound factor B ... Activation of alternate complement pathway has been demonstrated in most patients. The phenotype can be variable and sometimes ... in which subendothelial deposits of immunoglobulin and C3 are probably due to a deregulated alternative complement pathway. ...
Progressive Lipodystrophy: Background, Pathophysiology, Etiology
C5-9).The IgG antibody, C3Nef, prevents the alternative complement C3-convertase C3Bb from dissociative inactivation, resulting ... C3 nephritic factor is a serum immunoglobulin G that interacts with the C3bBb alternative pathway convertase to activate C3. ... C5-9).The IgG antibody, C3Nef, prevents the alternative complement C3-convertase C3Bb from dissociative inactivation, resulting ... Adipocytes synthesize factor D, the limiting component of the alternative complement pathway, which cleaves C3-bound factor B ...
ENZYME entry 18.104.22.168
Alternative-complement-pathway C3/C5 convertase. Alternative Name(s). C3 convertase.. C3 proactivator.. ... Cleavage of complement component C5 requires additional C3b which binds C5 and renders it susceptible to cleavage by C3b,Bb ... Cleavage of Arg-,-Ser bond in complement component C3 alpha-chain to yield C3a and C3b, and Arg-,-Xaa bond in complement ... A bimolecular complex of complement fragment Bb with either C3b or cobra venom factor; Bb contains the active site. ...
RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View - Complement factor H - P08603 (CFAH HUMAN)
The complement system and innate immunity - Immunobiology - NCBI Bookshelf
Indeed, it now seems clear that complement first evolved as part of the innate immune system, where it still plays an important ... Although first discovered as an effector arm of the antibody response, complement can also be activated early in infection in ... This activity was said to complement the antibacterial activity of antibody, hence the name. ... Complement was discovered many years ago as a heat-labile component of normal plasma that augments the opsonization of bacteria ...
Complement C5a E. coli, ~ 95 % SDS-PAGE, lyophilized powder | 80295-54-1 | Sigma-Aldrich
Complement C5a human recombinant, expressed in E. coli, ~95% (SDS-PAGE), lyophilized powder; CAS Number: 80295-54-1; Synonym: ... proteolytic fragment of the C5 α-chain through the action of C5 convertases in the classical and alternative complement pathway ... Complement, Complement Factor Proteins, Complement Proteins, Complement Sera and Proteins, Enzymes, Inhibitors, and Substrates ... Complement C5a human is an important terminal component of the complement cascade. It is a direct mediator of inflammation, and ...
Expression of complement regulatory proteins CD55, CD59, CD35, and CD46 in rheumatoid arthritis
C5 convertase (C4b2a3b for the classical and lectin pathways, and C3bBbC3b for the alternative pathway). This enzyme cleaves C5 ... Early complement activation. Complement is activated through three different pathways. The alternative pathway is spontaneously ... and mediated by the action of thrombin on C5 convertase. Other complement activation pathways occur through proteases, such as ... early complement activation; C3-convertase activation and amplification; C5-convertase activation; and formation of the ...
Complement receptor 1 inhibitors for prevention of immune-mediated red cell destruction: potential use in transfusion therapy |...
C3 and C5 convertases of the 3 complement pathways, namely the classical, alternative, and lectin.5 Specifically, CR1 binds to ... The specificity of alternative complement pathway-mediated lysis of erythrocytes: a survey of complement and target cells from ... Decay accelerating activity of complement receptor type 1 (CD35): two active sites are required for dissociating C5 convertases ... 30 It is also possible that the alternative complement pathway was activated following transfusion of human group O cells, even ...
List of EC numbers (EC 3)
Molecular Vision: Complement C5a receptor knockout has diminished light-induced microglia/macrophage retinal migration
C5, C3aR, C5aR, Cfb, and Cfd. Cfb activates the alternative pathway by generating C3 convertase after cleavage (of a proenzyme ... Results: We found that the mRNA levels of C3, C5, C3aR, C5aR, and two activators of the complement alternative pathway, Cfb and ... complement component 5 (C5, Mm00439275_m1), complement component 3a receptor 1 (C3aR, Mm02620006_s1), complement component 5a ... Upregulation of complement genes after light damage. Several genes in the complement pathway were upregulated in the neural ...
Frontiers | Factor H Family Proteins in Complement Evasion of Microorganisms | Immunology
This mini review focuses on the role of the main alternative pathway regulator FH in host-pathogen interactions, as well as on ... This mini review focusses on the role of the main alternative pathway regulator factor H in host-pathogen interactions, as well ... and acquisition of host complement inhibitors to down-regulate complement activity on the surface of the pathogen. A growing ... and acquisition of host complement inhibitors to downregulate complement activity on the surface of the pathogen. A growing ...
Complement System and Its Role in Immune Responses
The complement system is a network of more than 50 plasma proteins and receptors, which have the role of mediating innate and ... targeted C3/C5 convertase inhibitor for treatment of human complement alternative pathway‐mediated diseases. Blood 118(17): ... Activation of complement component C5: comparison of C5 convertases of the lectin pathway and the classical pathway of ... Pangburn MK and Muller‐Eberhard HJ (1986) The C3 convertase of the alternative pathway of human complement. Enzymic properties ...
Human complement component 5
In the classical pathway C5 convertase is composed of C4b2a3b and in the alternative pathway is C3bBbC3b. Both C5 convertases ... C5 convertase cleaves C5 about 800 amino acids away from C345C. Other complement proteins such as C6 and C7 interact with C5 at ... Distal Recognition Site for Classical Pathway Convertase Located in the C345C/Netrin Module of Complement Component C5. The ... This diagram of C5 convertase shows where C5 is cleaved (dotted arrows) to become activated and where the functional C5-C345C ...
Complement C3 Nephritic Factor | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst
Study of the idiotypic response to autoantibody to the alternative pathway C3/C5 convertase in normal individuals, patients ... Nucleotide sequence of a human autoantibody to the alternative pathway C3/C5 convertase (C3NeF). Hybridoma. 1993 Jun; 12(3):231 ... Spitzer RE, Stitzel AE, Tsokos G. On the origin of C3 nephritic factor (antibody to the alternative pathway C3 convertase): ... Production of IgG and IgM autoantibody to the alternative pathway C3 convertase in normal individuals and patients with ...
JCI - Complement as a multifaceted modulator of kidney transplant injury
... and fD-dependent assembly of the alternative pathway C3 convertase (C3bBb). The latter cleaves C3 into C3a and C3b, amplifying ... complement activation. Addition of a second C3b molecule to either C3 convertase forms the C5 convertase, which cleaves C5 into ... and complement components, by ECs and tubular and infiltrating cells. Through alternative complement pathway activation, ... both partners upregulate and secrete alternative pathway complement components C3, fB, and fD, as well as the common pathway ...
The major risk alleles of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in CFH do not play a major role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) -...
... of the complement system is an important aspect of both age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ... we wished to address the question whether genetic risk factors of the AP inhibitor complement factor H (CFH) for AMD would … ... Complement C3-C5 Convertases, Alternative Pathway Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH ... Because activation of the alternative pathway (AP) of the complement system is an important aspect of both age-related macular ...
Factor P, Human | 341283
Accelerates complement activation by binding to and stabilizing the C3 and C5 convertases. - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data ... Accelerates complement activation by binding to and stabilizing the alternative pathway C3 and C5 convertase enzymes.. ... Accelerates complement activation by binding to and stabilizing the alternative pathway C3 and C5 convertase enzymes.. ... Regulatory protein of the alternative pathway of complement activation. ...
ProteinsC3bBbBindsProperdinCascadeProteinComplexesSerumImmuneMembraneDysregulationCleaveHuman complementAntibodyInnate immunityPathogensEnzymeReceptorLysisMoleculesAmplification loopFactorInflammationFragmentsAntibodiesDeficiencyInhibitionRegulationProteasesFluid-phaseActivatesSystemFormationSurface-bound C5 convertasesC4b2aInhibitActivation of the alternative pathwayOpsonizationProteaseGeneration of C5 convertaseRegulatoryDecay-acceleraCleaves C5 to generateDepositionProteolytic cleavageBindC4b2a3bAlternate complemInflammatorySurfacesGenerateMicrobialForms C5 convertaseMoleculeConvergeTerminal pathwayClassical and alternative complement pathwaysHemolyticSpontaneouslyGeneratesPathogenesis
- Complement proteins circulate in the blood as inactive precursors, but are immediately activated upon contact with target cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- The membrane attack complex (MAC) or terminal complement complex (TCC) is a complex of proteins typically formed on the surface of pathogen cell membranes as a result of the activation of the host's complement system, and as such is an effector of the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
- MAC is composed of a complex of four complement proteins (C5b, C6, C7, and C8) that bind to the outer surface of the plasma membrane, and many copies of a fifth protein (C9) that hook up to one another, forming a ring in the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
- This convertase, the alternative pathway C3-convertase, although only produced in small amounts, can cleave multiple C3 proteins into C3a and C3b. (wikipedia.org)
- We show that these hybrid proteins are able to deplete complement, both in vitro and in vivo. (springer.com)
- Human C3/CVF hybrid proteins represent a novel class of biologicals as potential therapeutic agents in many diseases where complement is involved in the pathogenesis. (springer.com)
- Human C3/cobra venom factor hybrid proteins for therapeutic complement depletion: in vivo activity and fine mapping of important domains. (springer.com)
- The decreased expression of complement regulatory proteins (CRP) seems to play an important role in RA activity, and is associated with worsening of the clinical symptoms. (scielo.br)
- rheumatoid arthritis, complement system proteins, complement activation. (scielo.br)
- The complement system (CS) is composed of receptors and regulators bound to the cell membrane and different plasma proteins that interact with cells and mediators of the immune system ( Figure 1 ). (scielo.br)
- Complement acts as a danger‐sensing system in the innate immune system, and its activation initiates a strong inflammatory response and cleavage of the proteins C3 and C5 by proteolytic enzymes, the convertases. (embopress.org)
- Activation of the proteolytic complement cascade triggers cleavage of the homologous 185-200 kDa proteins C3, C4, and C5 ( Supplementary Figure S1 ). (embopress.org)
- The complement system is made up of a large number of distinct plasma proteins that react with one another to opsonize pathogens and induce a series of inflammatory responses that help to fight infection. (nih.gov)
- A number of complement proteins are proteases that are themselves activated by proteolytic cleavage. (nih.gov)
- In this way, the activation of a small number of complement proteins at the start of the pathway is hugely amplified by each successive enzymatic reaction, resulting in the rapid generation of a disproportionately large complement response. (nih.gov)
- First, it generates large numbers of activated complement proteins that bind covalently to pathogens, opsonizing them for engulfment by phagocytes bearing receptors for complement. (nih.gov)
- Second, the small fragments of some complement proteins act as chemoattractants to recruit more phagocytes to the site of complement activation, and also to activate these phagocytes. (nih.gov)
- The complement system is a network of more than 50 plasma proteins and receptors, which have the role of mediating innate and adaptive host defence mechanisms, whereas they also participate in various (patho)physiological processes. (els.net)
- The primary functions mediated by complement proteins include phagocytosis of foreign elements (bacteria, viruses, particles etc .), cell lysis, inflammation, solubilisation of immune complexes, apoptotic cell clearance and enhancement of humoral immune responses. (els.net)
- Complement is a multiprotein network of plasma proteins and cell surface receptors. (els.net)
- Initial studies assumed that these proteins are complement inhibitors similar to FH. (frontiersin.org)
- However, recent evidence suggests that FHR proteins may rather enhance complement activation both directly and also by competing with the inhibitor FH for binding to certain ligands and surfaces. (frontiersin.org)
- This mini review focuses on the role of the main alternative pathway regulator FH in host-pathogen interactions, as well as on the emerging role of the FHR proteins as enhancers of complement activation. (frontiersin.org)
- The complement system, a major humoral arm of innate immunity, includes ~40 plasma and cell membrane-anchored proteins that act in a cascade-like manner to opsonize microbes and facilitate their phagocytosis, activate cellular responses, initiate inflammation, or directly lyse certain microbes by punching holes into them ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
- (B) The five human FH-related (FHR) proteins retained domains homologous to complement control protein domains 6-9 and 18-20 of FH (showed by vertical alignment). (frontiersin.org)
- Because complement is a powerful system to facilitate destruction of microbes or other target cells, host cells and tissues are protected by various combinations of fluid phase and membrane complement regulatory proteins that fine tune and/or block the activation steps of the complement cascade, restrict activation in both time and space, and prevent the potential deleterious effects of full-blown, excessive activation (Figure 1 A) ( 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Recently, the FH-related (FHR) proteins have emerged as additional positive regulators that promote activation of the system, particularly the alternative pathway ( 4 , 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Most complement proteins are zymogens which are proteases that become activated when cleaved. (davidson.edu)
- C3b is a membrane associated protein which binds covalently to other complement proteins already on the pathogen surface. (davidson.edu)
- The complex of complement proteins on the cell surface after C3b binds forms the C5 convertase. (davidson.edu)
- After cleavage C5b interacts nonenzymatically with other complement proteins to form the MAC. (davidson.edu)
- The binding domain of C5b for other complement proteins such as C6 and C7 has been recently characterized and is homologous to a complement binding domain on C3 and C4. (davidson.edu)
- Other complement proteins such as C6 and C7 interact with C5 at the active site C345C in forming the MAC. (davidson.edu)
- Human complement receptor 1 (CR1, CD35) is a single chain transmembrane glycoprotein of molecular weight 160 kd to 250 kd (depending on allotype) and is a member of the regulators of complement activators (RCA) family of proteins that prevent excessive complement activation by inhibiting key enzymes, C3 and C5 convertases of the 3 complement pathways, namely the classical, alternative, and lectin. (bloodjournal.org)
- The contribution of the complement cascade to acute inflammation is well established, as is the continuous activation and consumption of complement proteins in chronic inflammatory states ( 7 , 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Thus, the recent finding that complement proteins C3, C4, and C5a may aid tumor growth through immunosuppression ( 11 ) is unexpected and suggests an insidious and previously unrecognized relationship between the complement system and cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
- The latter fragment is the critical first protein that combines with C6, C7, C8, and multiple C9 proteins to form the MAC, the terminal, pore-forming complement protein complex responsible for lysis of cells and pathogens. (aacrjournals.org)
- Additionally, C3b generated by alternative pathway C3 convertase can attach to target surfaces and bind Bb, forming a C3 convertase that amplifies downstream complement proteins locally at the target surface. (aacrjournals.org)
- This family contains two mammalian proteins, complement C2 and complement factor B, which, respectively, have analogous roles in the classical and alternative pathways of complement activation. (ebi.ac.uk)
- These proteins are composed of three regions, an N-terminal three-module complement control protein domain, a von Willebrand factor A domain, and a C-terminal serine protease domain. (ebi.ac.uk)
- Briefly, they are activated by cleavage and function as the serine protease components of the C3/C5 convertases, which play similar roles in these pathways although composed of different proteins. (ebi.ac.uk)
- Fearon DT, Austen KF (1977) Activation of the alternative complement pathway with rabbit erythrocytes by circumvention of the regulatory action of endogenous control proteins. (springer.com)
- 4 Under normal pregnancy conditions, the fetus is protected from maternal immune responses through an array of mechanisms, including trophoblast expression of complement regulatory proteins that inhibit complement at different steps of the activation cascade. (ahajournals.org)
- demonstrates a lack of a significant pathogenic role for C1q and C3 proteins (and thus upstream complement activation pathways) in SOD1 mutant ALS mice survival, it does not suggest-as the title indicates-that "global" complement activation is not pathogenic in ALS. (pnas.org)
- The complement system is composed of about 20 different proteins released into the blood after production in the liver. (epomedicine.com)
- This pathway consists of proteins known by the term "Factors" like Factor B, Factor D. (epomedicine.com)
- The classical pathway consists of 4 proteins C1, C2, C3 and C4. (epomedicine.com)
- The lectin pathway consists of C2, C3, C4 and some calcium-dependent lectin family proteins which are homologous to C1 component. (epomedicine.com)
- When MBL grabs its target (mannose on the surface of a bacterium, for example), the MASP protein functions like a convertase to clip C3 complement proteins to make C3b. (epomedicine.com)
- Growing evidence suggests that complement proteins not only serve as mediators of innate immune defense against foreign pathogens but can also modulate diverse developmental processes, such as cell survival, growth, and differentiation in various tissues ( 1 , 2 ). (rupress.org)
- The complement system consists of a number of small proteins found in the blood, normally circulating as inactive zymogens . (wikidoc.org)
- Over 20 proteins and protein fragments make up the complement system, including serum proteins, serosal proteins, and cell membrane receptors. (wikidoc.org)
- The complement system, which consists of more than 30 soluble and cell surface proteins, is a major component of innate immunity that functions to recognize and eliminate invading pathogens ( 9 ). (asm.org)
- We explored the hypothesis that thrombin induces EC expression of the complement-regulatory proteins decay-accelerating factor (DAF), membrane cofactor protein (MCP), and CD59 and that this maintains vascular integrity during coagulation associated with complement activation. (bloodjournal.org)
- The complement system consists of a large group of plasma proteins that plays a central role in the defense against infections and in the modulation of inflammatory responses. (bloodjournal.org)
- The membrane-bound proteins decay-accelerating factor (DAF, CD55), protectin (CD59), and membrane cofactor protein (MCP, CD46) are expressed on many cell types and provide protection against the constant low-level activation of the alternative pathway. (bloodjournal.org)
- We used fluorescent microscopy, monospecific antibodies against complement components, fluorescent secondary antibodies, and the analysis of .150 images to quantify the attachment of HUVEC-released complement proteins to ULVWF strings secreted by, and anchored to, the HUVECs (under conditions of ADAMTS-13 inhibition). (rice.edu)
- The complement system is an enzyme cascade that is a collection of blood and cell surface proteins to help the abilities of antibodies to clear pathogens from an organism. (sinobiological.com)
- The complement system that comprises 30 different proteins, including serum proteins, serosal proteins, and cell membrane receptors is an important part of the innate immune system. (sinobiological.com)
- Some complement proteins bind to immunoglobulins or to membrane components of cells. (sinobiological.com)
- Others are proenzymes that, when activated, cleave one or more other complement proteins and initiate an amplifying cascade of further cleavages. (sinobiological.com)
- Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) cells are susceptible to hemolysis because of a loss of the complement regulatory proteins CD59 and CD55. (ashpublications.org)
- It is composed of plasma and membrane proteins that complement antibody-mediated immunity through activation by three pathways. (lecturio.com)
- Complement proteins C1-9 are named after C as complement and numbers in order of activation, except that C4 is activated before C2. (lecturio.com)
- Serum sickness is an example of immune complex clearance by complement proteins. (lecturio.com)
- The complement protein fragments with the lowest number attach to the target and act to activate other proteins. (lecturio.com)
- Mutations in alternative pathway complement proteins in American patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. (proteopedia.org)
- Complement proteins promote the solubilization of these complexes and their clearance by phagocytes. (aurignacien.com)
- Synthesis of proteases specifically against complement proteins degrades complement components. (aurignacien.com)
- There are several proteins which stabilize or regulate C3 convertase activation via the alternative or lectin pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
- Among its related pathways are Metabolism of proteins and Innate Immune System . (genecards.org)
- The complement system consists of a number of small proteins found in the blood, in general synthesized by the liver , and normally circulating as inactive precursors ( pro-proteins ). (wikipedia.org)
- Most of the proteins and glycoproteins that constitute the complement system are synthesized by hepatocytes . (wikipedia.org)
- Complement C3 (MW: 183 kDa) is one of the most abundant plasma proteins. (uiowa.edu)
- Mouse Complement C5 (C5a) is a glycoprotein that belongs to a family of structurally and functionally related proteins known as anaphylatoxins. (sinobio.net)
- In this Review, I discuss immune and nonimmune functions of complement proteins and the tumor-promoting effect of complement activation. (jci.org)
- Genetic studies have recently documented that the familial form is associated with genetic abnormalities of complement regulatory proteins, and evidence is now emerging that similar genetic alterations can predispose to sporadic cases of non-Stx-HUS as well. (asnjournals.org)
- The complement system consists of a large number of plasma proteins that assist or complement the ability of phagocytic cells and antibodies to clear pathogens. (profacgen.com)
- Profacgen developed standardized assays targeting each complement protein, without cross-reacting with their related complement proteins. (profacgen.com)
- The present report will not concentrate on these therapeutic Abs that have been described in recent comprehensive reviews (for example [ 1 , 2 ]), but will rather focus on fusion proteins, peptides and small molecules that represent excellent alternative tools for immune intervention in lupus. (biomedcentral.com)
- The complement system comprises an integrated network of proteins that forms part of the innate immune system. (atypicalhus.co.uk)
- The complement system discriminates between foreign and host surfaces via proteins that are critical to complement activation and complement regulation. (atypicalhus.co.uk)
- A family of FH-related (FHR) proteins also play a role in complement regulation. (atypicalhus.co.uk)
- As dimers, these FHR proteins compete with the ability of FH to regulate complement on cell surfaces. (atypicalhus.co.uk)
- The complement system is a part of the immune system, consists of a series of proteins that interact with one another in a highly regulated manner, in order to eliminate pathogens. (microbeonline.com)
- Complements are soluble proteins and glycoproteins mostly produced by hepatocytes . (microbeonline.com)
- Mutations in PIG-A result in the deficiency of complement inhibitory proteins CD55 and CD59. (cureus.com)
- C3b has most important opsonizing activity Inflammation - by attracting macrophages and neutrophils Membrane attack - by rupturing cell wall of bacteria Overview[ edit ] Most of the proteins and glycoproteins that constitute the complement system are synthesized by hepatocytes. (rhein-main-verzeichnis.info)
- Similar to C3b, in human and mammalian serum, CVF binds factor B, which is then cleaved by factor D, giving rise to the CVFBb complex that targets the same scissile bond in C3 as the authentic complement convertases C4bC2a and C3bBb. (nih.gov)
- The alternative pathway (AP) C3 convertase C3bBb is formed when factor B (fB) combines with C3b, after which fB is activated by factor D (fD) ( Figure 1A ). (embopress.org)
- Factor H functions as a cofactor in the inactivation of C3b by factor I and also increases the rate of dissociation of the C3bBb complex (C3 convertase) and the (C3b)NBB complex (C5 convertase) in the alternative complement pathway. (rcsb.org)
- C3 nephritic factor is a serum immunoglobulin G that interacts with the C3bBb alternative pathway convertase to activate C3. (medscape.com)
- Adipocytes synthesize C3, factor B, and factor D (adipsin), which allows C3bBb to be formed locally, but which usually does not result in the activation of the terminal lytic part of the complement pathway (C5-9).The IgG antibody, C3Nef, prevents the alternative complement C3-convertase C3Bb from dissociative inactivation, resulting in adipocyte lysis. (medscape.com)
- The resulting C3 convertase (C3bBb) is stabilized by binding of properdin (P) and, in an amplification loop, generates more C3b molecules which deposit in the vicinity of the convertase. (els.net)
- C3bBb acts as C3 convertase which cleaves C3 - this creates a continuous loop and many C3b can be deposited on the invader's cell surface. (epomedicine.com)
- Decay Accelerating Factor (DAF) accelerates destruction of C3 convertase (C3bBb). (epomedicine.com)
- It binds to C3b, accelerates the decay of the alternative pathway convertase C3bBb, and also acts as a cofactor for complement factor I, another C3b inhibitor. (abcam.com)
- This was verified when non-functional FB blocked the formation of AP C3 convertase complexes (C3bBb) on ULVWF strings. (rice.edu)
- In C3 glomerulopathy (C3G), the alternative pathway of complement is frequently overactivated by autoantibodies that stabilize the C3 convertase C3bBb. (asnjournals.org)
- IgG from patients with anti-C3b Abs stabilized C3bBb and perturbed C3b binding to complement receptor 1 but did not perturb binding to factor H. In conclusion, the prevalence of anti-C3b/anti-FB Abs and alternative pathway activation is similar in Ig-MPGN and C3G, suggesting similar pathogenic mechanisms. (asnjournals.org)
- C3bBb is an unstable form of C3 convertase with a half-life of 90 seconds. (biomedcentral.com)
- On a complement-activating surface, C3b binds Bb (produced by factor D-mediated cleavage of factor B) and generates C3bBb (the alternative pathway's C3 convertase). (jci.org)
- However, if it deposits on a microbe, activated C3 can be quickly amplified by engaging two proteases, factor B (FB) and factor D (FD), to create the AP C3 convertase (C3bBb). (ajkdblog.org)
- C3bBb recruits additional available C3b to form the C5 convertase, C3bBbC3b, launching terminal pathway activation. (uiowa.edu)
- Activated C3 in the form of C3b binds FB to form the C3 convertase of the alternative pathway (C3bBb). (atypicalhus.co.uk)
- Another complement protein, C6, binds to C5b. (wikipedia.org)
- The pathway is triggered when the C3b protein directly binds a microbe . (wikipedia.org)
-  Complement factor H preferentially binds to vertebrate cells (because of affinity for sialic acid residues), allowing preferential protection of host (as opposed to bacterial) cells from complement-mediated damage. (wikipedia.org)
- Cleavage of complement component C5 requires additional C3b which binds C5 and renders it susceptible to cleavage by C3b,Bb complex. (expasy.org)
- Finally, the alternative pathway can be initiated when a spontaneously activated complement component binds to the surface of a pathogen. (nih.gov)
- C3b binds to other C3 convertases, forming C2a4b3b, also known as C5 convertase. (aacrjournals.org)
- Generated C3b binds Bb, a cleavage fragment of factor B, and properdin, resulting in the formation of the alternative pathway C3 convertase. (aacrjournals.org)
- The alternative pathway initiates when spontaneously hydrolyzed C3 binds to activating surfaces (i.e., certain bacteria and viruses). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- DAF prevents the formation and accelerates the decay of C3 and C5 convertases, 2 while MCP binds C3b and C4b and allows their degradation by factor I. 4 In contrast, CD59 operates at the distal end of the complement cascade, binding to C9 and preventing its incorporation into the C5b-9 complex, thereby inhibiting the function of the membrane attack complex (MAC). (bloodjournal.org)
- Most of C4b attaches to the target cells while only a few binds to C2a to form C3 convertase. (lecturio.com)
- In the classical pathway the activated C1s cleaves C4 to C4a and C4b which binds to the microbial surface. (wordpress.com)
- When MBL binds to a pathogen surface MBL-associated serine protease (MASP)-2 is activated and cleaves C4 and C2 similar to the classical pathway. (wordpress.com)
- This protein binds to many microbial surfaces and apoptotic cells and stabilizes the C3- and C5-convertase enzyme complexes in a feedback loop that ultimately leads to formation of the membrane attack complex and lysis of the target cell. (genecards.org)
- It binds to and stabilizes the C3- and C5-convertase enzyme complexes. (genecards.org)
- Properdin released from human polymorphonuclear cells does not bind to zymosan or E. coli, but when incubated in properdin-depleted serum this form of properdin binds efficiently to both substrates in a strictly complement C3-dependent manner. (nih.gov)
- B ) In the lectin pathway, MBL binds to repetitive sugar moieties such as mannose. (jci.org)
- C ) In the alternative pathway, small amounts of hydrolyzed plasma C3 [C3(H2O)] bind to factor B, which forms the C3(H2O)Bb complex with help from factor D. C3(H2O)Bb cleaves additional plasma C3 to generate highly active C3b, which binds to cell the surface. (jci.org)
- If it remains intact, C3 convertase binds to additional C3b to generate C5 convertase. (jci.org)
- In the presence of C3b, factor B (MW: 93 kDa) binds to C3b to form the pre-convertase (C3bB). (uiowa.edu)
- Eculizumab, the only licensed complement inhibitor approved for clinical use, binds C5 and prevents its cleavage by C3bBbC3b. (atypicalhus.co.uk)
- and the C5 convertase, which cleaves C5 into C5a and C5b.C3b, thus formed, binds C3 convertase to form C5 convertase. (microbeonline.com)
- Classical pathway , activated by antigen-antibody reaction, Alternative pathway , activated on microbial cell surfaces, and Mannose binding Lectin pathway , activated by a plasma lectin that binds to mannose residues on microbes. (microbeonline.com)
- C3b binds to the microbial surface or to the convertase itself. (microbeonline.com)
- C3b when binds to C3 convertase forms C4bC2aC3b ( C5 convertase ) which activates C5. (microbeonline.com)
- In the alternative pathway, C3b binds to Factor B. (rhein-main-verzeichnis.info)
- C5 convertase is also formed by the classical pathway when C3b binds C4b and C2b. (rhein-main-verzeichnis.info)
- The addition of properdin forms the complex C3bBbP, a stable compound which can bind an additional C3b to form alternative pathway C5-convertase. (wikipedia.org)
- This nonproteolytically activated form of C3 can lead to the formation of the alternative pathway C3 convertase by interacting with factors B and D. This convertase formation can be further induced and stabilised by properdin. (els.net)
- Properdin is a positive regulator of complement activation. (frontiersin.org)
- Factor B, factor D, and properdin (factor P) are specific components of the alternative pathway of complement activation. (asmscience.org)
- The affinity of factor B to bind C3b is higher on "activating "surfaces, and the half-life of C3bB, C3Bb, and C3Bb(C3b)n complexes, significantly increased by the action of properdin, allows the alternative pathway amplification loop to be formed. (asmscience.org)
- Recently, properdin, a positive regulator of the alternative pathway of complement, has been shown to bind to surfaces and promote complement activation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Here we studied whether properdin-mediated complement activation occurs on the surface of Chlamydia pneumoniae , an obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium that causes 10 to 20% of community-acquired pneumonia. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The alternative pathway is an amplification loop for C3b formation that is accelerated by properdin (factor P) in the presence of pathogens. (wordpress.com)
- Membrane attack complex (MAC), properdin (P), factor H (fH) and Complement receptor type 1 (CR1) were quantified in urine samples from 71 patients with IgAN and 72 healthy controls. (biomedcentral.com)
- CFP (Complement Factor Properdin) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
- tubular HS as a novel docking platform for alternative pathway activation via properdin, which might play a role in proteinuric renal damage. (nih.gov)
- Serum properdin consumption as a biomarker of C5 convertase dysregulation in C3 glomerulopathy. (nih.gov)
- Properdin has an ascendancy over factor H regulation in complement-mediated renal tubular damage. (nih.gov)
- Myeloperoxidase directs properdin-mediated complement activation. (nih.gov)
- Identification of a novel mode of complement activation on stimulated platelets mediated by properdin and C3(H2O). (nih.gov)
- The role of properdin in zymosan- and Escherichia coli-induced complement activation. (nih.gov)
- Elevated properdin and enhanced complement activation in first-degree relatives of South Asian subjects with type 2 diabetes. (nih.gov)
- C3b generates new C3 convertases by interacting with factors B, D and properdin. (uiowa.edu)
- Mammalian properdin, a glycoprotein involved in the positive regulation of the alternative pathway of the complement system of immune defense by binding to and stabilizing the C3/C5-convertase complexes. (expasy.org)
- Neutron and X-ray scattering studies on the human complement protein properdin provide an analysis of the thrombospondin repeat. (expasy.org)
- Cleavage of C5 by C5 convertase is the last enzymatic step in the complement activation cascade leading to the formation of the cytolytic proteolytically activated form of C5 (C5b)-9 complex. (jimmunol.org)
- Cleavage of C5, the fifth component of complement, by the serine protease C5 convertase is an important enzymatic reaction that occurs during the activation cascade. (jimmunol.org)
- Upon exposure of human spermatozoa to autologous serum or follicular fluid, we unexpectedly observed that acrosome-reacted spermatozoa activated the complement cascade efficiently through C3 but not beyond. (jci.org)
- The complement system activates through a triggered-enzyme cascade. (nih.gov)
- In such a cascade, an active complement enzyme generated by cleavage of its zymogen precursor then cleaves its substrate, another complement zymogen, to its active enzymatic form. (nih.gov)
- Schematic overview of the complement cascade. (nih.gov)
- In the early phases of an infection, the complement cascade can be activated on the surface of a pathogen through any one, or more, of the three pathways shown in Fig. 2.8 . (nih.gov)
- The classical pathway can be initiated by the binding of C1q, the first protein in the complement cascade, directly to the pathogen surface. (nih.gov)
- Complement C5a human is an important terminal component of the complement cascade. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- It is well established that activation of the complement cascade alters functional responses of neutrophils (PMN) in the course of systemic inflammation and contributes to the development of organ failure [ 15 , 23 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Furthermore, potential therapeutic strategies targeting the complement cascade to prevent the development of MOF as well as possible future research directions are addressed. (hindawi.com)
- The recognition molecules of the pathways initiate activation by interacting with enzymatically active components that propagate the cascade and generate active complement fragments and complexes that mediate the biological effects of the system (Figure 1 A) ( 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Activation of complement cascade via the antibody-mediated classical pathway can initiate red blood cell (RBC) destruction, causing transfusion reactions and hemolytic anemia. (bloodjournal.org)
- Emerging evidence over the last decade unexpectedly identified the complement cascade as a common thread in this process. (jci.org)
- Emerging evidence over the past 15 years supports the concept that the complement cascade, traditionally considered a component of innate immunity, unexpectedly regulates kidney IR injury, T cell and humoral alloimmunity that underlie transplant rejection, and progressive kidney injury that results in late graft failure. (jci.org)
- As a fundamental component of innate immunity, the complement cascade ( Fig. 1 ) contains some of the most powerful proinflammatory molecules in the body, including most notably the anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. (aacrjournals.org)
- Nevertheless, emerging literature examining the mechanistic relationship between inflammation and cancer ( 4 , 9 , 10 ) has almost completely omitted the role of the complement cascade. (aacrjournals.org)
- The complement cascade comprises the classic, alternative, and MBL pathways. (aacrjournals.org)
- It facilitates the final steps of the cascade by splitting C5 into C5a and C5b. (aacrjournals.org)
- MBL or ficolin activation of mannose-associated serine proteases (MASP) results in cleavage of C2 and C4 similar to the C1 complex, with subsequent production of C3 convertase and complement cascade activation resembling the classic pathway. (aacrjournals.org)
- The complement cascade is activated in normal pregnancy, and excessive complement activation propagates the systemic inflammatory response in severe preeclampsia. (ahajournals.org)
- All of the 3 pathways converge at a particular point in the cascade and produces a common complex called C3-convertase which cleaves the C3 component of the complement system. (epomedicine.com)
- The complement system is a biochemical cascade which helps clear pathogens from an organism. (wikidoc.org)
- In all three pathways, a C3-convertase cleaves and activates component C3 , creating C3a and C3b and causing a cascade of further cleavage and activation events. (wikidoc.org)
- Activation of the complement system results in a cascade of enzymatic proteolysis of various components of the complement system, including complement component 3 (C3), C4, and C5. (asm.org)
- The complement activation is tightly regulated by membrane-bound and fluid-phase regulatory components to avoid runaway activation of the enzymatic cascade that could lead to excess host tissue damage, inflammation, and depletion of complement components. (asmscience.org)
- Model of complement dysregulation in aHUS (A) and PNH (B). Initiators of the complement cascade (classical, alternative, and lectin pathway, as well as thrombin and plasmin/kallikrein) lead to C3 activation and C3 convertase formation, which is augmented the amplification loop (proximal complement). (ashpublications.org)
- Complement dysregulation results from loss-of-function mutations in regulatory factors (Factor H, I, and THBD/thrombomodulin in aHUS and CD55, CD59 in PNH) shown in red, gain-of-function mutations (C3 and Factor B in aHUS) shown in green, and DGKE mutations in aHUS shown in gray, indicating the unknown effect on complement cascade. (ashpublications.org)
- Note=Susceptibility to the development of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome can be conferred by mutations in various components of or regulatory factors in the complement cascade system. (proteopedia.org)
- The end result of this complement activation or complement fixation cascade is stimulation of phagocytes to clear foreign and damaged material, inflammation to attract additional phagocytes, and activation of the cell-killing membrane attack complex . (wikipedia.org)
- In conclusion, on the basis of these and previous results, it appears that DAF plays a central role in preventing the amplification of the complement cascade on host cell surfaces. (rupress.org)
- Here, we review the genetic architecture of AMD, considering the contribution of both common and rare alleles to susceptibility, and we explore the possible mechanistic links between photoreceptor degeneration and the alternative complement pathway, a cascade that has emerged as the most potent genetic driver of this disorder. (cdc.gov)
- Activation of the complement cascade through the classical, alternative or lectin pathways thus generating opsonins like C3b and C5b, anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a, chemotaxin, and inflammatory mediators, which leads to cellular death. (biomedcentral.com)
- Model shows active mediators of the complement cascade during inflammation in airway asthma. (biomedcentral.com)
- Reaction Cascade of the Complement System: Classical complement pathway The classical and alternative complement pathways The classical pathway is triggered by activation of the C1-complex. (rhein-main-verzeichnis.info)
- Complement is a large protein network in plasma that is crucial for human immune defenses and a major cause of aberrant inflammatory reactions. (biomedcentral.com)
- The membrane attack complex is initiated when the complement protein C5 convertase cleaves C5 into C5a and C5b. (wikipedia.org)
- CFHR5 (Complement Factor H-Related protein 5) is able to bind to act as a cofactor for factor I, has decay accelerating activity and is able to bind preferentially to C3b at host surfaces. (wikipedia.org)
- Using FACS to simultaneously evaluate viability, acrosomal status, and complement deposition, we found that complement activation was initiated by C-reactive protein (CRP) and was C1q, C2, and factor B dependent. (jci.org)
- One hybrid protein, HC3-1496, is shown to be effective in reducing complement-mediated damage in two disease models in mice, collagen-induced arthritis and myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. (springer.com)
- Depletion of plasma complement in vivo by a protein of cobra venom: its effect on various immunologic reactions. (springer.com)
- The mannan-binding lectin pathway ( MB-lectin pathway ) is initiated by binding of the mannan-binding lectin, a serum protein, to mannose-containing carbohydrates on bacteria or viruses. (nih.gov)
- Complement pathways and the human factor H (FH) protein family. (frontiersin.org)
- The complement system consists of a series of plasma protein interactions which mediate direct attack on pathogens (opsonization) and induce inflammation. (davidson.edu)
- Regulatory protein of the alternative pathway of complement activation. (emdmillipore.com)
- Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Purple sea urchin) has an atypical factor B with a five-module complement control protein domain. (ebi.ac.uk)
- 2014) Complement factor H related hybrid protein deregulates complement in dense deposit disease. (els.net)
- Complement factor H (CFH) is a soluble complement regulatory protein essential for the down-regulation of the alternative pathway on interaction with specific markers on the host cell surface. (biochemj.org)
- A complement protein attacking an invader. (wikidoc.org)
- Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen Complement Factor B Antikörper (211) und Complement Factor B Proteine (34) und viele weitere Produktgruppen zu diesem Protein an. (antikoerper-online.de)
- The protein mediates cellular binding to particles and immune complexes that have activated complement. (nih.gov)
- Background: Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) express and release protein components of the complement pathways, as well as secreting and anchoring ultra-large von Willebrand factor (ULVWF) multimers in long string-like structures that initiate platelet adhesion during hemostasis and thrombosis. (rice.edu)
- CO3_NAJKA ] Complement-activating protein in cobra venom. (proteopedia.org)
- This antibody recognizes the human serum complement protein factor H and a 43- 49kD truncated form of factor H present at low levels (1-5ug/ml) in plasma and urine. (mybiosource.com)
- This gene is a member of the Regulator of Complement Activation (RCA) gene cluster and encodes a protein with twenty short consensus repeat (SCR) domains. (mybiosource.com)
- This protein is secreted into the bloodstream and has an essential role in the regulation of complement activation, restricting this innate defense mechanism to microbial infections. (mybiosource.com)
- Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen Complement Component 5 Kits (72) und Complement Component 5 Proteine (19) und viele weitere Produktgruppen zu diesem Protein an. (antikoerper-online.de)
- Widespread Expansion of Protein Interaction Capabilities by Alternative Splicing. (nih.gov)
- In these patients, the type of complement-associated defect cannot be predicted by measuring plasma protein levels but may be discoverable by genetic analysis. (uiowa.edu)
- Complement factor H (CFH), as another example, is the first regulatory protein of the alternative pathway of the complement system. (profacgen.com)
- Thus, inadequate control of complement activation due to inherited defects in complement genes and acquired auto-antibodies against a regulatory protein can predispose to several diseases. (ajkdblog.org)
- membrane-bound regulators include membrane co-factor protein (CD46, MCP) decay accelerating factor (DAF, CD55) and complement receptor 1 (CR1, CD35). (atypicalhus.co.uk)
- CRP is an acute-phase serum protein and a mediator of innate immunity through the complement activation of C1, C4, C2 and C3 components. (biomedcentral.com)
- C2 (Complement C2) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
- The results suggest that in serum convertases formed with monomeric C3b will be relatively inefficient in capturing C5 but will continue to cleave C3 opsonizing the cell surface for phagocytosis, whereas convertases formed with C3b-C3b complexes in areas of high C3b density will primarily cleave C5. (jimmunol.org)
- C3 convertases of the alternative pathway (monomeric C3/C5 convertase assembled with monomeric C3b (C3b,Bb)) and the classical pathway (C4b,C2a) are bimolecular complexes ( 1 , 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Through development of a highly purified model system for C5 convertases, we here aim to provide insights into the surface-specific nature of these important protease complexes. (biomedcentral.com)
- These fluid phase complexes do not bind to cell membranes and are ultimately scavenged by clusterin and vitronectin, two regulators of complement. (wikipedia.org)
- The classical pathway (CP) is activated by surface‐bound immune complexes, resulting in cleavage of C4 and thereby generation of C4b ( Figure 1A ). (embopress.org)
- C4b2a is the widely used short‐hand nomenclature for the C4b-C2a complex in the complement field, and similar nomenclature is used for the remaining complexes in the following). (embopress.org)
- The components of complement system can be organised into three major pathways: The classical pathway is mainly initiated by the binding of C1q to antigen-antibody complexes, whereas the lectin pathway is triggered by binding of mannose‐binding lectin ( MBL ) or ficolins to glycosylated surfaces on microbial cell walls. (els.net)
- These include interactions with the host complement system that may facilitate pathogen entry into cells and tissues, expression of molecules that defuse the effector complement components and complexes, and acquisition of host complement inhibitors to downregulate complement activity on the surface of the pathogen. (frontiersin.org)
- Central to innate immunity, complement activation is heightened in pregnancy, 1 in part, to facilitate normal clearance of fetoplacental material, including apoptotic blebs, 2 circulating fetal DNA, 3 and immune complexes. (ahajournals.org)
- Both the classical and the lectin pathway share the identical C3 and C5 convertase complexes formed after cleavage of C4 by either activated C1s (classical pathway) or activated MASP-2 (lectin pathway) (see 1) and subsequent cleavage and activation of C4b-bound C2 through activated C1s or MASP-2 (see 2). (asmscience.org)
- Mediates the binding by these cells of particles and immune complexes that have activated complement to eliminate them from the circulation (PubMed:2963069). (nih.gov)
- In contrast, C3, FB, FD, FP and C5, FH and FI attached to ULVWF strings in quantitative patterns consistent with assembly of the AP components into active complexes. (rice.edu)
- Consequently, membrane attack complexes (MAC) are formed on the membrane of target cells (terminal complement), leading to complement-mediated death. (ashpublications.org)
- Immune complexes can activate complement deposition on the antibody portion of the immune complexes leading to further activation of phagocytic and hematopoietic cells that clear the immune complexes from the circulation. (lecturio.com)
- These short-lived protease complexes are formed through pro-convertases, which for the alternative pathway consist of the complement component C3b and the pro-enzyme factor B (FB). (proteopedia.org)
- These complexes are formed when C5 is cleaved into C5b by the C5 convertase. (aurignacien.com)
- Like the alternative pathway, the lectin pathway may be activated in the absence of immune complexes. (aurignacien.com)
- The classical complement pathway typically requires antigen-antibody complexes for activation (specific immune response), whereas the alternative pathway can be activated by spontaneous C3 hydrolysis, foreign material, pathogens, or damaged cells. (wikipedia.org)
- Complement activation is a critical means of host defense against infection and the clearance of immune complexes. (ashpublications.org)
- however, in two patients with nephritic factor in their serum fractional catabolism of C5 was normal despite markedly increased C3 turnover, suggesting that in patients with alternative pathway activation by nephritic factor little or no C5 convertase is generated. (curehunter.com)
- Lipodystrophy is often associated with glomerulonephritis, low C3 serum complement levels, and the presence of a C3 nephritic factor. (medscape.com)
- Bartholomew RM, Esser AF, Müller-Eberhard HJ (1978) Lysis of oncornaviruses by human serum: Isolation of the viral complement (Cl) receptor and identification as pl5E. (springer.com)
- Beebe DP, Cooper NR (1981) Neutralization of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) by human complement requires a natural IgM antibody present in human serum. (springer.com)
- Cooper NR, Jensen FC, Welsh RM, Oldstone MBA (1976) Lysis of RNA tumor viruses by human serum: Direct antibody independent triggering of the classical complement pathway. (springer.com)
- The Human Complement H Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) kit (ab213765) is designed for the quantitative measurement Human Complement H/CFH in cell culture supernatants, serum, plasma (heparin, EDTA) and urine. (abcam.com)
- Complement factor H (CFH), originally known as beta-1H globulin, is a serum glycoprotein that regulates the function of the alternative complement pathway in fluid phase and on cellular surfaces. (abcam.com)
- Because our previous work established that the serum levels of B, P, fH and fI in patients with IgAN were significantly higher than those in healthy controls [ 14 ], we hypothesized that targeting the alternative pathway C3 convertase activation could be therapeutically beneficial in IgAN. (biomedcentral.com)
- P serum level expression could be a reliable clinical biomarker to identify patients with underlying surface alternative pathway C5 convertase dysregulation. (nih.gov)
- The optimal reaction conditions for hemolytic assay of alternative complement pathway activity in mouse serum were investigated. (uu.nl)
- Addition of 1 mg of zymosan A per test well, however, enhanced and accelerated the hemolytic activity of mouse serum via the alternative pathway resulting in a maximum value after 45 min. (uu.nl)
- Evaluation of Pasteurella multocida serotype B:2 resistance to immune serum and complement system', Veterinary Research Forum , 8(3), pp. 179-184. (iranjournals.ir)
- The results showed that P. multocida B:2 is highly resistant to positive serum, containing high levels of IgG and IgM obtained from calves after vaccination, and complement activity in normal fresh calf serum. (iranjournals.ir)
- Results were indicative of the presence of inhibitory mechanism(s) in P. multocida B:2 against bactericidal activity of immune calf serum and complement system. (iranjournals.ir)
- The destructive effects of fresh serum on gram-negative bacteria is assumed to be one of the consequences of the activity of host complement system. (iranjournals.ir)
- More than 20 types of complements are present in serum, found circulating normally in human body in inactive forms (called as zymogens or proenzymes) . (microbeonline.com)
- Component C2 is a serum glycoprotein that functions as part of the classical pathway of the complement system. (genecards.org)
- Activation of complement via the innate and the adaptive immune systems is vital to the body's defenses in fighting infections. (jimmunol.org)
- The alternative pathway of the complement system is an innate component of the immune system 's natural defense against infections. (wikipedia.org)
- We propose that this localized deposition of complement fragments aids in the fusion process between the spermatozoa and egg, in a role akin to that of complement in immune adherence. (jci.org)
- More recently, both in vitro and in vivo evidence have pointed toward over-activation of the alternative complement pathway, part of the innate immune system, in TTP, suggesting an additional immune mechanism in the pathogenesis of the disorder. (springer.com)
- Indeed, it now seems clear that complement first evolved as part of the innate immune system , where it still plays an important role. (nih.gov)
- The underlying immune response is highly complex and involves activation of the complement system as a crucial entity of innate immunity. (hindawi.com)
- Collectively, our data highlight a potential use of CR1-based inhibitors for prevention of complement-dependent immune hemolysis. (bloodjournal.org)
- The complement system is an important mediator of the host immune response to infection and tissue damage, but may cause substantial injury when activated inappropriately. (bloodjournal.org)
- In immune destruction of red blood cells (RBCs), complement plays a critical role, being involved in both intravascular and extravascular hemolysis. (bloodjournal.org)
- Indeed, as many as 50% of patients with immune hemolytic diseases have both IgG and complement on their red cells. (bloodjournal.org)
- 4 Because of the contribution of complement in RBC destruction, we have taken the approach of activation using recombinant complement inhibitory molecules to block complement-mediated immune hemolysis, and thereby prevent some of its associated life-threatening effects. (bloodjournal.org)
- This body of literature, to be reviewed herein, suggests that complement components produced by the liver as well as by kidney cells and immune cells play crucial roles as pathogenic mediators of transplant rejection in animals and humans. (jci.org)
- For survival in an immunocompetent host, pathogenic microbes provide strategies to interfere with alternative pathway activation at their surface and they evade complement immune recognition. (els.net)
- He JQ , Wiesmann C and von Lookeren Campagne M (2008) A role of macrophage complement receptor CRIg in immune clearance and inflammation. (els.net)
- The term "complement" was introduced by Paul Ehrlich in the late 1890s, as part of his larger theory of the immune system. (wikidoc.org)
- Ehrlich therefore named this heat-labile component "complement", because it is something in the blood which "complements" the cells of the immune system. (wikidoc.org)
- The classical complement pathway typically requires antibodies for activation (specific immune response), while the alternative and mannose-binding lectin pathways can be activated by C3 hydrolysis or antigens without the presence of antibodies (non-specific immune response). (wikidoc.org)
- The proteolytic processing of C3 generates an array of cleavage products that are involved in the amplification of complement activity through the formation of C3 and C5 convertases, the opsonization of pathogens, and the attraction and activation of leukocytes of both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune response. (asm.org)
- The complement system provides a fundamental component of the body's immune response to invading microorganisms. (asmscience.org)
- This chapter highlights the various roles of the complement system in the orchestration of the immune response towards microbial infections, gives examples of microbial strategies to evade complement-mediated clearance, and discusses how acquired and inherited complement deficiencies may predispose an organism to infectious disease. (asmscience.org)
- In renal transplant, the allograft is responsible for triggering many innate and adaptive immune mechanisms, either mediated by cells, such as macrophages and lymphocytes, or by soluble components, such as antibodies and the complement system, which can ultimately lead to graft rejection [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
- During this journey, from circulating cells to endothelial cells, C. pneumoniae encounters the innate immune system, in which the complement system may play a fundamental role in controlling Chlamydia infection. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The complement system is a central component of the innate immune response and is involved in many functions, including recognition, opsonization, phagocytosis, and destruction of foreign cells, as well as generation of chemotactic fragments (C3a and C5a) and activation of adaptive immunity ( 30 , 32 , 51 ) Three pathways of complement activation are known: the classical, lectin, and alternative pathways. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Membrane immune adherence receptor that plays a critical role in the capture and clearance of complement-opsonized pathogens by erythrocytes and monocytes/macrophages (PubMed:2963069). (nih.gov)
- The complement system has four major function, including lysis of infectious organisms, activation of inflammation, opsonization and immune clearance.There are three different complement pathways, the classical complement pathway, the alternative complement pathway, and the mannose-binding lectin pathway. (sinobiological.com)
- Immune protection by the complement system critically depends on assembly of C3 convertases on the surface of pathogens and altered host cells. (proteopedia.org)
- This gene encodes a plasma glycoprotein that positively regulates the alternative complement pathway of the innate immune system. (genecards.org)
- The complement system is a part of the immune system that enhances (complements) the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear microbes and damaged cells from an organism, promotes inflammation, and attacks the pathogen's cell membrane . (wikipedia.org)
- The complement system can be recruited and brought into action by antibodies generated by the adaptive immune system . (wikipedia.org)
- Ehrlich introduced the term "complement" as part of his larger theory of the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
- Complement, a key part of the innate immune system, is composed of multiple components and needs to be activated to function. (ashpublications.org)
- In addition to being a component of innate immunity and an ancient defense mechanism against invading pathogens, complement activation also participates in the adaptive immune response, inflammation, hemostasis, embryogenesis, and organ repair and development. (jci.org)
- In the present study, the possible bactericidal activity of immune calf sera in the presence and absence of complement system was investigated. (iranjournals.ir)
- 13 These polysaccharidic components are widely used for bacterial classification, responsible for non-immunological and immunological interactions of bacteria with hosts and also involved in the avoidance of host innate immune mechanisms-such as resistance to phagocytosis, complement-mediated killing, and the bactericidal activity of antimicrobial peptides. (iranjournals.ir)
- The classical pathway begins with the formation of antigen-antibody complex (immune complex). (microbeonline.com)
- The complement mediators are the major effectors of the immune balance, which operates at the interface between the innate and adaptive immunity, and is vital for many immunoregulatory functions. (biomedcentral.com)
- The mannose-binding lectin pathway can be activated by C3 hydrolysis or antigens without the presence of antibodies non-specific immune response. (rhein-main-verzeichnis.info)
- Among its related pathways are Immune response Lectin induced complement pathway and Complement Pathway . (genecards.org)
- A novel bifunctional chimeric complement inhibitor that regulates C3 convertase and formation of the membrane attack complex. (springer.com)
- Third, the terminal complement components damage certain bacteria by creating pores in the bacterial membrane. (nih.gov)
- 2011) Structure of human complement C8, a precursor to membrane attack. (els.net)
- The hydrophobic anchor of C7 in the membrane has a high affinity for phospholipids which ensures strong binding while other complement constituents of the MAC are brought together. (davidson.edu)
- COMPLEMENT FACTOR I). This abnormally stabilized enzyme induces a continuous COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and generation of C3b thereby promoting the assembly of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX and cytolysis. (harvard.edu)
- 1 The pathobiologic effects of complement are mediated directly by the formation of the cytolytic membrane attack complex (C5b-9), and indirectly by the generation of anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. (bloodjournal.org)
- Complement regulators existing in the fluid phase and on the cell membrane determine the fate of the newly formed C3b molecule. (els.net)
- No matter, how the complement system is activated, generation of C5 convertase is important for the culmination of the complement mediated effector mechanisms, leading to the formation of Membrane Attack Complex (MAC). (epomedicine.com)
- C5b initiates the membrane attack pathway , which results in the membrane attack complex (MAC), consisting of C5b, C6 , C7 , C8 , and polymeric C9 . (wikidoc.org)
- Activation of the alternative pathway is tightly controlled by membrane associated complement regulatory components and the competition of the main fluid phase antagonists factor B and factor H for binding C3b or hydrolsed C3. (asmscience.org)
- Identification of membrane components of Trypanosoma cruzi modulators of complement system. (elsevier.com)
- The C5 convertase cleaves C5 into C5a and C5b, the latter of which oligomerizes with C6, C7, C8, and multiple C9 molecules to form the membrane attack complex. (ashpublications.org)
- The ultimate goal for complement activation is C3b deposition on the target cell membrane followed by the membrane attack complex (MAC) responsible for opsonization . (lecturio.com)
- The C4b2b3b complex is an active C5 convertase leading to the development of the membrane-attack complex. (wordpress.com)
- These are the terminal complement components that form the membrane-attack complex. (wordpress.com)
- Experiments using preassembled classical pathway C3 convertases confirmed that C4b2a directly activated complement component 5 (C5), leading to membrane attack complex formation and hemolysis. (ashpublications.org)
- Complement component 3 (C3) is the central component of all 3 major complement activation pathways required for both complement-mediated opsonization and membrane attack complex (MAC) formation. (ashpublications.org)
- Activation of the complement system via classical, lectin, or alternative pathways generates anaphylatoxins (C3a and C5a) and membrane attack complex (C5b-9) and opsonizes targeted cells. (jci.org)
- PHENOTYPE: Homozygous null mice display uncontrolled alternative pathway activation as shown by reduced complement C3, factor B, and factor H levels, but do not develop C3 deposition along the glomerular basement membrane or membranoproliferative glomerulonephritistype II. (utsouthwestern.edu)
- C3b is in turn part of the C5 convertase that cleaves C5 which eventually leads to the formation of the Membrane Attack Complex (MAC) or soluble Terminal Complement Complex, sTCC. (profacgen.com)
- Decay-accelerating factor (DAF), extracted from the stroma of human erythrocytes, was purified to homogeneity and incorporated into the membrane of sheep red cell complement intermediates, where its functional properties were analyzed. (rupress.org)
- The presence of DAF in the membrane of EA did not affect the deposition of C1 and C4, but as few as 10(2) DAF molecules per cell profoundly inhibited the assembly of C3 and C5 convertases of both the classical and alternative pathways. (rupress.org)
- When incorporated into the membrane of rabbit erythrocytes, human DAF inhibited their lysis by human complement. (rupress.org)
- C5 convertase, generated by the alternative, classical, or lectin pathway, initiates the activation of late components of the complement system to form membrane attack complex (MAC) and ultimately kills the pathogen. (microbeonline.com)
- In the alternative pathway of complement activation, complement C3 spontaneously hydrolyzes and forms C3 convertase leading to activation of C3 and C5, which results in the formation of a membrane-associated complex, a key step in the terminal pathway. (cureus.com)
- Normally, CD55 controls the level of C3 by degrading C3 convertase, and CD59 inhibits membrane attack complex (MAC) formations. (cureus.com)
- Vertebrate C6 (3 TSP1s), C7 (2 TSP1s), C8A (2 TSP1s), C8B (2 TSP1s) and C9 (1 or 2 TSP1s), components of the membrane attack complex of the complement system. (expasy.org)
- Dysregulation of the complement system has been implicated in several diseases and pathologies. (wikipedia.org)
- Dysregulation of the complement system has been implicated in several diseases and pathologies, including Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome in which kidney function is compromised. (wikipedia.org)
- Dysregulation of complement activity has, therefore, been connected to various diseases, including autoimmune conditions, thrombotic pathologies and infections. (els.net)
- Complement dysregulation and deficiencies are connected to disease. (els.net)
- Consequently, biomarkers of complement dysregulation may be useful for prediction or treatment of disease. (ahajournals.org)
- Because renal damage with proteinuria is a characteristic pathological feature of preeclampsia, we hypothesized that complement markers in urine, rather than plasma, could better reflect complement dysregulation in disease. (ahajournals.org)
- however, they did not distinguish preeclampsia from chronic hypertension, supporting our hypothesis that complement markers in urine, rather than plasma, better reflect complement dysregulation. (ahajournals.org)
- Dense deposit disease (DDD) and C3 glomerulonephritis (C3GN) are two ultra-rare renal diseases characterized by fluid-phase dysregulation of C3 and C5 convertases that can lead to partial or complete consumption of circulating complement components, including C3. (uiowa.edu)
- Her research focuses on defining the role of complement dysregulation in the complement-mediated kidney diseases (particularly C3 Glomerulopathy). (ajkdblog.org)
- Consumption of AP complement components is dependent on the degree of dysregulation of the C3 and C5 convertases. (uiowa.edu)
- 0.001) consistent with dysregulation of the C3 convertase in both diseases (see Zhang et al. (uiowa.edu)
- In C3 glomerulopathy, a high percentage of patients have circulating levels of the autoantibody called C3NeF, which causes systemic dysregulation of the complement system. (revistanefrologia.com)
- C3 convertases generated by all pathways are able to cleave C3 into C3a and C3b, latter of which forms additional convertases, thereby rapidly amplifying complement response. (els.net)
- Both C5 convertases perform the same function, which is to cleave C5 into its two active components C5a and C5b. (davidson.edu)
- Although the activation and amplification of the three pathways differ initially, they commonly cleave C3 into C3a and C3b, resulting in terminal formation of the MAC. (aacrjournals.org)
- It has long been known that serine proteases outside of the complement system are able to directly cleave C3 and C5 to generate bioactive complement fragments and initiate downstream pathway activation. (pnas.org)
- are able to generate downstream C5a in the absence of traditional C3 convertase formation, through compensatory up-regulation of thrombin activity to cleave C5 directly ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
- The MBL-associated serine proteases, MASP-1, and MASP-2, are activated and cleave C4 and C2, which then form the C3 convertase as in the classical pathway. (sinobiological.com)
- Human complement component C3: cDNA coding sequence and derived primary structure. (springer.com)
- Cobra venom factor (CVF) is a functional analog of human complement component C3b, the active fragment of C3. (nih.gov)
- The structures of the von Willebrand factor A and serine protease domains from human complement factor B ( P00751 ) have been analysed [ PMID: 15016353 , PMID: 10637221 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
- 2009) Structure-activity relationships for substrate-based inhibitors of human complement factor B. (guidetopharmacology.org)
- 9. A chimeric antibody characterized in that it comprises at least one of the sequences corresponding to SEQ ID NO: 2, 4, 6, 8, or 12, wherein the antibody recognizes a region corresponding to sequence 727-744 (SEQ ID NO:15) of the C5 component of human complement or a region having at least 80% homology thereto. (google.com)
- The density of yellow is proportional to the Human Complement H/CFH amount of sample captured in plate. (abcam.com)
- Complement Factor B antibody LS-C128908 is an unconjugated goat polyclonal antibody to human Complement Factor B (CFB). (lsbio.com)
- Complement Factor B antibody LS-C525130 is a biotin-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to human Complement Factor B (CFB). (lsbio.com)
- Human plasma kallikrein can replace factor D for the activation of the alternative pathway C3 convertase of human complement. (nih.gov)
- This activity was said to ' complement ' the antibacterial activity of antibody , hence the name. (nih.gov)
- Although first discovered as an effector arm of the antibody response, complement can also be activated early in infection in the absence of antibodies. (nih.gov)
- Spitzer RE, Stitzel AE, Tsokos G. On the origin of C3 nephritic factor (antibody to the alternative pathway C3 convertase): evidence for the Adam and Eve concept of autoantibody production. (harvard.edu)
- Human anti-idiotypic antibody responses to autoantibody against the alternative pathway C3 convertase. (harvard.edu)
- 2 Generally, in the presence of a potent, complement-binding antibody and large numbers of closely situated red cell antigens, complement activation can proceed to completion, resulting in intravascular hemolysis. (bloodjournal.org)
- Although antibody-coated red cells can also be destroyed extravascularly without complement activation, red cell removal is enhanced considerably when C3 is present on red cells in addition to immunoglobulin G (IgG). (bloodjournal.org)
- Since its discovery, the complement system has been primarily considered an effector of innate immunity with the ability to "complement" antibody-mediated clearance of foreign pathogens, dispose of dead cells, and cause inflammatory states ( 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Apostolov K, Sawa MI (1976) Enhancement of hemolysis by Newcastle disease virus after pretreatment with heterophil antibody and complement. (springer.com)
- Beebe DP, Schreiber RD, Cooper NR (1983) Neutralization of influenza virus by normal human sera: Mechanisms involving antibody and complement. (springer.com)
- Cooper NR, Welsh RM (1979) Antibody and complement-dependent viral neutralization. (springer.com)
- Therefore, this pathway does not require a specific antibody response for activation and may play an important role in controlling primary infections with pathogens. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- A monoclonal antibody from mouse specific for Complement H/CFH has been pre-coated onto 96-well plates. (abcam.com)
- Standards and test samples are added to the wells, a biotinylated detection polyclonal antibody from goat specific for Complement H/CFH is added subsequently and then followed by washing with PBS or TBS buffer. (abcam.com)
- The classic complement pathway is triggered when antibody-antigen complex interact with C1-complex, which consists of C1q, two molecules of C1r, and two molecules of C1s. (sinobiological.com)
- For example, eculizumab, a monoclonal antibody specific for complement component 5 (C5) has been approved for clinical use and was shown to effectively reduce complement-mediated hemolysis in patients with PNH, atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, or CAD. (ashpublications.org)
- A ) The classical pathway is initiated by a complement-fixing antibody binding to an antigen on targeted cells. (jci.org)
- For example, C4d, a product of the classical and the lectin pathways, had been recognized as a biomarker for its stability and strong association with antibody-mediated rejection in the 1990s. (profacgen.com)
- In an analogous process, the lectin pathway (LP) is activated by lectin (equivalent to an antibody) binding to a sugar (equivalent to an antigen) on a microbe. (ajkdblog.org)
- Complement activation is triggered by an antibody when it is bound to the antigen. (microbeonline.com)
- Hence, the antibody activates the complement system only when bound to an antigen. (microbeonline.com)
- As a central entity of innate immunity, the complement system is immediately activated after trauma or infection in order to control the replication of intruding pathogens. (hindawi.com)
- The alternative pathway of complement is a powerful and evolutionarily old defence system of innate immunity that recognises and destroys invading infectious microbes and also targets and eliminates modified self cells. (els.net)
- The complement system, a key player in innate immunity, may participate as an important early mediator of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration after TBI. (biomedcentral.com)
- The early elements of the complement system appeared more than a billion years ago as the main player in innate immunity with the keen ability to self-amplify and coat pathogens. (ajkdblog.org)
- The alternative pathway is one of three complement pathways that opsonize and kill pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
- C3b is vitally contributing to the clearance of pathogens by phagocytes (macrophages and neutrophils) and is a major component of the C5 convertase, which in turn cleaves C5 to C5a and C5b. (els.net)
- It recognizes the complement component 3b (C3b) and 3d (C3d) fragments in addition to self cell markers (i.e. glycosaminoglycans, sialic acid) to distinguish host cells that deserve protection from pathogens that should be eliminated. (biochemj.org)
- Kupffer cells and other macrophage cell types help clear complement-coated pathogens. (wikidoc.org)
- Activation of complement represents one means of natural resistance to infection from a wide variety of potential pathogens. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The catalytic rate of these convertases approaches maximum velocity, thereby switching the enzyme from cleavage of C3 to cleavage of C5, and production of the cytolytic C5b-9 complex. (jimmunol.org)
- The study of C5 convertases has been difficult because the enzyme complex that cleaves C5 is the same serine protease (C3 convertase) that cleaves C3 ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Cleavage of C3 produces the proteolytically activated form of C3 (C3b), 3 which forms the nonenzymatic subunit of the enzyme complex responsible for C3 and C5 cleavage ( 1 , 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
- The alternative pathway C3 convertase (C3b,Bb) has C3b as the noncatalytic subunit attached in a Mg 2+ -dependent fashion to the catalytic subunit (Bb) of the enzyme complex. (jimmunol.org)
- The natural surface-bound C5 convertases are the more complex forms of the enzyme and are made up of a C3 convertase and an additional C3b molecule ( 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 13 , 14 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Both pathways lead to the formation of a common C3 convertase, an enzyme complex with serine proteinase trypsin‐like specificity. (els.net)
- Similar to the CP C3 convertase, this enzyme also converts C3 into C3a and C3b. (ajkdblog.org)
- The activation of alternative pathway (AP) of complement generates the active proteolytic enzyme Bb. (uiowa.edu)
- In the present study, we have assessed the ability of a human recombinant soluble form of complement receptor 1 (sCR1) to inhibit complement-mediated RBC destruction in vitro and in vivo. (bloodjournal.org)
- Therapeutic targeting of this terminal C5-C5a receptor axis with selective antagonists, or C5 inhibitory molecules, could therefore still be potential clinical candidates to slow disease progression in ALS. (pnas.org)
- Here, we demonstrate that mice deficient in complement receptor 3 (CR3) (CD11b −/− ), a signaling receptor activated by multiple ligands including the C3 cleavage fragment iC3b, develop less-severe disease signs and decreased tissue destruction compared to RRV-infected wild-type mice. (asm.org)
- Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1, interleukin-6 and TNF-alpha are all released by complement activation leading to angiogenesis with the formation of new blood vessels . (lecturio.com)
- Interaction between complement cleavage component, C3a and C3a receptor and tau phosphorylation were also attenuated in rhDAF treated animals at 3 and 24 hours after BOP. (biomedcentral.com)
- CD55 ), and complement receptor 1 (CR1, aka CD35). (ajkdblog.org)
- Further, it highlights activation of inflammatory cells (Basophils, PMNs and Macrophages) through complement receptor binding and downstream release of inflammatory mediators. (biomedcentral.com)
- C5b subsequently takes the lead in formation of the terminal C5b-9 complement complex ( TCC ), ultimately resulting into cell lysis. (els.net)
- Activation of an alternate complement pathway, C3 hypocomplementemia with lysis of adipocytes induced by C3NeF, has been implicated. (medscape.com)
- C3 nephritic factor induces the lysis of adipocytes that secrete adipsin, a product identical to complement factor D. The distribution of the lipoatrophy is postulated to be dictated by the variable amounts of adipsin secreted by the adipocytes at different locations. (medscape.com)
- Model of the adipocyte destruction in acquired partial lipodystrophy showing complement activation at the adipocyte surface resulting in adipocyte lysis. (medscape.com)
- A powerful amplification reaction results in surface deposition of C3b (opsonization) and formation of C5 convertases, followed by the induction of the lytic complement pathway and cell lysis. (els.net)
- Surface bound CRP reduces deposition of and generation of C5b-9 by the alternative pathway and deposition of C3b and lysis by the lectin pathway. (nih.gov)
- The increased DAF expression was functionally relevant because it significantly reduced C3 deposition and complement-mediated EC lysis. (bloodjournal.org)
- This, most probably, proceeded by a mechanism involving the formation of a zymosan-C5-convertase and bystander lysis of the target cells. (uu.nl)
- This infers resistance to complement-mediated cell lysis, allowing parasite survival and infection. (genecards.org)
- Attachment of the additional C3b molecules near the C3 convertase was originally thought to be required for generating C5 convertase activity ( 6 , 8 , 15 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Alternative pathway (AP) C5 convertases were generated on small streptavidin beads that were coated with purified C3b molecules. (biomedcentral.com)
- The MAC is composed of the complement components C5b, C6, C7, C8 and several C9 molecules. (wikipedia.org)
- These pathways depend on different molecules for their initiation, but they converge to generate the same set of effector molecules ( Fig. 2.7 ). (nih.gov)
- Molecules acting as complement inhibitors are shown in red. (frontiersin.org)
- The classical pathway is triggered by activation of the C1-complex (which consists of one molecule C1q and two molecules C1r and C1s), either by C1q's binding to antibodies from classes M and G, complexed with antigens , or by its binding C1q to the surface of the pathogen. (wikidoc.org)
- The lectin pathway is activated by carbohydrate recognition molecules that bind to polysaccharide on the surface of a pathogen. (asmscience.org)
- Developmentally regulated expression by Trypanosoma cruzi of molecules that accelerate the decay of complement C3 convertases. (elsevier.com)
- The resulting complex C4b2a is the C3 convertase for CP and LP. In this new form - the C3(H 2 O), it recruits two other plasma molecules - factor B (FB) and factor D (FD). (aurignacien.com)
- Therefore, we focused on molecules stabilizing and regulating the alternative pathway C3 convertase in urine which might be associated with IgAN pathogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
- D ) Regardless of the initiation steps, C3 convertase deposits additional C3b molecules and generates C3a. (jci.org)
- The hydrolysis induces a conformational change that allows factor B to bind and form the alternative complement activation pathway C3 convertase (amplification loop is represented by the bold dotted arrow). (els.net)
- Binding of additional C3b to the alternative pathway C3 convertase renders it capable of C5 cleavage, and forms the basis for the amplification loop of the alternative pathway. (aacrjournals.org)
- The amplification loop is the balance between two competing cycles, acting on the C3b-C3 convertase formation, which enhances both amplification and downregulation via the C3 breakdown cycle. (aurignacien.com)
- The three complement activation pathways (classical, lectin and alternative) activate C3 and generate C3b, feed into the amplification loop before activating the terminal pathway. (atypicalhus.co.uk)
- In the presence of factor B and factor D, these C3b beads could effectively convert C5. (biomedcentral.com)
- The formation of a C3 convertase can also be prevented when a plasma protease called complement factor I cleaves C3b into its inactive form, iC3b. (wikipedia.org)
- In addition, anti-C3 NAbs promoted C3 convertase generation, when added to the convertase precursor or during convertase assembly, suggesting a non-nephritic-factor mechanism. (curehunter.com)
- The similarly positioned CUB and slightly displaced C345c domains of CVF could play a vital role in the formation of C3 convertases by providing important primary binding sites for factor B. (nih.gov)
- We determined the crystal structures of the C3b homologue cobra venom factor (CVF) in complex with C5, and in complex with C5 and the inhibitor SSL7 at 4.3 Å resolution. (embopress.org)
- Complement factor B. (expasy.org)
- A growing number of pathogenic microorganisms have acquired the ability to bind the complement inhibitor factor H (FH) from body fluids and thus hijack its host protecting function. (frontiersin.org)
- Adipocytes synthesize factor D, the limiting component of the alternative complement pathway, which cleaves C3-bound factor B to its active enzymatic form. (medscape.com)
- Complement C3 Nephritic Factor" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
- This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Complement C3 Nephritic Factor" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Complement C3 Nephritic Factor" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
- Below are the most recent publications written about "Complement C3 Nephritic Factor" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
- Crystal structure of the A domain from complement factor B reveals an integrin-like open conformation. (ebi.ac.uk)
- New structural motifs on the chymotrypsin fold and their potential roles in complement factor B. (ebi.ac.uk)
- These regulators either direct the dissociation of the C3/C5 convertases or they inhibit the formation of these convertases by controlling factor B binding, that is, decay‐accelerating activity. (els.net)
- Because activation of the alternative pathway (AP) of the complement system is an important aspect of both age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), we wished to address the question whether genetic risk factors of the AP inhibitor complement factor H (CFH) for AMD would also be risk factors for RA. (cdc.gov)
- Association of complement factor H Y402H gene polymorphism with different subtypes of exudative age-related macular degeneration. (cdc.gov)
- Complement activation has long been implicated in the pathogenesis of ALS, with numerous clinical and animal studies demonstrating strong complement factor up-regulation, including C1q and C3, in regions of motor neuron death ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
- However, one point missing in this report, and perhaps overlooked by the casual reader, is that there is now a well-described fourth pathway of complement activation, termed the "extrinsic pathway," which can bypass the traditional upstream activation pathways that are reliant on complement factor C3. (pnas.org)
- CD46, Factor H and Factor I prevent excessive alternate pathway activation. (epomedicine.com)
- Cleaved by complement factor D into a non-catalytic and catalytic fragment (Ba and Bb respectively). (guidetopharmacology.org)
- 2006) Variation in factor B (BF) and complement component 2 (C2) genes is associated with age-related macular degeneration. (guidetopharmacology.org)
- S1: Chymotrypsin: complement factor B. Last modified on 17/02/2017. (guidetopharmacology.org)
- Complement Factor B, also known as CFB, encodes complement factor B which is a component of the alternative pathway of complement activation. (prospecbio.com)
- Once the alternative pathway is activated it is cleaved by complement factor D yielding the noncatalytic chain Ba and the catalytic subunit Bb. (prospecbio.com)
- Auf www.antikoerper-online.de finden Sie aktuell 87 Complement Factor B (CFB) ELISA Kits von 14 unterschiedlichen Herstellern. (antikoerper-online.de)
- Insgesamt sind aktuell 335 Complement Factor B Produkte verfügbar. (antikoerper-online.de)
- Neutralization of the complement factor C3-dependent antichlamydial activity was dependent on the proteolytic activity of Chlamydia trachomatis CPAF and correlated with the CPAF-mediated degradation of complement factor C3 and factor B (zeige ATP5S ELISA Kits ). (antikoerper-online.de)
- Complement factor B is a novel biomarker candidate for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. (antikoerper-online.de)
- A mutation in complement factor B was associated with a case of C3 glomerulonephritis. (antikoerper-online.de)
- Acts also in the inhibition of spontaneous complement activation by impairing the formation and function of the alternative and classical pathway C3/C5 convertases, and by serving as a cofactor for the cleavage by factor I of C3b to iC3b, C3c and C3d,g, and of C4b to C4c and C4d (PubMed:2972794, PubMed:8175757). (nih.gov)
- CFB / Complement Factor B is complement factor B, a component of the alternative pathway of complement activation. (lsbio.com)
- factor B a complement component that participates in the alternative complement pathway. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Thus, complement activation on the endothelial cell (EC) surface during inflammation may generate thrombin via the synthesis of tissue factor. (bloodjournal.org)
- The alternative complement pathway begins with the activation of C3 and requires factor B and factor D. All three pathways merge at C3, which is then converted into C3a and C3b. (sinobiological.com)
- CFAB_HUMAN ] Factor B which is part of the alternate pathway of the complement system is cleaved by factor D into 2 fragments: Ba and Bb. (proteopedia.org)
- Bb, a serine protease, then combines with complement factor 3b to generate the C3 or C5 convertase. (proteopedia.org)
- Here, we present the crystal structure at 2.2-A resolution, small-angle X-ray scattering and electron microscopy (EM) data of the pro-convertase formed by human FB and cobra venom factor (CVF), a potent homologue of C3b that generates more stable convertases. (proteopedia.org)
- Insights into complement convertase formation based on the structure of the factor B-cobra venom factor complex. (proteopedia.org)
- Goicoechea de Jorge E, Harris CL, Esparza-Gordillo J, Carreras L, Arranz EA, Garrido CA, Lopez-Trascasa M, Sanchez-Corral P, Morgan BP, Rodriguez de Cordoba S. Gain-of-function mutations in complement factor B are associated with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. (proteopedia.org)
- We believe that inhibition of factor D represents a highly innovative and differentiated mechanism of action with the potential to address multiple diseases of the alternative pathway, including PNH, C3G, IC-MPGN and geographic atrophy, an advanced form of dry age-related macular degeneration. (globenewswire.com)
- C3 levels are also reduced in 30% to 50% of patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) carrying Factor H mutations, and 20% to 30% of patients carrying Factor I mutations, a finding consistent with complement-dependent disease (Loirat & Frémeaux-Bacchi, 2011). (uiowa.edu)
- Here, we evaluated if administration of the complement inhibitor recombinant human decay-accelerating factor (rhDAF) is beneficial on neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in a rat model of moderate BINT. (biomedcentral.com)
- Inhibition of complement activation on the surface of cells after incorporation of decay-accelerating factor (DAF) into their membranes. (rupress.org)
- The DAF inhibitory effect on EAC14 or EAC43 was not overcome by supplying an excess of C2 or factor B, but the alternative pathway C3 convertase could be assembled in the presence of Ni++, or nonphysiological concentrations of Mg++, which enhances the binding affinity of factor B for C3b. (rupress.org)
- C3 convertase can be dissociated by spontaneous decay or complement regulators (factor H, CR1). (uiowa.edu)
- Component C3 (C3) and Factor B play an important role in complement activation. (atypicalhus.co.uk)
- Complement Factor H (FH) and complement Factor I (FI) regulate the alternative pathway in the fluid phase. (atypicalhus.co.uk)
- Factor D is about ten-fold more effective on a molar basis, for the alternative pathway C3 convertase activation than is kallikrein. (nih.gov)
- Cobra venom factor was more efficient in enhancing the sensitivity of the assay for the mouse alternative complement pathway than zymosan. (uu.nl)
- The serine proteinase C2a then combines with complement factor 4b to create the C3 or C5 convertase. (genecards.org)
- Component C2 which is part of the classical pathway of the complement system is cleaved by activated factor C1 into two fragments: C2b and C2a. (genecards.org)
- The developed model and molecular insights are essential to understand the molecular basis of deregulated complement activity in human disease and will facilitate future design of therapeutic interventions against these critical enzymes in inflammation. (biomedcentral.com)
- This article is sought to provide insights into the pathogenesis of multiorgan failure associated with systemic inflammation with particular focus on the role of the complement system. (hindawi.com)
- Identifying mechanisms through which complement anaphylatoxins modulate inflammation in the retina may provide a rationale for targeted drug design. (molvis.org)
- Previous studies using a mouse model of RRV-induced disease demonstrated that viral infection results in a severe inflammatory arthritis and myositis and that complement component 3 (C3) contributes to the destructive phase of the inflammatory disease but not the recruitment of cellular infiltrates to the sites of RRV-induced inflammation. (asm.org)
- Thus, thrombin-generated at inflammatory sites in response to complement activation-is a physiologic agonist for the PKC-dependent pathway of DAF regulation, thereby providing a negative feedback loop protecting against thrombosis in inflammation. (bloodjournal.org)
- This review highlights complement-mediated inflammation, and the mechanism through it triggers the airway tissue injury and remodeling in the airway epithelium that could serve as potential targets for developing a new drug to rescue the asthma patients. (biomedcentral.com)
- Both fragments play a vital role in killing microorganisms and in eliminating targets of complement action. (jimmunol.org)
- It is also now well established that individual cells are able to generate bioactive complement fragments, such as C3a and C5a, independent of the canonical activation pathways. (pnas.org)
- Proposed mechanisms include direct injury by platelet-VWF thrombi, anti-endothelial cell antibodies, nitric oxide, oxidative stress, and neutrophil activation, as well as activation of the Fas pathway leading to endothelial cell apoptosis. (springer.com)
- Complement was discovered many years ago as a heat-labile component of normal plasma that augments the opsonization of bacteria by antibodies and allows antibodies to kill some bacteria. (nih.gov)
- 3 The majority of blood group antibodies (including both alloantibodies and autoantibodies) that can fix complement, however, activate complement up to the C3 stage but do not go on to act as hemolysins. (bloodjournal.org)
- Ehrnst A (1977) Complement activation by measles virus cytotoxic antibodies: Alternative pathway C activation by hemagglutination-inhibition antibodies but classical activation by hemolysin antibodies. (springer.com)
- In the early 20th century, this controversy was resolved when it was understood that complement can act in combination with specific antibodies, or on its own in a non-specific way. (wikidoc.org)
- The present invention refers to recombinant antibodies of human origin specific for the C5 component of the activated complement and characterised by the ability to inhibit the conversion of the C5 alpha chain to C5a and C5b. (google.com)
- Moreover the present invention refers to the nucleotide sequences coding for such antibodies and to the therapeutic use of both polypeptide and nucleotide sequences, in particular for the therapy of diseases involving tissue damage deriving from uncontrolled activation of the complement system. (google.com)
- The classical pathway (CP) is primarily triggered by antibodies binding to an antigen. (ajkdblog.org)
- In contrast to the normal alternative pathway assay the zymosan-potentiated test did, most probably, not involve natural antibodies. (uu.nl)
- Mice with dual C3 and C5 deficiency had a more exacerbated phenotype that was reversed by combined C3a and C5a reconstitution. (rupress.org)
- A deficiency in any component of the classical pathway is associated with an increased risk of immunological disease and recurrent bacterial infections. (asmscience.org)
- Deficiency of these complement components in PNH results in two major clinical features: intravascular hemolysis and thrombosis  . (cureus.com)
- The structures reveal a parallel two‐point attachment between C5 and CVF, where the presence of SSL7 only slightly affects the C5-CVF interface, explaining the IgA dependence for SSL7‐mediated inhibition of C5 cleavage. (embopress.org)
- Complement inhibition is an intriguing treatment option for patients with severe preeclampsia. (ahajournals.org)
- 4 This concept has been supported by studies including those using C3 knockout (KO) mice or C3 inhibitors in mice, in which complement-mediated hemolysis (both extravascular and intravascular) was shown to be significantly reduced in various models in the absence or inhibition of mouse C3. (ashpublications.org)
- These novel findings suggest early complement targeted inhibition as a new therapeutic strategy to decrease neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration after blast TBI. (biomedcentral.com)
- This results in inhibition of the classical and lectin pathway of complement activation, probably due to interference with binding of C2a to C4b such that C3 convertase cannot be formed. (genecards.org)
- The complement system in B cell regulation. (springer.com)
- Carroll MC (2004) The complement system in regulation of adaptive immunity. (els.net)
- Schematic overview of the major complement activation and regulation pathways. (frontiersin.org)
- The results suggest that CRP bound to a surface provides secondary binding sites for H resulting in greater regulation of alternative pathway amplification and C5 convertases. (nih.gov)
- 2 3 These factors utilize distinct mechanisms for complement regulation and function cooperatively to facilitate cytoprotection. (bloodjournal.org)
- The fluid phase convertase C3(H 2 O)Bb is more resistant than the alternative cell-bound convertase and is less susceptible to regulation by FH (114). (aurignacien.com)
- C5 convertases of the alternative and classical pathways of complement are complex serine proteases that are made up of two or more subunits ( 1 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
- This complex is also known as a fluid-phase C3-convertase . (wikipedia.org)
- However, a fluid‐phase AP C3 convertase C3(H 2 O)Bb can also assemble after spontaneous hydrolysis of the C3 thioester and initiate the AP ( Pangburn and Muller‐Eberhard, 1983 ). (embopress.org)
- Together with Bb, CVF assembles into a highly stable fluid phase convertase CVFBb cleaving both C3 and C5 ( Vogel and Fritzinger, 2010 ). (embopress.org)
- FD cleaves C3(H 2 O)-bound FB to generate an enzymatic complex C3(H 2 O)Bb, called fluid phase C3 convertase. (aurignacien.com)
- This in turn cleaves and activates the next zymogen in the complement pathway. (nih.gov)
- Binding of CRP to these substrates activates the classical complement pathway leading to their uptake by phagocytic cells. (nih.gov)
- Although it is has been described that Chlamydia trachomatis activates the alternative pathway ( 21 , 31 ), little is known about the effect of this pathway on C. pneumoniae . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Therefore, CVF continuously activates complement resulting in the depletion of complement activity. (proteopedia.org)
- The formation of C5 convertase (C3bBbC3b) results in the cleavage of the complement component C5 and activates the terminal pathway. (atypicalhus.co.uk)
- All three pathways of the complement system (classical, lectin and alternative pathways) initiate the formation of MAC. (wikipedia.org)
- After the creation of C5 convertase (either as (C3b) 2 BbP or C4b2a3b from the classical pathway), the complement system follows the same path regardless of the means of activation (alternative, classical, or lectin). (wikipedia.org)
- In several models of autoimmune diseases, the overactivation of the complement system (CS) is the cause of disease exacerbation. (scielo.br)
- In the case of the complement system, the precursor zymogens are widely distributed throughout body fluids and tissues without adverse effect. (nih.gov)
- There are three ways in which the complement system protects against infection. (nih.gov)
- Complement is an evolutionary conserved system. (els.net)
- Uncontrolled activation of the complement system during sepsis and SIRS with in excessive generation of complement activation products contributes to an ensuing dysfunction of various organ systems. (hindawi.com)
- In the present review, mechanisms of the inflammatory response in the development of MOF in sepsis and SIRS with particular focus on the complement system are discussed. (hindawi.com)
- Previous studies strongly suggest a mutual crosstalk between the complement and the coagulation system [ 27 - 30 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Due to the complex nature of plasmatic cascades and their interconnections, the role and regulations of the complement system, especially in states of disease, are still inadequately understood. (hindawi.com)
- The complement system is involved in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). (molvis.org)
- Each of the three pathways of the complement system results in the formation of C3 convertase on the pathogen surface. (davidson.edu)
- On the basis of its central relevance in immunity targeting, the complement system by specific therapeutic agents is a promising approach to treat autoimmune diseases and inflammatory disorders. (els.net)
- Three biochemical pathways activate the complement system: the classical complement pathway , the alternative complement pathway , and the mannose-binding lectin pathway . (wikidoc.org)
- Activation of the complement system occurs through multiple mechanisms that include three well-described pathways: the classical, lectin, and alternative complement activation pathways. (asm.org)
- The alternative complement pathway (AP) is an important nonantibody- requiring host defense system. (rice.edu)
- In cold agglutinin disease (CAD), immunoglobulin M autoantibodies fix complement on the surface of red cells, resulting in extravascular hemolysis by the reticuloendothelial system. (ashpublications.org)
- There is also a darker side to the complement system. (aurignacien.com)
- Physiological barriers such as temperature, pH and the complement system. (wordpress.com)
- The complement system recognizes features of microbial surfaces and marks them for destruction by coating them with C3b. (wordpress.com)
- Recombinant Mouse Complement Component C5 is produced by our E.coli expression system and the target gene encoding Asn679-Arg755 is expressed. (sinobio.net)
- Further studies on the complement system have been focused on specific complement components. (profacgen.com)
- The contemporary complement system thus lies at the interface of innate and adaptive immunity. (ajkdblog.org)
- Because the complement system provides a rapidly activated and potent surveillance mechanism designed to eliminate the pathogen, strict control is required to avoid damage to self. (ajkdblog.org)
- The early step of complement system varies in different pathways. (microbeonline.com)
- In this paper, we describe the connection between the complement system with the biology of the adipose tissue and its pathogenesis reflected from acquired partial lipodystrophy. (revistanefrologia.com)
- High C5 convertase activity was associated with the formation of C3b-C3b or C3b-C4b dimers in which the additional C3b molecule was shown to be covalently attached to a specific site on the first C3b or C4b molecule ( 10 , 16 ). (jimmunol.org)
- We determine that high surface densities of C3b, and its attachment via the thioester, are essential for C5 convertase formation. (biomedcentral.com)
- All initiation pathways converge in the formation of short-lived C3 convertase enzymes on the target surface. (biomedcentral.com)
- Three activation pathways converge at the formation of C3 convertases, cleaving C3 into C3a and C3b. (embopress.org)
- Furthermore, complement activation can result in formation of opsonins (C3b), promoting the engulfment of target cells by phagocytes. (bloodjournal.org)
- The formation of C2a4b creates C3 convertase, which cleaves C3 into C3a and C3b. (aacrjournals.org)
- Cleavage of C3 yields C3a and C3b, the latter of which triggers the formation of the C5 convertase. (ashpublications.org)
- These insights into formation of convertases provide a basis for further development of complement therapeutics. (proteopedia.org)
- Formation of the C3 convertase by the classical and lectin pathways. (aurignacien.com)
- All three pathways lead to the formation of homologous variants of protease C3 convertase that cleaves C3 to form C3a and C3b. (profacgen.com)
- After the initial recognition event, the CP and LP feature multiple proteolytic cleavage steps leading to activation of the components C2 and C4 and the formation of the CP C3 convertase (C4b2ba). (ajkdblog.org)
Surface-bound C5 convertases1
- Finally, we define two interfaces on C5 important for its recognition by surface-bound C5 convertases. (biomedcentral.com)
- Proteolysis of C4 is also triggered via recognition of microbial carbohydrates in the lectin pathway (LP). C4b combines with C2 and subsequent cleavage of C2 to C2a results in generation of the LP/CP C3 convertase C4b2a. (embopress.org)
- The C1-complex cleaves C2 and C4, which then form C3 convertase (C4b2a). (sinobiological.com)
- C4b and C2a form together C4b2a, which is known as the C3 convertase . (lecturio.com)
- The C4b2a complex is also known as C3 convertase as this converts C3 into an active form by separating C3a and C3b. (microbeonline.com)
- Drugs that inhibit complement activation are increasingly being used to treat these diseases. (ashpublications.org)
- Our results suggest that targeting C3 should effectively inhibit hemolysis and tissue damage mediated by the alternative pathway of complement activation, but this approach might have limited efficacy in treating classical pathway-mediated pathological conditions. (ashpublications.org)
- Rosmarinic acid has been reported not to inhibit t-butyl hydroperoxide-induced paw edema in the rat, indicating selectivity for complement-dependent processes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- APL-1 and APL-2, are derivatives of Compstatin, bind to and inhibit complement activation at the C3 level, thus blocking all major effector pathways of complement activation. (biomedcentral.com)
Activation of the alternative pathway5
- Patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) develop a thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) that in most cases is attributable to mutations that lead to activation of the alternative pathway of complement. (ashpublications.org)
- Thus, it has been thought that the activation of the alternative pathway plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of IgAN. (biomedcentral.com)
- Consumption of C3 is consistent with activation of the alternative pathway of complement (see Zhang et al. (uiowa.edu)
- The activation of the alternative pathway C3 convertase by human plasma kallikrein. (nih.gov)
- The activation of the alternative pathway of the complement is involved in the development of several renal diseases, such as atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome and C3 glomerulopathy. (revistanefrologia.com)
- Complement activation by CRP may help limit the inflammatory response by providing opsonization with minimal generation of C5a and C5b-9. (nih.gov)
- The soluble serine protease C3 convertase (C3b,Bb) assembled with monomeric C3b has been shown to be the simplest form of C5 convertase ( 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
- The C5 convertase is a multi-molecular protease complex that catalyses the cleavage of native C5 into its biologically important products. (biomedcentral.com)
- CVF functions as a relatively rigid binding scaffold inducing a conformational change in C5, which positions its cleavage site in proximity to the serine protease Bb. (embopress.org)
- A protease component of the alternative complement pathway. (guidetopharmacology.org)
- The three pathways all generate homologous variants of the protease C3-convertase . (wikidoc.org)
- The active subunit Bb is a serine protease which connects with C3b to form the alternative pathway C3 convertase. (prospecbio.com)
- FUNCTION: This gene encodes a serine protease that plays an important role in the classical and alternative complement pathways where it cleaves C4b and C3b components of C3 and C5 convertases. (utsouthwestern.edu)
Generation of C5 convertase1
- The generation of C5 convertase is the end of the classical pathway. (sinobiological.com)
- As might be expected, there are many regulatory mechanisms to prevent uncontrolled complement activation. (nih.gov)
- Unlike C3b/Bb, CVF/Bb is a stable complex and completely resistant to the actions of complement regulatory factors H (CFH) and I (CFI). (proteopedia.org)
- The second regulatory mechanism is called decay-accelerating activity whereby the C3 or C5 convertase is disassociated. (ajkdblog.org)
- 6 , 7 Through its C4b/C3b binding, it causes the displacement of the catalytic subunits of the C3 and C5 convertases (decay accelerating activity), thereby inhibiting complement activation at the cell surface. (bloodjournal.org)
Cleaves C5 to generate2
- Treatment with sCR1 increased the survival of transfused human group A RBCs in the circulation of mice with pre-existing anti-A for 2 hours after transfusion by 50%, reduced intravascular hemolysis, and lowered the levels of complement deposition (C3 and C4), but not immunoglobulin G (IgG) or IgM, on the transfused cells by 100-fold. (bloodjournal.org)
- The binding of these physiological forms accelerates complement activation on the Chlamydia pneumoniae surface, as measured by C3b and C9 deposition. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Glomerular deposition of C5, fH and P was assessed using an immunofluorescence technique and correlated with histological severity of IgAN and clinical parameters. (biomedcentral.com)
- rhDAF treatment reduced complement hemolytic activity at 3 hours and tissue complement deposition at 3, 24, and 48 hours as well as systemic and local cytokine release at 24 hours post BOP. (biomedcentral.com)
- C5a is a 77 amino acid peptide that is created by the C5a convertase proteolytic cleavage of C5 αchain in the classical and alternative complement pathway (C4b2a3b, C3bBb3b). (sinobio.net)
- 13 ) revealed that the role of the additional C3b was to bind the substrate, C5. (jimmunol.org)
- Once C3b is formed - it can either follow alternative pathway or bind to C4bC2a (C3 convertase) to form C5 convertase. (epomedicine.com)
- The C3 convertases are able to bind C5, but with a very low affinity and cleavage rate. (aurignacien.com)
- The lectin pathway of complement activation is when mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and ficolins recognize and bind to carbohydrates on the pathogen surface. (wordpress.com)
- Activation of alternate complement pathway has been demonstrated in most patients. (medscape.com)
- C5a, the smaller fragment, is a potent chemotactic and spasmogenic anaphylatoxin that mediates inflammatory responses by stimulating platelets, endothelial cells, eosinophils, neutrophils, and phagocytes to the site of complement activation ( 4 , 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
- The anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a mediate the inflammatory responses of complement. (els.net)
- 6 The burden of fetoplacental debris becomes exaggerated in severe preeclampsia, 7 - 10 propagating a systemic inflammatory response and placing strain on both classical and alternative complement signaling pathways ( Figure 1 ) as early as the first trimester. (ahajournals.org)
- There is increasing evidence for functional crosstalk between inflammatory and thrombotic pathways in inflammatory vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and vasculitis. (bloodjournal.org)
- Complements are activated only during inflammatory reactions. (microbeonline.com)
- A comparison of the kinetic parameters of C5 convertases assembled on three surfaces (zymosan, rabbit erythrocytes, and sheep erythrocytes) were similar and revealed that the average K m decreased ∼28-fold (5.2-0.18 μM) when the density of C3b was increased from ∼18,000 to 400,000 C3b/cell. (jimmunol.org)
- So far, it has been difficult to study the exact molecular arrangement of C5 convertases, because their non-catalytic subunits (C3b) are covalently linked to biological surfaces through a reactive thioester. (biomedcentral.com)
- There are three distinct pathways through which complement can be activated on pathogen surfaces. (nih.gov)
- The MBL pathway is activated by surfaces bearing mannose groups or other pathogen-associated molecular patterns. (aacrjournals.org)
- C3 is continuously activated by the alternative complement pathway and attaches to surfaces in the form of C3b in a random manner. (els.net)
- For example, our group has shown that cortical neurons generate their own C5a in vitro, which increases neuronal death during metabolic stress ( 4 ), suggesting that similar pathways may be active in dysfunctional motor neurons in ALS. (pnas.org)
- All pathways generate a C3 convertase which cleaves C3, leaving C3b bound to the microbial surface and releasing C3a. (wordpress.com)
- The three complement activation pathways (alternative, classical, lectin) converge at the stage of C3 cleavage to generate the activated form of C3, which is C3b. (uiowa.edu)
- A key feature and common goal of the three pathways is C3 activation to generate C3b. (ajkdblog.org)
- C4b2b on the microbial surface is an active C3 convertase which cleaves C3 to C3a and C3b. (wordpress.com)
Forms C5 convertase2
- In the classical pathway C3 convertase C4b,C2a has a structure similar to the alternative pathway C3 convertase in having C2a as the catalytic subunit noncovalently bound to a C4b molecule. (jimmunol.org)
- The C5 molecule has a molecular weight of about 190 kDa and consists of two polypeptide chains (α, 115 kDa and β, 75 kDa) which are connected by disulfide bonds. (davidson.edu)
- 21. The C3b binding molecule of claim 1, wherein the C3b binding molecule inhibits C3b binding to a convertase. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
- All of the activating pathways converge to form C3 convertases. (ashpublications.org)
- MAC is produced via the activated common terminal pathway of all three complement pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
Classical and alternative complement pathways1
- The classical and alternative complement pathways. (wikipedia.org)
- Complement is increasingly being recognized as an important driver of human disease, including many hemolytic anemias. (ashpublications.org)
- 1 However, excessive complement activation causes tissue damage such as hemolysis, which is seen in diseases such as paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, and cold agglutinin disease (CAD). (ashpublications.org)
- Her research focuses on defining the functional consequences of genetic mutations identified in complement-mediated kidney diseases such as atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome and C3 glomerulopathy. (ajkdblog.org)
- A continuously and spontaneously formed C3 convertase cleaves plasma C3 to C3b and the anaphylactic C3a fragment. (els.net)
- Activated MASP2 in MBL-MASP2 complex cleaves C4 and C2 and generates C3 convertase (C4bC2a). (jci.org)
- These activation pathways play different roles in the pathogenesis of different diseases. (ashpublications.org)