A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.
A glycoprotein that is important in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C4 is cleaved by the activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C4A and COMPLEMENT C4B.
The smaller fragment formed when complement C4 is cleaved by COMPLEMENT C1S. It is an anaphylatoxin that causes symptoms of immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE) but its activity is weaker than that of COMPLEMENT C3A or COMPLEMENT C5A.
The smaller fragment generated from the cleavage of complement C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. C3a, a 77-amino acid peptide, is a mediator of local inflammatory process. It induces smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION, and HISTAMINE RELEASE from MAST CELLS and LEUKOCYTES. C3a is considered an anaphylatoxin along with COMPLEMENT C4A; COMPLEMENT C5A; and COMPLEMENT C5A, DES-ARGININE.
A subcomponent of complement C1, composed of six copies of three polypeptide chains (A, B, and C), each encoded by a separate gene (C1QA; C1QB; C1QC). This complex is arranged in nine subunits (six disulfide-linked dimers of A and B, and three disulfide-linked homodimers of C). C1q has binding sites for antibodies (the heavy chain of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M). The interaction of C1q and immunoglobulin activates the two proenzymes COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S, thus initiating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION via the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.
The minor fragment formed when C5 convertase cleaves C5 into C5a and COMPLEMENT C5B. C5a is a 74-amino-acid glycopeptide with a carboxy-terminal ARGININE that is crucial for its spasmogenic activity. Of all the complement-derived anaphylatoxins, C5a is the most potent in mediating immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE), smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION; HISTAMINE RELEASE; and migration of LEUKOCYTES to site of INFLAMMATION.
The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.
The large fragment formed when COMPLEMENT C4 is cleaved by COMPLEMENT C1S. The membrane-bound C4b binds COMPLEMENT C2A, a SERINE PROTEASE, to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).
C5 plays a central role in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C5 is cleaved by C5 CONVERTASE into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. The smaller fragment C5a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of inflammatory process. The major fragment C5b binds to the membrane initiating the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components, C5-C9, into the MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
The larger fragment generated from the cleavage of COMPLEMENT C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. It is a constituent of the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb), and COMPLEMENT C5 CONVERTASES in both the classical (C4b2a3b) and the alternative (C3bBb3b) pathway. C3b participates in IMMUNE ADHERENCE REACTION and enhances PHAGOCYTOSIS. It can be inactivated (iC3b) or cleaved by various proteases to yield fragments such as COMPLEMENT C3C; COMPLEMENT C3D; C3e; C3f; and C3g.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
A 105-kDa serum glycoprotein with significant homology to the other late complement components, C7-C9. It is a polypeptide chain cross-linked by 32 disulfide bonds. C6 is the next complement component to bind to the membrane-bound COMPLEMENT C5B in the assembly of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. It is encoded by gene C6.
A 206-amino-acid fragment in the alpha chain (672-1663) of C3b. It is generated when C3b is inactivated (iC3b) and its alpha chain is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I into C3c (749-954), and C3dg (955-1303) in the presence COMPLEMENT FACTOR H.
A 302-amino-acid fragment in the alpha chain (672-1663) of C3b. It is generated when C3b is inactivated (iC3b) and its alpha chain is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I into C3c, and C3dg (955-1303) in the presence COMPLEMENT FACTOR H. Serum proteases further degrade C3dg into C3d (1002-1303) and C3g (955-1001).
A component of the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C2 is cleaved by activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C2B and COMPLEMENT C2A. C2a, the COOH-terminal fragment containing a SERINE PROTEASE, combines with COMPLEMENT C4B to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).
A 63-kDa serum glycoprotein encoded by gene C9. Monomeric C9 (mC9) binds the C5b-8 complex to form C5b-9 which catalyzes the polymerization of C9 forming C5b-p9 (MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX) and transmembrane channels leading to lysis of the target cell. Patients with C9 deficiency suffer from recurrent bacterial infections.
Molecules on the surface of some B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that recognize and combine with the C3b, C3d, C1q, and C4b components of complement.
A 77-kDa subcomponent of complement C1, encoded by gene C1S, is a SERINE PROTEASE existing as a proenzyme (homodimer) in the intact complement C1 complex. Upon the binding of COMPLEMENT C1Q to antibodies, the activated COMPLEMENT C1R cleaves C1s into two chains, A (heavy) and B (light, the serine protease), linked by disulfide bonds yielding the active C1s. The activated C1s, in turn, cleaves COMPLEMENT C2 and COMPLEMENT C4 to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL C3 CONVERTASE).
A product of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION cascade, regardless of the pathways, that forms transmembrane channels causing disruption of the target CELL MEMBRANE and cell lysis. It is formed by the sequential assembly of terminal complement components (COMPLEMENT C5B; COMPLEMENT C6; COMPLEMENT C7; COMPLEMENT C8; and COMPLEMENT C9) into the target membrane. The resultant C5b-8-poly-C9 is the "membrane attack complex" or MAC.
A 80-kDa subcomponent of complement C1, existing as a SERINE PROTEASE proenzyme in the intact complement C1 complex. When COMPLEMENT C1Q is bound to antibodies, the changed tertiary structure causes autolytic activation of complement C1r which is cleaved into two chains, A (heavy) and B (light, the serine protease), connected by disulfide bonds. The activated C1r serine protease, in turn, activates COMPLEMENT C1S proenzyme by cleaving the Arg426-Ile427 bond. No fragment is released when either C1r or C1s is cleaved.
Serum proteins that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host. The complement system is tightly regulated by inactivators that accelerate the decay of intermediates and certain cell surface receptors.
A 93-kDa serum glycoprotein encoded by C7 gene. It is a polypeptide chain with 28 disulfide bridges. In the formation of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX; C7 is the next component to bind the C5b-6 complex forming a trimolecular complex C5b-7 which is lipophilic, resembles an integral membrane protein, and serves as an anchor for the late complement components, C8 and C9.
Serine proteases that cleave COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, or cleave COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. These include the different forms of C3/C5 convertases in the classical and the alternative pathways of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Both cleavages take place at the C-terminal of an ARGININE residue.
A glycine-rich, heat-labile serum glycoprotein that contains a component of the C3 CONVERTASE ALTERNATE PATHWAY (C3bBb). Bb, a serine protease, is generated when factor B is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR D into Ba and Bb.
Complement activation initiated by the interaction of microbial ANTIGENS with COMPLEMENT C3B. When COMPLEMENT FACTOR B binds to the membrane-bound C3b, COMPLEMENT FACTOR D cleaves it to form alternative C3 CONVERTASE (C3BBB) which, stabilized by COMPLEMENT FACTOR P, is able to cleave multiple COMPLEMENT C3 to form alternative C5 CONVERTASE (C3BBB3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
Complement activation initiated by the binding of COMPLEMENT C1 to ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES at the COMPLEMENT C1Q subunit. This leads to the sequential activation of COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S subunits. Activated C1s cleaves COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 forming the membrane-bound classical C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
A 150-kDa serum glycoprotein composed of three subunits with each encoded by a different gene (C8A; C8B; and C8G). This heterotrimer contains a disulfide-linked C8alpha-C8gamma heterodimer and a noncovalently associated C8beta chain. C8 is the next component to bind the C5-7 complex forming C5b-8 that binds COMPLEMENT C9 and acts as a catalyst in the polymerization of C9.
The first complement component to act in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. It is a calcium-dependent trimolecular complex made up of three subcomponents: COMPLEMENT C1Q; COMPLEMENT C1R; and COMPLEMENT C1S at 1:2:2 ratios. When the intact C1 binds to at least two antibodies (involving C1q), C1r and C1s are sequentially activated, leading to subsequent steps in the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
Molecular sites on or in some B-lymphocytes and macrophages that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3B. The primary structure of these receptors reveal that they contain transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, with their extracellular portion composed entirely of thirty short consensus repeats each having 60 to 70 amino acids.
An important soluble regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It is a 139-kDa glycoprotein expressed by the liver and secreted into the blood. It binds to COMPLEMENT C3B and makes iC3b (inactivated complement 3b) susceptible to cleavage by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I. Complement factor H also inhibits the association of C3b with COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form the C3bB proenzyme, and promotes the dissociation of Bb from the C3bBb complex (COMPLEMENT C3 CONVERTASE, ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY).
The larger fragment generated from the cleavage of C5 by C5 CONVERTASE that yields COMPLEMENT C5A and C5b (beta chain + alpha' chain, the residual alpha chain, bound by disulfide bond). C5b remains bound to the membrane and initiates the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components to form C5b-8-poly-C9, the MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
The COOH-terminal fragment of COMPLEMENT 2, released by the action of activated COMPLEMENT C1S. It is a SERINE PROTEASE. C2a combines with COMPLEMENT C4B to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).
A G-protein-coupled receptor that signals an increase in intracellular calcium in response to the potent ANAPHYLATOXIN peptide COMPLEMENT C5A.
Enzymes that activate one or more COMPLEMENT PROTEINS in the complement system leading to the formation of the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX, an important response in host defense. They are enzymes in the various COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION pathways.
Compounds that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host.
A screening assay for circulating COMPLEMENT PROTEINS. Diluted SERUM samples are added to antibody-coated ERYTHROCYTES and the percentage of cell lysis is measured. The values are expressed by the so called CH50, in HEMOLYTIC COMPLEMENT units per milliliter, which is the dilution of serum required to lyse 50 percent of the erythrocytes in the assay.
Serum proteins that inhibit, antagonize, or inactivate COMPLEMENT C1 or its subunits.
Molecular sites on or in B-lymphocytes, follicular dendritic cells, lymphoid cells, and epithelial cells that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3D. Human complement receptor 2 (CR2) serves as a receptor for both C3dg and the gp350/220 glycoprotein of HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN, and binds the monoclonal antibody OKB7, which blocks binding of both ligands to the receptor.
Serum peptides derived from certain cleaved COMPLEMENT PROTEINS during COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. They induce smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION; mast cell HISTAMINE RELEASE; PLATELET AGGREGATION; and act as mediators of the local inflammatory process. The order of anaphylatoxin activity from the strongest to the weakest is C5a, C3a, C4a, and C5a des-arginine.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A serum protein which is important in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. This enzyme cleaves the COMPLEMENT C3B-bound COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form C3bBb which is ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE.
A plasma serine proteinase that cleaves the alpha-chains of C3b and C4b in the presence of the cofactors COMPLEMENT FACTOR H and C4-binding protein, respectively. It is a 66-kDa glycoprotein that converts C3b to inactivated C3b (iC3b) followed by the release of two fragments, C3c (150-kDa) and C3dg (41-kDa). It was formerly called KAF, C3bINF, or enzyme 3b inactivator.
A serum protein that regulates the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. It binds as a cofactor to COMPLEMENT FACTOR I which then hydrolyzes the COMPLEMENT C4B in the CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C4bC2a).
Endogenous proteins that inhibit or inactivate COMPLEMENT C3B. They include COMPLEMENT FACTOR H and COMPLEMENT FACTOR I (C3b/C4b inactivator). They cleave or promote the cleavage of C3b into inactive fragments, and thus are important in the down-regulation of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and its cytolytic sequence.
GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.
Important enzymes in the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. They cleave COMPLEMENT C3 and COMPLEMENT C5.
The N-terminal fragment of COMPLEMENT 2, released by the action of activated COMPLEMENT C1S.
Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)
Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).
Important enzymes in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. They cleave COMPLEMENT C3 and COMPLEMENT C5.
An endogenous 105-kDa plasma glycoprotein produced primarily by the LIVER and MONOCYTES. It inhibits a broad spectrum of proteases, including the COMPLEMENT C1R and the COMPLEMENT C1S proteases of the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY, and the MANNOSE-BINDING PROTEIN-ASSOCIATED SERINE PROTEASES. C1-INH-deficient individuals suffer from HEREDITARY ANGIOEDEMA TYPES I AND II.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
A serine protease that is the complex of COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT FACTOR BB. It cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT C3B in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY.
A serine protease that cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT 5 into COMPLEMENT 5A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT 5B in the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. It is a complex of CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C4b2a) with an additional COMPLEMENT C3B, or C4b2a3b.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A serine protease that cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT 3 into COMPLEMENT 3A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT 3B in the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. It is a complex of COMPLEMENT 4B and COMPLEMENT 2A (C4b2a).
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
A serine protease that cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT C5B in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. It is the complex of ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb) with an additional COMPLEMENT C3B, or C3bBb3b.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Complement activation triggered by the interaction of microbial POLYSACCHARIDES with serum MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN resulting in the activation of MANNOSE-BINDING PROTEIN-ASSOCIATED SERINE PROTEASES. As in the classical pathway, MASPs cleave COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 to form C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
A 53-kDa protein that is a positive regulator of the alternate pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It stabilizes the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb) and protects it from rapid inactivation, thus facilitating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and the formation of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Individuals with mutation in the PFC gene exhibit properdin deficiency and have a high susceptibility to infections.
A derivative of complement C5a, generated when the carboxy-terminal ARGININE is removed by CARBOXYPEPTIDASE B present in normal human serum. C5a des-Arg shows complete loss of spasmogenic activity though it retains some chemotactic ability (CHEMOATTRACTANTS).
An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.
The clear portion of BLOOD that is left after BLOOD COAGULATION to remove BLOOD CELLS and clotting proteins.
Chronic glomerulonephritis characterized histologically by proliferation of MESANGIAL CELLS, increase in the MESANGIAL EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX, and a thickening of the glomerular capillary walls. This may appear as a primary disorder or secondary to other diseases including infections and autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Various subtypes are classified by their abnormal ultrastructures and immune deposits. Hypocomplementemia is a characteristic feature of all types of MPGN.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A genus of trematode flukes belonging to the family Schistosomatidae. There are over a dozen species. These parasites are found in man and other mammals. Snails are the intermediate hosts.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Inflammation of the renal glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) that can be classified by the type of glomerular injuries including antibody deposition, complement activation, cellular proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These structural and functional abnormalities usually lead to HEMATURIA; PROTEINURIA; HYPERTENSION; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
Thickening of the walls of small ARTERIES or ARTERIOLES due to cell proliferation or HYALINE deposition.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A specific mannose-binding member of the collectin family of lectins. It binds to carbohydrate groups on invading pathogens and plays a key role in the MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
An IgG autoantibody against the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE, found in serum of patients with MESANGIOCAPILLARY GLOMERULONEPHRITIS. The binding of this autoantibody to C3bBb stabilizes the enzyme thus reduces the actions of C3b inactivators (COMPLEMENT FACTOR H; COMPLEMENT FACTOR I). This abnormally stabilized enzyme induces a continuous COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and generation of C3b thereby promoting the assembly of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX and cytolysis.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Plasma glycoproteins that form a stable complex with hemoglobin to aid the recycling of heme iron. They are encoded in man by a gene on the short arm of chromosome 16.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.
Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).
Glomerulonephritis associated with autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Lupus nephritis is histologically classified into 6 classes: class I - normal glomeruli, class II - pure mesangial alterations, class III - focal segmental glomerulonephritis, class IV - diffuse glomerulonephritis, class V - diffuse membranous glomerulonephritis, and class VI - advanced sclerosing glomerulonephritis (The World Health Organization classification 1982).
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Serum serine proteases which participate in COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. They are activated when complexed with the MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN, therefore also known as Mannose-binding protein-Associated Serine Proteases (MASPs). They cleave COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 to form C4b2a, the CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE.
A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
A class of C-type lectins that target the carbohydrate structures found on invading pathogens. Binding of collectins to microorganisms results in their agglutination and enhanced clearance. Collectins form trimers that may assemble into larger oligomers. Each collectin polypeptide chain consists of four regions: a relatively short N-terminal region, a collagen-like region, an alpha-helical coiled-coil region, and carbohydrate-binding region.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A method for the detection of very small quantities of antibody in which the antigen-antibody-complement complex adheres to indicator cells, usually primate erythrocytes or nonprimate blood platelets. The reaction is dependent on the number of bound C3 molecules on the C3b receptor sites of the indicator cell.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
A condition characterized by the recurrence of HEMOGLOBINURIA caused by intravascular HEMOLYSIS. In cases occurring upon cold exposure (paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria), usually after infections, there is a circulating antibody which is also a cold hemolysin. In cases occurring during or after sleep (paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria), the clonal hematopoietic stem cells exhibit a global deficiency of cell membrane proteins.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Group of diseases mediated by the deposition of large soluble complexes of antigen and antibody with resultant damage to tissue. Besides SERUM SICKNESS and the ARTHUS REACTION, evidence supports a pathogenic role for immune complexes in many other IMMUNE SYSTEM DISEASES including GLOMERULONEPHRITIS, systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC) and POLYARTERITIS NODOSA.

Intestinal reperfusion injury is mediated by IgM and complement. (1/876)

Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury is dependent on complement. This study examines the role of the alternative and classic pathways of complement and IgM in a murine model of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion. Wild-type animals, mice deficient in complement factor 4 (C4), C3, or Ig, or wild-type mice treated with soluble complement receptor 1 were subjected to 40 min of jejunal ischemia and 3 h of reperfusion. Compared with wild types, knockout and treated mice had significantly reduced intestinal injury, indicated by lowered permeability to radiolabeled albumin. When animals deficient in Ig were reconstituted with IgM, the degree of injury was restored to wild-type levels. Immunohistological staining of intestine for C3 and IgM showed colocalization in the mucosa of wild-type controls and minimal staining for both in the intestine of Ig-deficient and C4-deficient mice. We conclude that intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury is dependent on the classic complement pathway and IgM.  (+info)

Immunohistochemical analysis of arterial wall cellular infiltration in Buerger's disease (endarteritis obliterans). (2/876)

PURPOSE: The diagnosis of Buerger's disease has depended on clinical symptoms and angiographic findings, whereas pathologic findings are considered to be of secondary importance. Arteries from patients with Buerger's tissue were analyzed histologically, including immunophenotyping of the infiltrating cells, to elucidate the nature of Buerger's disease as a vasculitis. METHODS: Thirty-three specimens from nine patients, in whom Buerger's disease was diagnosed on the basis of our clinical and angiographic criteria between 1980 and 1995 at Nagoya University Hospital, were studied. Immunohistochemical studies were performed on paraffin-embedded tissue with a labeled streptoavidin-biotin method. RESULTS: The general architecture of vessel walls was well preserved regardless of the stage of disease, and cell infiltration was observed mainly in the thrombus and the intima. Among infiltrating cells, CD3(+) T cells greatly outnumbered CD20(+) B cells. CD68(+) macrophages or S-100(+) dendritic cells were detected, especially in the intima during acute and subacute stages. All cases except one showed infiltration by the human leukocyte antigen-D region (HLA-DR) antigen-bearing macrophages and dendritic cells in the intima. Immunoglobulins G, A, and M (IgG, IgA, IgM) and complement factors 3d and 4c (C3d, C4c) were deposited along the internal elastic lamina. CONCLUSION: Buerger's disease is strictly an endarteritis that is introduced by T-cell mediated cellular immunity and by B-cell mediated humoral immunity associated with activation of macrophages or dendritic cells in the intima.  (+info)

Deficiency of human complement protein C4 due to identical frameshift mutations in the C4A and C4B genes. (3/876)

The complement protein C4, encoded by two genes (C4A and C4B) on chromosome 6p, is the most polymorphic among the MHC III gene products. We investigated the molecular basis of C4 deficiency in a Finnish woman with systemic lupus erythematosus. C4-specific mRNA was present at low concentrations in C4-deficient (C4D) patient fibroblasts, but no pro-C4 protein was detected. This defect in C4 expression was specific in that synthesis of two other complement proteins was normal. Analysis of genomic DNA showed that the proposita had both deleted and nonexpressed C4 genes. Each of her nonexpressed genes, a C4A null gene inherited from the mother, a C4A null gene, and a C4B null gene inherited from the father, all contained an identical 2-bp insertion (TC) after nucleotide 5880 in exon 29, providing the first confirmatory proof of the C4B pseudogene. This mutation has been previously found only in C4A null genes. Although the exon 29/30 junction is spliced accurately, this frameshift mutation generates a premature stop at codon 3 in exon 30. These truncated C4A and C4B gene products were confirmed through RT-PCR and sequence analysis. Among the possible genetic mechanisms that produce identical mutations is both genes, the most likely is a mutation in C4A followed by a gene conversion to generate the mutated C4B allele.  (+info)

In vitro analysis of complement-dependent HIV-1 cell infection using a model system. (4/876)

Previous studies based on the use of human serum as a source of C have provided evidence for the C-dependent enhancement of cell infection by HIV-1. The present study was undertaken to distinguish C from other serum factors and to identify the proteins and the mechanisms involved in C-dependent cell infection by HIV-1. The classical C activation pathway was reconstituted from the proteins C1q, C1r, C1s, C4, C2, C3, factor H, and factor I; each were purified to homogeneity. A mixture of these proteins at physiological concentrations was shown to reproduce the ability of normal human serum to enhance the infection of MT2 cells by HIV-1 at low doses of virus. This enhancing effect was abolished when heat-inactivated serum and C2- or C3-depleted serum were used, and was restored upon addition of the corresponding purified proteins. A mixture of two synthetic peptides corresponding to positions 10-15 and 90-97 of human C receptor type 2 (CD21) as well as soluble CD4 both inhibited the C-dependent infection process. These data provide unambiguous evidence that HIV-1 triggers a direct activation of the classical C pathway in vitro and thereby facilitates the infection of MT2 cells at low doses of virus. These findings are consistent with a mechanism involving increased interaction between the virus opsonized by C3b-derived fragment(s) and the CD21 cell receptors and subsequent virus entry through CD4 receptors.  (+info)

Modular variations of the human major histocompatibility complex class III genes for serine/threonine kinase RP, complement component C4, steroid 21-hydroxylase CYP21, and tenascin TNX (the RCCX module). A mechanism for gene deletions and disease associations. (5/876)

The frequent variations of human complement component C4 gene size and gene numbers, plus the extensive polymorphism of the proteins, render C4 an excellent marker for major histocompatibility complex disease associations. As shown by definitive RFLPs, the tandemly arranged genes RP, C4, CYP21, and TNX are duplicated together as a discrete genetic unit termed the RCCX module. Duplications of the RCCX modules occurred by the addition of genomic fragments containing a long (L) or a short (S) C4 gene, a CYP21A or a CYP21B gene, and the gene fragments TNXA and RP2. Four major RCCX structures with bimodular L-L, bimodular L-S, monomodular L, and monomodular S are present in the Caucasian population. These modules are readily detectable by TaqI RFLPs. The RCCX modular variations appear to be a root cause for the acquisition of deleterious mutations from pseudogenes or gene segments in the RCCX to their corresponding functional genes. In a patient with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, we discovered a TNXB-TNXA recombinant with the deletion of RP2-C4B-CYP21B. Elucidation of the DNA sequence for the recombination breakpoint region and sequence analyses yielded definitive proof for an unequal crossover between TNXA from a bimodular chromosome and TNXB from a monomodular chromosome.  (+info)

Complement activity in middle ear effusions. (6/876)

Evidence for complement utilization in middle ear fluids (MEF) from patients with otitis media with effusion was sought. It was found that cleavage products of C3, C4 and Factor B could be demonstrated immunochemically in MEF, and that native C3 was present in much lower concentrations than other proteins, relative to their serum concentrations. Haemolytic assays for C1-C5 showed that early complement components are inactivated in MEF. Potential mechanisms for complement utilization in MEF are discussed.  (+info)

C3 and C4 allotypes in anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-positive vasculitis. (7/876)

In ANCA-associated small vessel vasculitis few genetic factors have proven to be of importance for disease susceptibility, an exception being deficiency of alpha1-anti-trypsin, the main inhibitor of proteinase 3 (PR3). Alerted by our finding that myeloperoxidase has affinity for C3, and the finding of an increased frequency of the C3F allele in systemic vasculitis in a British cohort, we examined polymorphism of C3 and C4 in patients with ANCA+ small vessel vasculitis. After identification of all patients at our department with a positive ANCA test during the period 1991-95 and a diagnosis of small vessel vasculitis, blood samples were collected after informed consent. The 67 included patients were grouped according to ANCA serology and disease phenotype using the Chapel Hill nomenclature. The gene frequency of C3F was found to be increased (0. 32) compared with controls (0.20; P < 0.05) in the PR3-ANCA+ subgroup. The frequency of C4A3 was increased in the group as a whole, but no increase of C4 null alleles was seen. The findings imply a role for the complement system in the pathogenesis of ANCA-associated small vessel vasculitis.  (+info)

Active sites in complement components C5 and C3 identified by proximity to indels in the C3/4/5 protein family. (8/876)

We recently suggested that sites of length polymorphisms in protein families (indels) might serve as useful guides for locating protein:protein interaction sites. This report describes additional site-specific mutagenesis and synthetic peptide inhibition studies aimed at testing this idea for the paralogous complement C3, C4, and C5 proteins. A series of C5 mutants was constructed by altering the C5 sequence at each of the 27 indels in this protein family. Mutants were expressed in COS cells and were assayed for hemolytic activity and protease sensitivity. Mutants at five indels showed relatively normal expression but substantially reduced sp. act., indicating that the mutations damaged sites important for C5 function. Twenty-three synthetic peptides with C5 sequences and 10 with C3 sequences were also tested for the ability to inhibit C hemolytic activity. Three of the C5 peptides and one of the C3 peptides showed 50% inhibition of both C hemolytic and bactericidal activities at a concentration of 100 microM. In several cases both the mutational and peptide methods implicated the same indel site. Overall, the results suggest that regions important for function of both C3 and C5 lie proximal to residues 150-200 and 1600-1620 in the precursor sequences. Additional sites potentially important for C5 function are near residue 500 in the beta-chain and at two or three sites between the N-terminus of the alpha'-chain and the C5d fragment. One of the latter sites, near residue 865, appears to be important for proteolytic activation of C5.  (+info)

It is the practice of Ken Rodgers to personally meet with his potential clients and to give them advice about what to do following any serious injury. Generally the Law Office of Kenneth M. Rodgers represents injured persons under a Contingent Fee Agreement which means that there is no fee for the initial meeting and no fee for the legal work that must be undertaken to produce a recovery unless and until a recovery results. In the event that under the rules concerning jurisdictional cases or conflict Ken Rodgers cannot personally represent an injured person, he will see to it that the client is represented by the very best and most capable legal representative of his team.. If you have been involved in a car accident and need fast expert advice you should not hesitate to call Ken Rodgers at 855-LAW-PLUS (855-529-7587). You will need advice about the type of coverage that you have and what must be done to properly produce evidence of your claim. In the aftermath of a serious car accident you ...
AB - A fundamental dilemma of steroid hormone regulation is how specific transcription is attained in vivo when several receptors recognize the same DNA sequence in vitro. We have identified an enhancer of the mouse sex-limited protein (Slp) gene that
Green Bay Packers quarterback and reigning MVP Aaron Rodgers has donated $1 million to help 80 locally owned business in or around his hometown of Chico, California. The businesses that Rodgers is assisting are all either in Chico or in Butte County, where Chico is located. Restaurants and retail businesses with 20 or fewer full-time equivalent employees could apply for help through this fund. All 80 of those businesses will receive grants through the Aaron Rodgers Small-Business COVID-19 Fund at North Valley Community Foundation in Chico. The grants will total over $1 million. These grants will help cover rent for an average of three months or longer, and they also will assist in other operational costs.
GREEN BAY, Wis. - Aaron Rodgers threw for 326 yards and three touchdowns, Davante Adams and Ty Montgomery emerged as playmakers in the second half, and the Green Bay Packers beat the offensively challenged Chicago Bears, 26-10, on Thursday night.. Rodgers was 39 of 56, setting a franchise record for completions in a game in the Packers first contest without injured running back Eddie Lacy (left ankle).. The Packers (4-2) moved effectively on short gains most of the night, but couldnt break into the end zone until Adams caught the first of his two touchdown receptions with 9:11 left in the third quarter for a 13-10 lead.. Rodgers and Adams combined again for a 4-yard score on the first play of fourth quarter for a 10-point lead.. It was effectively over from there for the Bears (1-6), who lost quarterback Brian Hoyer to a broken left arm in the second quarter.. With Jay Cutler already out (right thumb), Chicago turned to third-stringer Matt Barkley (USC).. An offense that was already 31st in ...
According to The Rodgers and Hammerstein encyclopedia this is the last lyric that Lorenz Hart wrote but this is not totaly true: for the revival of A Connecticut Yankee Rodgers asked Hart to write some new material to make the show more apealing (Herbert Fields wrote a new book as well), even if the partnership with Hart was already broken (in 1942 Rodgers worte Oklahoma! with Oscar Hammerstein II ...
REIS, E S; BARACHO, G V; LIMA, A S; ISAAC, Lourdes. A stop codon in exon 13 causes the complete lack of human complement component C3 deficiency. Molecular Immunology[S.l: s.n.], 2001 ...
Recombinant Mouse Complement Component C5 is produced by our E.coli expression system and the target gene encoding Asn679-Arg755 is expressed.
Gary Neville believes Brendan Rodgers should be a contender to replace Pep Guardiola as Manchester City manager.Guardiola is currently in his fourth season in charge at the Etihad Stadium and has never spent longer than four campaigns at a single club.The Catalan is under contract until summer 2021 but is not expected to remain at the helm for the long-term.And after Leicesters incredible 9-0 thrashing of Southampton on Friday, Neville believes Rodgers should be in the running to take over at City.
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In the last quarter of the twentieth century, the ideas that most Americans lived by started to fragment. Daniel T. Rodgers shows how the collective purposes and meanings that had framed social debate became unhinged and uncertain, offering a powerful reinterpretation of the ways in which the decades surrounding the 1980s changed America.
When I started my business in 1977, Theological College purchased the first Rodgers Organ I installed. The chapel was larger then and had very favorable acoustics. Father Lobo, P.S.S., who was rector at that time, was a wonderful friend and supporter. He allowed us to bring prospective organ customers to see and hear that excellent example of our work. His kindness is one of my fondest memories. Forty years later, we are now in the process of installing a new Infinity Series three manual 61 stop pipe/digital hybrid organ. The façade has a mix of polished copper and shiny tin/lead pipes in the display. The exquisite casework is constructed of wood with a finish that matches the chapels furnishings. Appropriately sized for the chapel, when completed, this instrument promises to be one of the finest and most beautiful ones we have ever built. Gerry Muller, my friend and colleague of over 50 years, has done tremendous work developing the music program at TC and has contributed greatly to the ...
Packers quarterback Aaron Rodgers (shoulder) remains under medical evaluation, coach Mike McCarthy said. No decision has been made on when he might return to playing.
Its a scenario most Packers fans dont want to think about but one coaches and front office personnel must prepare for. If the disastrous happens, Milwaukee Journal Sentinel writer Bob McGinn thinks Green Bay would be ready for life without Rodgers.
Its a scenario most Packers fans dont want to think about but one coaches and front office personnel must prepare for. If the disastrous happens, Milwaukee Journal Sentinel writer Bob McGinn thinks Green Bay would be ready for life without Rodgers.
​For one single week, everything in the football universe seemed to realign with the return of Aaron Rodgers. It was too bad that Cam Newton was in no mood to...
Rodgers threw two interceptions - Green Bays first turnovers of the season - within a three-pass span of the second quarter to turn the 10-point lead into a 14-10 deficit.. Cornerback Jamel Dean returned the first pick 32 yards for a touchdown. Safety Mike Edwards ran the other back 38 yards to the Packers 2 to set up another TD.. Jamel made a hell of a play. It was a huge play. It sparked us, Brady said.. That pick-6 changed the entire ballgame, coach Bruce Arians said.. It was the 43-year-old Bradys first signature victory since signing with the Bucs (4-2) after a historic 20-year run with the New England Patriots, which included nine NFL title game appearances and six championships.. He got his favorite target from his days with the Patriots into the mix, throwing a 12-yard touchdown pass to Rob Gronkowski for a 28-10 halftime lead. It was Gronkowskis first TD since December 2018 and the 79th for the quarterback/tight end tandem - tied for fourth on the all-time list with Miamis Dan ...
GREEN BAY, Wis. -- Give Aaron Rodgers just a few seconds of wiggle room and hes bound to make a play out of supposedly nothing.
Rodgers LS, Beam MT, Anderson JM, Fanning AS. 2013. Epithelial barrier assemblyrequires coordinated activity of multiple domains of the tight junction proteinZO-1. J Cell Sci. 126(Pt 7):1565-75. PMCID:PMC3647435 ...
Charles L.A. Smith (1871-1937) - Will Rodgers Park | 31.5 x 37.5 framed. Will Rogers Park, California. Wonderful hand carved gold period frame. Acquired from a private collection in Arizona. Smith was a self-taught painter and spent his early career in Chicago. He settled in California in the 1920s. He was art director of the Jonathan Club in CA.
The 19-year-old has been linked with a Bernabeu move following his stunning form but Rodgers feels the England internationals future lies at Anfield.
The Niners famously passed on Aaron Rodgers in favor of Alex Smith at the top of the 2005 draft. Appearing on NFL HQ, ex-San Francisco coach Mike Nolan explained why they made that call.
Buy Awaiting Darkness by Ursula Rodgers as a iPhone Case/Skin, iPhone Wallet, Samsung Galaxy Case/Skin, Poster, Throw Pillow, Tote Bag, Studio Pouch, Travel Mug, Art Print, Canvas Print, Framed Print, Photographic Print, Metal Print, Gre...
Aaron Rodgers threw the football Sunday for the first time publicly at Heinz Field before kickoff between the Packers and Pittsburgh Steelers.
Rodgers Or Rivers? Let me be perfectly clear about one thing: there are no stats in this blog. Not one. Zip. And when I say no stats, I mean no stats...
What if Aaron Rodgers hadnt fallen to the Packers in the 2005 NFL draft? How might the NFL have turned out differently? Lets find out ...
Quote :Black Baratz, the agent for Green Bay Packers TE Jermichael Finley, took a hit at QB Aaron Rodgers recently, not comparing him to great quarterback leade
Family and friends will gather today for the funeral of John and Lynette Rodgers in the same church where they celebrated their wedding just 16 days ago.
The third component of complement (C3) is an important mediator of inflammation. Murine and human genomic cosmid clones were isolated, characterized and sequenced 5′ to the complement C3 gene transcriptional initiation sites to determine cis elements that participate in constitutive and regulated C3 gene expression. The murine and human 5′ flanking regions are 51% identical overall, with positions -36 to -1 and -146 to -68 showing 80% identity. Four TATA boxes were identified upstream of the murine transcriptional initiation site, but deletion and transfection analysis using reporter gene constructs in HepG2 cells indicated that only the TATA element at position -30, together with sequences -395 to -111, are essential for constitutive expression of murine C3 in hepatocytes. Deletion analysis also suggested that sequences between -1457 and -800 contain regulatory elements that are involved in suppressing basal expression. Sequences between -90 to -41 confer both enhancer activity and ...
This Ola EC locations benefit is the fact that its in easy reach of amenities. In 1 km of Nan Chiau Primary School regarded as the top faculty in the Sengkang / Punggol district, its for starters. The so walk takes approximately 8 to 9 minutes.. Sengkang is a recognized residential property, with a complete complement of amenities. The town center has an MRT station, a post office, Kopitiam Square, along with also the Compass One mall which houses stores, neighborhood libraries, banks, a grocery store, food court, cafes and F&B sockets and java joints.. Maybe the greatest downside of Ola EC is it is not near an MRT station. It requires to walk to the station and Sengkang Town Centre.. The alternate is to choose the LRT. Youve got Cheng Lim LRT station in a couple.. ...
Search PubMed for more publications by Aaron Hoskins. 1. Larson, J.D., Kirk, M., OBrien, W., MacKay, J.F., Friedman, L.J., and Hoskins, A.A. Design and construction of a multiwavelength micromirror total internal reflectance fluorescence microscope. Nat Protoc. v9 (2014), 2317-28. PMID: 25188633.. 2. Rodgers, M.L., Paulson, J., and Hoskins, A.A. Rapid Isolation and Single molecule Analysis of Ribonucleoproteins from Cell Lysate by SNAP-SiMPull, RNA v21 (2015), 1031-41. PMCID: PMC4408783.. 3. Xu, J., Carrocci, T.J., and Hoskins, A.A. † Evolution and Characterization of a benzylguanine-binding RNA aptamer. Chem Commun (Camb), v52 (2016), 549-52. PMID: 26538152. PMCID: In Process.. 4. Rodgers, M.L. , Tretbar, S.U., DeHaven, A., Alwan, A.A., Luo, G., Mast, H.M., and Hoskins, A.A. Conformational Dynamics of Stem II of the U2 snRNA. RNA, v22 (2016), 225-36. PMCID: PMC4712673. 5. Hoskins, A.A., Rodgers, M.L., Friedman, L.J., Gelles, J., and Moore, M.J. Single Molecule Analysis Reveals Reversible and ...
Soil testing and appropriately amending your soil is an easy way to prevent abiotic diseases, which are caused by deficiencies in micronutrients. UMass is a great place to send your soil (University of Maryland no longer does testing.) UMass will email you back with the results of your test along with very clear instructions on how to correct any nutrient deficiencies you may have. Not all testing sites give the appropriate reference ranges and recommendations. Go to: http://soiltest.umass.edu/ordering-information to get information on how to send in your sample. It takes about 10 minutes, costs $10 and will help you produce better, healthier plants, as well as reduce overuse of fertilizers that will run into the Bay. It is recommended to test every 3-4 years ...
Linebacker Desmond Bishop, the latest former Green Bay Packers player to come to Minnesota, said Tuesday that he joined the Vikings largely because of the opportunity to play against his old team twice a season.. Bishop signed a one-year deal reportedly worth between $840,000 and $1.35 million, depending on incentives.. That was part of the reason, Bishop told the NFL Network. I had a lot of people call and text saying, Oh, you want to get back at the Packers. Its not about that. I think its more of trying to play the best. If I can get the chance to play against Aaron Rodgers, I think that, right there, is motivation. You want to play against the best. When I was playing for Green Bay, the games I cherished the most were against the Vikings, because I got to play against Adrian Peterson. Thats my mindset. I want to play against the best. The opportunity to play Aaron Rodgers two times a year, that was something I liked.. Bishop said he had no hard feelings for the Packers, who released ...
Filming of Aaron Rodgers guest-hosting stint on Jeopardy! is already in the can with episodes slated to air starting on Monday.
And then there were two. After the New York Jets and Chicago Bears were sent packing last night, we know that two of the most high profile franchises is th
For a relatively unknown artist, Kría Brekkans creds are superb - a former member of whispery Icelandic collective múm, Kría has been slowly gaining a name for herself in the indie rock scene, including featuring in the cover art of Belle & Sebastians LP Fold Your Hands Child, You Walk Like a Peasant, dueting with…
Disclaimer: This isnt an attempt to argue Alex Smith is a better player than Aaron Rodgers. What Im asking myself as I write this is the following: what if Aaron Rodgers had been selected #1 over
The Loins know they are going nowheresville this year. But they are a bunch of thugs and cheap shot artists. Dirtiest team in the league, and the dirties player in the league, in Suh. Combine that...
Based on these result (negative with enzymes and cord red cells), anti-Ch or anti-Rg were suspected. What is unique about the Chido/Rodgers system? Ch...
Armentrout, P.B.; Rodgers, M.T., An Absolute Sodium Cation Affinity Scale: Threshold Collision-Induced Dissociation Experiments and ab Initio Theory, J. Phys. Chem A, 2000, 104, 11, 2238, https://doi.org/10.1021/jp991716n . 16 matching species were found. For each matching species the following will be displayed: ...
Rodgers, M.T.; Armentrout, P.B., Absolute Binding Energies of Sodium Ions to Short-Chain Alcohols, CnH2n+2O, n=1-4, Determined by Threshold Collision-Induced Dissociation Experiments and Ab Initio Theory, 1999, 4955. 8 matching species were found. For each matching species the following will be displayed: ...
The pressure has clearly been on in the NFC North.Oh, theres the usual urgency around Super Bowl aspirations and on-field improvement. Aaron Rodgers has reached the final stretch of his time in Green Bay.Minnesota is trying to keep a championship window open despite a wave of departures on defence
Djillali Annane, Stephen M. Pastores, Wiebke Arlt, Robert A. Balk, Albertus Beishuizen, Josef Briegel, Joseph Carcillo, Mirjam Christ-Crain, Mark S. Cooper, Paul E. Marik, Gianfranco Umberto Meduri, Keith M. Olsen, Bram Rochwerg, Sophia C. Rodgers, James A. Russell, Greet Van den ...
Definition: Total complement of genes contained in a cell or virus; commonly used to refer to all genes present in one complete haploid set of chromosomes in eukaryotes. Source: Essential Genetics: A genomics perspective (2006) 4th Ed. ...
To this day, I have never seen the necessity of the additional work of maintaining 3x5 index cards except as a futile exercise in academic woolgathering. Those cards did not help me write a better paper, and although my paper was good (given the understanding of a typical 16-year-old in 1979), my teachers disapproval of my method of documentation cost me enough on the paper that I made an 80 on the overall effort (a low C back in those days; a B nowadays, which burns me as well). I can see the use of a rough outline to organize ones thoughts, as well as a scribble pad for making notes, but I still have yet to see the need for using 3x5 index cards ...
SLP76山羊多克隆抗体(ab17029)可与人样本反应并经WB实验严格验证,被1篇文献引用并得到1个独立的用户反馈。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
Proteoform Profile Mapping of the Human Serum Complement Component C9 Revealing Unexpected New Features of N‑, O‑, and C‑Glycosylation
Rodgers & Hammerstein: Hello Young Lovers (ARTPNO, Rodgers & Hammerstein, Oscar Hammerstein II, Richard Rodgers, Stevie Wonder, Hal Leonard, Digital Sheet Music, 15 July 2016, 21, smd_h_1182849O3JM4pXCr8) en-GB
Complement C3-C5 Convertases: Serine proteases that cleave COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, or cleave COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. These include the different forms of C3/C5 convertases in the classical and the alternative pathways of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Both cleavages take place at the C-terminal of an ARGININE residue.
Fluorescein-Conjugated Goat F(ab)|sub|2|/sub| Fragment to Human Complement C3 is the lyophilized powder of fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate (FITC Isomer I)-conjugated goat F(ab)|sub|2|/sub| fragment to human complement C3 and buffer salts.
Human Complement C2 ELISA Kit is a Sandwich (quantitative) ELISA for the measurement of Human Complement C2 in Human Cell culture supernatant, Saliva, Milk, Serum, Plasma, Cerebral Spinal Fluid…
DOVER, Del. - Sugar Rodgers scored 35 points and recorded five steals as Georgetown stunned No. 11 Delaware 62-56 Sunday in a nonconference matchup.. Rodgers, who shot 11 of 21 from the field, knocked down a team-high four 3-pointers and made 9 of 10 free-throw attempts.. Georgetown (2-0) trailed 30-28 at halftime but Rodgers opened the second half with two free throws and back-to-back layups to put the Hoyas ahead 34-30.. Delaware (1-1) rallied, cutting the deficit to 54-53 with 2:17 left to play behind a Lauren Carra 3-pointer, but Rodgers converted two free throws and recorded a steal and fast-break layup on the next possession to end the Blue Hens comeback hopes.. Rodgers scored eight of Georgetowns last 10 points.. Delaware was without last years leading scorer Elena Delle Donne. Delle Donne, who also missed Delawares season opener, is dealing with symptoms of Lyme Disease. She is listed as day-to-day. ...
Complement Component C1s Antibody Pairs available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our Complement Component C1s Antibody Pair catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
Complement Component C1s Lysates available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our Complement Component C1s Lysate catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
gi,119370332,sp,P01024.2,CO3_HUMAN RecName: Full=Complement C3; AltName: Full=C3 and PZP-like alpha-2-macroglobulin domain-containing protein 1; Contains: RecName: Full=Complement C3 beta chain; Contains: RecName: Full=Complement C3 alpha chain; Contains: RecName: Full=C3a anaphylatoxin; Contains: RecName: Full=Acylation stimulating protein; Short=ASP; AltName: Full=C3adesArg; Contains: RecName: Full=Complement C3b alpha chain; Contains: RecName: Full=Complement C3c alpha chain fragment 1; Contains: RecName: Full=Complement C3dg fragment; Contains: RecName: Full=Complement C3g fragment; Contains: RecName: Full=Complement C3d fragment; Contains: RecName: Full=Complement C3f fragment; Contains: RecName: Full=Complement C3c alpha chain fragment 2; Flags: ...
What is Complement Component Gene? Definition of Complement Component Gene. Complement Component Gene FAQ. Learn more about Complement Component Gene. Complement Component Gene facts.
A casein kinase released from activated human platelets has been shown to phosphorylate a number of plasma proteins. When platelets are activated they release substantial amounts of ATP and divalent cations which are necessary for phosphorylation of proteins. The aim of this study was to elucidate the optimal conditions for phosphorylation of the human complement component C4, identify phosphorylation site in the molecule and to investigate possible impact on the functions of phosphorylated C4. For this purpose, C4 must be prepared from human plasma, which was done using a modification of a previously published method. The results showed a pure and 100 % active protein. C4 was incubated with [g-32P]ATP and cations. After SDS-PAGE and autoradiography it was shown that C4 was phosphorylated in the a-chain. Maximal phosphorylation was achieved when C4 was phosphorylated in the presence of 20 mM Ca2+. Incubation of phosphorylated and unphosphorylated C4 with trypsin showed that phosphorylated C4 was ...
Visit Healthgrades for information on Dr. Theodore Rodgers III, MD Find Phone & Address information, medical practice history, affiliated hospitals and more.
Visit Healthgrades for information on Dr. Jerry Rodgers, MD Find Phone & Address information, medical practice history, affiliated hospitals and more.
BRENDAN RODGERS is poised to poised to strengthen his Celtic defence in the January transfer window. But the Hoops boss insists it is bad luck rather than
A vote on the Nile Rodgers Freak Out! music and arts festival at Martha Clara Vineyards is expected to take place at the Riverhead Town Boards 7 p.m.
Paul Rodgers / 9W focuses on a select group of established and emerging artists, developing innovative frameworks to promote their careers. The gallery has a flexible schedule of solo and group installations and holds exhibitions in a variety of formats by private and public invitation. Artists include Michael Anderson, Lucinda Devlin, Simon Hantaï, Joseph Marioni, Judit Reigl, Peter Sacks, Dominique Thiolat
Life, energy, football, Dairy Queen Blizzards and his mustache just a few of the topics that came up when Danica Patrick interviewed Aaron Rodgers on her podcast.
Your diet plan issues: Bear in mind that This Site you already have a complete complement of valuable microbes in Your entire body that are All set and equipped to operate within your favor. Including probiotics contained in foods and supplements will help but For anyone who is consuming a diet plan that may be devoid of prebiotic foods including vegetables Youre not planning to experience long-expression overall health benefits ...
Seagull. Can someone tell me why Bad Company is not in the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame? It makes absolutely no sense. The songs are all smash hits and the band is led by one of the most talented vocalists of all time in Paul Rodgers. Sure…there are many bands that deserve the Hall that are not in it…but Bad Co? You gotta be kidding me? On this night, at the Hard Rock in Tulsa, Oklahoma Bad Company blazed through a main set of 13 tunes, 11 of which are still FM radio staples to this day, and two encores to a near capacity house. They rocked from start to finish. The band added some extra jams and outros and Rodgers had the crowd eating out of the palm of his hand from the moment he showed up on stage to the second he left it. Today Bad Company is led by Rodgers along with founding member and drummer Simon Kirke. Bassist Todd Ronning does a fine job in place of the late Boz Burrell while Hall of Famer from Heart Howard Leese kills it on guitar in place of the ill Mick Ralphs. This is a tight ...
Abcams Complement C4 ELISA Kit (ab108825) suitable for Cell culture supernatant, Saliva, Milk, Urine, Cerebral Spinal Fluid in human. Reliably quantify 0.07…
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SR GROUP - Exporter, Importer, Manufacturer, Distributor, Supplier, Trading Company of Rat C9(Complement Component 9) ELISA Kit based in Delhi, India
NIDDK Director Griffin Rodgers, MD KN: You have led the NIDDK for more than 6 years. Tell us about the institute and your vision of NIDDKs role in promoting scientific endeavor. Rodgers:
The Premier League is a tough arena but the focus and the hunger of the players week-in and week-out has shown they can play at a really good level.. The process is working really well, the players are happy in the way they are playing and its always nice when you have those sort of numbers to back it up.. Its still very early, were not getting carried away, the top six have been there for a number of years and the numbers have shown they have pulled away from the teams below.. But were improving, getting better and were showing real good progress.. When I came here, the idea was having the chance to compete. The top six are there, its going to be tough but could we fight to challenge that superiority so thats the aim.. To come here, could I bring European football, thats the big challenge and thats the challenge that I wanted. ...
The Bosnian international's injury concerns have never been far from the surface over the past 12 months and his latest breakdown coincides with the return from the treatment table of Dedryck Boyata and Erik Sviatchenko.. Add to that short-term crocks Stuart Armstrong and Scott Brown and you can see Rodgers doesn't have his problems to seek.. But it's at the back where the biggest worry remains. And with such a huge run of games on the horizon the question of whether Rodgers was right not to bring in defensive reinforcements in the summer.. ...
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This chapter charts the development of the musical Camelot, and examines the problems Lerner, Loewe, and Moss Hart had in getting the piece to Broadway. After the strain of the show, the Lerner and Loewe partnership broke up, and Lerner looked to Richard Rodgers for a new collaboration. The chapter reveals the struggles of the early 1960s, including the problems of working with Rodgers, the frustrated attempts to make a musical about Coco Chanel, and the difficulties in bringing Camelot to London.
The X-Files, the science fiction television series that aired from 1993 to 2002, featured fictional FBI agents Fox Mulder and Dana Scully concerned with unsolved cases involving paranormal phenomena and aliens. Its popularity was such that it made many young …. The X-Files Read More » ...
BLOGGER James Flynn gives the new Parkhead gaffer his lowdown on where improvements are needed to get the Hoops playing the Celtic way again.
The day after Christmas provided the Green Bay Packers with a huge present. The Packers found out Aaron Rodgers will be back for Sundays road matchup with the Chicago Bears that will decide the NFC North. Rodgers missed his seventh straight game last Sunday as Green Bay (7-7-1) fell 38-31 at home
Christy Rodgers writings have appeared on Dissident Voice, Truthout, Alternet, Upside Down World, Counterpunch, and Dark Mountain Project. She lives in San
Definition : Immunoassay reagents intended to perform qualitative and/or quantitative analyses on a body fluid sample (typically serum) to detect and/or measure levels of one or more of the proteins C5 to C9 found in the final complement pathway. Deficiency of complement components C5 to C9 are associated with several diseases, especially recurrent neisserial infections.. Entry Terms : C5-9 (Complement Component) Determination Reagents , Reagents, Immunoassay, Protein, Complement Component, C5-C9. UMDC code : 19804 ...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Assaypro \ Complement C4c, anti_human \ 11223-05011 for more molecular products just contact us
https://luminusdiagnostics.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Luminus-Full-color-header-1.png 0 0 Daniel Battaglia https://luminusdiagnostics.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Luminus-Full-color-header-1.png Daniel Battaglia2018-10-01 20:08:262018-12-11 20:21:53COMPLEMENT C3 ...
Cleavage of Arg-,-Ser bond in complement component C3 alpha-chain to yield C3a and C3b, and Arg-,-Xaa bond in complement component C5 alpha-chain to yield C5a and ...
The three distinct activation pathways of complement converge with the formation of a C5 convertase. The cleavage of C5 by this convertase initiates…
Paul Rodgers is the possessor of one of the great rock voices. As the frontman of first Free and then Bad Company he established himself as also one of the great rock performers and a classic songwriter. In 2005 he joined forces with Queen on their first full tour without Freddie Mercury. This concert was recorded in Glasgow on his sell out autumn 2006 UK tour and features powerful performances of songs from across his career.. ...
Im not going to post a comment by Pat Rodgers, who blames last summers heroin/fentanyl deaths on the U.S. government. His/her point: American successful interdiction of Asian heroin caused addicts no choice but Mexican heroin, which led to Fentanyl spiking in an effort to yield similar effects as Asian heroin. My take is different, of course. …
Liverpool manager Brendan Rodgers insists the pressure of the title race will not diminish his sides ability to attack and dominate opponents.
kr == Kevin Rodgers ,[email protected], writes: ecm, An other point is that neither solution will work well if the default ecm, contents of the ps-right-header variable change in the future. kr, How about kr, kr, (setcar (memq time-stamp-mon-dd-yyyy ps-right-header) ps-time-stamp-iso) thats better, but it still wont work correctly if the default for the date element changes to something like time-stamp-per-locale. -- Eric Marsden ,URL:http://www.laas.fr/~emarsden/ ...
There were five nominees, all of whom would have been worthy winners, and the 2012 award went to Pat Rodgers. Her 24 year old son was killed in Blackburn town centre whilst trying to stop a fight which had broken out. He was killed by a single punch from a drunken 16 year old. Despite their terrible loss she and her husband wanted something positive to come from it and set up a charity Every Action has its Consequences. Pat has produced an education pack now used widely in schools, colleges and prisons, which addresses the issues of binge drinking and violence and the devastation it can wreak on the lives of others. ...
STBY was invited to contribute a chapter to the book Routledge Companion to Design Research, edited by Professor Paul Rodgers and Dr. Joyce Yee for Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group Publishers.
Joan Alexander, Jude Kendall, Jean McIndoo, Linda Rodgers, Robert Aboukhalil, Dan Levy, Asya Stepansky, Guoli Sun, Lubomir Chobardjiev, Michael Riggs, Hilary Cox, Inessa Hakker, Dawid G. Nowak, Juliana Laze, Elton Llukani, Abhishek Srivastava, Siobhan Gruschow, Shalini S. Yadav, Brian Robinson, Gurinder Atwal, Lloyd C. Trotman, Herbert Lepor, James Hicks, Michael Wigler and Alexander Krasnitz ...
Joe Hollinghurst, Ashley Akbari, Richard Fry, Alan Watkins, Damon Berridge, Andy Clegg, Sarah Hillcoat-Nalletamby, Neil Williams, Ronan Lyons, Amy Mizen, Angharad Walters, Rhodri Johnson, Sarah Rodgers ...
Mike Rodgers should be getting all the attention with a dual sub-6.50 60 meter dash indoors, as he ran 6.49 and 6.48 in the thin air of Albuquerque ...
This test measures the amount of C3 proteins in your blood. C3 proteins are part of your immune system. This test can help diagnose lupus.
IVERIC bio, Inc. announced initial topline data confirming that Zimura® met its prespecified primary endpoint in its Phase 2b clinical trial.
Complement C4-A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the C4A gene. This gene encodes the acidic form of complement factor ... Complement component 4 Complement component 4B HLA A1-B8-DR3-DQ2 haplotype Complement system Complement deficiency ... "Use of a cDNA clone for the fourth component of human complement (C4) for analysis of a genetic deficiency of C4 in guinea pig ... "Entrez Gene: C4A complement component 4A (Rodgers blood group)". Dawkins RL, Uko G, Christiansen FT, Kay PH (Sep 1983). "Low C4 ...
C4 (complement 4) produces a null allele at on locus C4AQ. This locus in part of the HLA A1-B8-DR3-DQ2 haplotype (markers are ... Ancestral haplotypes with C4 null alleles explain diverse HLA associations". Hum. Immunol. 29 (4): 282-95. doi:10.1016/0198- ...
Early components of the classical complement pathway (C1q or C4) are usually not seen. Electron microscopy confirms electron- ... Associations described include those with C4 null allele, factor B Bf alleles, MHC antigens and IgA isotypes. ACE gene ... Some HLA alleles have been suspected along with complement phenotypes as being genetic factors. Non-aggressive Berger's disease ... complement levels, ANA, and LDH. Protein electrophoresis and immunoglobulin levels can show increased IgA in 50% of all ...
... interference with complement C3 and C4 measurement". Immunol. Invest. 28 (4): 269-276. doi:10.3109/08820139909060861. PMID ...
1977). "Anticomplementary activity of Fusobacterium polymorphum in normal and C4-deficient sources of guinea pig complement". ...
Due to deposition of complement (in particular, C4), low levels of circulating complement factors may be seen. Cryoglobulinemia ... since simple or type 1 cryoglobulinemia does not cause complement activation (but a hyperviscosity syndrome only). ...
However, birds (chicken and quail) have only a single gene, which codes for a complement component gene (C4). In fishes, the ... The gene cluster was discovered when genes (specifically those of complement components C2, C4, and factor B) were found in ... The region containing genes G11/C4/Z/CYP21/X/Y, varying in size from 142 to 214 kb, is known as the most complex gene cluster ...
"Human major histocompatibility complex contains a new cluster of genes between the HLA-D and complement C4 loci". Nucleic Acids ...
Gerritsma JS, Gerritsen AF, De Ley M, van Es LA, Daha MR (Apr 1997). "Interferon-gamma induces biosynthesis of complement ... components C2, C4 and factor H by human proximal tubular epithelial cells". Cytokine. 9 (4): 276-83. doi:10.1006/cyto.1996.0164 ...
Mammalian complement-activating component of Ra-reactive factor (RARF), a protease that cleaves the C4 component of complement ... Almost all CUB domains contain four conserved cysteines that probably form two disulphide bridges (C1-C2, C3-C4). The CUB1 ... For example, in the complement proteases, the CUB domains mediate dimerisation and binding to collagen-like regions of target ... The CUB domain (for complement C1r/C1s, Uegf, Bmp1) is a structural motif of approximately 110 residues found almost ...
Also, C4 and C2 cleavage goes unchecked, resulting in auto-activation of the complement system. In its most common form, it ... This way, C1-inhibitor prevents the proteolytic cleavage of later complement components C4 and C2 by C1 and MBL. Although named ... The activation of the complement cascade can cause damage to cells, therefore the inhibition of the complement cascade can work ... which triggers the complement cascade. Activation of the complement cascade attracts phagocytes that leak peroxide and other ...
The presence of other immunoglobulins (especially IgA) and/or complement proteins (especially C4) increases the specificity of ... Lupus band test is done upon skin biopsy, with direct immunofluorescence staining, in which, if positive, IgG and complement ...
Analysis of complement C1 inhibitor levels may play a role in diagnosis. C4 and C2 are complementary components. There are ... Measure: serum complement factor 4 (C4), C1 inhibitor (C1-INH) antigenic protein, C1 inhibitor (C1-INH) functional level if ... Diagnosis of types I and II is based on measurement of C4 and C1-inhibitor levels. Management of HAE involves efforts to ... In this type, atypical C1-inhibitor proteins are produced which are less capable of suppressing activation of the complement ...
C4 is a cycle of four vertices and 2K2 is its complement, that is, two disjoint edges. This also explains why threshold graphs ... are closed under taking complements; the P4 is self-complementary, hence if a graph is P4-, C4- and 2K2-free, its complement is ... A cograph is a graph with no induced path on four vertices, P4, and a threshold graph is a graph with no induced P4, C4 nor 2K2 ... C4, or 2K2) will be output. Indifference graph Series-parallel graph Chvátal, Václav; Hammer, Peter L. (1977), "Aggregation of ...
... that are produced as part of the activation of the complement system. Complement components C3, C4 and C5 are large ... Ogata RT, Rosa PA, Zepf NE (October 1989). "Sequence of the gene for murine complement component C4". The Journal of Biological ... This term is reserved only for fragments of the complement system. C3, C4A, C4B, C4B-1, C5, FBLN1, FBLN2 Allergy Anaphylatoxin ... Gennaro R, Simonic T, Negri A, Mottola C, Secchi C, Ronchi S, Romeo D (February 1986). "C5a fragment of bovine complement. ...
In this analysis, it is usually a reduced complement factor C4, rather than the C1-INH deficiency itself, that is detected. The ... All forms of HAE lead to abnormal activation of the complement system, and all forms can cause swelling elsewhere in the body, ... Cinnarizine may also be useful because it blocks the activation of C4 and can be used in patients with liver disease, whereas ... In hereditary angioedema, bradykinin formation is caused by continuous activation of the complement system due to a deficiency ...
When a single gene deficiency does cause lupus, it is usually attributed to the complement protein genes C1, C2, or C4. The ... cutaneous lupus mucinosis complement deficiency syndromes drug-induced lupus erythematosus neonatal lupus erythematosus ...
4,0 4,1 Rosa PA, Ogata RT, Zepf NE (1989). "Sequence of the gene for murine complement component C4". J. Biol. Chem. 264 (28): ... Komponente komplementa: C3, C4 i C5, su masivni glikoproteini koji imaju važne funkcije u imunskom responsu i odbrani domaćina. ... Hugli TE (1986). "Biochemistry and biology of anaphylatoxins". Complement 3 (3): 111-27. PMID 3542363. ... Fritzinger DC, Petrella EC, Connelly MB, Bredehorst R, Vogel CW (1992). "Primary structure of cobra complement component C3". J ...
Based on crystal structure of TPST-2 with C4 complement and PAP, an SN2-like in-line displacement mechanism has been proposed. ... Complement component 4, follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), and other chemokine and G-protein coupled receptors. A ...
The C4 gene, as already stated, codes for a component of the complement system; the CYP21gene codes for a key enzyme in the ... The first of these class III loci was the Ss locus, which was later identified as coding for complement component 4. The C4 ... The hook-up seems to have arisen, when an identical short sequence motif arose by chance at both flanks of the initial C4-CYP21 ... And on the example of two "class III" genes, C4 and CYP21, they illustrated a mechanism by which the accordion might be ...
July 2008). "Autoimmune-associated HLA-B8-DR3 haplotypes in Asian Indians are unique in C4 complement gene copy numbers and HSP ... Complement component 4 Complement component 4A Complement component 4B Price P, Witt C, Allcock R, et al. (February 1999). "The ...
September 2008). "Autoimmune-associated HLA-B8-DR3 haplotypes in Asian Indians are unique in C4 complement gene copy numbers ...
In the chicken and quail, there is only a single CYP21 gene, which locus is located between complement component C4 and TNX ... The CYP21A2 gene is located within the RCCX cluster (an abbreviation composed of the names of the genes RP, C4, CYP21 and TNX ... Both genes are located on chromosome 6, in the major histocompatibility complex III close to the Complement component 4 genes ... Yu CY (1999). "Molecular genetics of the human MHC complement gene cluster". Experimental and Clinical Immunogenetics. 15 (4): ...
... are present between complement component genes factor B and C4 in the class III region of the HLA". Genomics. 53 (3): 338-47. ... are present between complement component genes factor B and C4 in the class III region of the HLA". Genomics. 53 (3): 338-47. ... "Features of the two gene pairs RD-SKI2W and DOM3Z-RP1 located between complement component genes factor B and C4 at the MHC ... "Structure and genetics of the partially duplicated gene RP located immediately upstream of the complement C4A and the C4B genes ...
1996). "Complete sequence of the complement C4 gene from the HLA-A1, B8, C4AQ0, C4B1, DR3 haplotype". Immunogenetics. 43 (4): ... are present between complement component genes factor B and C4 in the class III region of the HLA". Genomics. 53 (3): 338-47. ... Yu CY (1991). "The complete exon-intron structure of a human complement component C4A gene. DNA sequences, polymorphism, and ... 1994). "Structure and genetics of the partially duplicated gene RP located immediately upstream of the complement C4A and the ...
... are present between complement component genes factor B and C4 in the class III region of the HLA". Genomics. 53 (3): 338-47. ... Yu CY (1999). "Molecular genetics of the human MHC complement gene cluster". Experimental and Clinical Immunogenetics. 15 (4): ...
... are present between complement component genes factor B and C4 in the class III region of the HLA". Genomics. 53 (3): 338-47. ... "Entrez Gene: DOM3Z dom-3 homolog Z (C. elegans)". Yu CY (1999). "Molecular genetics of the human MHC complement gene cluster". ... Yang Z, Yu CY (2000). "Organizations and gene duplications of the human and mouse MHC complement gene clusters". Exp. Clin. ...
Genes in the Complement Component 4 (C4) locus of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), which encode for complement ... Carriers of C4 risk variants have also been found to be tied to this kind of synapse overpruning in microglia. The proposed ... Specifically, complement factors C1q and C3 have been found to have a role in microglia-mediated synaptic pruning. ... The fact that some of these complement factors are involved in signaling during synaptic pruning also seems to suggest that ...
Complement C4 (Blood). Does this test have other names?. Complement component 4, C4 ... If only your C4 complement level is low, and all other complement components are normal, it is usually because of an inherited ... If the blood sample is mishandled, your C4 levels may be falsely low. If the C4 test is done as part of a total complement ... By measuring complement C4 levels, especially in how they compare with other parts of the complement system, your healthcare ...
Abcams Complement C4 ELISA Kit (ab108825) suitable for Cell culture supernatant, Saliva, Milk, Urine, Cerebral Spinal Fluid in ... A Complement C4 specific antibody has been precoated onto 96-well plates and blocked. Standards or test samples are added to ... Complement component C4 is expressed at highest levels in the liver, at moderate levels in the adrenal cortex, adrenal medulla ... Abcams Complement C4 Human in vitro ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) kit is designed for the quantitative measurement ...
Polymorphism of Complement C4 and Susceptibility to IDDM and Microvascular Complications. Karl Lhotta, Martin Auinger, Florian ... Polymorphism of Complement C4 and Susceptibility to IDDM and Microvascular Complications. Karl Lhotta, Martin Auinger, Florian ... Polymorphism of Complement C4 and Susceptibility to IDDM and Microvascular Complications Message Subject (Your Name) has ... OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not the inherited polymorphism of complement C4 is associated ...
... conjugated goat IgG fraction to human complement C4 and buffer salts. ... Anti-human complement C4 goat IgG fraction, fluorescein-conjugated, 2 mL. $274.70 ... FITC-Conjugated Goat IgG Fraction to Anti-Human Complement C4 is used as a reagent in immunofluorescence assays (IFA), cell ... FITC-Conjugated Goat IgG Fraction to Anti-Human Complement C4 is used as a reagent in immunofluorescence assays (IFA), cell ...
... conjugated goat IgG fraction to human complement C4 and buffer salts. ... FITC-Conjugated Goat IgG Fraction to Anti-Human Complement C4 is used as a reagent in immunofluorescence assays (IFA), cell ... FITC-Conjugated Goat IgG Fraction to Anti-Human Complement C4 is used as a reagent in immunofluorescence assays (IFA), cell ... This product shows reactivity to human complement C4; cross-reactivity to other species may exist. Antibody activity to ...
... Seppänen, M ... Complement factor C4 is a nearby, polymorphic, functionally relevant gene region. Although associated with chronic mucosal ... We tested whether complement levels are systemically altered and C4 deficiencies associated with severe chronic periodontitis. ... In a case-control study, we analysed levels of plasma C3, and C4, serum classical pathway haemolytic activity, C4 allotypes and ...
What is Complement C3 and Complement C4? Meaning of Complement C3 and Complement C4 medical term. What does Complement C3 and ... Looking for online definition of Complement C3 and Complement C4 in the Medical Dictionary? Complement C3 and Complement C4 ... Complement C3 and Complement C4. Complement C3 and Complement C4. Synonym/acronym: C3 and C4. ... Complement C3 and Complement C4 , definition of Complement C3 and Complement C4 by Medical dictionary https://medical- ...
... leads to profound activation of the complement (C3 and C4) system. The present study was conducted to compare... ... leads to profound activation of the complement (C3 and C4) system. The present study was conducted to compare the use of serum ... Complement factors and their receptors.Immunopharmacology. 1997; 38: 3-15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Change of complement system predicts the outcome of patients with severe thermal injury.J Burn Care Rehabil. 2003; 24: 148-153. ...
Abstract P287: Complement Proteins C3 and C4 are Associated with Higher Levels of Hemostatic Markers in Women at Midlife: The ... Abstract P287: Complement Proteins C3 and C4 are Associated with Higher Levels of Hemostatic Markers in Women at Midlife: The ... Abstract P287: Complement Proteins C3 and C4 are Associated with Higher Levels of Hemostatic Markers in Women at Midlife: The ... Abstract P287: Complement Proteins C3 and C4 are Associated with Higher Levels of Hemostatic Markers in Women at Midlife: The ...
The complement group of proteins is ancient in evolutionary terms. Recognised complement components are found strewn throughout ... We were particularly interested to see that the final sentence of the paper stated that When complement gene-sets are taken as ... The study demonstrated a broad association between variations in complement gene expression and perturbed neurodevelopment. ... complement functions as an essential pillar of the innate immune system. It is activated by various noxious stimuli and results ...
x = INCSTAR Complement C4 Test Kit. y = K-ASSAY ® Complement C4 assay. x min = 11 y min = 9 ... A comparison of the K-ASSAY ® Complement C4 assay and an INCSTAR Complement C4 Test Kit was performed using a Hitachi 717. The ... For the quantitative determination of human complement C4 (4th complement component) in serum by immunoturbidimetric assay. ... The precision for the K-ASSAY ® Complement C4 assay was determined using packaged reagents, pooled human serum, and a Hitachi ...
Complement C4 mRNA was found in liver, and with high intensity also in normal kidneys. In contrast, no C2 mRNA and only very ... The results, showing that the complement C4 genes are transcribed very efficiently in normal human kidney, suggest a direct ... Slot blot hybridization was performed to quantitate the amount of C4 mRNA, and the intensity of C4 mRNA hybridization in the ... linked complement components C4, factor B and C2 in various normal human tissues. The presence of the corresponding messenger ...
anti-Complement C4 beta-chain, mAb (52H10) is a monoclonal antibody that crossreacts with human protein. Works in ELISA, WB, IP ... Human C4 is the most polymorphic protein of the complement system. Complement C4 exists as two isotypes, C4A (acidic) and C4B ( ... the classical complement pathway, the alternative pathway, and the mannose-binding lectin pathway. Complement component C4 is ... anti-Complement C4, mAb (γ-chain) (49H9) YIF-LF-MA0188. Add to Compare ...
This test measures the amount of a protein called C4 in your blood. You may need this test if your healthcare provider suspects ... Complement C4 (Blood). Does this test have other names?. Complement component 4, C4 ... If only your C4 complement level is low, and all other complement components are normal, it is usually because of an inherited ... If the blood sample is mishandled, your C4 levels may be falsely low. If the C4 test is done as part of a total complement ...
COMPLEMENT C4. *For the quantitative measurement of human complement C4 (4th complement component) by immunoturbidimetric assay ... C4 is the fourth complement component. It is one of a group of serum proteins that are active in the bodys immune response to ... Measurement of the level of the 4th complement component (C4) in serum can aid in the diagnosis of immunological disorders, ... especially those associated with deficiencies of complement components.. ...
The Randox Complement C4 assay. The Randox Complement C4 assay is used for the quantitative in vitro determination of ... Wide measuring range - The healthy range for Complement C4 is 7 -49 mg/dl. The Randox Complement C4 assay can comfortably ... Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder associated with a deficiency in complement C4. Complement C4 is ... The Complement C4 and Complement C3 proteins, which play an important role in eliminating certain infections, can be used as ...
METHODS Serum C3, C4, IgM and IgG levels were assessed in 18 women receiving transdermal 17beta-estradiol (50 micro g/day) + ... In this cross-sectional study, serum C3, C4, IgG and IgM levels were evaluated in healthy post-menopausal women receiving two ... MPA had significantly higher mean levels of C4 compared with untreated women (P , 0.01). IgG and IgM levels were similar among ... as suggested by increased serum levels of C3 and C4. ... Association of serum complement (C3, C4) and immunoglobulin ( ...
The Complement C4 test measures the amount of C4 proteins in your blood. This test is used to evaluate and manage conditions ... This test is used to measure the level of serum Complement C4. C4 is also used to detect individuals with inborn deficiency of ... Complement C4 has been identified a a marker for identifying systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a chronic, multisystemic, ... factor or those with immunologic disease in whom over activation of the immune system causes reduced levels of this complement ...
Complement C3 is the most important and abundant protein in the complement system. Decreased C4 level is associated with acute ... The complement system is composed of more than 30 circulating blood proteins that work together to help antibodies fight off ... systemic lupus erythematosis, glomerulonephritis, immune complex disease, cryoglobulinemia, congenital C4 deficiency and ...
This evaluation helps in diagnosis of C4 deficiency and also for investigating patient with an undetectable Total complement ... A critical element for activation of classical pathway is C4. Patients suffering from SLE, Immune complex disease and ... hereditary angioedema are found to have decreased levels of C4. Congenital deficiency of it can lead to increased risk of ...
... Andrén, Maria ... C4 was incubated with [g-32P]ATP and cations. After SDS-PAGE and autoradiography it was shown that C4 was phosphorylated in the ... The aim of this study was to elucidate the optimal conditions for phosphorylation of the human complement component C4, ... Incubation of phosphorylated and unphosphorylated C4 with trypsin showed that phosphorylated C4 was less susceptible to ...
Green top tube is NOT acceptable. Marked hemolysis or lipemic saamples are NOT acceptable.. *While a microtainer is an optional tube type in rare circumstances, it is not recommended.. ...
... more than thirty one Spire locations that we refer our patients to around the UK Included in each test for Complement C3 and C4 ... This confidential blood examination for Complement C3 and C4 is accessible at ... Included in each test for Complement C3 and C4 are a Doctors Referral, all Phlebotomy fees (your blood taken at a Private ... This confidential blood examination for Complement C3 and C4 is accessible at more than thirty one Spire locations that we ...
Complement testing may be ordered by your physician if there is unexplained inflammation or symptoms of systemic lupus ... Complement component 4 is one of the nine proteins that form the complement system. ... COMPLEMENT 4 (C4) Complement component 4 is one of the nine proteins that form the complement system. Complement testing may be ...
This study was conducted to show whether serum C3 and C4 complement change in adult nonpregnant female with iron deficient ... Conclusion: This study showed serum C3 and C4 complements levels were not changed in iron deficiency anemia. ... Serum C3, and C4 were measured in case and control subjects with nephlometry method, finally comparison between result of ... Although serum complements were slightly lower in patient groups in compared to control group but this differences was not ...
No.,/p, ,/td, ,td, HYB 162-02,/td, ,/tr, ,tr, ,td, ,p, Product name,/p, ,/td, ,td, Anti-Complement component C4 (human),/td, ,/ ... C4 is a component of the classical complement pathway and is split by activated C1s to C4a and C4b. Together C2a and C4b forms ... The molecular mass of C4 is 204 kDa and it consists of 3 domains: α (97kDa), β (75 kDa) and g (33 kDa).. ...
CD35 is caTagorized as a regulator of complement avtivation. It binds complement components C3b and C4b, composed of four ... CD35 is caTagorized as a regulator of complement avtivation. It binds complement components C3b and C4b, composed of four ... CD35 is caTagorized as a regulator of complement avtivation. It binds complement components C3b and C4b, composed of four ... CD35 is caTagorized as a regulator of complement avtivation. It binds complement components C3b and C4b, mediating phagocytosis ...
Sim, Edith and Law, Sai-Kit A. (1985) Hydralazine binds covalently to complement component-C4: Different reactivity of C4A AND ... Hydralazine binds covalently to complement component-C4: Different reactivity of C4A AND C4B Gene-Products ...
The C4 lab test helps screen for kidney and autoimmune disease. Get a C4 test near you and fast results for a reasonable cost ... The C4 blood test measures the complement C4 blood level. ... C4 Blood Test. The C4 blood test measures the C4 complement ... C4 Test - More Information. The C4 blood test, also known as a C4 lab test and a complement component C4c test, measures the C4 ... Complement C4 is a part of a portion of the immune system known as the complement system. Abnormal levels of C4 can be ...
Human Complement C4-Binding Protein ELISA Kit is a sensitive immunoassay suitable for the quantification of C4 binding protein/ ... ab222866 Human Complement C4-Binding Protein ELISA Kit is designed for the quantitative measurement of Complement C4-Binding ... Complement component C4-binding protein (C4BP) regulates the complement system by accelerating the decay of the complement ... ELISA - Human Complement C4-Binding Protein ELISA Kit (ab222866) Protein - Recombinant Human C4 binding protein/C4BPB (ab130028 ...
  • This test measures the amount of C4 proteins in your blood. (rochester.edu)
  • These proteins are part of your complement system, an important part of your immune system that helps kill disease-causing bacteria and viruses. (rochester.edu)
  • Complement is a system of 25 to 30 distinct cell membrane and plasma proteins, numbered C1 through C9. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Once activated, the proteins interact with each other in a specific sequence called the complement cascade. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The classical pathway is triggered by antigen-antibody complexes and includes participation of all complement proteins C1 through C9. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Complement proteins act as enzymes that aid in the immunological and inflammatory response. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • C3 and C4 are the most frequently assayed complement proteins, along with total complement. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Circulating complement proteins in patients with sepsis or systemic inflammatory response syndrome. (springer.com)
  • Complement proteins have been associated with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk factors. (ahajournals.org)
  • To better understand the association between complement proteins and atherosclerosis we evaluated the cross-sectional associations between complement proteins C3 and C4 and hemostatic markers (factor VIIc, fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) antigen and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) antigen) in a sample of midlife women. (ahajournals.org)
  • Complement proteins C3 and C4 could be possible pathways by which postmenopausal women are at higher risk of atherosclerosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • The complement group of proteins is ancient in evolutionary terms. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the developing mammal we know that the proteins of the complement system are both temporally and spatially separate in their expression ( 6 , 7 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • This, we think, underscores the developmental importance of the other roles of the complement proteins in the absence of the established pathways of activation. (frontiersin.org)
  • There are now several decades of good evidence of separate and distinct roles for complement proteins in both neurodevelopment and general development/regeneration. (frontiersin.org)
  • Complement is a group of serum proteins that destroy infectious agents. (kamiyabiomedical.com)
  • Measurement of these proteins aids in the diagnosis of immunological disorders, especially those associated with deficiencies of complement components. (kamiyabiomedical.com)
  • The complement system is composed of more than 30 circulating blood proteins that work together to help antibodies fight off infections and destroy substances that are foreign to the body such as viruses, bacteria, and other germs. (peacenaturopathic.com)
  • Complement component 4 is one of the nine proteins that form the complement system. (icliniq.com)
  • Background and Objectives: Complement proteins are some of the most important plasma proteins of the innate immune system. (iranpath.org)
  • Interestingly, proteins containing the CCP1-CCP2 domains or the SP domain alone bound C4 with much lower affinity than the CCP1-CCP2-SP protein, suggesting that the CCP domains cooperate positively with the active site to mediate efficient binding and cleavage of C4. (edu.au)
  • Peptidylarginine deiminase and deiminated proteins are detected throughout early halibut ontogeny - Complement components C3 and C4 are post-translationally deiminated in halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L. (westminster.ac.uk)
  • Proteomic analysis of deiminated target proteins in halibut serum further identified complement components C5, C7, C8 C9 and C1 inhibitor, as well as various other immunogenic, metabolic, cytoskeletal and nuclear proteins. (westminster.ac.uk)
  • Objectives: To determine serum concentrations of proinflammatory (C reactive protein, complement C3 and C4) and anti-inflammatory (α1 antitrypsin, C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH)) acute phase proteins in elite cyclists before and during a three week cycle tour. (edu.au)
  • abstract = "Objectives: To determine serum concentrations of proinflammatory (C reactive protein, complement C3 and C4) and anti-inflammatory (α1 antitrypsin, C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH)) acute phase proteins in elite cyclists before and during a three week cycle tour.Methods: Seventeen professional cyclists participating in the Vuelta a Espańa volunteered for the study. (edu.au)
  • Secreted Aspergillus fumigatus protease Alp1 degrades human complement proteins C3, C4, and C5. (leibniz-hki.de)
  • The inflammatory mediators, cytokines and complement proteins are believed to regulate the sequential events during the development. (elsevier.com)
  • In the present study, expression of complement proteins (C1 inhibitor, factor H, factor B, C4) by cultured endothelial cells obtained from human brain microvessels has been characterized. (elsevier.com)
  • Serine proteases, plasmin and miniplasmin induce the expression of C4, decrease the level of ELISA detectable C1 inhibitor, and do not affect the production of factors H and B. These data indicate that complement proteins are expressed locally by the brain microvessels, and may modulate the inflammatory responses of brain tissue. (elsevier.com)
  • Background: The complement system consists of more than 30 proteins that are either present as soluble proteins in the blood or present as membrane-associated proteins. (edu.iq)
  • Induction of the neutrophil oxidative burst via Fcγ receptor cross-linking was accompanied by up-regulation of neutrophil surface CD11b, CD35, and CD66b only in the presence of selected serum proteins, such as purified human C4, C5, or human serum albumin (HSA). (jimmunol.org)
  • The complement system is a group of proteins that flow through your blood, destroy bacteria, and take part in the inflammatory process. (everydayhealth.com)
  • In lupus, a low level of complement proteins C3 and C4 suggests active inflammation which can be a sign of increased lupus activity. (everydayhealth.com)
  • The phylogeny and evolution of the thioester bond-containing proteins C3, C4 and alpha 2-macroglobulin. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • C3 is an essential activating protein in the classic and alternate complement cascades. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The present study was conducted to compare the use of serum C3 and C4 levels with C-reactive protein (CRP) and thrombocyte and leukocyte counts in differentiating patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) from those with sepsis. (springer.com)
  • Selberg O, Hecker H, Martin M, Klos A, Bautsch W, Kohl J. Discrimination of sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome by determination of circulating plasma concentrations of procalcitonin, protein complement 3a, and interleukin-6. (springer.com)
  • Recent data suggest a potential role of complement protein C3 in clot stability with hypofibrinolytic and prothrombotic features. (ahajournals.org)
  • Complement protein C3 is independently associated with two important hemostatic markers, PAI-1 and tPA antigens, that have significant roles in thrombus development, stabilization and destabilization in lesion areas. (ahajournals.org)
  • A recent seminal paper in the fields showed SNPs contributing to altered C4 protein expression resulting in an increased risk of schizophrenia. (frontiersin.org)
  • Human C4 is the most polymorphic protein of the complement system. (adipogen.com)
  • Complement-induced release of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 from human smooth muscle cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Complement C3 is the most important and abundant protein in the complement system. (peacenaturopathic.com)
  • ab222866 Human Complement C4-Binding Protein ELISA Kit is designed for the quantitative measurement of Complement C4-Binding Protein in plasma, serum, urine, milk, saliva, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and cell culture samples. (abcam.com)
  • The kit employs a quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique that measures human Complement C4-Binding Protein (C4BP) in less than 4 hours. (abcam.com)
  • Complement component C4-binding protein (C4BP) regulates the complement system by accelerating the decay of the complement component C3 convertase and by acting as a cofactor to the serine protease factor I in the degradation of C4b. (abcam.com)
  • The major form of C4BP is composed of seven identical 70-kDa alpha chains, each containing a binding site for the complement protein C4b, and a unique 45 kDa beta chain which contains a binding site for the vitamin K-dependent protein S. C4BP was overexpressed in the synovial membranes of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (abcam.com)
  • The C4 protein exists as either the C4A or C413 isotype and is polymorphic with up to 40 allotypes being reported. (edu.au)
  • characterise the C4 protein polymorphisms at the DNA level 4. (edu.au)
  • Seven individual protein spots were identified as either significantly increased (α 2 -macroglobulin, haptoglobin, albumin) or decreased (complement C-4, serum retinol binding protein, apolipoprotein A-1, and two isoforms of apolipoprotein A-IV) with advanced fibrosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the patient group the mean C4 serum protein concentrations nephelometrically measured during a 12-month period prior to genetic analysis were compared to C4 gene copy numbers. (uni-kiel.de)
  • Complement component C4-like protein in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L. (westminster.ac.uk)
  • Cod C4-like protein was isolated from plasma, specific antibodies generated and C4-like protein was assessed in cod sera, mucus and in extracellular vesicles (EVs) from serum and mucus. (westminster.ac.uk)
  • Higher levels of C4-like protein were detected in serum- than mucus-derived EVs. (westminster.ac.uk)
  • Here we detected deiminated forms of C4-like protein in cod serum and at lower levels in mucus. (westminster.ac.uk)
  • C4-like protein was also found in deiminated form at low levels in EVs from both serum and mucus. (westminster.ac.uk)
  • C4-like protein was assessed by immunohistochemistry in cod larvae and detected in a range of organs including in liver, kidney, gut, muscle, skin and mucus, as well as in neuronal tissues of the brain, spinal cord and eye. (westminster.ac.uk)
  • This abundance of C4-like protein during early development may indicate roles in tissue remodelling, in addition to immune defences. (westminster.ac.uk)
  • The presence of deiminated C4-like protein in serum and mucosa, as well as in EVs, may suggest C4 protein moonlighting via post-translational deimination. (westminster.ac.uk)
  • We found significant differences in the levels of immunoglobulins, the C4 component of complement, the C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, the composition of lymphocyte population and the production of some cytokines by stimulated CD3+ cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Complement C4-A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the C4A gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binding of flavivirus nonstructural protein NS1 to C4b binding protein modulates complement activation. (nih.gov)
  • N-linked glycosylation of dengue virus NS1 protein modulates secretion, cell-surface expression, hexamer stability, and interactions with human complement. (nih.gov)
  • You can inherit a deficiency in your complement C4, but it is much more common to acquire a deficiency. (rochester.edu)
  • If only your C4 complement level is low, and all other complement components are normal, it is usually because of an inherited component deficiency. (rochester.edu)
  • A deficiency in complement C4 levels has been linked to different forms of kidney disease and chronic hepatitis. (rochester.edu)
  • To assist in the diagnosis of immunological diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), in which complement is consumed at an increased rate, or to detect inborn deficiency. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • C4-deficient mice shows incomplete clearance of microbial attack and C4-deficiency in human shows increased autoimmune diseases. (adipogen.com)
  • C4 is also used to detect individuals with inborn deficiency of this factor or those with immunologic disease in whom over activation of the immune system causes reduced levels of this complement factor. (personalabs.com)
  • Decreased C4 level is associated with acute systemic lupus erythematosis, glomerulonephritis, immune complex disease, cryoglobulinemia, congenital C4 deficiency and generalized autoimmune disease. (peacenaturopathic.com)
  • This evaluation helps in diagnosis of C4 deficiency and also for investigating patient with an undetectable Total complement level. (apollodiagnostics.in)
  • Conclusion: This study showed serum C3 and C4 complements levels were not changed in iron deficiency anemia. (iranpath.org)
  • C3 and C4 Complement Levels in Iron Deficiency Anemia', Iranian Journal of Pathology , 6(2), pp. 56-62. (iranpath.org)
  • Gene copy-number variations (CNVs) of complement C4 and C4A deficiency in genetic risk and pathogenesis of juvenile dermatomyositis. (cdc.gov)
  • Complement C4A deficiency appears to be an important factor for the genetic risk and pathogenesis of JDM, particularly in patients with a DR3-positive background. (cdc.gov)
  • Low copy numbers of complement C4 and homozygous deficiency of C4A may predispose to severe disease and earlier disease onset in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. (uni-kiel.de)
  • The complement cascade was activated after infection with VSV via the classical pathway, and active complement cleavage products augmented the effector function of neutralizing IgM and IgG antibodies to VSV by a factor of 10-100. (nih.gov)
  • The complement system helps or "complements" the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear pathogens from an organism. (academic.ru)
  • Holland and colleagues performed a gene-set analysis, looking specifically for the complement-related genes that are associated with IQ and schizophrenia. (frontiersin.org)
  • The results, showing that the complement C4 genes are transcribed very efficiently in normal human kidney, suggest a direct role of complement C4 in renal pathogenesis. (scienceopen.com)
  • The gamma block contains approximately 20 known genes including the complement C4 genes. (edu.au)
  • The gamma block can contain between I and 3 tandemly arranged C4 genes. (edu.au)
  • For this reason, and because C4 allotyping is a technically difficult procedure, C4 allotyping is rarely used in MHC disease association studies.The molecular heterogeneity of human C4 genes has not been extensively studied. (edu.au)
  • This high degree of homology and the presence of up to 3 C4 genes on any MHC haplotype makes PCR separation of the C4 genes difficult for subsequent genetic studies. (edu.au)
  • The aim of this study was to extensively characterise the molecular heterogeneity of the human C4 genes and thereby: 1. (edu.au)
  • In contrast to separating the C4 genes, a novel approach whereby the C4 genes were amplified and sequenced simultaneously was applied in this study. (edu.au)
  • Comparison of the C4 genes from different AHs revealed that the C4d region of the C4 a-chain is most polymorphic, but that polymorphic amino acid residues are also present in other regions of C4. (edu.au)
  • In addition, the presence of the isotype specific sequences in exon 26 was confirmed and primers were designed to specifically amplify, and thereby separate, the C4A and C4B genes.Comparison of the C4 gene sequences representing the same C4 allotype revealed that most C4 allotypes are heterogeneous and may be split into several subtypes. (edu.au)
  • In addition, a number of haplospecific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified within the C4 genes. (edu.au)
  • The fourth component of complement (C4) is encoded by two closely linked genes (C4A and C4B) within the MHC. (jci.org)
  • The induction of complement synthesis occurs primarily in liver and in macrophages and is mediated, at least in part, by increased transcription of the complement genes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Objectives Low copy numbers and deletion of complement C4 genes are potent risk factors for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). (uni-kiel.de)
  • Conclusions Our findings confirm the important role of complement C4 genes in the development of SLE. (uni-kiel.de)
  • A Complement C4 specific antibody has been precoated onto 96-well plates and blocked. (abcam.com)
  • Standards or test samples are added to the wells and subsequently a Complement C4 specific biotinylated detection antibody is added and then followed by washing with wash buffer. (abcam.com)
  • The alternate pathway occurs when C3, C5, and C9 are activated without participation of C1, C2, and C4 or the presence of antigen-antibody complexes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A polyclonal antibody specific for human complement C4BP has been pre-coated onto a 96-well microplate with removable strips. (abcam.com)
  • Complement C4BP in standards and samples is sandwiched by the immobilized antibody and biotinylated polyclonal antibody specific for complement C4BP, which is recognized by a streptavidin-peroxidase conjugate. (abcam.com)
  • I. Effect of immunoglobulin isotype on C4 uptake on antibody-sensitized sheep erythrocytes and solid phase immune complexes. (duke.edu)
  • Thirty five sera of infected women with toxoplasmosis by investigation antibody against toxoplasmosis for IgG and IgM by ELISA technique were tested to determine the levels of C3 and C4 by using single radial immunodiffusion technique and compared with the ten of control sera of non infected subjects and non-aborted. (edu.iq)
  • The trimer provides a surface for interaction between the antigen-antibody complex and other complement components. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are currently no images for Complement C4b Antibody (NBP2-31554IR). (novusbio.com)
  • complement - Ehrlich term for the thermolabile substance, normally present in serum, that is destructive to certain bacteria and other cells sensitized by a specific c. fixing antibody. (academic.ru)
  • lectin pathway - a pathway of complement activation initiated in the absence of antibody by the binding of mannose binding lectin (MBL) to carbohydrates on the surface of microorganisms. (academic.ru)
  • Methods: A case-control study was conducted to asses role of complement system during toxoplasmosis in Najaf province. (edu.iq)
  • Non-enzymatic component of C3 and C5 convertases and thus essential for the propagation of the classical complement pathway. (abcam.com)
  • In a case-control study, we analysed levels of plasma C3, and C4, serum classical pathway haemolytic activity, C4 allotypes and C4 gene numbers in 37 patients with severe chronic periodontitis and in 150 voluntary controls. (diva-portal.org)
  • C4 participates in the classic complement pathway. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The complement system is a part of the larger immune system and three biochemical pathways are present: the classical complement pathway, the alternative pathway, and the mannose-binding lectin pathway. (adipogen.com)
  • C4 plays a central role in the activation of the classical pathway of the complement system. (adipogen.com)
  • The remaining α chain fragment C4b is the major activation product and is an essential subunit of the C3 convertase (C4b2a) and the C5 convertase (C3bC4b2a) enzymes of the classical complement pathway. (adipogen.com)
  • A critical element for activation of classical pathway is C4. (apollodiagnostics.in)
  • C4 is a component of the classical complement pathway and is split by activated C1s to C4a and C4b. (labhos.com)
  • Cleavage of C4 by MASP-2, the initiating protease of the lectin pathway, is a crucial event in the activation of this pathway, preceding the eventual formation of the C3 convertase (C4bC2a) complex on the pathogen surface. (edu.au)
  • These results suggest that polyclonal serum IgA and IgM can also be considered for active therapy in diseases accompanied by the activation of classical complement pathway. (duke.edu)
  • For example, transcription of the C4 complement gene, which plays a crucial role in the complement pathway, is induced in response to acute inflammation or tissue injury. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This gene encodes the acidic form of complement factor 4, part of the classical activation pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternative complement pathway - The classical and alternative complement pathways. (academic.ru)
  • Complement factor C4 is a nearby, polymorphic, functionally relevant gene region. (diva-portal.org)
  • Partial C4 gene deficiencies were more frequent in patients than in controls (odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval 1.1-5.5, P = 0.032). (diva-portal.org)
  • C4 gene deficiencies are associated with predisposition to chronic periodontitis. (diva-portal.org)
  • 1 ). They outline an important investigation highlighting the link between complement gene expression and IQ, in both schizophrenic patients and healthy controls. (frontiersin.org)
  • The study demonstrated a broad association between variations in complement gene expression and perturbed neurodevelopment. (frontiersin.org)
  • The results obtained with lung, where C2 mRNA was found but no C4 mRNA, further indicate an independent, tissue-specific regulation of the class III gene expression. (scienceopen.com)
  • determine the extent of human C4 gene polymorphism 2. (edu.au)
  • identify C4 gene polymorphisms that can be used as targets for DNA based typing methods 6. (edu.au)
  • Two SNPs (rs2075799 and rs2857009) were located 5' and 3' of C4 gene. (cdc.gov)
  • We assess gene copy-number variations (CNVs) for complement C4 and its isotypes, C4A and C4B, in genetic risks and pathogenesis of JDM. (cdc.gov)
  • Gene copy-numbers (GCNs) for total C4, C4A, C4B and HLA-DRB1 genotypes were determined by Southern blots and qPCRs. (cdc.gov)
  • Variations of C4 haplotypes and gene copy-numbers (GCNs) of total C4 , C4A and C4B in JDM subjects and race-matched healthy controls. (cdc.gov)
  • B, C and D. Gene copy-number variations of complement C4, C4A and C4B in JDM and controls. (cdc.gov)
  • Recognition of the E-C4 element from the C4 complement gene promoter by the upstream stimulatory factor-1 transcription factor. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Activation of complement gene expression plays a major role in the response to antigenic challenge. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Previous work has defined the elements present in the C4 complement gene promoter that are required for its expression. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The implications of USF-1 phosphorylation for C4 complement gene expression and transcription regulation are discussed. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Methods We genotyped the C4 gene locus using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based TaqMan assays in 169 patients with SLE classified according to the 1997 revised American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria and in 520 matched controls. (uni-kiel.de)
  • Severity of disease was classified according to the intensity of the immunosuppressive regimens applied and compared to C4 gene copy numbers, too. (uni-kiel.de)
  • The complete exon-intron structure of a human complement component C4A gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In its activated form, C4b becomes a subunit of the C3 convertase, which is an enzymatic complex that activates C3 of the classical and lectin complement activation pathways. (adipogen.com)
  • The complement system is fundamental to both innate and adaptive immunity and can be initiated via the classical, lectin or alternative pathways. (edu.au)
  • The complement system is a critical part of teleost immune defences, with complement component C4 forming part of the classical and lectin pathways. (westminster.ac.uk)
  • Abcam's Complement C4 Human in vitro ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) kit is designed for the quantitative measurement of Complement C4 levels in urine, milk, saliva, CSF and cell culture supernatants. (abcam.com)
  • Both C3 and C4 were measured using frozen serum specimens by immunoturbidimetric assay. (ahajournals.org)
  • For the quantitative determination of human complement C4 (4th complement component) in serum by immunoturbidimetric assay. (kamiyabiomedical.com)
  • The precision for the K - ASSAY ® Complement C4 assay was determined using packaged reagents, pooled human serum, and a Hitachi 717 analyzer. (kamiyabiomedical.com)
  • A comparison of the K - ASSAY ® Complement C4 assay and an INCSTAR Complement C4 Test Kit was performed using a Hitachi 717. (kamiyabiomedical.com)
  • One of the diseases that commonly involves abnormal C4 is systemic lupus erythematosus, or lupus, an autoimmune disorder. (rochester.edu)
  • The systemic inflammatory response of the body to invading microorganisms, called sepsis, leads to profound activation of the complement (C3 and C4) system. (springer.com)
  • Complement C4 has been identified a a marker for identifying systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a chronic, multisystemic, inflammatory disorder affecting joints, nerves, heart, skin, eyes etc with some amount of irreversible damage. (personalabs.com)
  • Complement testing may be ordered by your physician if there is unexplained inflammation or symptoms of systemic lupus erythematosus. (icliniq.com)
  • Abnormal levels of C4 can be associated with autoimmune conditions like glomerulonephritis, systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE), cryoglobulinemia, or another autoimmune condition. (accesalabs.com)
  • Sim, Edith and Cross, Susan J. (1986) Phenotyping of human complement component-C4, a class-III HLA antigen. (kingston.ac.uk)
  • Evaluation revealed significantly reduced levels of both C4 antigen and C4 hemolytic activity. (jci.org)
  • Although associated with chronic mucosal infections, C4 deficiencies have not been assessed in adult periodontitis patients. (diva-portal.org)
  • We tested whether complement levels are systemically altered and C4 deficiencies associated with severe chronic periodontitis. (diva-portal.org)
  • Measurement of the level of the 4th complement component (C4) in serum can aid in the diagnosis of immunological disorders, especially those associated with deficiencies of complement components. (sekisuidiagnostics.com)
  • Complement C3 and C4 play key roles in the main physiological activities of complement system, and their deficiencies or over-expression are associated with many clinical infectious or immunity diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • Inappropriate complement activation and complement deficiencies are the underlying cause of the pathophysiology of many diseases. (edu.iq)
  • This is the first demonstration of a recombination event producing a C4 double null haplotype. (jci.org)
  • Association of serum complement (C3, C4) and immunoglobulin (IgG, IgM) levels with hormone replacement therapy in healthy post-menopausal women. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Analysis of immunoglobulin, complements and CRP levels in serum of captive northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Regulation of complement activity by immunoglobulin. (duke.edu)
  • A. fumigatus culture supernatant efficiently cleaved complement components C3, C4, C5, and C1q as well as immunoglobulin G. Secretome analysis and protease inhibitor studies identified the secreted alkaline protease Alp1, which is present in large amounts in the culture supernatant, as the central molecule responsible for this cleavage. (leibniz-hki.de)
  • In lupus, both C3 and C4 levels are usually low. (rochester.edu)
  • When your complement system is activated in response to ongoing disease such as lupus, levels usually go down. (rochester.edu)
  • If your C3 and C4 levels are reduced, this may be a sign that you have lupus. (rochester.edu)
  • If you are being treated for a disease like lupus and your complement C4 levels go up, it may be a sign that your treatment is working. (rochester.edu)
  • The C4 complement test helps screen for autoimmune conditions like lupus. (accesalabs.com)
  • The complement C4 lab test is often ordered with the C3 blood test , both of which are part of the lupus test panel . (accesalabs.com)
  • We investigated C4 copy number variation and its relationship to clinical and serological features in a Northern European lupus cohort. (uni-kiel.de)
  • In addition, we performed a TaqMan based analysis of three lupus-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located inside the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) to investigate the independence of complement C4 in association with SLE. (uni-kiel.de)
  • Beyond the impact on the susceptibility for lupus, C4 copy numbers may be related to earlier onset and a more severe course of the disease. (uni-kiel.de)
  • In routine check-ups, most doctors will check levels of anti-double stranded DNA and complement components C3 and C4,' says Ignacio Sanz, MD, a rheumatologist at the University of Rochester Medical Center in New York, and chair of the research committee for the Lupus Foundation of America. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Whole hemolytic complement and three components (C1q, C4, and C3) were measured in pleural fluids obtained from 50 patients-23 with malignant disease, 6 with lupus erythematosus, 6 with rheumatoid arthritis, 3 with congestive heart failure, 3 with pulmonary embolism, and 9 in whom the cause of the pleural effusion was not ascertained. (annals.org)
  • The mean values for whole complement and the three components were lowest in lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis patients. (annals.org)
  • This suggests that the pleural fluid complement depletion may be secondary to immunologic inactivation and that immune mechanisms may contribute to the development of Pleuritis in lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. (annals.org)
  • OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not the inherited polymorphism of complement C4 is associated with genetic susceptibility to microvascular complications in IDDM as previously reported. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Our results do not support an association of the inherited polymorphism of complement C4 with genetic susceptibility to microvascular complications in patients with IDDM. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Complement-mediated neutralization of dengue virus requires mannose-binding lectin. (nih.gov)
  • no difference in plasma concentrations of CRP and levels of C3 and C4 was noted between groups. (springer.com)
  • C4 concentrations before the race were within the normal range and were significantly increased 10 days (T1) into the race. (edu.au)
  • Investigations included enumeration of T and B lymphocyte subpopulations and determination of the concentrations of the serum immunoglobulins A. G and M and C [3] and C [4] complement components. (who.int)
  • Low serum C4 concentrations: an inherited predisposition to insulin dependent diabetes? (wikipedia.org)
  • C4 allotype frequencies were compared between patients and healthy control subjects. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • No differences were observed in C4 allotype distribution between patients with and without nephropathy or retinopathy. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Complement factors and their receptors. (springer.com)
  • Expectedly, the human collection of complement factors 1-9, associated factors, receptors and regulators is not replicated within jellyfish and their like. (frontiersin.org)
  • Phagocytosis via Fcγ or complement receptors by PMN is usually accompanied by the formation of a spectrum of aggressive oxidants initiated by the action of the neutrophil NADPH oxidase ( 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • This test measures all nine components of the complement system, from C1 to C9. (rochester.edu)
  • More often, you will have lowered levels of several complement components at once. (rochester.edu)
  • Recognized complement components are found throughout the animal kingdom including in rudimentary diploblastic species ( 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Complementary DNA (cDNA) probes were used to investigate the extrahepatic production of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-linked complement components C4, factor B and C2 in various normal human tissues. (scienceopen.com)
  • It binds complement components C3b and C4b, mediating phagocytosis by granulocytes and monocytes. (healthweblognews.info)
  • Our study is the first GWAS report which shows genetic components influence the levels of complement C3 and C4. (cdc.gov)
  • Complement components immunological test system. (fda.gov)
  • For the first time in any species, deimination of complement components C3 and C4 is shown in halibut serum, indicating a novel mechanism of complement regulation in immune responses and homeostasis. (westminster.ac.uk)
  • The levels of complement C3 and C4 components were determined in non-indigenous (creoles) and indigenous (Warao) populations , the latter with an extremely high tuberculosis (TB) rate. (bvsalud.org)
  • The study of these parameters carried out in 15 Warao subjects with active infection , before and after anti-TB chemotherapy ,statisticallyconfirmedthat the effective chemotherapy did not restore normal levels of the complement C3 and C4 components among Warao patients . (bvsalud.org)
  • E. Nafei , Lymphocyte subpopulations immunoglobulins A, G and M and complement components C3 and C4 in the type II diabetes, New Egypt. (who.int)
  • Further tests revealed a decreased serum concentration of complement components C3 and particularly C4, and markedly raised concentration of rheumatoid factor. (mja.com.au)
  • Patients suffering from SLE, Immune complex disease and hereditary angioedema are found to have decreased levels of C4. (apollodiagnostics.in)
  • The C1-complex now binds to and splits C2 and C4 producing C2a and C4b. (adipogen.com)
  • There was serological evidence of recent infection with Streptococcus pyogenes (elevated antistreptolysin O and anti-DNAse B titres) and hypocomplementaemia (decreased complement component 3 [C3] concentration with normal complement component 4 [C4] concentration). (mja.com.au)
  • Likewise, it was found that association between concentration of C3,C4 and number of abortion. (edu.iq)
  • CONCLUSIONS These data confirm previous reports of an association between the C4 null allele C4AQ0 and IDDM. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • C4 (complement 4) produces a null allele at on locus C4AQ. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of this study was to elucidate the optimal conditions for phosphorylation of the human complement component C4, identify phosphorylation site in the molecule and to investigate possible impact on the functions of phosphorylated C4. (diva-portal.org)
  • Changes in complement levels may reflect chronic, recurring inflammation. (diva-portal.org)
  • The alpha chain may be cleaved to release C4 anaphylatoxin, a mediator of local inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Derived from proteolytic degradation of complement C4, C4a anaphylatoxin is a mediator of local inflammatory process. (abcam.com)
  • and automatic reflex to complement C 1 esterase inhibitor, functional (at additional charge) if the C 1 esterase inhibitor result is ≥21 mg/dL. (labcorp.com)
  • The profile begins with complement C 4 and complement C 1 esterase inhibitor with reflexing, if required, to complement C 1 esterase inhibitor, functional to distinguish HAE type I from type II. (labcorp.com)
  • In the work by Holland and colleagues, they expand on previous research demonstrating a link between complement and pathogenesis of schizophrenia ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Association of serum C4 levels with SNPs at 6p21.3. (cdc.gov)
  • Your healthcare provider may also order a total complement activity test, or CH50. (rochester.edu)
  • In models adjusted for age, race, menopausal status and BMI, C3 was independently associated with higher levels of log PAI-1 (β(SE)=0.01(0.003), P value=0.001) and tPA (β(SE)=0.04(0.01), P value=0.0003) while C4 was independently associated with higher levels of log factor VIIc (β(SE)=0.01(0.005), P value=0.04) and fibrinogen (β(SE)=2.80(0.95), P value=0.005). (ahajournals.org)
  • Complement factor 3 is associated with insulin resistance and with incident type 2 diabetes over a 7-year follow-up period: the CODAM Study. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In contrast, phosphorylation did not affect the cleavage of C4 by Factor I. Furthermore, no difference was seen when phosphorylated and unphosphorylated C4 was incubated with [2-3H]glycine and [2-3H]glycerol. (diva-portal.org)
  • C4 nephritic factor in a patient with chronic glomerulonephritis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • C4 nephritic factor (C4NeF) was found in the serum of a patient with chronic glomerulonephritis, whose C3 level was quite low (less than 1% of normal). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Following N-terminal microsequencing and subsequent isolation of the corresponding cDNA, the factor binding the E-C4 element was identified as upstream stimulatory factor-1 (USF-1), a basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper transcription factor. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A. fumigatus conidia but not hyphae bind to their surface host complement regulators factor H, FHL-1, and CFHR1, which control complement activation. (leibniz-hki.de)
  • Incubation of phosphorylated and unphosphorylated C4 with trypsin showed that phosphorylated C4 was less susceptible to cleavage by trypsin than unphosphorylated. (diva-portal.org)
  • Interactions required for the cleavage of C4 by MASP-2 are likely to be facilitated by the initial binding of C4 to an exosite on the protease. (edu.au)
  • The principal neutrophil integrin, CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1, α M β 2 ), is crucially involved in neutrophil aggregation and also acts as phagocytic complement receptor type 3 ( 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Seven polymorphic amino acids were found to account for the different migration rates of the C4 allotypes analysed in this study. (edu.au)
  • If the C4 test is done as part of a total complement activity test, the test should be repeated if low levels are found. (rochester.edu)
  • This perhaps indicating that there may be subtle differences in the functions of the C4 alleles that become most apparent in neurodevelopment ( 8 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Although serum complements were slightly lower in patient groups in compared to control group but this differences was not meaningful with t test. (iranpath.org)
  • However, it could be shown that the differences in electrophoretic mobility of the C4 allotypes are due to cumulative charge differences. (edu.au)
  • Significantly lower GCNs and differences in distribution of GCN groups for total C4 and C4A were observed in JDM versus controls. (cdc.gov)
  • In the human adult, complement functions as an essential pillar of the innate immune system. (frontiersin.org)
  • The complement system represents an essential part of the innate immune system. (leibniz-hki.de)
  • Complement is part of the innate immune system and one of the first lines of host defense against infections. (nih.gov)
  • Complement C4 is a part of a portion of the immune system known as the complement system. (accesalabs.com)
  • Complement system - This article is about an aspect of the immune system. (academic.ru)
  • C3 but not C4 was significantly higher in late peri/postmenopausal women compared to pre/early peri-menopausal women (β(SE)=14.97(6.62), P value=0.03) adjusting for age, race and BMI. (ahajournals.org)
  • For C4, one large genomic region on chromosome 6p21.3 is significantly associated with serum C4 levels. (cdc.gov)
  • Regarding C4 levels, it was significantly correlated in AMI (r = 0.483, p = 0.006), and in AP, although it was positively correlated (r = 0.656, P = 0.028) the observed difference was not significant (t = 0.29, p = 0.778). (bvsalud.org)
  • The involvement of these cells in complement production and regulation has not been well documented. (elsevier.com)
  • It has been found that complement C4 and CRP upregulation indicates the middle to late stages of rheumatoid arthritis. (randox.com)