Complement C3: A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.Complement C4: A glycoprotein that is important in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C4 is cleaved by the activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C4A and COMPLEMENT C4B.Complement C4a: The smaller fragment formed when complement C4 is cleaved by COMPLEMENT C1S. It is an anaphylatoxin that causes symptoms of immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE) but its activity is weaker than that of COMPLEMENT C3A or COMPLEMENT C5A.Complement C3a: The smaller fragment generated from the cleavage of complement C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. C3a, a 77-amino acid peptide, is a mediator of local inflammatory process. It induces smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION, and HISTAMINE RELEASE from MAST CELLS and LEUKOCYTES. C3a is considered an anaphylatoxin along with COMPLEMENT C4A; COMPLEMENT C5A; and COMPLEMENT C5A, DES-ARGININE.Complement C1q: A subcomponent of complement C1, composed of six copies of three polypeptide chains (A, B, and C), each encoded by a separate gene (C1QA; C1QB; C1QC). This complex is arranged in nine subunits (six disulfide-linked dimers of A and B, and three disulfide-linked homodimers of C). C1q has binding sites for antibodies (the heavy chain of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M). The interaction of C1q and immunoglobulin activates the two proenzymes COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S, thus initiating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION via the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.Complement C5a: The minor fragment formed when C5 convertase cleaves C5 into C5a and COMPLEMENT C5B. C5a is a 74-amino-acid glycopeptide with a carboxy-terminal ARGININE that is crucial for its spasmogenic activity. Of all the complement-derived anaphylatoxins, C5a is the most potent in mediating immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE), smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION; HISTAMINE RELEASE; and migration of LEUKOCYTES to site of INFLAMMATION.Complement Activation: The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.Complement C4b: The large fragment formed when COMPLEMENT C4 is cleaved by COMPLEMENT C1S. The membrane-bound C4b binds COMPLEMENT C2A, a SERINE PROTEASE, to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).Complement C5: C5 plays a central role in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C5 is cleaved by C5 CONVERTASE into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. The smaller fragment C5a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of inflammatory process. The major fragment C5b binds to the membrane initiating the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components, C5-C9, into the MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Complement C3b: The larger fragment generated from the cleavage of COMPLEMENT C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. It is a constituent of the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb), and COMPLEMENT C5 CONVERTASES in both the classical (C4b2a3b) and the alternative (C3bBb3b) pathway. C3b participates in IMMUNE ADHERENCE REACTION and enhances PHAGOCYTOSIS. It can be inactivated (iC3b) or cleaved by various proteases to yield fragments such as COMPLEMENT C3C; COMPLEMENT C3D; C3e; C3f; and C3g.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Complement C6: A 105-kDa serum glycoprotein with significant homology to the other late complement components, C7-C9. It is a polypeptide chain cross-linked by 32 disulfide bonds. C6 is the next complement component to bind to the membrane-bound COMPLEMENT C5B in the assembly of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. It is encoded by gene C6.Complement C3c: A 206-amino-acid fragment in the alpha chain (672-1663) of C3b. It is generated when C3b is inactivated (iC3b) and its alpha chain is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I into C3c (749-954), and C3dg (955-1303) in the presence COMPLEMENT FACTOR H.Complement C3d: A 302-amino-acid fragment in the alpha chain (672-1663) of C3b. It is generated when C3b is inactivated (iC3b) and its alpha chain is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I into C3c, and C3dg (955-1303) in the presence COMPLEMENT FACTOR H. Serum proteases further degrade C3dg into C3d (1002-1303) and C3g (955-1001).Complement C2: A component of the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C2 is cleaved by activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C2B and COMPLEMENT C2A. C2a, the COOH-terminal fragment containing a SERINE PROTEASE, combines with COMPLEMENT C4B to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).Complement C9: A 63-kDa serum glycoprotein encoded by gene C9. Monomeric C9 (mC9) binds the C5b-8 complex to form C5b-9 which catalyzes the polymerization of C9 forming C5b-p9 (MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX) and transmembrane channels leading to lysis of the target cell. Patients with C9 deficiency suffer from recurrent bacterial infections.Receptors, Complement: Molecules on the surface of some B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that recognize and combine with the C3b, C3d, C1q, and C4b components of complement.Complement C1s: A 77-kDa subcomponent of complement C1, encoded by gene C1S, is a SERINE PROTEASE existing as a proenzyme (homodimer) in the intact complement C1 complex. Upon the binding of COMPLEMENT C1Q to antibodies, the activated COMPLEMENT C1R cleaves C1s into two chains, A (heavy) and B (light, the serine protease), linked by disulfide bonds yielding the active C1s. The activated C1s, in turn, cleaves COMPLEMENT C2 and COMPLEMENT C4 to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL C3 CONVERTASE).Complement Membrane Attack Complex: A product of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION cascade, regardless of the pathways, that forms transmembrane channels causing disruption of the target CELL MEMBRANE and cell lysis. It is formed by the sequential assembly of terminal complement components (COMPLEMENT C5B; COMPLEMENT C6; COMPLEMENT C7; COMPLEMENT C8; and COMPLEMENT C9) into the target membrane. The resultant C5b-8-poly-C9 is the "membrane attack complex" or MAC.Complement C1r: A 80-kDa subcomponent of complement C1, existing as a SERINE PROTEASE proenzyme in the intact complement C1 complex. When COMPLEMENT C1Q is bound to antibodies, the changed tertiary structure causes autolytic activation of complement C1r which is cleaved into two chains, A (heavy) and B (light, the serine protease), connected by disulfide bonds. The activated C1r serine protease, in turn, activates COMPLEMENT C1S proenzyme by cleaving the Arg426-Ile427 bond. No fragment is released when either C1r or C1s is cleaved.Complement Inactivator Proteins: Serum proteins that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host. The complement system is tightly regulated by inactivators that accelerate the decay of intermediates and certain cell surface receptors.Complement C7: A 93-kDa serum glycoprotein encoded by C7 gene. It is a polypeptide chain with 28 disulfide bridges. In the formation of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX; C7 is the next component to bind the C5b-6 complex forming a trimolecular complex C5b-7 which is lipophilic, resembles an integral membrane protein, and serves as an anchor for the late complement components, C8 and C9.Complement C3-C5 Convertases: Serine proteases that cleave COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, or cleave COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. These include the different forms of C3/C5 convertases in the classical and the alternative pathways of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Both cleavages take place at the C-terminal of an ARGININE residue.Complement Factor B: A glycine-rich, heat-labile serum glycoprotein that contains a component of the C3 CONVERTASE ALTERNATE PATHWAY (C3bBb). Bb, a serine protease, is generated when factor B is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR D into Ba and Bb.Complement Pathway, Alternative: Complement activation initiated by the interaction of microbial ANTIGENS with COMPLEMENT C3B. When COMPLEMENT FACTOR B binds to the membrane-bound C3b, COMPLEMENT FACTOR D cleaves it to form alternative C3 CONVERTASE (C3BBB) which, stabilized by COMPLEMENT FACTOR P, is able to cleave multiple COMPLEMENT C3 to form alternative C5 CONVERTASE (C3BBB3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Complement Pathway, Classical: Complement activation initiated by the binding of COMPLEMENT C1 to ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES at the COMPLEMENT C1Q subunit. This leads to the sequential activation of COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S subunits. Activated C1s cleaves COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 forming the membrane-bound classical C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Complement C8: A 150-kDa serum glycoprotein composed of three subunits with each encoded by a different gene (C8A; C8B; and C8G). This heterotrimer contains a disulfide-linked C8alpha-C8gamma heterodimer and a noncovalently associated C8beta chain. C8 is the next component to bind the C5-7 complex forming C5b-8 that binds COMPLEMENT C9 and acts as a catalyst in the polymerization of C9.Complement C1: The first complement component to act in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. It is a calcium-dependent trimolecular complex made up of three subcomponents: COMPLEMENT C1Q; COMPLEMENT C1R; and COMPLEMENT C1S at 1:2:2 ratios. When the intact C1 binds to at least two antibodies (involving C1q), C1r and C1s are sequentially activated, leading to subsequent steps in the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Receptors, Complement 3b: Molecular sites on or in some B-lymphocytes and macrophages that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3B. The primary structure of these receptors reveal that they contain transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, with their extracellular portion composed entirely of thirty short consensus repeats each having 60 to 70 amino acids.Complement Factor H: An important soluble regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It is a 139-kDa glycoprotein expressed by the liver and secreted into the blood. It binds to COMPLEMENT C3B and makes iC3b (inactivated complement 3b) susceptible to cleavage by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I. Complement factor H also inhibits the association of C3b with COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form the C3bB proenzyme, and promotes the dissociation of Bb from the C3bBb complex (COMPLEMENT C3 CONVERTASE, ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY).Complement C5b: The larger fragment generated from the cleavage of C5 by C5 CONVERTASE that yields COMPLEMENT C5A and C5b (beta chain + alpha' chain, the residual alpha chain, bound by disulfide bond). C5b remains bound to the membrane and initiates the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components to form C5b-8-poly-C9, the MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Complement C2a: The COOH-terminal fragment of COMPLEMENT 2, released by the action of activated COMPLEMENT C1S. It is a SERINE PROTEASE. C2a combines with COMPLEMENT C4B to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).Receptor, Anaphylatoxin C5a: A G-protein-coupled receptor that signals an increase in intracellular calcium in response to the potent ANAPHYLATOXIN peptide COMPLEMENT C5A.Complement Activating Enzymes: Enzymes that activate one or more COMPLEMENT PROTEINS in the complement system leading to the formation of the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX, an important response in host defense. They are enzymes in the various COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION pathways.Complement Inactivating Agents: Compounds that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host.Complement Hemolytic Activity Assay: A screening assay for circulating COMPLEMENT PROTEINS. Diluted SERUM samples are added to antibody-coated ERYTHROCYTES and the percentage of cell lysis is measured. The values are expressed by the so called CH50, in HEMOLYTIC COMPLEMENT units per milliliter, which is the dilution of serum required to lyse 50 percent of the erythrocytes in the assay.Complement C1 Inactivator Proteins: Serum proteins that inhibit, antagonize, or inactivate COMPLEMENT C1 or its subunits.Receptors, Complement 3d: Molecular sites on or in B-lymphocytes, follicular dendritic cells, lymphoid cells, and epithelial cells that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3D. Human complement receptor 2 (CR2) serves as a receptor for both C3dg and the gp350/220 glycoprotein of HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN, and binds the monoclonal antibody OKB7, which blocks binding of both ligands to the receptor.Anaphylatoxins: Serum peptides derived from certain cleaved COMPLEMENT PROTEINS during COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. They induce smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION; mast cell HISTAMINE RELEASE; PLATELET AGGREGATION; and act as mediators of the local inflammatory process. The order of anaphylatoxin activity from the strongest to the weakest is C5a, C3a, C4a, and C5a des-arginine.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Complement Factor D: A serum protein which is important in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. This enzyme cleaves the COMPLEMENT C3B-bound COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form C3bBb which is ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE.Complement Factor I: A plasma serine proteinase that cleaves the alpha-chains of C3b and C4b in the presence of the cofactors COMPLEMENT FACTOR H and C4-binding protein, respectively. It is a 66-kDa glycoprotein that converts C3b to inactivated C3b (iC3b) followed by the release of two fragments, C3c (150-kDa) and C3dg (41-kDa). It was formerly called KAF, C3bINF, or enzyme 3b inactivator.Complement C4b-Binding Protein: A serum protein that regulates the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. It binds as a cofactor to COMPLEMENT FACTOR I which then hydrolyzes the COMPLEMENT C4B in the CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C4bC2a).Complement C3b Inactivator Proteins: Endogenous proteins that inhibit or inactivate COMPLEMENT C3B. They include COMPLEMENT FACTOR H and COMPLEMENT FACTOR I (C3b/C4b inactivator). They cleave or promote the cleavage of C3b into inactive fragments, and thus are important in the down-regulation of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and its cytolytic sequence.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Complement C3-C5 Convertases, Classical Pathway: Important enzymes in the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. They cleave COMPLEMENT C3 and COMPLEMENT C5.Complement C2b: The N-terminal fragment of COMPLEMENT 2, released by the action of activated COMPLEMENT C1S.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Cobra Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Steroid 21-Hydroxylase: An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Complement C3-C5 Convertases, Alternative Pathway: Important enzymes in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. They cleave COMPLEMENT C3 and COMPLEMENT C5.Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein: An endogenous 105-kDa plasma glycoprotein produced primarily by the LIVER and MONOCYTES. It inhibits a broad spectrum of proteases, including the COMPLEMENT C1R and the COMPLEMENT C1S proteases of the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY, and the MANNOSE-BINDING PROTEIN-ASSOCIATED SERINE PROTEASES. C1-INH-deficient individuals suffer from HEREDITARY ANGIOEDEMA TYPES I AND II.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Complement C3 Convertase, Alternative Pathway: A serine protease that is the complex of COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT FACTOR BB. It cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT C3B in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY.Complement C5 Convertase, Classical Pathway: A serine protease that cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT 5 into COMPLEMENT 5A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT 5B in the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. It is a complex of CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C4b2a) with an additional COMPLEMENT C3B, or C4b2a3b.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Complement C3 Convertase, Classical Pathway: A serine protease that cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT 3 into COMPLEMENT 3A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT 3B in the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. It is a complex of COMPLEMENT 4B and COMPLEMENT 2A (C4b2a).Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Opsonin Proteins: Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Complement C5 Convertase, Alternative Pathway: A serine protease that cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT C5B in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. It is the complex of ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb) with an additional COMPLEMENT C3B, or C3bBb3b.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Complement Pathway, Mannose-Binding Lectin: Complement activation triggered by the interaction of microbial POLYSACCHARIDES with serum MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN resulting in the activation of MANNOSE-BINDING PROTEIN-ASSOCIATED SERINE PROTEASES. As in the classical pathway, MASPs cleave COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 to form C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Properdin: A 53-kDa protein that is a positive regulator of the alternate pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It stabilizes the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb) and protects it from rapid inactivation, thus facilitating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and the formation of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Individuals with mutation in the PFC gene exhibit properdin deficiency and have a high susceptibility to infections.Complement C5a, des-Arginine: A derivative of complement C5a, generated when the carboxy-terminal ARGININE is removed by CARBOXYPEPTIDASE B present in normal human serum. C5a des-Arg shows complete loss of spasmogenic activity though it retains some chemotactic ability (CHEMOATTRACTANTS).Mice, Inbred C57BLMacrophage-1 Antigen: An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Kidney Glomerulus: A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.Serum: The clear portion of BLOOD that is left after BLOOD COAGULATION to remove BLOOD CELLS and clotting proteins.Glomerulonephritis, Membranoproliferative: Chronic glomerulonephritis characterized histologically by proliferation of MESANGIAL CELLS, increase in the MESANGIAL EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX, and a thickening of the glomerular capillary walls. This may appear as a primary disorder or secondary to other diseases including infections and autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Various subtypes are classified by their abnormal ultrastructures and immune deposits. Hypocomplementemia is a characteristic feature of all types of MPGN.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Schistosoma: A genus of trematode flukes belonging to the family Schistosomatidae. There are over a dozen species. These parasites are found in man and other mammals. Snails are the intermediate hosts.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Glomerulonephritis: Inflammation of the renal glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) that can be classified by the type of glomerular injuries including antibody deposition, complement activation, cellular proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These structural and functional abnormalities usually lead to HEMATURIA; PROTEINURIA; HYPERTENSION; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Arteriolosclerosis: Thickening of the walls of small ARTERIES or ARTERIOLES due to cell proliferation or HYALINE deposition.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mice, Inbred BALB CBinding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Blood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Mannose-Binding Lectin: A specific mannose-binding member of the collectin family of lectins. It binds to carbohydrate groups on invading pathogens and plays a key role in the MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Complement C3 Nephritic Factor: An IgG autoantibody against the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE, found in serum of patients with MESANGIOCAPILLARY GLOMERULONEPHRITIS. The binding of this autoantibody to C3bBb stabilizes the enzyme thus reduces the actions of C3b inactivators (COMPLEMENT FACTOR H; COMPLEMENT FACTOR I). This abnormally stabilized enzyme induces a continuous COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and generation of C3b thereby promoting the assembly of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX and cytolysis.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Haptoglobins: Plasma glycoproteins that form a stable complex with hemoglobin to aid the recycling of heme iron. They are encoded in man by a gene on the short arm of chromosome 16.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Surface Plasmon Resonance: A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.Peptides, Cyclic: Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).Lupus Nephritis: Glomerulonephritis associated with autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Lupus nephritis is histologically classified into 6 classes: class I - normal glomeruli, class II - pure mesangial alterations, class III - focal segmental glomerulonephritis, class IV - diffuse glomerulonephritis, class V - diffuse membranous glomerulonephritis, and class VI - advanced sclerosing glomerulonephritis (The World Health Organization classification 1982).Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cosmids: Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Mannose-Binding Protein-Associated Serine Proteases: Serum serine proteases which participate in COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. They are activated when complexed with the MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN, therefore also known as Mannose-binding protein-Associated Serine Proteases (MASPs). They cleave COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 to form C4b2a, the CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE.Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital: A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Immunologic Factors: Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.ZymosanTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Proteinuria: The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Collectins: A class of C-type lectins that target the carbohydrate structures found on invading pathogens. Binding of collectins to microorganisms results in their agglutination and enhanced clearance. Collectins form trimers that may assemble into larger oligomers. Each collectin polypeptide chain consists of four regions: a relatively short N-terminal region, a collagen-like region, an alpha-helical coiled-coil region, and carbohydrate-binding region.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Protein PrecursorsSteroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Macular Degeneration: Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Immune Adherence Reaction: A method for the detection of very small quantities of antibody in which the antigen-antibody-complement complex adheres to indicator cells, usually primate erythrocytes or nonprimate blood platelets. The reaction is dependent on the number of bound C3 molecules on the C3b receptor sites of the indicator cell.Mice, Inbred DBAEscherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal: A condition characterized by the recurrence of HEMOGLOBINURIA caused by intravascular HEMOLYSIS. In cases occurring upon cold exposure (paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria), usually after infections, there is a circulating antibody which is also a cold hemolysin. In cases occurring during or after sleep (paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria), the clonal hematopoietic stem cells exhibit a global deficiency of cell membrane proteins.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.

Intestinal reperfusion injury is mediated by IgM and complement. (1/876)

Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury is dependent on complement. This study examines the role of the alternative and classic pathways of complement and IgM in a murine model of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion. Wild-type animals, mice deficient in complement factor 4 (C4), C3, or Ig, or wild-type mice treated with soluble complement receptor 1 were subjected to 40 min of jejunal ischemia and 3 h of reperfusion. Compared with wild types, knockout and treated mice had significantly reduced intestinal injury, indicated by lowered permeability to radiolabeled albumin. When animals deficient in Ig were reconstituted with IgM, the degree of injury was restored to wild-type levels. Immunohistological staining of intestine for C3 and IgM showed colocalization in the mucosa of wild-type controls and minimal staining for both in the intestine of Ig-deficient and C4-deficient mice. We conclude that intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury is dependent on the classic complement pathway and IgM.  (+info)

Immunohistochemical analysis of arterial wall cellular infiltration in Buerger's disease (endarteritis obliterans). (2/876)

PURPOSE: The diagnosis of Buerger's disease has depended on clinical symptoms and angiographic findings, whereas pathologic findings are considered to be of secondary importance. Arteries from patients with Buerger's tissue were analyzed histologically, including immunophenotyping of the infiltrating cells, to elucidate the nature of Buerger's disease as a vasculitis. METHODS: Thirty-three specimens from nine patients, in whom Buerger's disease was diagnosed on the basis of our clinical and angiographic criteria between 1980 and 1995 at Nagoya University Hospital, were studied. Immunohistochemical studies were performed on paraffin-embedded tissue with a labeled streptoavidin-biotin method. RESULTS: The general architecture of vessel walls was well preserved regardless of the stage of disease, and cell infiltration was observed mainly in the thrombus and the intima. Among infiltrating cells, CD3(+) T cells greatly outnumbered CD20(+) B cells. CD68(+) macrophages or S-100(+) dendritic cells were detected, especially in the intima during acute and subacute stages. All cases except one showed infiltration by the human leukocyte antigen-D region (HLA-DR) antigen-bearing macrophages and dendritic cells in the intima. Immunoglobulins G, A, and M (IgG, IgA, IgM) and complement factors 3d and 4c (C3d, C4c) were deposited along the internal elastic lamina. CONCLUSION: Buerger's disease is strictly an endarteritis that is introduced by T-cell mediated cellular immunity and by B-cell mediated humoral immunity associated with activation of macrophages or dendritic cells in the intima.  (+info)

Deficiency of human complement protein C4 due to identical frameshift mutations in the C4A and C4B genes. (3/876)

The complement protein C4, encoded by two genes (C4A and C4B) on chromosome 6p, is the most polymorphic among the MHC III gene products. We investigated the molecular basis of C4 deficiency in a Finnish woman with systemic lupus erythematosus. C4-specific mRNA was present at low concentrations in C4-deficient (C4D) patient fibroblasts, but no pro-C4 protein was detected. This defect in C4 expression was specific in that synthesis of two other complement proteins was normal. Analysis of genomic DNA showed that the proposita had both deleted and nonexpressed C4 genes. Each of her nonexpressed genes, a C4A null gene inherited from the mother, a C4A null gene, and a C4B null gene inherited from the father, all contained an identical 2-bp insertion (TC) after nucleotide 5880 in exon 29, providing the first confirmatory proof of the C4B pseudogene. This mutation has been previously found only in C4A null genes. Although the exon 29/30 junction is spliced accurately, this frameshift mutation generates a premature stop at codon 3 in exon 30. These truncated C4A and C4B gene products were confirmed through RT-PCR and sequence analysis. Among the possible genetic mechanisms that produce identical mutations is both genes, the most likely is a mutation in C4A followed by a gene conversion to generate the mutated C4B allele.  (+info)

In vitro analysis of complement-dependent HIV-1 cell infection using a model system. (4/876)

Previous studies based on the use of human serum as a source of C have provided evidence for the C-dependent enhancement of cell infection by HIV-1. The present study was undertaken to distinguish C from other serum factors and to identify the proteins and the mechanisms involved in C-dependent cell infection by HIV-1. The classical C activation pathway was reconstituted from the proteins C1q, C1r, C1s, C4, C2, C3, factor H, and factor I; each were purified to homogeneity. A mixture of these proteins at physiological concentrations was shown to reproduce the ability of normal human serum to enhance the infection of MT2 cells by HIV-1 at low doses of virus. This enhancing effect was abolished when heat-inactivated serum and C2- or C3-depleted serum were used, and was restored upon addition of the corresponding purified proteins. A mixture of two synthetic peptides corresponding to positions 10-15 and 90-97 of human C receptor type 2 (CD21) as well as soluble CD4 both inhibited the C-dependent infection process. These data provide unambiguous evidence that HIV-1 triggers a direct activation of the classical C pathway in vitro and thereby facilitates the infection of MT2 cells at low doses of virus. These findings are consistent with a mechanism involving increased interaction between the virus opsonized by C3b-derived fragment(s) and the CD21 cell receptors and subsequent virus entry through CD4 receptors.  (+info)

Modular variations of the human major histocompatibility complex class III genes for serine/threonine kinase RP, complement component C4, steroid 21-hydroxylase CYP21, and tenascin TNX (the RCCX module). A mechanism for gene deletions and disease associations. (5/876)

The frequent variations of human complement component C4 gene size and gene numbers, plus the extensive polymorphism of the proteins, render C4 an excellent marker for major histocompatibility complex disease associations. As shown by definitive RFLPs, the tandemly arranged genes RP, C4, CYP21, and TNX are duplicated together as a discrete genetic unit termed the RCCX module. Duplications of the RCCX modules occurred by the addition of genomic fragments containing a long (L) or a short (S) C4 gene, a CYP21A or a CYP21B gene, and the gene fragments TNXA and RP2. Four major RCCX structures with bimodular L-L, bimodular L-S, monomodular L, and monomodular S are present in the Caucasian population. These modules are readily detectable by TaqI RFLPs. The RCCX modular variations appear to be a root cause for the acquisition of deleterious mutations from pseudogenes or gene segments in the RCCX to their corresponding functional genes. In a patient with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, we discovered a TNXB-TNXA recombinant with the deletion of RP2-C4B-CYP21B. Elucidation of the DNA sequence for the recombination breakpoint region and sequence analyses yielded definitive proof for an unequal crossover between TNXA from a bimodular chromosome and TNXB from a monomodular chromosome.  (+info)

Complement activity in middle ear effusions. (6/876)

Evidence for complement utilization in middle ear fluids (MEF) from patients with otitis media with effusion was sought. It was found that cleavage products of C3, C4 and Factor B could be demonstrated immunochemically in MEF, and that native C3 was present in much lower concentrations than other proteins, relative to their serum concentrations. Haemolytic assays for C1-C5 showed that early complement components are inactivated in MEF. Potential mechanisms for complement utilization in MEF are discussed.  (+info)

C3 and C4 allotypes in anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-positive vasculitis. (7/876)

In ANCA-associated small vessel vasculitis few genetic factors have proven to be of importance for disease susceptibility, an exception being deficiency of alpha1-anti-trypsin, the main inhibitor of proteinase 3 (PR3). Alerted by our finding that myeloperoxidase has affinity for C3, and the finding of an increased frequency of the C3F allele in systemic vasculitis in a British cohort, we examined polymorphism of C3 and C4 in patients with ANCA+ small vessel vasculitis. After identification of all patients at our department with a positive ANCA test during the period 1991-95 and a diagnosis of small vessel vasculitis, blood samples were collected after informed consent. The 67 included patients were grouped according to ANCA serology and disease phenotype using the Chapel Hill nomenclature. The gene frequency of C3F was found to be increased (0. 32) compared with controls (0.20; P < 0.05) in the PR3-ANCA+ subgroup. The frequency of C4A3 was increased in the group as a whole, but no increase of C4 null alleles was seen. The findings imply a role for the complement system in the pathogenesis of ANCA-associated small vessel vasculitis.  (+info)

Active sites in complement components C5 and C3 identified by proximity to indels in the C3/4/5 protein family. (8/876)

We recently suggested that sites of length polymorphisms in protein families (indels) might serve as useful guides for locating protein:protein interaction sites. This report describes additional site-specific mutagenesis and synthetic peptide inhibition studies aimed at testing this idea for the paralogous complement C3, C4, and C5 proteins. A series of C5 mutants was constructed by altering the C5 sequence at each of the 27 indels in this protein family. Mutants were expressed in COS cells and were assayed for hemolytic activity and protease sensitivity. Mutants at five indels showed relatively normal expression but substantially reduced sp. act., indicating that the mutations damaged sites important for C5 function. Twenty-three synthetic peptides with C5 sequences and 10 with C3 sequences were also tested for the ability to inhibit C hemolytic activity. Three of the C5 peptides and one of the C3 peptides showed 50% inhibition of both C hemolytic and bactericidal activities at a concentration of 100 microM. In several cases both the mutational and peptide methods implicated the same indel site. Overall, the results suggest that regions important for function of both C3 and C5 lie proximal to residues 150-200 and 1600-1620 in the precursor sequences. Additional sites potentially important for C5 function are near residue 500 in the beta-chain and at two or three sites between the N-terminus of the alpha'-chain and the C5d fragment. One of the latter sites, near residue 865, appears to be important for proteolytic activation of C5.  (+info)

*C4A

Complement C4-A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the C4A gene. This gene encodes the acidic form of complement factor ... "Use of a cDNA clone for the fourth component of human complement (C4) for analysis of a genetic deficiency of C4 in guinea pig ... Hessing M, van 't Veer C, Hackeng TM, Bouma BN, Iwanaga S (Oct 1990). "Importance of the alpha 3-fragment of complement C4 for ... Belt KT, Carroll MC, Porter RR (Apr 1984). "The structural basis of the multiple forms of human complement component C4". Cell ...

*RNF5

"Human major histocompatibility complex contains a new cluster of genes between the HLA-D and complement C4 loci". Nucleic Acids ...

*HLA A1-B8 haplotype

C4 (complement 4) produces a null allele at on locus C4AQ. This locus in part of the HLA A1-B8-DR3-DQ2 haplotype (markers are ... Ancestral haplotypes with C4 null alleles explain diverse HLA associations". Hum. Immunol. 29 (4): 282-95. doi:10.1016/0198- ...

*Complement component 4

... of human complement C4A, C4B, C4-long, C4-short, and RCCX modules: elucidation of C4 CNVs in 50 consanguineous subjects with ... an effect produced by the effector proteins of the complement system in which the C4 partakes). Complement system Complement ... Complement component 4 (C4), in humans, is a protein involved in the intricate complement system, originating from the human ... the different phenotypes allowed for by the varying genetic variety of complement C4 include a wide range of plasma or serum C4 ...

*Anaphylatoxin

... that are produced as part of the activation of the complement system. Complement components C3, C4 and C5 are large ... Ogata, R. T.; Rosa, P. A.; Zepf, N. E. (1989). "Sequence of the gene for murine complement component C4". The Journal of ... This term is reserved only for fragments of the complement system. C3, C4A, C4B, C4B-1, C5, FBLN1, FBLN2 Allergy Anaphylatoxin ... C3a works with C5a to activate mast cells, recruit antibody, complement and phagocytic cells and increase fluid in the tissue, ...

*Cryoglobulinemia

Other routine tests include measuring blood levels of rheumatoid factor activity, complement C4, other complement components, ... and complement components, particularly complement component 4 (C4). Cryoglobulinemia and cryoglobulinemic disease must be ... and proteins of the blood complement system, particularly complement component 4 (C4). The particular components involved are a ... Mixtures of monoclonal or polyclonal IgM, IgG, and/or IgA along with blood complement proteins such as C4 are the cryoglobulins ...

*STK19

1996). "Complete sequence of the complement C4 gene from the HLA-A1, B8, C4AQ0, C4B1, DR3 haplotype". Immunogenetics. 43 (4): ... are present between complement component genes factor B and C4 in the class III region of the HLA". Genomics. 53 (3): 338-47. ... 1994). "Structure and genetics of the partially duplicated gene RP located immediately upstream of the complement C4A and the ... "Entrez Gene: STK19 serine/threonine kinase 19". Yu CY (1991). "The complete exon-intron structure of a human complement ...

*Tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase

Based on crystal structure of TPST-2 with C4 complement and PAP, an SN2-like in-line displacement mechanism has been proposed. ... Complement component 4, follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), and other chemokine and G-protein coupled receptors. A ...

*HLA A1-B8-DR3-DQ2

July 2008). "Autoimmune-associated HLA-B8-DR3 haplotypes in Asian Indians are unique in C4 complement gene copy numbers and HSP ...

*A30-Cw5-B18-DR3-DQ2 (HLA Haplotype)

September 2008). "Autoimmune-associated HLA-B8-DR3 haplotypes in Asian Indians are unique in C4 complement gene copy numbers ...

*C1-inhibitor

Also, C4 and C2 cleavage goes unchecked, resulting in auto-activation of the complement system. In its most common form, it ... This way, C1-inhibitor prevents the proteolytic cleavage of later complement components C4 and C2 by C1 and MBL. Although named ... The activation of the complement cascade can cause damage to cells, therefore the inhibition of the complement cascade can work ... which triggers the complement cascade. Activation of the complement cascade attracts phagocytes that leak peroxide and other ...

*Angioedema

In this analysis, it is usually a reduced complement factor C4, rather than the C1-INH deficiency itself, that is detected. The ... All forms of HAE lead to abnormal activation of the complement system, and all forms can cause swelling elsewhere in the body, ... Cinnarizine may also be useful because it blocks the activation of C4 and can be used in patients with liver disease, while ... In hereditary angioedema, bradykinin formation is caused by continuous activation of the complement system due to a deficiency ...

*Complement component 4B

Pan Q, Ebanks RO, Isenman DE (Sep 2000). "Two clusters of acidic amino acids near the NH2 terminus of complement component C4 ... complement component C4, steroid 21-hydroxylase CYP21, and tenascin TNX (the RCCX module). A mechanism for gene deletions and ... "Genetic polymorphism of C4 in man and localisation of a structural C4 locus to the HLA gene complex of chromosome 6". Nature. ... Complement component 4B (Chido blood group) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the C4B gene. This gene encodes the basic ...

*Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance

... interference with complement C3 and C4 measurement". Immunol. Invest. 28 (4): 269-276. doi:10.3109/08820139909060861. PMID ...

*Complement receptor 1

Hing S, Day AJ, Linton SJ, Ripoche J, Sim RB, Reid KB, Solomon E (1989). "Assignment of complement components C4 binding ... C4-binding protein. Membrane cofactor protein is a widely distributed C3b/C4b binding regulatory glycoprotein of the complement ... complement receptor type 1) transcriptional unit and prediction of a secreted form of complement receptor type 1". J. Exp. Med ... "Immunoregulatory functions of complement: structural and functional studies of complement receptor type 1 (CR1; CD35) and type ...

*Interferon gamma receptor 1

Gerritsma JS, Gerritsen AF, De Ley M, van Es LA, Daha MR (Apr 1997). "Interferon-gamma induces biosynthesis of complement ... components C2, C4 and factor H by human proximal tubular epithelial cells". Cytokine. 9 (4): 276-83. doi:10.1006/cyto.1996.0164 ...

*CUB domain

Mammalian complement-activating component of Ra-reactive factor (RARF), a protease that cleaves the C4 component of complement ... Almost all CUB domains contain four conserved cysteines that probably form two disulphide bridges (C1-C2, C3-C4). The CUB1 ... For example, in the complement proteases, the CUB domains mediate dimerisation and binding to collagen-like regions of target ... The CUB domain (for complement C1r/C1s, Uegf, Bmp1) is a structural motif of approximately 110 residues found almost ...

*Lupus band test

The presence of other immunoglobulins (especially IgA) and/or complement proteins (especially C4) increases the specificity of ... Lupus band test is done upon skin biopsy, with direct immunofluorescence staining, in which, if positive, IgG and complement ...

*Mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease-2

... and after Arg76 in complement component C4 (-Gly-Leu-Gln-Arg-Ala-Leu-Glu-Ile) This mannan-binding lectin (MBL) recognizes ... This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction Selective cleavage after Arg223 in complement component C2 (-Ser-Leu-Gly- ... Matsushita, M.; Fujita, T. (1992). "Activation of the classical complement pathway by mannose-binding protein in association ... "A second serine protease associated with mannan-binding lectin that activates complement". Nature. 386 (6624): 506-510. doi: ...

*MASP2 (protein)

MASP-2 is activated to cleave complement components C4 and C2 into C4a, C4b, C2a, and C2b. Mannan-binding lectin Mannan-binding ... MASP-2 is involved in the complement system. MASP-2 is very similar to the C1s molecule, of the classical complement pathway, ... The Ra-reactive factor (RARF) is a complement-dependent bactericidal factor that binds to the Ra and R2 polysaccharides ... Petersen SV, Thiel S, Jensenius JC (2001). "The mannan-binding lectin pathway of complement activation: biology and disease ...

*Terminal complement pathway deficiency

Initial complement tests often include C3 and C4, but not C5 through C9. Instead, the CH50 result may play a role in diagnosis ... Terminal complement pathway deficiency is a genetic condition affecting the complement membrane attack complex (MAC). It ... Suspect terminal complement pathway deficiency with patients who have more than one episode of Neisseria infection. ... Lint TF, Zeitz HJ, Gewurz H (November 1980). "Inherited deficiency of the ninth component of complement in man". J. Immunol. ...

*Interval graph

A graph is an interval graph if and only if it is C4-free and its complement has a transitive orientation. Various other ... Based on the fact that a graph is an interval graph if and only if it is chordal and its complement is a comparability graph, ... Their complements belong to the class of comparability graphs, and the comparability relations are precisely the interval ... based on the fact that a graph is an interval graph if and only if it is chordal and its complement is a comparability graph. A ...

*Fusobacterium polymorphum

1977). "Anticomplementary activity of Fusobacterium polymorphum in normal and C4-deficient sources of guinea pig complement". ...

*Lectin pathway

MASP-1 and MASP-2 are activated to cleave complement components C4 and C2 into C4a, C4b, C2a, and C2b. In addition, two smaller ... Classical complement pathway Alternative complement pathway Mannan-binding lectin Wallis R, Mitchell DA, Schmid R, Schwaeble WJ ... The lectin pathway is a type of cascade reaction in the complement system, similar in structure to the classical complement ... it proceeds through the action of C4 and C2 to produce activated complement proteins further down the cascade. In contrast to ...

*Threshold graph

C4 is a cycle of four vertices and 2K2 is its complement, that is, two disjoint edges. This also explains why threshold graphs ... are closed under taking complements; the P4 is self-complementary, hence if a graph is P4-, C4- and 2K2-free, its complement is ... A cograph is a graph with no induced path on four vertices, P4, and a threshold graph is a graph with no induced P4, C4 nor 2K2 ... C4, or 2K2) will be output. Indifference graph Series-parallel graph Chvátal, Václav; Hammer, Peter L. (1977), "Aggregation of ...

*Follicular dendritic cells

Follicular DCs have high expression of complement receptors CR1 and CR2 (CD 35 and CD 21 respectively) and Fc-receptor FcγRIIb ... CD32). Further FDCs specific molecular markers are FDC-M1, FDC-M2 and C4. Unlike other DCs and macrophages, FDCs lack MHC class ... Follicular DCs receptors CR1, CR2 and FcγRIIb trap antigen opsonized by complement or antibodies. To become selected as a ...
It is the practice of Ken Rodgers to personally meet with his potential clients and to give them advice about what to do following any serious injury. Generally the Law Office of Kenneth M. Rodgers represents injured persons under a Contingent Fee Agreement which means that there is no fee for the initial meeting and no fee for the legal work that must be undertaken to produce a recovery unless and until a recovery results. In the event that under the rules concerning jurisdictional cases or conflict Ken Rodgers cannot personally represent an injured person, he will see to it that the client is represented by the very best and most capable legal representative of his team.. If you have been involved in a car accident and need fast expert advice you should not hesitate to call Ken Rodgers at 855-LAW-PLUS (855-529-7587). You will need advice about the type of coverage that you have and what must be done to properly produce evidence of your claim. In the aftermath of a serious car accident you ...
AB - A fundamental dilemma of steroid hormone regulation is how specific transcription is attained in vivo when several receptors recognize the same DNA sequence in vitro. We have identified an enhancer of the mouse sex-limited protein (Slp) gene that
GREEN BAY, Wis. - Aaron Rodgers threw for 326 yards and three touchdowns, Davante Adams and Ty Montgomery emerged as playmakers in the second half, and the Green Bay Packers beat the offensively challenged Chicago Bears, 26-10, on Thursday night.. Rodgers was 39 of 56, setting a franchise record for completions in a game in the Packers first contest without injured running back Eddie Lacy (left ankle).. The Packers (4-2) moved effectively on short gains most of the night, but couldnt break into the end zone until Adams caught the first of his two touchdown receptions with 9:11 left in the third quarter for a 13-10 lead.. Rodgers and Adams combined again for a 4-yard score on the first play of fourth quarter for a 10-point lead.. It was effectively over from there for the Bears (1-6), who lost quarterback Brian Hoyer to a broken left arm in the second quarter.. With Jay Cutler already out (right thumb), Chicago turned to third-stringer Matt Barkley (USC).. An offense that was already 31st in ...
According to The Rodgers and Hammerstein encyclopedia this is the last lyric that Lorenz Hart wrote but this is not totaly true: for the revival of A Connecticut Yankee Rodgers asked Hart to write some new material to make the show more apealing (Herbert Fields wrote a new book as well), even if the partnership with Hart was already broken (in 1942 Rodgers worte Oklahoma! with Oscar Hammerstein II ...
... is produced by our E.coli expression system and the target gene encoding Asn679-Arg755 is expressed.
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Kamiya \ Mouse Complement C3 ELISA \ KT-344 for more molecular products just contact us
When I started my business in 1977, Theological College purchased the first Rodgers Organ I installed. The chapel was larger then and had very favorable acoustics. Father Lobo, P.S.S., who was rector at that time, was a wonderful friend and supporter. He allowed us to bring prospective organ customers to see and hear that excellent example of our work. His kindness is one of my fondest memories. Forty years later, we are now in the process of installing a new Infinity Series three manual 61 stop pipe/digital hybrid organ. The façade has a mix of polished copper and shiny tin/lead pipes in the display. The exquisite casework is constructed of wood with a finish that matches the chapels furnishings. Appropriately sized for the chapel, when completed, this instrument promises to be one of the finest and most beautiful ones we have ever built. Gerry Muller, my friend and colleague of over 50 years, has done tremendous work developing the music program at TC and has contributed greatly to the ...
Packers quarterback Aaron Rodgers (shoulder) remains under medical evaluation, coach Mike McCarthy said. No decision has been made on when he might return to playing.
Its a scenario most Packers fans dont want to think about but one coaches and front office personnel must prepare for. If the disastrous happens, Milwaukee Journal Sentinel writer Bob McGinn thinks Green Bay would be ready for life without Rodgers.
Its a scenario most Packers fans dont want to think about but one coaches and front office personnel must prepare for. If the disastrous happens, Milwaukee Journal Sentinel writer Bob McGinn thinks Green Bay would be ready for life without Rodgers.
​For one single week, everything in the football universe seemed to realign with the return of Aaron Rodgers. It was too bad that Cam Newton was in no mood to...
GREEN BAY, Wis. -- Give Aaron Rodgers just a few seconds of wiggle room and hes bound to make a play out of supposedly nothing.
Rodgers LS, Beam MT, Anderson JM, Fanning AS. 2013. Epithelial barrier assemblyrequires coordinated activity of multiple domains of the tight junction proteinZO-1. J Cell Sci. 126(Pt 7):1565-75. PMCID:PMC3647435 ...
Charles L.A. Smith (1871-1937) - Will Rodgers Park | 31.5 x 37.5 framed. Will Rogers Park, California. Wonderful hand carved gold period frame. Acquired from a private collection in Arizona. Smith was a self-taught painter and spent his early career in Chicago. He settled in California in the 1920s. He was art director of the Jonathan Club in CA.
Buy Awaiting Darkness by Ursula Rodgers as a iPhone Case/Skin, iPhone Wallet, Samsung Galaxy Case/Skin, Poster, Throw Pillow, Tote Bag, Studio Pouch, Travel Mug, Art Print, Canvas Print, Framed Print, Photographic Print, Metal Print, Gre...
Aaron Rodgers threw the football Sunday for the first time publicly at Heinz Field before kickoff between the Packers and Pittsburgh Steelers.
Rodgers Or Rivers? Let me be perfectly clear about one thing: there are no stats in this blog. Not one. Zip. And when I say no stats, I mean no stats...
What if Aaron Rodgers hadnt fallen to the Packers in the 2005 NFL draft? How might the NFL have turned out differently? Lets find out ...
Quote :Black Baratz, the agent for Green Bay Packers TE Jermichael Finley, took a hit at QB Aaron Rodgers recently, not comparing him to great quarterback leade
The third component of complement (C3) is an important mediator of inflammation. Murine and human genomic cosmid clones were isolated, characterized and sequenced 5′ to the complement C3 gene transcriptional initiation sites to determine cis elements that participate in constitutive and regulated C3 gene expression. The murine and human 5′ flanking regions are 51% identical overall, with positions -36 to -1 and -146 to -68 showing 80% identity. Four TATA boxes were identified upstream of the murine transcriptional initiation site, but deletion and transfection analysis using reporter gene constructs in HepG2 cells indicated that only the TATA element at position -30, together with sequences -395 to -111, are essential for constitutive expression of murine C3 in hepatocytes. Deletion analysis also suggested that sequences between -1457 and -800 contain regulatory elements that are involved in suppressing basal expression. Sequences between -90 to -41 confer both enhancer activity and ...
Search PubMed for more publications by Aaron Hoskins. 1. Larson, J.D., Kirk, M., OBrien, W., MacKay, J.F., Friedman, L.J., and Hoskins, A.A. Design and construction of a multiwavelength micromirror total internal reflectance fluorescence microscope. Nat Protoc. v9 (2014), 2317-28. PMID: 25188633.. 2. Rodgers, M.L., Paulson, J., and Hoskins, A.A. Rapid Isolation and Single molecule Analysis of Ribonucleoproteins from Cell Lysate by SNAP-SiMPull, RNA v21 (2015), 1031-41. PMCID: PMC4408783.. 3. Xu, J., Carrocci, T.J., and Hoskins, A.A. † Evolution and Characterization of a benzylguanine-binding RNA aptamer. Chem Commun (Camb), v52 (2016), 549-52. PMID: 26538152. PMCID: In Process.. 4. Rodgers, M.L. , Tretbar, S.U., DeHaven, A., Alwan, A.A., Luo, G., Mast, H.M., and Hoskins, A.A. Conformational Dynamics of Stem II of the U2 snRNA. RNA, v22 (2016), 225-36. PMCID: PMC4712673. 5. Hoskins, A.A., Rodgers, M.L., Friedman, L.J., Gelles, J., and Moore, M.J. Single Molecule Analysis Reveals Reversible and ...
Soil testing and appropriately amending your soil is an easy way to prevent "abiotic diseases", which are caused by deficiencies in micronutrients. UMass is a great place to send your soil (University of Maryland no longer does testing.) UMass will email you back with the results of your test along with very clear instructions on how to correct any nutrient deficiencies you may have. Not all testing sites give the appropriate reference ranges and recommendations. Go to: http://soiltest.umass.edu/ordering-information to get information on how to send in your sample. It takes about 10 minutes, costs $10 and will help you produce better, healthier plants, as well as reduce overuse of fertilizers that will run into the Bay. It is recommended to test every 3-4 years ...
Linebacker Desmond Bishop, the latest former Green Bay Packers player to come to Minnesota, said Tuesday that he joined the Vikings largely because of the opportunity to play against his old team twice a season.. Bishop signed a one-year deal reportedly worth between $840,000 and $1.35 million, depending on incentives.. "That was part of the reason," Bishop told the NFL Network. "I had a lot of people call and text saying, Oh, you want to get back at the Packers. Its not about that. I think its more of trying to play the best. If I can get the chance to play against Aaron Rodgers, I think that, right there, is motivation. You want to play against the best. When I was playing for Green Bay, the games I cherished the most were against the Vikings, because I got to play against Adrian Peterson. Thats my mindset. I want to play against the best. The opportunity to play Aaron Rodgers two times a year, that was something I liked.". Bishop said he had no hard feelings for the Packers, who released ...
And then there were two. After the New York Jets and Chicago Bears were sent packing last night, we know that two of the most high profile franchises is th
For a relatively unknown artist, Kría Brekkans creds are superb - a former member of whispery Icelandic collective múm, Kría has been slowly gaining a name for herself in the indie rock scene, including featuring in the cover art of Belle & Sebastians LP Fold Your Hands Child, You Walk Like a Peasant, dueting with…
The Loins know they are going nowheresville this year. But they are a bunch of thugs and cheap shot artists. Dirtiest team in the league, and the dirties player in the league, in Suh. Combine that...
Based on these result (negative with enzymes and cord red cells), anti-Ch or anti-Rg were suspected. What is unique about the Chido/Rodgers system? Ch...
Rodgers, M.T.; Armentrout, P.B., Absolute Binding Energies of Sodium Ions to Short-Chain Alcohols, CnH2n+2O, n=1-4, Determined by Threshold Collision-Induced Dissociation Experiments and Ab Initio Theory, 1999, 4955. 8 matching species were found. For each matching species the following will be displayed: ...
Djillali Annane, Stephen M. Pastores, Wiebke Arlt, Robert A. Balk, Albertus Beishuizen, Josef Briegel, Joseph Carcillo, Mirjam Christ-Crain, Mark S. Cooper, Paul E. Marik, Gianfranco Umberto Meduri, Keith M. Olsen, Bram Rochwerg, Sophia C. Rodgers, James A. Russell, Greet Van den ...
Definition: Total complement of genes contained in a cell or virus; commonly used to refer to all genes present in one complete haploid set of chromosomes in eukaryotes. Source: Essential Genetics: A genomics perspective (2006) 4th Ed. ...
SLP76山羊多克隆抗体(ab17029)可与人样本反应并经WB实验严格验证,被1篇文献引用并得到1个独立的用户反馈。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
Rodgers & Hammerstein: Hello Young Lovers (ARTPNO, Rodgers & Hammerstein, Oscar Hammerstein II, Richard Rodgers, Stevie Wonder, Hal Leonard, Digital Sheet Music, 15 July 2016, 21, smd_h_1182849O3JM4pXCr8) en-GB
Complement C3-C5 Convertases: Serine proteases that cleave COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, or cleave COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. These include the different forms of C3/C5 convertases in the classical and the alternative pathways of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Both cleavages take place at the C-terminal of an ARGININE residue.
DOVER, Del. - Sugar Rodgers scored 35 points and recorded five steals as Georgetown stunned No. 11 Delaware 62-56 Sunday in a nonconference matchup.. Rodgers, who shot 11 of 21 from the field, knocked down a team-high four 3-pointers and made 9 of 10 free-throw attempts.. Georgetown (2-0) trailed 30-28 at halftime but Rodgers opened the second half with two free throws and back-to-back layups to put the Hoyas ahead 34-30.. Delaware (1-1) rallied, cutting the deficit to 54-53 with 2:17 left to play behind a Lauren Carra 3-pointer, but Rodgers converted two free throws and recorded a steal and fast-break layup on the next possession to end the Blue Hens comeback hopes.. Rodgers scored eight of Georgetowns last 10 points.. Delaware was without last years leading scorer Elena Delle Donne. Delle Donne, who also missed Delawares season opener, is dealing with symptoms of Lyme Disease. She is listed as day-to-day. ...
What is Complement Component Gene? Definition of Complement Component Gene. Complement Component Gene FAQ. Learn more about Complement Component Gene. Complement Component Gene facts.
A casein kinase released from activated human platelets has been shown to phosphorylate a number of plasma proteins. When platelets are activated they release substantial amounts of ATP and divalent cations which are necessary for phosphorylation of proteins. The aim of this study was to elucidate the optimal conditions for phosphorylation of the human complement component C4, identify phosphorylation site in the molecule and to investigate possible impact on the functions of phosphorylated C4. For this purpose, C4 must be prepared from human plasma, which was done using a modification of a previously published method. The results showed a pure and 100 % active protein. C4 was incubated with [g-32P]ATP and cations. After SDS-PAGE and autoradiography it was shown that C4 was phosphorylated in the a-chain. Maximal phosphorylation was achieved when C4 was phosphorylated in the presence of 20 mM Ca2+. Incubation of phosphorylated and unphosphorylated C4 with trypsin showed that phosphorylated C4 was ...
Visit Healthgrades for information on Dr. Theodore Rodgers III, MD Find Phone & Address information, medical practice history, affiliated hospitals and more.
Visit Healthgrades for information on Dr. Jerry Rodgers, MD Find Phone & Address information, medical practice history, affiliated hospitals and more.
A vote on the Nile Rodgers Freak Out! music and arts festival at Martha Clara Vineyards is expected to take place at the Riverhead Town Boards 7 p.m.
Paul Rodgers / 9W focuses on a select group of established and emerging artists, developing innovative frameworks to promote their careers. The gallery has a flexible schedule of solo and group installations and holds exhibitions in a variety of formats by private and public invitation. Artists include Michael Anderson, Lucinda Devlin, Simon Hantaï, Joseph Marioni, Judit Reigl, Peter Sacks, Dominique Thiolat
Life, energy, football, Dairy Queen Blizzards and his mustache just a few of the topics that came up when Danica Patrick interviewed Aaron Rodgers on her podcast.
Your diet plan issues: Bear in mind that This Site you already have a complete complement of valuable microbes in Your entire body that are All set and equipped to operate within your favor. Including probiotics contained in foods and supplements will help but For anyone who is consuming a diet plan that may be devoid of prebiotic foods including vegetables Youre not planning to experience long-expression overall health benefits ...
Seagull. Can someone tell me why Bad Company is not in the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame? It makes absolutely no sense. The songs are all smash hits and the band is led by one of the most talented vocalists of all time in Paul Rodgers. Sure…there are many bands that deserve the Hall that are not in it…but Bad Co? You gotta be kidding me? On this night, at the Hard Rock in Tulsa, Oklahoma Bad Company blazed through a main set of 13 tunes, 11 of which are still FM radio staples to this day, and two encores to a near capacity house. They rocked from start to finish. The band added some extra jams and outros and Rodgers had the crowd eating out of the palm of his hand from the moment he showed up on stage to the second he left it. Today Bad Company is led by Rodgers along with founding member and drummer Simon Kirke. Bassist Todd Ronning does a fine job in place of the late Boz Burrell while Hall of Famer from Heart Howard Leese kills it on guitar in place of the ill Mick Ralphs. This is a tight ...
Abcams Complement C4 ELISA Kit (ab108825) suitable for Cell culture supernatant, Saliva, Milk, Urine, Cerebral Spinal Fluid in human. Reliably quantify 0.07…
The worlds first wiki where authorship really matters. Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts.
Complement C6 Antibodies available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our Complement C6 Antibody catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
NIDDK Director Griffin Rodgers, MD KN: You have led the NIDDK for more than 6 years. Tell us about the institute and your vision of NIDDKs role in promoting scientific endeavor. Rodgers:
The Bosnian international's injury concerns have never been far from the surface over the past 12 months and his latest breakdown coincides with the return from the treatment table of Dedryck Boyata and Erik Sviatchenko.. Add to that short-term crocks Stuart Armstrong and Scott Brown and you can see Rodgers doesn't have his problems to seek.. But it's at the back where the biggest worry remains. And with such a huge run of games on the horizon the question of whether Rodgers was right not to bring in defensive reinforcements in the summer.. ...
This chapter charts the development of the musical Camelot, and examines the problems Lerner, Loewe, and Moss Hart had in getting the piece to Broadway. After the strain of the show, the Lerner and Loewe partnership broke up, and Lerner looked to Richard Rodgers for a new collaboration. The chapter reveals the struggles of the early 1960s, including the problems of working with Rodgers, the frustrated attempts to make a musical about Coco Chanel, and the difficulties in bringing Camelot to London.
BLOGGER James Flynn gives the new Parkhead gaffer his lowdown on where improvements are needed to get the Hoops playing the Celtic way again.
The day after Christmas provided the Green Bay Packers with a huge present. The Packers found out Aaron Rodgers will be back for Sundays road matchup with the Chicago Bears that will decide the NFC North. Rodgers missed his seventh straight game last Sunday as Green Bay (7-7-1) fell 38-31 at home
Christy Rodgers writings have appeared on Dissident Voice, Truthout, Alternet, Upside Down World, Counterpunch, and Dark Mountain Project. She lives in San
Definition : Immunoassay reagents intended to perform qualitative and/or quantitative analyses on a body fluid sample (typically serum) to detect and/or measure levels of one or more of the proteins C5 to C9 found in the final complement pathway. Deficiency of complement components C5 to C9 are associated with several diseases, especially recurrent neisserial infections.. Entry Terms : "C5-9 (Complement Component) Determination Reagents" , "Reagents, Immunoassay, Protein, Complement Component, C5-C9". UMDC code : 19804 ...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Assaypro \ Complement C4c, anti_human \ 11223-05011 for more molecular products just contact us
https://luminusdiagnostics.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Luminus-Full-color-header-1.png 0 0 Daniel Battaglia https://luminusdiagnostics.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Luminus-Full-color-header-1.png Daniel Battaglia2018-10-01 20:08:262018-12-11 20:21:53COMPLEMENT C3 ...
Cleavage of Arg-,-Ser bond in complement component C3 alpha-chain to yield C3a and C3b, and Arg-,-Xaa bond in complement component C5 alpha-chain to yield C5a and ...
The three distinct activation pathways of complement converge with the formation of a C5 convertase. The cleavage of C5 by this convertase initiates…
Paul Rodgers is the possessor of one of the great rock voices. As the frontman of first Free and then Bad Company he established himself as also one of the great rock performers and a classic songwriter. In 2005 he joined forces with Queen on their first full tour without Freddie Mercury. This concert was recorded in Glasgow on his sell out autumn 2006 UK tour and features powerful performances of songs from across his career.. ...
Im not going to post a comment by Pat Rodgers, who blames last summers heroin/fentanyl deaths on the U.S. government. His/her point: American successful interdiction of Asian heroin caused addicts no choice but Mexican heroin, which led to Fentanyl spiking in an effort to yield similar effects as Asian heroin. My take is different, of course. …
Liverpool manager Brendan Rodgers insists the pressure of the title race will not diminish his sides ability to attack and dominate opponents.
kr == Kevin Rodgers ,[email protected], writes: ecm, An other point is that neither solution will work well if the default ecm, contents of the ps-right-header variable change in the future. kr, How about kr, kr, (setcar (memq time-stamp-mon-dd-yyyy ps-right-header) ps-time-stamp-iso) thats better, but it still wont work correctly if the default for the date element changes to something like time-stamp-per-locale. -- Eric Marsden ,URL:http://www.laas.fr/~emarsden/ ...
There were five nominees, all of whom would have been worthy winners, and the 2012 award went to Pat Rodgers. Her 24 year old son was killed in Blackburn town centre whilst trying to stop a fight which had broken out. He was killed by a single punch from a drunken 16 year old. Despite their terrible loss she and her husband wanted something positive to come from it and set up a charity "Every Action has its Consequences". Pat has produced an education pack now used widely in schools, colleges and prisons, which addresses the issues of binge drinking and violence and the devastation it can wreak on the lives of others. ...
Joan Alexander, Jude Kendall, Jean McIndoo, Linda Rodgers, Robert Aboukhalil, Dan Levy, Asya Stepansky, Guoli Sun, Lubomir Chobardjiev, Michael Riggs, Hilary Cox, Inessa Hakker, Dawid G. Nowak, Juliana Laze, Elton Llukani, Abhishek Srivastava, Siobhan Gruschow, Shalini S. Yadav, Brian Robinson, Gurinder Atwal, Lloyd C. Trotman, Herbert Lepor, James Hicks, Michael Wigler and Alexander Krasnitz ...
Test results may vary depending on your age, gender, health history, the method used for the test, and other things. Your test results may not mean you have a problem. Ask your healthcare provider what your test results mean for you. The normal range for a complement C4 blood test is 16 to 48 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 0.16 to 0.48 grams per liter (g/L). Your complement levels will often shoot up dramatically just after an infection or injury. When your complement system is activated in response to ongoing disease such as lupus, levels usually go down. You can inherit a deficiency in your complement C4, but it is much more common to acquire a deficiency. If only your C4 complement level is low, and all other complement components are normal, it is usually because of an inherited component deficiency. More often, you will have lowered levels of several complement components at once. This is the result of an acquired disease. If your C3 and C4 levels are reduced, this may be a sign that ...
Dr. David Rodgers, MD, FACC, rated 5/5 by patients. 1 reviews, Phone number & practice locations, Cardiovascular Disease Physician in Flourtown, PA.
Tooth-colored fillings are a great way to restore cavities, replace metal fillings & brighten your smile. Call Dunwoody general dentist, Dr. Rodgers, today!
This observation argues that RNPs are not randomly incorporated into virions, and is consistent with the presence of specific signals in each RNA segment that enable the RNPs to be packaged as a complete set. The mechanisms by which these signals are recognized, and how they ensure incorporation of one copy of each RNA segment into the particle, are not known.. There is clear evidence for a selective mechanism during the packaging of the bacteriophage ψ6 genome. Viral particles contain one copy each of a S, M, and L dsRNA segment. All particles contain a complete complement of genome segments, as indicated by the fact that every virus particle is infectious. Only the S RNA segment can enter newly formed particles; once that segment is packaged, then the M RNA can enter. The L RNA can only enter particles that contain both the S and M segments. Precise packaging is therefore the result of a serial dependence of packaging of the RNA segments.. Muramoto, Y., Takada, A., Fujii, K., Noda, T., ...
Since the clinical application of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in 1997, the life expectancy of HIV infected patients has been prolonged greatly. However,side effects of ART including metabolic abnormalities have become the main factors influencing patients quality of life. Among which the abnormal lipid metabolism plays an important role. Meanwhile, metabolic conditions differ from patients applying to different combinations of ART drugs,life style and clinical conditions.. Metabolomics can measure the dynamic metabolic responses of the body to stimuli or modifications. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) as tools can systematically analyse the process of lipid metabolism. Metabolomics fingerprinting can be defined as the complete complement of small molecule (, 1500 Da) metabolites found in a specific cell, body fluid, organ or organism.. Therefore, the study of the impact of metabolic changes and anti-retroviral therapy (ART), life style and clinical conditions is of importance in ...
Interchangeable needles might just be the greatest thing to happen to knitting since the spinning wheel. With this full set of tips, a complete complement of cables, and every essential accessory, you can wander far and wide throughout the knitting landscape, the exactly right needle always to hand. Project Kit includes Knit Picks Options Interchangeable Needle Set, Majestic, Knit Picks Needle Case, Silver Knit Picks Options Interchangeable Cable Connectors, set of 3 3 Knit Picks Options Interchangeable Cables, Black (1 each of 40, 47, and 60), Knit Picks View Sizer, and Knit Picks Circular Knitting Needle Size ID Tags.
A new cluster of complement component genes, including C4BP, C3bR, and FH, is described. Family segregation data indicate that FH is linked to the genes for C4-bp and C4bR, previously reported to be linked and to maintain linkage disequilibrium. This cluster is not linked to the major histocompatibility complex, which contains the genes for the complement components, C4, C2, and factor B, or to the C3 locus. These data further suggest that the organization of genes for functionally related proteins in clusters may be a rule for the complement system. ...
Macrophages play an essential role in defending against invading pathogens by migrating to the sites of infection, removing apoptotic cells, and secreting infla...
Copyright © 2000-2017 Sports Reference LLC. All rights reserved.. Much of the play-by-play, game results, and transaction information both shown and used to create certain data sets was obtained free of charge from and is copyrighted by RetroSheet.. Win Expectancy, Run Expectancy, and Leverage Index calculations provided by Tom Tango of InsideTheBook.com, and co-author of The Book: Playing the Percentages in Baseball.. Total Zone Rating and initial framework for Wins above Replacement calculations provided by Sean Smith.. Full-year historical Major League statistics provided by Pete Palmer and Gary Gillette of Hidden Game Sports.. ...
University of Miami Health System offers healthcare services from South Floridas premier doctors and hospitals by combining patient care, research and education.
No. 4 MARCUS MARTIN (G/C). Profile: 6-3, 325, junior. 2012 stats: N/A. Why hes one to watch: USC returns solid depth on the offensive line, but theres a big hole at center, both in terms of talent and leadership, with the graduation and departure of Khaled Holmes. Cyrus Hobbi, who filled in during Holmes ankle injury last season, doesnt seem to be the answer right now, and USC elected to not bring back Abe Markowitz, who sought to return for a sixth season. Martin, a starter at guard in 2012, worked out at center during pre-Sun Bowl practices and has continued in that role during unofficial winter practices with teammates. USC coaches intend to have Khaliel Rodgers play center, but Rodgers wont enroll until the fall. For now, its important for Martin to thrive at center and develop a strong rapport with all three quarterbacks in spring practice.. No. 5 HAYES PULLARD (LB). Profile: 6-1, 235, redshirt junior. 2012 stats: 107 tackles, 8 TFL, 2 sacks, 1 INT, 1 pass breakup. Why hes one to ...
BMJ for allowing the James Lind Library to link to this and other BMJ articles of historical relevance (email to Iain Chalmers from Fiona Godlee, 05 May 2015). ...
Aaron was looking forward to an opportunity for a second chance to prove his innocence. "If Im Colin Kaepernick I have to prove myself," Cowher said.). MISSED OPPORTUNITIES: Stafford failed to connect with Tate when he was all by himself midway through the first quarter, wasting a chance to make a big play to possibly score on Detroit second drive. Don know about that, said Jones, who was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame in August. So to then ruin whatever tourism opportunities exist now or in the future because of the release of the coal ash could have a detrimental economic impact.". Toronto is cursed by sports. Rodgers and the Packers regrouped in the fourth quarter to salvage a 17 wholesale jerseys 9 win and an acceptable, not overwhelming, stat line for Rodgers. He kissed his boyfriend as a design own football jersey national television audience looked on, and arrived brimming with confidence and with a quick retort for anyone who contended he was in the NFL only because he came ...
RWE Power InternationalPAGE 3 Outline >Key differences between high-level and low-level sources >Results from CASES and NEEDS (EcoSense) -Implications for sectoral contribution to exposure >Relative toxicity of particulate components; implications for quantification of effects of LCP emissions >A simple model for building differential toxicity into GAINS >Recommendations
As we were finishing up our visit with Tracy, I felt a gush which I thought a bit odd but wasnt too alarmed at first. As we were walking to the elevator I felt several more and told Kyle that I thought my water had broken. When we got to the car I looked down to discover that I was covered in blood. After a moment of panic, I pulled it together and called my OB. I got the standard press 1 for this, 2 for that and finally "if this is an emergency, please hang up and dial 911 or go to your closest emergency room". The closest emergency room was Duke Hospital which is literally across the street from the VA Medical Center where we had been visiting Tracy. Kyle had already pulled out of the parking space in the deck so I had him let me out so I could walk over the ER while he found another parking space. After 10-15 minutes which seemed like forever, they got me up to Labor & Delivery where the room quickly filled with doctors and techs. They started an ultrasound and got Emma Claire on the ...
Based on the novel A Walk Among the Tombstones by Lawrence Block This movie is based on an old Larry Block novel from the Matthew Scudder series. Im not a huge Block fan but his books are solid and I do find the Scudder character appealing and likeable. So I was certain I would really…
Its not all glossy new vehicles at the LA Auto Show. There are some glossy old vehicles here, too, with new technology.. Like, a vintage VW Bug, aftermarket-outfitted to be a e-Bug.. Zelectric Motors of San Diego has been making electrification packages for vintage V-dubs for a while. Theyll modify your existing bug, or restore one and sell you that. The refurbished electric vehicles go 90mph, have a range of 90-100 miles, and cost about $50,000, said the companys Bonnie Rodgers.. The electric Beetles have their engines in the rear, just like the traditional gas-powered ones, and carry their batteries up front in the "trunk," next to the spare tire. Its a good investment, Rodgers said. "Theyre not going to depreciate. Theyre going to gain value.". --Charles Fleming ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
But would as still reach download aaron a analyzer of the Divine even? No: the Divine gives no varieties; the flight has in the Soul. Divine: of servers in the Supreme, Soul is some after a download of its recent, Sorry down at all.
Goat Polyclonal Anti-Complement Component C1r Antibody [Unconjugated]. Validated: WB, IP. Tested Reactivity: Human. 100% Guaranteed.
Complement C7 deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder well known to be associated with increased susceptibility to meningococcal infection and has mostly been reported in Caucasians. In the Korean population, no case of C7 deficiency has been reported to date. Recently we experienced an 11-yr-...
1 reviews. Compare Complement C5a desArg ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
C3ar1 - C3ar1 (GFP-tagged) - Mouse complement component 3a receptor 1 (C3ar1) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
|strong|Mouse anti Human C3d antibody, clone 053A-514.3.1.4|/strong| recognizes human complement component 3d (C3d) neoantigen, a ~33 kDa polypeptide fragment generated over the course of complem…
If youre sick, stay home. Germs travel fast. -Stephanie Watman, Critical Focus producer. My grandmother always swore that Jack Daniels was a miracle cure, and you should always believe your elders-especially when they smell like that miracle cure 24/7. -Sim Salzman, chief financial officer. Its all about diet, exercise and having dogs. Dogs bring in all different types of germs from outside-being exposed to them helps strengthen my immune system. I havent been sick once since I adopted my pups. -Matt Iles, account executive. Ignoring both apples and doctors till I die. -Adam Smith, Life Is Beautiful production coordinator. Terpenes. Lots and lots of terpenes. -Lissa Townsend Rodgers, editor at large. I firmly believe in the power of a steaming-hot bath to both kill viruses and adjust ones attitude. A glass of red wine doesnt hurt, either. -Xania Woodman, senior contributing editor, beverage. My mom and grandma swear Vicks is the cure for everything. Headache? Vicks. Sore throat? Vicks. ...
By USM Free Press. The credit ratings agency Standard & Poors revised its outlook on the University of Maine System from "stable" to "negative," the firm announced Monday, citing dropping enrollments and tuition revenues, as well as unstable leadership throughout the systems network of seven universities.. "The revised negative outlook and rating reflect our view that UMS is experiencing enrollment pressure, having seen a drop in enrollment for fall 2014 and 2013 and anticipating a further decline in fall 2015," said Standard & Poors credit analyst Ken Rodgers in a statement.. "In addition, historically we characterized the system as having strong governance and management and believe for the most part that remains true today," he continued. "Nevertheless, a significant turnover in leadership at most of its seven universities over roughly the past two years - and with four of the universities currently served by interim presidents - we feel some weakness in governance and management might be ...
TAMPA - The Bucs have a complicated situation at running back for 2017, with Doug Martin facing a PEDs suspension, Jacquizz Rodgers an unrestricted free agent and Charles Sims coming off his se
Roizen, N. J., Magyar, C.I., Kuschner, E. S., Sulkes, S. B., Druschel, C., van Wijngaarden, E., Rodgers, L., Diehl, A., Lowry, R. & Hyman, S.L. "A community cross-sectional survey of medical problems in 440 children with Down syndrome in New York State." Journal of Pediatrics. 2014; 164(4): 871-875.. 2013 ...
SNOOPY. SNARKY. SMART. When retired Bank Manager Kevin Rodgers got an idea in his head, it took a stick of dynamite to dislodge it. Hed decided that one of the charter boats moored in The Seascape Cove Marina was running drugs ...
Aaron Rodgers threw a 12-yard touchdown pass to Davante Adams with 11 seconds remaining, lifting Green Bay over the Dallas Cowboys 35-31 on Sunday in another thriller nine months after the Packers divisional playoff victory on the same field.
Clark G R , Rodgers K A , Henderson G S , Zeitschrift fur Kristallographie , 213 (1998) p.96-100, The crystal chemistry of doyleite, Al(OH)3, Locality: Mont St. Hilaire, Quebec ...
This week we on the Sing Out! Radio Magazine conclude our two part feature on Train Songs. Well include songs and tunes from Bela Fleck & Abigail Washburn, Dan Hicks & his Hot Licks, Anne Hills, Jimmie Rodgers and many more including "the best damn train song ever written." LISTEN: … → read more. ...
The complement system provides a fundamental component of the body's immune response to invading microorganisms. This chapter highlights the various roles of the complement system in the orchestration of the immune response towards microbial infections, gives examples of microbial strategies to evade complement-mediated clearance, and discusses how acquired and inherited complement deficiencies may predispose an organism to infectious disease. Complement is activated by three pathways: the classical pathway, the alternative pathway, and the lectin pathway. The lectin pathway is activated by carbohydrate recognition molecules that bind to polysaccharide on the surface of a pathogen. Factor B, factor D, and properdin (factor P) are specific components of the alternative pathway of complement activation. The complement activation is tightly regulated by membrane-bound and fluid-phase regulatory components to avoid runaway activation of the enzymatic cascade that could lead to excess host tissue damage
... Exp Neurol. 2017 Jun 07;: Authors: Wyatt SK, Witt T, Barbaro NM, Cohen-Gadol AA, Brewster AL Abstract Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation is widely associated with seizures and epilepsy. Although microglial cells are professional phagocytes, less is known about th...
The complement system plays a key role in host defense against pneumococcal infection. Three different pathways, the classical, alternative and lectin pathways, mediate complement activation. While there is limited information available on the roles of the classical and the alternative activation pathways of complement in fighting streptococcal infection, little is known about the role of the lectin pathway, mainly due to the lack of appropriate experimental models of lectin pathway deficiency. We have recently established a mouse strain deficient of the lectin pathway effector enzyme mannan-binding lectin associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2) and shown that this mouse strain is unable to form the lectin pathway specific C3 and C5 convertases. Here we report that MASP-2 deficient mice (which can still activate complement via the classical pathway and the alternative pathway) are highly susceptible to pneumococcal infection and fail to opsonize Streptococcus pneumoniae in the none-immune host. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Low serum complement 3 level is associated with severe ANCA-associated vasculitis at diagnosis. AU - Choi, Hyeok. AU - Kim, Youhyun. AU - Jung, Seung Min. AU - Song, Jason Jungsik. AU - Park, Yong Beom. AU - Lee, Sang Won. PY - 2019/2/15. Y1 - 2019/2/15. N2 - Objectives: We investigated whether low serum C3 level can cross-sectionally estimate severe antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) in immunosuppressive drug-naïve patients at diagnosis. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 139 patients with AAV, who were first classified as AAV at Severance Hospital. We obtained clinical and laboratory data including serum complement 3 (C3) level and calculated Birmingham vasculitis activity score (BVAS) at diagnosis. We stratified AAV patients into three groups according to the tertile of BVAS and defined the lower limit of the highest tertile as the cutoff for severe AAV (BVAS at diagnosis ≥ 16) at diagnosis. Low serum C3 level was ...
A complement receptor is a receptor of the complement system, part of the innate immune system. Complement receptors bind proteins of the complement system, and can thus detect pathogens without mediation by antibodies. Complement activity is not antigen sensitive, but can be triggered by specific antigens. Many white blood cells express complement receptors on their surface, particularly monocytes and macrophages. All four complement receptors bind to fragments of complement component 3 or complement component 4 coated on pathogen surface, but the receptors have different functions. Complement receptor (CR) 1, 3, and 4 work as opsonins (stimulate phagocytosis), whereas CR2 is expressed only on B cells as a co-receptor. Red blood cells (RBCs) also express CR1. With these receptors, RBCs bring antigen-antibody complexes bound to complement fragments in the blood to the liver and spleen for degradation. Defects in these receptors can be associated with disease. Immune system Humoral immunity ...
Being a major first line of immune defense, the complement system keeps a constant vigil against viruses. Its ability to recognize a large panoply of viruses and virus-infected cells, and trigger the effector pathways, results in neutralization of viruses and killing of the infected cells. This selection pressure exerted by complement on viruses has made them evolve a multitude of countermeasures. These include targeting the recognition molecules for avoidance of detection, targeting key enzymes and complexes of the complement pathways like C3 convertases and C5b-9 formation - either by encoding complement regulators or by recruiting membrane-bound and soluble host complement regulators, cleaving complement proteins by encoding protease, and inhibiting the synthesis of complement proteins. Additionally, viruses also exploit the complement system for their own benefit. For example, they use complement receptors as well as membrane regulators for cellular entry as well as their spread. Here, we provide an
TY - JOUR. T1 - Complement activation in acquired and hereditary amyloid neuropathy. AU - Hafer-Macko, Charlene E.. AU - Dyck, Peter J. AU - Koski, Carol Lee. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - The pathogenesis of the axonal degeneration in acquired or hereditary amyloidosis is unknown. In this immunohistochemistry study, we examined 20 sural nerve biopsies from individuals with amyloid neuropathy (14 acquired and 6 hereditary) for evidence of complement activation. Complement activation products were detected on and around amyloid deposits within peripheral nerves. We found no difference in the extent, location or pattern of complement activation products between the 2 forms of amyloidosis. The presence of early classical pathway activation markers in the absence of antibody in hereditary cases suggests an antibody-independent activation of the classical pathway through binding of C1q. The lack of Factor Bb-suggested alternative pathway activation was not significant in these cases. The detection of ...

Evaluation and treatment of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritisEvaluation and treatment of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis

Diagnosis of complement alternative pathway disorders. Kidney Int 2016; 89:278.. *Bridoux F, Desport E, Frémeaux-Bacchi V, et ... See C3 glomerulopathies: Dense deposit disease and C3 glomerulonephritis and C4 glomerulopathy and Recurrence of ... Acquired and genetic complement abnormalities play a critical role in dense deposit disease and other C3 glomerulopathies. ... These issues will be reviewed here with the exception of MPGN due to complement-mediated disease (C3 glomerulopathies, ...
more infohttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/evaluation-and-treatment-of-membranoproliferative-glomerulonephritis

Anti-CFI / Complement Factor I Antibody (Internal) - Rabbit Anti Human Polyclonal Antibody WB, IHC-P - Buy Now! |AbgentAnti-CFI / Complement Factor I Antibody (Internal) - Rabbit Anti Human Polyclonal Antibody WB, IHC-P - Buy Now! |Abgent

Complement Factor I Antibody (Internal), Rabbit Anti Human Polyclonal Antibody validated in WB, IHC-P (ALS17749), Abgent ... Responsible for cleaving the alpha-chains of C4b and C3b in the presence of the cofactors C4-binding protein and factor H ... Complement component factor i, Factor I, FI, KAF, I factor, I factor (complement), C3b-INA, Complement factor I, Light chain of ... Anti-CFI / Complement Factor I Antibody (Internal) is for research use only and not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic ...
more infohttp://www.abgent.com/products/ALS17749-Anti-CFI--Complement-Factor-I-Antibody-Internal

Genetics and clinical presentation of classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiencyGenetics and clinical presentation of classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency

Mapping of steroid 21-hydroxylase genes adjacent to complement component C4 genes in HLA, the major histocompatibility complex ... How a patient homozygous for a 30-kb deletion of the C4-CYP 21 genomic region can have a nonclassic form of 21-hydroxylase ... Two genes encoding steroid 21-hydroxylase are located near the genes encoding the fourth component of complement in man. Proc ...
more infohttp://www.uptodate.com/contents/genetics-and-clinical-presentation-of-classic-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia-due-to-21-hydroxylase-deficiency

Molecular cloning and chromosomal localization of human membrane cofactor protein (MCP). Evidence for inclusion in the...Molecular cloning and chromosomal localization of human membrane cofactor protein (MCP). Evidence for inclusion in the...

C4-binding protein, and factor H), as well as several other complement and non-complement proteins. The remainder of the MCP ... Complement-mediated tumor cell damage induced by antibodies against membrane cofactor protein (MCP, CD46). ... Membrane cofactor protein (MCP), a regulatory molecular of the complement system with cofactor activity for the factor I- ... This same genetic region contains the multigene family of complement-regulatory proteins, which is thereby enlarged to include ...
more infohttps://rupress.org/jem/article/168/1/181/49547/Molecular-cloning-and-chromosomal-localization-of

Human Complement C4 ELISA Kit | AbcamHuman Complement C4 ELISA Kit | Abcam

Abcams Complement C4 ELISA Kit (ab108825) suitable for Cell culture supernatant, Saliva, Milk, Urine, Cerebral Spinal Fluid in ... A Complement C4 specific antibody has been precoated onto 96-well plates and blocked. Standards or test samples are added to ... Complement component C4 is expressed at highest levels in the liver, at moderate levels in the adrenal cortex, adrenal medulla ... Abcams Complement C4 Human in vitro ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) kit is designed for the quantitative measurement ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/human-complement-c4-elisa-kit-ab108825.html

Complement C4 (Blood) -  Health Encyclopedia - University of Rochester Medical CenterComplement C4 (Blood) - Health Encyclopedia - University of Rochester Medical Center

Complement C4 (Blood). Does this test have other names?. Complement component 4, C4 ... If only your C4 complement level is low, and all other complement components are normal, it is usually because of an inherited ... If the blood sample is mishandled, your C4 levels may be falsely low. If the C4 test is done as part of a total complement ... By measuring complement C4 levels, especially in how they compare with other parts of the complement system, your healthcare ...
more infohttps://www.urmc.rochester.edu/encyclopedia/content.aspx?ContentTypeID=167&ContentID=complement_c4_blood

Fluorescein-Conjugated Goat IgG Fraction To Human Complement C4Fluorescein-Conjugated Goat IgG Fraction To Human Complement C4

... conjugated goat IgG fraction to human complement C4 and buffer salts. ... FITC-Conjugated Goat IgG Fraction to Anti-Human Complement C4 is used as a reagent in immunofluorescence assays (IFA), cell ... FITC-Conjugated Goat IgG Fraction to Anti-Human Complement C4 is used as a reagent in immunofluorescence assays (IFA), cell ... This product shows reactivity to human complement C4; cross-reactivity to other species may exist. Antibody activity to ...
more infohttps://www.mpbio.com/0855168-fluorescein-conjugated-goat-igg-fraction-to-human-complement-c4

Kamiya Biomedical Company - Clinical Diagnostics - Complement C4 ReagentKamiya Biomedical Company - Clinical Diagnostics - Complement C4 Reagent

x = INCSTAR Complement C4 Test Kit. y = K-ASSAY ® Complement C4 assay. x min = 11 y min = 9 ... A comparison of the K-ASSAY ® Complement C4 assay and an INCSTAR Complement C4 Test Kit was performed using a Hitachi 717. The ... For the quantitative determination of human complement C4 (4th complement component) in serum by immunoturbidimetric assay. ... The precision for the K-ASSAY ® Complement C4 assay was determined using packaged reagents, pooled human serum, and a Hitachi ...
more infohttp://kamiyabiomedical.com/03ClinicalDiagnosticsProducts/Datasheets/KAI-010.php?language=english

Complement C3 and Complement C4 | definition of Complement C3 and Complement C4 by Medical dictionaryComplement C3 and Complement C4 | definition of Complement C3 and Complement C4 by Medical dictionary

What is Complement C3 and Complement C4? Meaning of Complement C3 and Complement C4 medical term. What does Complement C3 and ... Looking for online definition of Complement C3 and Complement C4 in the Medical Dictionary? Complement C3 and Complement C4 ... Complement C3 and Complement C4. Complement C3 and Complement C4. Synonym/acronym: C3 and C4. ... Complement C3 and Complement C4 , definition of Complement C3 and Complement C4 by Medical dictionary https://medical- ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Complement+C3+and+Complement+C4

Complement C4Complement C4

The Randox Complement C4 assay. The Randox Complement C4 assay is used for the quantitative in vitro determination of ... Wide measuring range - The healthy range for Complement C4 is 7 -49 mg/dl. The Randox Complement C4 assay can comfortably ... Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder associated with a deficiency in complement C4. Complement C4 is ... The Complement C4 and Complement C3 proteins, which play an important role in eliminating certain infections, can be used as ...
more infohttp://dev.randox.com/tag/complement-c4/

Complement C4 Testing | C4 ProteinsComplement C4 Testing | C4 Proteins

The Complement C4 test measures the amount of C4 proteins in your blood. This test is used to evaluate and manage conditions ... This test is used to measure the level of serum Complement C4. C4 is also used to detect individuals with inborn deficiency of ... Complement C4 has been identified a a marker for identifying systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a chronic, multisystemic, ... factor or those with immunologic disease in whom over activation of the immune system causes reduced levels of this complement ...
more infohttps://shop.personalabs.com/product/complement-c4-serum/

anti-Complement C4 beta-chain mAb (52H10)  - Order from Adipochemanti-Complement C4 beta-chain mAb (52H10) - Order from Adipochem

anti-Complement C4 beta-chain, mAb (52H10) is a monoclonal antibody that crossreacts with human protein. Works in ELISA, WB, IP ... Human C4 is the most polymorphic protein of the complement system. Complement C4 exists as two isotypes, C4A (acidic) and C4B ( ... the classical complement pathway, the alternative pathway, and the mannose-binding lectin pathway. Complement component C4 is ... anti-Complement C4, mAb (γ-chain) (49H9) YIF-LF-MA0188. Add to Compare ...
more infohttps://adipogen.com/yif-lf-ma0198-anti-complement-c4-beta-chain-mab-52h10.html

Complement and c4 null alleles in severe chronic adult periodontitis.Complement and c4 null alleles in severe chronic adult periodontitis.

... Seppänen, M ... Complement factor C4 is a nearby, polymorphic, functionally relevant gene region. Although associated with chronic mucosal ... We tested whether complement levels are systemically altered and C4 deficiencies associated with severe chronic periodontitis. ... In a case-control study, we analysed levels of plasma C3, and C4, serum classical pathway haemolytic activity, C4 allotypes and ...
more infohttp://umu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:157113

The molecular genetics of human complement C4: implications for mapping MHC disease susceptibility genesThe molecular genetics of human complement C4: implications for mapping MHC disease susceptibility genes

... 14549_Puschendorf M ... the C4A and C4B genes.Comparison of the C4 gene sequences representing the same C4 allotype revealed that most C4 allotypes are ... Comparison of the C4 genes from different AHs revealed that the C4d region of the C4 a-chain is most polymorphic, but that ... The gamma block contains approximately 20 known genes including the complement C4 genes. The gamma block can contain between I ...
more infohttps://espace.curtin.edu.au/handle/20.500.11937/1013

C4 COMPLEMENT -
UVMHN-Porter Medical CenterC4 COMPLEMENT - UVMHN-Porter Medical Center

Green top tube is NOT acceptable. Marked hemolysis or lipemic saamples are NOT acceptable.. *While a microtainer is an optional tube type in rare circumstances, it is not recommended.. ...
more infohttps://porterlab.testcatalog.org/show/C4CS

enQuireBio™ Recombinant Human Complement C4-B Protein 200μg enQuireBio™ Recombinant Human Complement C4-B Protein
 | Fisher...enQuireBio™ Recombinant Human Complement C4-B Protein 200μg enQuireBio™ Recombinant Human Complement C4-B Protein | Fisher...

Recombinant Human Complement C4-B Protein Proteins A ... Recombinant Human Complement C4-B Protein 200μg enQuireBio™ ... enQuireBio™ Recombinant Human Complement C4-B Protein A DNA sequence encoding the Homo sapiens (Human) Complement C4-B, was ...
more infohttps://www.fishersci.fi/shop/products/recombinant-human-complement-c4-b-protein-1/16006970

Gene copy-number variations (CNVs) of complement C4 and C4A deficiency in genetic risk and pathogenesis of juvenile...Gene copy-number variations (CNVs) of complement C4 and C4A deficiency in genetic risk and pathogenesis of juvenile...

B, C and D. Gene copy-number variations of complement C4, C4A and C4B in JDM and controls. The p-values and chi-square values ... Variations of C4 haplotypes and gene copy-numbers (GCNs) of total C4, C4A and C4B in JDM subjects and race-matched healthy ... Gene copy-number variations (CNVs) of complement C4 and C4A deficiency in genetic risk and pathogenesis of juvenile ... Gene Copy-Number Variations (CNVs) of Complement C4 and C4A Deficiency in Genetic Risk and Pathogenesis of Juvenile ...
more infohttps://phgkb.cdc.gov/PHGKB/phgHome.action?action=forward&dbsource=huge&id=119689

Low copy numbers of complement C4 and homozygous deficiency of C4A may predispose to severe disease and earlier disease onset...Low copy numbers of complement C4 and homozygous deficiency of C4A may predispose to severe disease and earlier disease onset...

Low copy numbers of complement C4 and homozygous deficiency of C4A may predispose to severe disease and earlier disease onset ... Low copy numbers of complement C4 and homozygous deficiency of C4A may predispose to severe disease and earlier disease onset ... Low copy numbers of complement C4 and homozygous deficiency of C4A may predispose to severe disease and earlier disease onset ... p,Objectives Low copy numbers and deletion of complement C4 genes are potent risk factors for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE ...
more infohttps://www.epi.uni-kiel.de/node/204

Circulating complement (C3 and C4) for differentiation of SIRS from sepsis | Springer for Research & DevelopmentCirculating complement (C3 and C4) for differentiation of SIRS from sepsis | Springer for Research & Development

... leads to profound activation of the complement (C3 and C4) system. The present study was conducted to compare... ... leads to profound activation of the complement (C3 and C4) system. The present study was conducted to compare the use of serum ... Complement factors and their receptors.Immunopharmacology. 1997; 38: 3-15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Change of complement system predicts the outcome of patients with severe thermal injury.J Burn Care Rehabil. 2003; 24: 148-153. ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02850211

Anti-Complement component C4 (human) - Antibodies - Lab and Clinical ProductsAnti-Complement component C4 (human) - Antibodies - Lab and Clinical Products

No.,/p, ,/td, ,td, HYB 162-02,/td, ,/tr, ,tr, ,td, ,p, Product name,/p, ,/td, ,td, Anti-Complement component C4 (human),/td, ,/ ... C4 is a component of the classical complement pathway and is split by activated C1s to C4a and C4b. Together C2a and C4b forms ... The molecular mass of C4 is 204 kDa and it consists of 3 domains: α (97kDa), β (75 kDa) and g (33 kDa).. ...
more infohttp://www.labhos.com/lab-and-clinical-products/antibodies/anti-complement-component-c4-human.html

Purification and phosphorylation of the intact form of complement component C4 from human plasmaPurification and phosphorylation of the intact form of complement component C4 from human plasma

... Andrén, Maria ... C4 was incubated with [g-32P]ATP and cations. After SDS-PAGE and autoradiography it was shown that C4 was phosphorylated in the ... The aim of this study was to elucidate the optimal conditions for phosphorylation of the human complement component C4, ... Incubation of phosphorylated and unphosphorylated C4 with trypsin showed that phosphorylated C4 was less susceptible to ...
more infohttp://kau.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:1100930

Abstract P287: Complement Proteins C3 and C4 are Associated with Higher Levels of Hemostatic Markers in Women at Midlife: The...Abstract P287: Complement Proteins C3 and C4 are Associated with Higher Levels of Hemostatic Markers in Women at Midlife: The...

Abstract P287: Complement Proteins C3 and C4 are Associated with Higher Levels of Hemostatic Markers in Women at Midlife: The ... Abstract P287: Complement Proteins C3 and C4 are Associated with Higher Levels of Hemostatic Markers in Women at Midlife: The ... Abstract P287: Complement Proteins C3 and C4 are Associated with Higher Levels of Hemostatic Markers in Women at Midlife: The ... Abstract P287: Complement Proteins C3 and C4 are Associated with Higher Levels of Hemostatic Markers in Women at Midlife: The ...
more infohttp://circ.ahajournals.org/content/127/Suppl_12/AP287

Hydralazine binds covalently to complement component-C4: Different reactivity of C4A AND C4B Gene-Products  - Kingston...Hydralazine binds covalently to complement component-C4: Different reactivity of C4A AND C4B Gene-Products - Kingston...

Sim, Edith and Law, Sai-Kit A. (1985) Hydralazine binds covalently to complement component-C4: Different reactivity of C4A AND ... Hydralazine binds covalently to complement component-C4: Different reactivity of C4A AND C4B Gene-Products ...
more infohttp://eprints.kingston.ac.uk/19436/

Frontiers | Commentary: Beyond C4: Analysis of the complement gene pathway shows enrichment for IQ in patients with psychotic...Frontiers | Commentary: Beyond C4: Analysis of the complement gene pathway shows enrichment for IQ in patients with psychotic...

The complement group of proteins is ancient in evolutionary terms. Recognised complement components are found strewn throughout ... We were particularly interested to see that the final sentence of the paper stated that When complement gene-sets are taken as ... The study demonstrated a broad association between variations in complement gene expression and perturbed neurodevelopment. ... complement functions as an essential pillar of the innate immune system. It is activated by various noxious stimuli and results ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2019.02853/full

Phenotyping of human complement component-C4, a class-III HLA antigen  - Kingston University Research RepositoryPhenotyping of human complement component-C4, a class-III HLA antigen - Kingston University Research Repository

Sim, Edith and Cross, Susan J. (1986) Phenotyping of human complement component-C4, a class-III HLA antigen. Biochemical ...
more infohttps://eprints.kingston.ac.uk/19431/
  • One of the diseases that commonly involves abnormal C4 is systemic lupus erythematosus, or lupus, an autoimmune disorder. (rochester.edu)
  • Complement C4 has been identified a a marker for identifying systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a chronic, multisystemic, inflammatory disorder affecting joints, nerves, heart, skin, eyes etc with some amount of irreversible damage. (personalabs.com)
  • The systemic inflammatory response of the body to invading microorganisms, called sepsis, leads to profound activation of the complement (C3 and C4) system. (springer.com)
  • The present study was conducted to compare the use of serum C3 and C4 levels with C-reactive protein (CRP) and thrombocyte and leukocyte counts in differentiating patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) from those with sepsis. (springer.com)
  • Selberg O, Hecker H, Martin M, Klos A, Bautsch W, Kohl J. Discrimination of sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome by determination of circulating plasma concentrations of procalcitonin, protein complement 3a, and interleukin-6. (springer.com)
  • Abnormal levels of C4 can be associated with autoimmune conditions like glomerulonephritis, systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE), cryoglobulinemia, or another autoimmune condition. (accesalabs.com)
  • Beyond the impact on the susceptibility for lupus, C4 copy numbers may be related to earlier onset and a more severe course of the disease. (uni-kiel.de)
  • Abcam's Complement C4 Human in vitro ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) kit is designed for the quantitative measurement of Complement C4 levels in urine, milk, saliva, CSF and cell culture supernatants. (abcam.com)
  • Complement C4 exists as two isotypes, C4A (acidic) and C4B (basic). (adipogen.com)
  • We assess gene copy-number variations (CNVs) for complement C4 and its isotypes, C4A and C4B, in genetic risks and pathogenesis of JDM. (cdc.gov)
  • It has been found that complement C4 and CRP upregulation indicates the middle to late stages of rheumatoid arthritis. (randox.com)
  • In its activated form, C4b becomes a subunit of the C3 convertase, which is an enzymatic complex that activates C3 of the classical and lectin complement activation pathways. (adipogen.com)
  • Gene copy-numbers (GCNs) for total C4, C4A, C4B and HLA-DRB1 genotypes were determined by Southern blots and qPCRs. (cdc.gov)
  • Severity of disease was classified according to the intensity of the immunosuppressive regimens applied and compared to C4 gene copy numbers, too. (uni-kiel.de)
  • This is the first demonstration of a recombination event producing a C4 double null haplotype. (jci.org)
  • Significantly lower GCNs and differences in distribution of GCN groups for total C4 and C4A were observed in JDM versus controls. (cdc.gov)
  • C3 but not C4 was significantly higher in late peri/postmenopausal women compared to pre/early peri-menopausal women (β(SE)=14.97(6.62), P value=0.03) adjusting for age, race and BMI. (ahajournals.org)
  • Seven individual protein spots were identified as either significantly increased (α 2 -macroglobulin, haptoglobin, albumin) or decreased (complement C-4, serum retinol binding protein, apolipoprotein A-1, and two isoforms of apolipoprotein A-IV) with advanced fibrosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the work by Holland and colleagues, they expand on previous research demonstrating a link between complement and pathogenesis of schizophrenia ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The molecular mass of C4 is 204 kDa and it consists of 3 domains: α (97kDa), β (75 kDa) and g (33 kDa). (labhos.com)
  • Methods We genotyped the C4 gene locus using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based TaqMan assays in 169 patients with SLE classified according to the 1997 revised American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria and in 520 matched controls. (uni-kiel.de)
  • RP-C4-CYP21-TNX (RCCX) and HLA-DRB are characterized by inter-individual copy-number variations. (cdc.gov)
  • B, C and D. Gene copy-number variations of complement C4, C4A and C4B in JDM and controls. (cdc.gov)
  • The study demonstrated a broad association between variations in complement gene expression and perturbed neurodevelopment. (frontiersin.org)
  • We investigated C4 copy number variation and its relationship to clinical and serological features in a Northern European lupus cohort. (uni-kiel.de)
  • The normal range for a complement C4 blood test is 16 to 48 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 0.16 to 0.48 grams per liter (g/L). (rochester.edu)
  • The C4 blood test measures the C4 complement blood level. (accesalabs.com)
  • What is a C4 blood test? (accesalabs.com)
  • Why is a C4 blood test important? (accesalabs.com)
  • To get a C4 blood test near you, just order online and get your blood drawn at the selected Quest Diagnostics location. (accesalabs.com)
  • The complement C4 lab test is often ordered with the C3 blood test , both of which are part of the lupus test panel . (accesalabs.com)
  • C4 Blood Test at Guaranteed Prices. (accesalabs.com)
  • Recognized complement components are found throughout the animal kingdom including in rudimentary diploblastic species ( 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Complement protein C3 is independently associated with two important hemostatic markers, PAI-1 and tPA antigens, that have significant roles in thrombus development, stabilization and destabilization in lesion areas. (ahajournals.org)
  • Their conclusion rightly touches on the emerging understanding of non-immune roles for complement in diverse biological processes ( 2 ). (frontiersin.org)