Complement C3: A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.Complement C4: A glycoprotein that is important in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C4 is cleaved by the activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C4A and COMPLEMENT C4B.Complement C4a: The smaller fragment formed when complement C4 is cleaved by COMPLEMENT C1S. It is an anaphylatoxin that causes symptoms of immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE) but its activity is weaker than that of COMPLEMENT C3A or COMPLEMENT C5A.Complement C3a: The smaller fragment generated from the cleavage of complement C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. C3a, a 77-amino acid peptide, is a mediator of local inflammatory process. It induces smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION, and HISTAMINE RELEASE from MAST CELLS and LEUKOCYTES. C3a is considered an anaphylatoxin along with COMPLEMENT C4A; COMPLEMENT C5A; and COMPLEMENT C5A, DES-ARGININE.Complement C1q: A subcomponent of complement C1, composed of six copies of three polypeptide chains (A, B, and C), each encoded by a separate gene (C1QA; C1QB; C1QC). This complex is arranged in nine subunits (six disulfide-linked dimers of A and B, and three disulfide-linked homodimers of C). C1q has binding sites for antibodies (the heavy chain of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M). The interaction of C1q and immunoglobulin activates the two proenzymes COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S, thus initiating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION via the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.Complement C5a: The minor fragment formed when C5 convertase cleaves C5 into C5a and COMPLEMENT C5B. C5a is a 74-amino-acid glycopeptide with a carboxy-terminal ARGININE that is crucial for its spasmogenic activity. Of all the complement-derived anaphylatoxins, C5a is the most potent in mediating immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE), smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION; HISTAMINE RELEASE; and migration of LEUKOCYTES to site of INFLAMMATION.Complement Activation: The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.Complement C4b: The large fragment formed when COMPLEMENT C4 is cleaved by COMPLEMENT C1S. The membrane-bound C4b binds COMPLEMENT C2A, a SERINE PROTEASE, to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).Complement C5: C5 plays a central role in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C5 is cleaved by C5 CONVERTASE into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. The smaller fragment C5a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of inflammatory process. The major fragment C5b binds to the membrane initiating the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components, C5-C9, into the MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Complement C3b: The larger fragment generated from the cleavage of COMPLEMENT C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. It is a constituent of the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb), and COMPLEMENT C5 CONVERTASES in both the classical (C4b2a3b) and the alternative (C3bBb3b) pathway. C3b participates in IMMUNE ADHERENCE REACTION and enhances PHAGOCYTOSIS. It can be inactivated (iC3b) or cleaved by various proteases to yield fragments such as COMPLEMENT C3C; COMPLEMENT C3D; C3e; C3f; and C3g.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Complement C6: A 105-kDa serum glycoprotein with significant homology to the other late complement components, C7-C9. It is a polypeptide chain cross-linked by 32 disulfide bonds. C6 is the next complement component to bind to the membrane-bound COMPLEMENT C5B in the assembly of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. It is encoded by gene C6.Complement C3c: A 206-amino-acid fragment in the alpha chain (672-1663) of C3b. It is generated when C3b is inactivated (iC3b) and its alpha chain is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I into C3c (749-954), and C3dg (955-1303) in the presence COMPLEMENT FACTOR H.Complement C3d: A 302-amino-acid fragment in the alpha chain (672-1663) of C3b. It is generated when C3b is inactivated (iC3b) and its alpha chain is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I into C3c, and C3dg (955-1303) in the presence COMPLEMENT FACTOR H. Serum proteases further degrade C3dg into C3d (1002-1303) and C3g (955-1001).Complement C2: A component of the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C2 is cleaved by activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C2B and COMPLEMENT C2A. C2a, the COOH-terminal fragment containing a SERINE PROTEASE, combines with COMPLEMENT C4B to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).Complement C9: A 63-kDa serum glycoprotein encoded by gene C9. Monomeric C9 (mC9) binds the C5b-8 complex to form C5b-9 which catalyzes the polymerization of C9 forming C5b-p9 (MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX) and transmembrane channels leading to lysis of the target cell. Patients with C9 deficiency suffer from recurrent bacterial infections.Receptors, Complement: Molecules on the surface of some B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that recognize and combine with the C3b, C3d, C1q, and C4b components of complement.Complement C1s: A 77-kDa subcomponent of complement C1, encoded by gene C1S, is a SERINE PROTEASE existing as a proenzyme (homodimer) in the intact complement C1 complex. Upon the binding of COMPLEMENT C1Q to antibodies, the activated COMPLEMENT C1R cleaves C1s into two chains, A (heavy) and B (light, the serine protease), linked by disulfide bonds yielding the active C1s. The activated C1s, in turn, cleaves COMPLEMENT C2 and COMPLEMENT C4 to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL C3 CONVERTASE).Complement Membrane Attack Complex: A product of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION cascade, regardless of the pathways, that forms transmembrane channels causing disruption of the target CELL MEMBRANE and cell lysis. It is formed by the sequential assembly of terminal complement components (COMPLEMENT C5B; COMPLEMENT C6; COMPLEMENT C7; COMPLEMENT C8; and COMPLEMENT C9) into the target membrane. The resultant C5b-8-poly-C9 is the "membrane attack complex" or MAC.Complement C1r: A 80-kDa subcomponent of complement C1, existing as a SERINE PROTEASE proenzyme in the intact complement C1 complex. When COMPLEMENT C1Q is bound to antibodies, the changed tertiary structure causes autolytic activation of complement C1r which is cleaved into two chains, A (heavy) and B (light, the serine protease), connected by disulfide bonds. The activated C1r serine protease, in turn, activates COMPLEMENT C1S proenzyme by cleaving the Arg426-Ile427 bond. No fragment is released when either C1r or C1s is cleaved.Complement Inactivator Proteins: Serum proteins that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host. The complement system is tightly regulated by inactivators that accelerate the decay of intermediates and certain cell surface receptors.Complement C7: A 93-kDa serum glycoprotein encoded by C7 gene. It is a polypeptide chain with 28 disulfide bridges. In the formation of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX; C7 is the next component to bind the C5b-6 complex forming a trimolecular complex C5b-7 which is lipophilic, resembles an integral membrane protein, and serves as an anchor for the late complement components, C8 and C9.Complement C3-C5 Convertases: Serine proteases that cleave COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, or cleave COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. These include the different forms of C3/C5 convertases in the classical and the alternative pathways of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Both cleavages take place at the C-terminal of an ARGININE residue.Complement Factor B: A glycine-rich, heat-labile serum glycoprotein that contains a component of the C3 CONVERTASE ALTERNATE PATHWAY (C3bBb). Bb, a serine protease, is generated when factor B is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR D into Ba and Bb.Complement Pathway, Alternative: Complement activation initiated by the interaction of microbial ANTIGENS with COMPLEMENT C3B. When COMPLEMENT FACTOR B binds to the membrane-bound C3b, COMPLEMENT FACTOR D cleaves it to form alternative C3 CONVERTASE (C3BBB) which, stabilized by COMPLEMENT FACTOR P, is able to cleave multiple COMPLEMENT C3 to form alternative C5 CONVERTASE (C3BBB3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Complement Pathway, Classical: Complement activation initiated by the binding of COMPLEMENT C1 to ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES at the COMPLEMENT C1Q subunit. This leads to the sequential activation of COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S subunits. Activated C1s cleaves COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 forming the membrane-bound classical C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Complement C8: A 150-kDa serum glycoprotein composed of three subunits with each encoded by a different gene (C8A; C8B; and C8G). This heterotrimer contains a disulfide-linked C8alpha-C8gamma heterodimer and a noncovalently associated C8beta chain. C8 is the next component to bind the C5-7 complex forming C5b-8 that binds COMPLEMENT C9 and acts as a catalyst in the polymerization of C9.Complement C1: The first complement component to act in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. It is a calcium-dependent trimolecular complex made up of three subcomponents: COMPLEMENT C1Q; COMPLEMENT C1R; and COMPLEMENT C1S at 1:2:2 ratios. When the intact C1 binds to at least two antibodies (involving C1q), C1r and C1s are sequentially activated, leading to subsequent steps in the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Receptors, Complement 3b: Molecular sites on or in some B-lymphocytes and macrophages that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3B. The primary structure of these receptors reveal that they contain transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, with their extracellular portion composed entirely of thirty short consensus repeats each having 60 to 70 amino acids.Complement Factor H: An important soluble regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It is a 139-kDa glycoprotein expressed by the liver and secreted into the blood. It binds to COMPLEMENT C3B and makes iC3b (inactivated complement 3b) susceptible to cleavage by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I. Complement factor H also inhibits the association of C3b with COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form the C3bB proenzyme, and promotes the dissociation of Bb from the C3bBb complex (COMPLEMENT C3 CONVERTASE, ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY).Complement C5b: The larger fragment generated from the cleavage of C5 by C5 CONVERTASE that yields COMPLEMENT C5A and C5b (beta chain + alpha' chain, the residual alpha chain, bound by disulfide bond). C5b remains bound to the membrane and initiates the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components to form C5b-8-poly-C9, the MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Complement C2a: The COOH-terminal fragment of COMPLEMENT 2, released by the action of activated COMPLEMENT C1S. It is a SERINE PROTEASE. C2a combines with COMPLEMENT C4B to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).Receptor, Anaphylatoxin C5a: A G-protein-coupled receptor that signals an increase in intracellular calcium in response to the potent ANAPHYLATOXIN peptide COMPLEMENT C5A.Complement Activating Enzymes: Enzymes that activate one or more COMPLEMENT PROTEINS in the complement system leading to the formation of the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX, an important response in host defense. They are enzymes in the various COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION pathways.Complement Inactivating Agents: Compounds that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host.Complement Hemolytic Activity Assay: A screening assay for circulating COMPLEMENT PROTEINS. Diluted SERUM samples are added to antibody-coated ERYTHROCYTES and the percentage of cell lysis is measured. The values are expressed by the so called CH50, in HEMOLYTIC COMPLEMENT units per milliliter, which is the dilution of serum required to lyse 50 percent of the erythrocytes in the assay.Complement C1 Inactivator Proteins: Serum proteins that inhibit, antagonize, or inactivate COMPLEMENT C1 or its subunits.Receptors, Complement 3d: Molecular sites on or in B-lymphocytes, follicular dendritic cells, lymphoid cells, and epithelial cells that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3D. Human complement receptor 2 (CR2) serves as a receptor for both C3dg and the gp350/220 glycoprotein of HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN, and binds the monoclonal antibody OKB7, which blocks binding of both ligands to the receptor.Anaphylatoxins: Serum peptides derived from certain cleaved COMPLEMENT PROTEINS during COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. They induce smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION; mast cell HISTAMINE RELEASE; PLATELET AGGREGATION; and act as mediators of the local inflammatory process. The order of anaphylatoxin activity from the strongest to the weakest is C5a, C3a, C4a, and C5a des-arginine.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Complement Factor D: A serum protein which is important in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. This enzyme cleaves the COMPLEMENT C3B-bound COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form C3bBb which is ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE.Complement Factor I: A plasma serine proteinase that cleaves the alpha-chains of C3b and C4b in the presence of the cofactors COMPLEMENT FACTOR H and C4-binding protein, respectively. It is a 66-kDa glycoprotein that converts C3b to inactivated C3b (iC3b) followed by the release of two fragments, C3c (150-kDa) and C3dg (41-kDa). It was formerly called KAF, C3bINF, or enzyme 3b inactivator.Complement C4b-Binding Protein: A serum protein that regulates the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. It binds as a cofactor to COMPLEMENT FACTOR I which then hydrolyzes the COMPLEMENT C4B in the CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C4bC2a).Complement C3b Inactivator Proteins: Endogenous proteins that inhibit or inactivate COMPLEMENT C3B. They include COMPLEMENT FACTOR H and COMPLEMENT FACTOR I (C3b/C4b inactivator). They cleave or promote the cleavage of C3b into inactive fragments, and thus are important in the down-regulation of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and its cytolytic sequence.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Complement C3-C5 Convertases, Classical Pathway: Important enzymes in the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. They cleave COMPLEMENT C3 and COMPLEMENT C5.Complement C2b: The N-terminal fragment of COMPLEMENT 2, released by the action of activated COMPLEMENT C1S.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Cobra Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Steroid 21-Hydroxylase: An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Complement C3-C5 Convertases, Alternative Pathway: Important enzymes in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. They cleave COMPLEMENT C3 and COMPLEMENT C5.Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein: An endogenous 105-kDa plasma glycoprotein produced primarily by the LIVER and MONOCYTES. It inhibits a broad spectrum of proteases, including the COMPLEMENT C1R and the COMPLEMENT C1S proteases of the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY, and the MANNOSE-BINDING PROTEIN-ASSOCIATED SERINE PROTEASES. C1-INH-deficient individuals suffer from HEREDITARY ANGIOEDEMA TYPES I AND II.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Complement C3 Convertase, Alternative Pathway: A serine protease that is the complex of COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT FACTOR BB. It cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT C3B in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY.Complement C5 Convertase, Classical Pathway: A serine protease that cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT 5 into COMPLEMENT 5A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT 5B in the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. It is a complex of CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C4b2a) with an additional COMPLEMENT C3B, or C4b2a3b.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Complement C3 Convertase, Classical Pathway: A serine protease that cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT 3 into COMPLEMENT 3A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT 3B in the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. It is a complex of COMPLEMENT 4B and COMPLEMENT 2A (C4b2a).Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Opsonin Proteins: Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Complement C5 Convertase, Alternative Pathway: A serine protease that cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT C5B in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. It is the complex of ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb) with an additional COMPLEMENT C3B, or C3bBb3b.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Complement Pathway, Mannose-Binding Lectin: Complement activation triggered by the interaction of microbial POLYSACCHARIDES with serum MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN resulting in the activation of MANNOSE-BINDING PROTEIN-ASSOCIATED SERINE PROTEASES. As in the classical pathway, MASPs cleave COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 to form C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Properdin: A 53-kDa protein that is a positive regulator of the alternate pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It stabilizes the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb) and protects it from rapid inactivation, thus facilitating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and the formation of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Individuals with mutation in the PFC gene exhibit properdin deficiency and have a high susceptibility to infections.Complement C5a, des-Arginine: A derivative of complement C5a, generated when the carboxy-terminal ARGININE is removed by CARBOXYPEPTIDASE B present in normal human serum. C5a des-Arg shows complete loss of spasmogenic activity though it retains some chemotactic ability (CHEMOATTRACTANTS).Mice, Inbred C57BLMacrophage-1 Antigen: An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Kidney Glomerulus: A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.Serum: The clear portion of BLOOD that is left after BLOOD COAGULATION to remove BLOOD CELLS and clotting proteins.Glomerulonephritis, Membranoproliferative: Chronic glomerulonephritis characterized histologically by proliferation of MESANGIAL CELLS, increase in the MESANGIAL EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX, and a thickening of the glomerular capillary walls. This may appear as a primary disorder or secondary to other diseases including infections and autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Various subtypes are classified by their abnormal ultrastructures and immune deposits. Hypocomplementemia is a characteristic feature of all types of MPGN.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Schistosoma: A genus of trematode flukes belonging to the family Schistosomatidae. There are over a dozen species. These parasites are found in man and other mammals. Snails are the intermediate hosts.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Glomerulonephritis: Inflammation of the renal glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) that can be classified by the type of glomerular injuries including antibody deposition, complement activation, cellular proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These structural and functional abnormalities usually lead to HEMATURIA; PROTEINURIA; HYPERTENSION; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Arteriolosclerosis: Thickening of the walls of small ARTERIES or ARTERIOLES due to cell proliferation or HYALINE deposition.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mice, Inbred BALB CBinding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Blood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Mannose-Binding Lectin: A specific mannose-binding member of the collectin family of lectins. It binds to carbohydrate groups on invading pathogens and plays a key role in the MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Complement C3 Nephritic Factor: An IgG autoantibody against the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE, found in serum of patients with MESANGIOCAPILLARY GLOMERULONEPHRITIS. The binding of this autoantibody to C3bBb stabilizes the enzyme thus reduces the actions of C3b inactivators (COMPLEMENT FACTOR H; COMPLEMENT FACTOR I). This abnormally stabilized enzyme induces a continuous COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and generation of C3b thereby promoting the assembly of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX and cytolysis.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Haptoglobins: Plasma glycoproteins that form a stable complex with hemoglobin to aid the recycling of heme iron. They are encoded in man by a gene on the short arm of chromosome 16.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Surface Plasmon Resonance: A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.Peptides, Cyclic: Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).Lupus Nephritis: Glomerulonephritis associated with autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Lupus nephritis is histologically classified into 6 classes: class I - normal glomeruli, class II - pure mesangial alterations, class III - focal segmental glomerulonephritis, class IV - diffuse glomerulonephritis, class V - diffuse membranous glomerulonephritis, and class VI - advanced sclerosing glomerulonephritis (The World Health Organization classification 1982).Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cosmids: Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Mannose-Binding Protein-Associated Serine Proteases: Serum serine proteases which participate in COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. They are activated when complexed with the MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN, therefore also known as Mannose-binding protein-Associated Serine Proteases (MASPs). They cleave COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 to form C4b2a, the CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE.Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital: A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Immunologic Factors: Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.ZymosanTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Proteinuria: The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Collectins: A class of C-type lectins that target the carbohydrate structures found on invading pathogens. Binding of collectins to microorganisms results in their agglutination and enhanced clearance. Collectins form trimers that may assemble into larger oligomers. Each collectin polypeptide chain consists of four regions: a relatively short N-terminal region, a collagen-like region, an alpha-helical coiled-coil region, and carbohydrate-binding region.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Protein PrecursorsSteroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Macular Degeneration: Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Immune Adherence Reaction: A method for the detection of very small quantities of antibody in which the antigen-antibody-complement complex adheres to indicator cells, usually primate erythrocytes or nonprimate blood platelets. The reaction is dependent on the number of bound C3 molecules on the C3b receptor sites of the indicator cell.Mice, Inbred DBAEscherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal: A condition characterized by the recurrence of HEMOGLOBINURIA caused by intravascular HEMOLYSIS. In cases occurring upon cold exposure (paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria), usually after infections, there is a circulating antibody which is also a cold hemolysin. In cases occurring during or after sleep (paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria), the clonal hematopoietic stem cells exhibit a global deficiency of cell membrane proteins.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.

Complement activation and expression of membrane regulators in the middle ear mucosa in otitis media with effusion. (1/69)

The aetiopathogenesis of chronic otitis media with effusion (OME) in children is not yet fully understood. OME is characterized by metaplasia of the epithelium and accumulation of sticky, glue-like effusion in the middle ear containing different mediators of inflammation, including activation fragments of the complement system. Here we examined whether the fluid phase complement activation is reflected in the middle ear mucosa and how the mucosa is protected against the cytolytic activity of complement. Mucosal biopsies from 18 middle ears of children with a history of chronic OME were taken. The biopsies were analysed by immunofluorescence microscopy after staining for complement fragments iC3b/C3c, C3d and C9, and regulators membrane cofactor protein (MCP; CD46), decay-accelerating factor (DAF; CD55) and protectin (CD59). There was a strong staining for iC3b/C3c, and a weaker one for C3d and C9 on the surface of the middle ear epithelial cells of OME patients but not in controls without OME. MCP was expressed on the hyperplastic three to four outer cell layers of the epithelium, while CD59 was expressed throughout the middle ear mucosa. The results suggest a strong ongoing complement activation and consequent inflammation in the middle ear cavity. Unrestricted complement damage of the epithelial lining is prevented by the strong expression of MCP and CD59.  (+info)

Linkage analysis of systemic lupus erythematosus induced in diabetes-prone nonobese diabetic mice by Mycobacterium bovis. (2/69)

Systemic lupus erythematosus induced by Mycobacterium bovis in diabetes-prone nonobese diabetic mice was mapped in a backcross to the BALB/c strain. The subphenotypes-hemolytic anemia, antinuclear autoantibodies, and glomerular immune complex deposition-did not cosegregate, and linkage analysis for each trait was performed independently. Hemolytic anemia mapped to two loci: Bah1 at the MHC on chromosome 17 and Bah2 on distal chromosome 16. Antinuclear autoantibodies mapped to three loci: Bana1 at the MHC on chromosome 17, Bana2 on chromosome 10, and Bana3 on distal chromosome 1. Glomerular immune complex deposition did not show significant linkage to any genomic region. Mapping of autoantibodies (Coombs' or antinuclear autoantibodies) identified two loci: Babs1 at the MHC and Babs2 on distal chromosome 1. It has previously been reported that genes conferring susceptibility to different autoimmune diseases map nonrandomly to defined regions of the genome. One possible explanation for this clustering is that some alleles at loci within these regions confer susceptibility to multiple autoimmune diseases-the "common gene" hypothesis. With the exception of the H2, this study failed to provide direct support for the common gene hypothesis, because the loci identified as conferring susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus did not colocalize with those previously implicated in diabetes. However, three of the four regions identified had been previously implicated in other autoimmune diseases.  (+info)

Immunological and clinical follow up of hepatitis C virus associated cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis. (3/69)

OBJECTIVE: To study immunological markers and compare these markers with standard measures for the clinical and immunological follow up of vasculitis activity in hepatitis C virus (HCV) associated cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis (CV). METHODS: Serial serum samples from eight patients with newly diagnosed HCV associated CV were followed during interferon alpha treatment induced remission of the CV. Vasculitis activity and disease extent were evaluated with the Birmingham vasculitis activity score (BVAS) and disease extent index (DEI). Cryoglobulinaemia, complement levels (C3c, C4, and CH50), rheumatoid factor (RF), autoantibodies such as antinuclear antibodies, soluble interleukin 2 receptor (sIL2r), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and soluble CD30 (sCD30) were determined. RESULTS: All patients achieved either complete or partial remission of their CV during interferon alpha treatment. There was a significant reduction in vasculitis activity and disease extent (BVAS, DEI), cryoglobulinaemia, RF, sIL2r, sICAM-1, and sCD30. Complement C3c levels increased significantly during this period. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and levels of complement C4 and CH50 did not change significantly. Both clinical measures (BVAS and DEI) correlated significantly only with C3c and sCD30. CONCLUSIONS: Although this study was of only a small group of patients, it shows that BVAS and DEI as clinical measures and C3c and sCD30 as immunological markers may be useful in the follow up of disease activity of HCV associated CV. The data indicate that activity of the humoral (cryoglobulinaemia, RF, autoantibodies) and cellular (sIL2r, sICAM-1, sCD30) immune response and endothelial damage (sICAM-1) are found in HCV associated CV.  (+info)

Complement activation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis mediated in part by C-reactive protein. (4/69)

OBJECTIVE: Complement activation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is considered to be triggered by immune complexes. Recently, it was shown that C-reactive protein (CRP) can activate the complement system in vivo. We therefore hypothesized that part of the complement activation in RA is due to CRP. The aim of this study was to investigate CRP-mediated complement activation in RA, and to assess its correlation with disease activity. METHODS: Complexes between CRP and the activated complement components C3d (C3d-CRP) and C4d (C4d-CRP), which reflect CRP-mediated complement activation, as well as the overall levels of activated C3 and C4 were measured in the plasma of 107 patients with active RA and 177 patients with inactive RA. Inactive RA was defined according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria for clinical remission. Disease activity was assessed by the modified Disease Activity Score (DAS28). RESULTS: Plasma levels of C3d-CRP and C4d-CRP were increased in the majority of the patients, and were significantly higher in patients with active disease versus those with inactive RA (P < 0.001). In patients with active RA, the plasma concentrations of C3d-CRP and C4d-CRP correlated significantly with the DAS28 (Spearman's rho 0.61 and 0.55, respectively; P < 0.001), whereas these correlations were less pronounced in patients with inactive RA (Spearman's rho 0.28 [P < 0.001] and 0.25 [P = 0.001], respectively). Levels of activated C3 and C4 were also increased in the majority of the patients, particularly in patients with active RA. CONCLUSION: Part of the activation of complement in RA is mediated by CRP and is correlated with disease activity. We suggest that this activation is involved in the pathogenesis of RA.  (+info)

Kinetic analysis of the interactions of complement receptor 2 (CR2, CD21) with its ligands C3d, iC3b, and the EBV glycoprotein gp350/220. (5/69)

The molecular mechanisms involved in the interaction of complement receptor 2 (CR2) with its natural ligands iC3b and C3d are still not well understood. In addition, studies regarding the binding site(s) of the receptor on C3 as well as the affinities of the C3 fragments for CR2 have produced contradictory results. In the present study, we have used surface plasmon resonance technology to study the interaction of CR2 with its ligands C3d, iC3b, and the EBV surface glycoprotein gp350/220. We measured the kinetics of binding of the receptor to its ligands, examined the influence of ionic contacts on these interactions, and assessed whether immobilized and soluble iC3b bound with similar kinetics to CR2. Our results indicate that 1) gp350 binding to CR2 follows a simple 1:1 interaction, whereas that of the C3 fragments is more complex and involves more than one intramolecular component; 2) kinetic differences exist between the binding of C3d and iC3b to CR2, which may be due to an additional binding site found on the C3c region of iC3b; and 3) iC3b binds to CR2 with different kinetics, depending on whether the iC3b is in solution or immobilized on the surface. These findings suggest that binding of CR2 to iC3b and C3d is more complex than previously thought.  (+info)

Detection of immune deposits in skin lesions of patients with Wegener's granulomatosis. (6/69)

BACKGROUND: Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is considered a pauci-immune systemic vasculitis based on the absence of immune deposits in renal biopsies of patients with active disease. In animal models of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) associated glomerulonephritis, immune deposits along the glomerular capillary wall are present at early stages of lesion development. These deposits are degraded rapidly, resulting in "pauci-immune" lesions. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that immune deposits can also be detected in early lesions of patients with WG, thereby initiating an inflammatory reaction that, in time, is augmented in the presence of ANCA, resulting in pauci-immune lesions later on. METHODS: The presence of immune deposits in skin biopsies taken within 48 hours of lesion development was investigated. Direct immunofluorescence was used to examine 32 skin biopsies for the presence of immune deposits (IgG, IgA, IgM, C3c). When possible, a comparison was made between the immunofluorescence findings in renal and skin biopsies taken at the same time. RESULTS: Four of 11 biopsies taken at initial presentation and four of 21 biopsies taken at the onset of a relapse of WG showed IgG and/or IgA containing immune deposits in the subepidermal blood vessels. All nine renal biopsies showed pauci-immune glomerulonephritis, irrespective of the presence (n=5) or absence (n=4) of immune deposits in the skin biopsy. CONCLUSION: A substantial number of skin biopsies showed immune deposits during active disease. These results could support the hypothesis that immune complexes may trigger vasculitic lesions in WG.  (+info)

Human alpha galactosidase and alpha 1,2 fucosyltransferase concordantly inhibit xenoreactivity of NIH 3T3 cells with human serum. (7/69)

AIM: To study the influence of the expression of human alpha galactosidase and alpha1,2 fucosyltransferase on Gal alpha 1,3 Gal and consequent xenoreactivity in NIH3T3 cells. METHODS: The expression levels of G antigen and H antigen and binding of human natural antibodies (IgG and IgM) and complement (C3c) to NIH3T3 cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Western blot was employed to further determine the expression of glycoproteins of G antigen. Cytolysis assay with normal human serum was performed by MTT assay. RESULTS: Western blot showed that glycoproteins with molecular weight of 107 kDa, 98 kDa, 88 kDa, 56 kDa, 40 kDa, and 37 kDa were inhibited and even abrogated totally in alpha galactosidase transfectants and alpha 1,2 fucosyltransferase transfectants. The combined transfection of the two enzymes led to a much stronger inhibition of the glycoproteins. The binding of GS-IB4 was decreased by 57.4 % in alpha galactosidase transfectants, 28.8 % in alpha 1,2 fucosyltransferase transfectants, and 72.1 % in combined transfectants, respectively. In contrast, UEA-1 binding was increased about 6.7-fold, 6.0-fold, and 8.0-fold respectively. The xenoreactivity with human IgG was also reduced by 61.4 %, 67.0 %, and 73.4 %, respectively in the three kinds of transfectants. The resistance to cytolysis mediated by human serum was enhanced by 42.4 % in alpha galactosidase transfectants, 51.9 % in alpha 1,2 fucosyltranferase, and even 65.5 % in the combined transfectants. CONCLUSION: Although alpha galactosidase and alpha 1,2 fucosyltransferase had different biochemical properties, they could inhibit the expression of Gal alpha 1,3 Gal synergistically, leading to stronger resistance of xenograft against cytolysis.  (+info)

Progesterone and RU486 regulation of uterine complement C3 after prior induction with estradiol. (8/69)

Previous results demonstrated that progesterone (P4) given simultaneously with estradiol (E2) prevented stimulation by E2 of complement C3 expression in the immature rat uterus. Northern blot analysis revealed that simultaneous administration of P4 was able to prevent the E2-stimulated increase in C3 mRNA concentration in the luminal epithelial cells. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine whether progesterone modulates C3 expression after the gene has been induced by prior administration of E2 and also to determine the reversibility of this effect by the concomitant administration of RU38486, 17 beta-hydroxy-11 beta-[4-dimethylaminophenyl]estra-4,9,-dien-3-one (RU486). This regulation was studied by examination of protein synthesis as well as mRNA concentrations. Immature 21-day-old female rats were treated with E2 for 2 days (1 microgram/day), followed 24 h later by P4 (500 micrograms) or vehicle. Uteri were removed 6, 9, and 18 h after progesterone treatment and the radiolabeled secreted proteins were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and immunoprecipitation using a goat anti-rat C3 antibody. In animals treated with vehicle, E2-stimulated C3 synthesis remained elevated at 6 and 9 h and returned to control values by 18 h. In contrast, the administration of P4 resulted in a decrease in C3 synthesis at 6 and 9 h with the greatest decrease observed at 9 h. Similar results were obtained when C3 mRNA concentrations were examined. E2-stimulated C3 mRNA concentrations were decreased in rats treated with progesterone compared to those treated with vehicle alone.2  (+info)

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Alpha galactosidase A Antibody 66121-1-Ig has been identified with IF, IHC, WB, ELISA. 66121-1-Ig detected 49 kDa band in HeLa cells with 1:500-1:2000 dilution...
Alpha galactosidase A Antibody 19877-1-AP has been identified with IF, WB, ELISA. 19877-1-AP detected 49 kDa band in HEK-293 cells with 1:500-1:3000 dilution...
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Both complement and Fc regions of IgA 1 have been shown to enhance the uptake of antigens by antigen presenting cells (Fang, et. aI., 1998, Foged, et. aI., 2005, Perrin-Cocon, et. aI., 2004). However, the utilization of complement and IgA1 antibodies in enhancing the uptake of antigens by dendritic cells has not been examined to date. The aims of this research included attaching complement to antidansyl IgA 1 antibodies followed by induction, activation, and examination of dendritic cells incubated with the antigen-antibody immune complexes to determine potential interactive relationships. Complement was linked to the Fc region of anti-dansyl IgA 1 antibodies using a procedure to activate complement while the IgA 1 was bound to a dansylated Sepharose 4B affinity column. The eluted complement-coated IgA 1 antibodies were mixed with dansylated albumin to form the complement-coated IgA1-immune complexes. Then, the immune complexes were incubated with PBMCderived dendritic cells to induce maturation ...
AOR-Zymes is a mixture of pancreatic enzymes including lipases, proteases, amylases as well as alpha galactosidase for assisting in digestion of fats, proteins and carbohydrates. Alpha galactosidase helps breakdown and assists in absorption of legumes. Su
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Poziotinib (HM781-36B) is an irreversible pan-HER inhibitor with IC50 of 3.2 nM, 5.3 nM and 23.5 nM for HER1, HER2, and HER4, respectively. Phase 2.
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Fabry Disease has more than 900 genetic mutations. Read how alpha galactosidase a sequencing can help identify the mutation. Visit FabryFacts.com for more.
2WY7: A Structural Basis for Staphylococcal Complement Subversion: X-Ray Structure of the Complement- Binding Domain of Staphylococcus Aureus Protein Sbi in Complex with Ligand C3D.
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Alectinib (CH5424802) is a potent ALK inhibitor with IC50 of 1.9 nM in cell-free assays, sensitive to L1196M mutation and higher selectivity for ALK than PF-02341066, NVP-TAE684 and PHA-E429.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reaction of Bovine Conglutinin in Human in Vitro Phagocytic Systems. AU - Kronvall, Göran. AU - Dossett, John. AU - Quie, Paul G.. AU - Williams, Ralph C.. PY - 1970/1/1. Y1 - 1970/1/1. N2 - Bovine conglutinin, a naturally occurring anti-C3 factor, was studied in quantitative human in vitro phagocytosis systems. Striking antiopsonic effect was noted when conglutinin was added to phagocytic systems with gram-negative and gram-positive organisms dependent on heat-labile opsonic factors. In noncomplement-dependent test systems using isolated hyperimmune γG opsonins, no blocking by conglutinin was noted.. AB - Bovine conglutinin, a naturally occurring anti-C3 factor, was studied in quantitative human in vitro phagocytosis systems. Striking antiopsonic effect was noted when conglutinin was added to phagocytic systems with gram-negative and gram-positive organisms dependent on heat-labile opsonic factors. In noncomplement-dependent test systems using isolated hyperimmune γG ...
Beta Galactosidase | Learn more about Beta Galactosidase | Meaning of Beta Galactosidase | Description of Beta Galactosidase | Details of Beta Galactosidase | Article on Beta Galactosidase | Essay on Beta Galactosidase | Definition of Beta Galactosidase | Infospaze
Ingredients Per serving, 1 capsule: Pancreatin 30,000 UPS, Acid Stable Protease 100 SAPU, Protease 60,000 HUT, Neutral Bacterial Protease 40,000 PC, Amylase 20,000 SKB, Bacterial Amylase 10,000 BAU, Lipase 12,000 LU, Cellulase 1,000 CU, Alpha Galactosidase 150 GALU, Lactase 2,500 ALU (Dairy Free Culture), Trace Minerals 50mg. The Pancreatin contained in this product is derived from the aspergillus fungus ...
Fabry Disease is a disease due to deficiency in alpha galactosidase A. The role of the enzyme is to break down a complex and almost unpronounceable molecule called Globotriaosyl-ceramide into galactose and another smaller molecule. If that doesnt happen Globotriaosyl-ceramide builds up in the cells and that build up over the years eventually results in cell dysfunction, cell death and damage to the organs that are involved.. ...
Summary of SCIN (KIAA1905) expression in human tissue. Distinct cytoplasmic expression in distal renal tubules, gastrointestinal tract, placental trophoblasts and chondrocytes.
Page contains details about β-galactosidase/ZIF-8 MOF coating . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
TGR-1202 is a novel PI3Kδ inhibitor, with IC50 and EC50 of 22.2 nM and 24.3 nM, respectively; Also active against CK1ε, with an EC50 value of 6.0 μM. ...Quality confirmed by NMR,HPLC & MS.
Returns an iterator pointing to the first element in the container whose key is not considered to go before k (i.e., either it is equivalent or goes after ...
The results of this study are consistent with the following conclusions. First, unconjugated β-galactosidase is rapidly cleared from blood in vivo (Table 2), owing to rapid uptake of the unconjugated enzyme by liver and spleen (Figs. 2 and 3). Second, once inside cells, β-galactosidase is rapidly degraded in vivo such that 99% of the organ enzyme activity is lost at 4 h after an intravenous injection (Table 1). Third, the 116-kDa β-galactosidase (Fig. 1B) can be conjugated to the 8D3 TfRmAb without loss of enzyme activity (Fig. 1C). Fourth, there is minimal brain uptake of the unconjugated β-galactosidase, but there is a 10-fold increase in brain uptake of enzyme following conjugation to the 8D3 TfRmAb (Table 1; Figs. 2 and 3).. The β-galactosidase is rapidly removed from the blood due to the avid uptake of the enzyme by liver and spleen (Figs. 2 and 3), which confirms the earlier observation of Onodera et al. (1983). The blood concentration of the β-galactosidase-TfRmAb is 5- to 10-fold ...
Edvotek 300 kit shows how to clone a DNA fragment by using ligation, transformation and an assay of ß-galactosidase. For advanced students.
Page contains details about β-galactosidase expressing plasmid encapsulating liposomes . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
본 웹사이트에 게시된 이메일 주소가 전자우편 수집 프로그램이나 그 밖의 기술적 장치를 이용하여 무단으로 수집되는 것을 거부하며, 이를 위반시 정보통신망법에 의해 형사처벌됨을 유념하시기 바랍니다. [게시일 2003년 4월 2일 ...
Molecular Cloning, also known as Maniatis, has served as the foundation of technical expertise in labs worldwide for 30 years. No other manual has been so popular, or so influential.
MRT68921 is the most potent inhibitor of ULK1 and ULK2, with IC50 values of 2.9 nM and 1.1 nM, respectively....Quality confirmed by NMR,HPLC & MS.
β重型海洋性貧血4一般所說的重症海洋性貧血就是指「β重型海洋性貧血「3是β血紅蛋白鏈合成嚴重的不足》剛出生時3患有β重型海洋性貧血的寶寶在外觀上跟正常者沒有任何差別》但是漸漸地到了三到六個月大時3這時候因為β血紅蛋白鏈不夠3沒有辦法合成「成人血紅素「情況產生3因此會有臉色蒼白 食慾 活力變差...等貧血的症狀產生》一旦寶寶發病3後果嚴重3必須每隔二至三週輸血一次》長期的輸血會造成體內鐵質的沉積3導致體內器官逐漸喪失功能3最後常因心臟衰竭而在孩童時即死亡》另一方面3由於長期輸血3容易引起病毒的感染3例如B型 C型肝炎3和愛滋病等》真正要根治這種疾病3需要骨髓移植》我國目前在骨髓移植的成功率大約在60%3其餘40%的失敗者可能因併發症死亡3或者回復原來長期輸血打排鐵劑的狀況》 ...
第一卷(共115分)第一部分听力(共两节,满分30分)第一节(共5小题;每小题1.5分,满分7.5分)听下面5段对话。每段对话后有一个小题,从题中所给的A、B、C三个选项中选出最佳选项,并标在试卷的相应位置。听完每段对话后,你都有10秒钟的时间来回答有关小题和阅读下一小题。每段对话仅读一遍
Enzymedica VeggieGest Formerly Gastro 90 Capsules Occasional gas and bloating often result from fermentation of food, like plant fiber, in the colon. VeggieGest contains a high-potency enzyme, Alpha Galactosidase, that is key in digesting the sugars from beans, grains, raw vegetables and other foods that create digestive discomfort.* VeggieGest may assist the body in breaking down and assimilating these foods, which takes stress off the gallbladder, liver and pancreas.* Recommended Use: 1 capsule with each meal. More may be taken as needed. Thera-blend is an exclusive process that combines multiple strains of enzymes that work in various pH levels. Thera-blend enzymes have been shown to be three times stronger and work more than six times faster than leading digestive supplements. Supplement Facts Serving Size: 1 Capsule Servings per Container: 90 Amount Per Serving % Daily Value Amylase Thera-blend 22000 DU * Alpha-Galactosidase 1000 GalU * Glucoamylase 30 AGU * Cellulase
For several decades, techniques for modifying the surface of steel pipes were practiced with varying results. In addition, these methods did not address either the hydrophobicity of the carbon steel or steel/cement interfacial bond, other than the use of surfactants in spacers and cement slurry. SCIN offers an economical solution to this issue by achieving a superhydrophilic pipe surface that is chemically reactive to Portland cement, allowing an effective bond to cement.
Looking for immune conglutinin? Find out information about immune conglutinin. A heat-stable substance in bovine and other serums that aids or causes agglomeration or lysis of certain sensitized cells or particles Explanation of immune conglutinin
Quantitation of β-galactosidase activity. In yeast cells, co-transformed with pGADT7 (AD) and pGBKT7 (BD) constructs as indicated, β-galactosidase activity wa
Alpha-complementation of β-galactosidase does not seem to yield activities equal to wildtype β-galactosidase. Depending on the fragment, the activity can be up to 24% of wildtype [5]. (If anyone has a better reference comparing results from a Miller assay of alpha-complementated β-galactosidase with wildtype, please include it here.) ...
reacts with native and denatured-reduced E. coli β-galactosidase(116 kD); may be usedfor detection of β-galactosidase expressed by E. colilacZ gene encoded in many cloned gene sequences,and serves as an indicator for fusion proteins encodedby an inserted DNA ...
Fabry disease is a rare enzyme deficiency known as a lysosomal storage disease. Wikipedia The enzyme involved, alpha galactosidase A, is coded by the GLA gene. OMIM Although Fabry disease has been considered an X-linked recessive condition, female carriers of a single mutated GLA gene may have significant symptoms. Enzyme replacement therapy is helpful, although it is currently extremely expensive, and production problems have led to shortages of the drug. [1] ...
This unit describes fixation and staining for b‐galactosidase activity; it has been successfully used on vertebrate embryos and tissue explants
Molecular Cloning, also known as Maniatis, has served as the foundation of technical expertise in labs worldwide for 30 years. No other manual has been so popular, or so influential.
SCIN antibody [N3C2], Internal (scinderin) for ICC/IF, WB. Anti-SCIN pAb (GTX112591) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
https://doi.org/10.15407/scin1.03.020. F. F Sizov1, O. V. Bekhtir1, Ye. O. Bilevych1, A. G. Golenkov1, E. Yu. Gordienko3, M. T. Grinchenko2, J. V. Gumenjuk-Sichevska1, S. E. Dukhnin2, V. V. Zabudsky1, P. V. Zavadsky1, I. I. Ilnitsky1, S. L. Kravchenko1, V. M. Krajovyi1, V. P. Reva2, S. V. Korinets2, L. O. Pisarenko2, Yu. V. Fomenko3, A. V. Shevchyk1, G. V. Shustakova3 ...
Several types of assays can be performed measuring galactosidase activity in yeast using 5-Bromo-4-chloro-3-indoxyl-α-D-fucopyranoside as subtrate.
O-Nitrophenyl-β-D-Galactopyranoside (ONPG) Test. The objective of ONPG is to determine the ability of an organism to produce β-galactosidase.
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microbiology lab days 5 and 6 part 3 (biochemical assay, fermentation, beta galactosidase, onpg, TSI - microbiology lab days 5 and 6 part 4 (biochemical assay, fermentation, beta galactosidase, onpg, TSI
Buy our Recombinant |em|E. coli |/em| beta Galactosidase protein. Ab79449 is a full length protein produced in Escherichia coli. Abcam provides free protocols…
β-galactosidase, also called beta-gal or β-gal, is a hydrolase enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of β-galactosides into monosaccharides. Substrates of different β-
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Society Transactions.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Society Transactions.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
β-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.23); exo-β-glucosaminidase (EC 3.2.1.165); exo-β-1,4-galactanase (EC 3.2.1.-); β-1,3-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.- ...
nbspHayato Murakoshi a, Madoka Koyanagi a, Tomohiro Akahoshi a, Takayuki Chikata a, Nozomi Kuse a, Hiroyuki Gatanaga a, d, Sarah L. Rowland-Jones b c, et al ...
Factor I can cleave C3b into C3c and C3d, the latter of which plays a role in enhancing B cell responses. In the alternative ... Complement component 3, often simply called C3, is a protein of the immune system. It plays a central role in the complement ... "Entrez Gene: C3 complement component 3". Sahu A, Lambris JD (Apr 2001). "Structure and biology of complement protein C3, a ... Complement component 3 has been shown to interact with Factor H. Deficiencies in C3 lead to generic infections, usually fatal ...
... complement c3a MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.250.260 -- complement c3b MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.250.260.500 -- complement c3c MeSH ... complement c6 MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.650 -- complement c7 MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.750 -- complement c8 MeSH D12.776.124.486. ... complement c4a MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.024.270 -- complement c5a MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.024.270.255 -- complement c5a, des- ... complement c1r MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.050.290 -- complement c1s MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.150 -- complement c2 MeSH D12.776. ...
At further follow-up creatinine levels, proteinuria and complement C3 values improved and returned to normal range. ANA and ... IgM as well as C1q and C3c depositions, i.e. a so-called fullhouse pattern, were detected in a mesangiocapillary pattern ( ... Further diagnostic tests showed extremely low complement levels (C3 and C4 below detection level), markedly elevated anti- ...
Compstatin, a 13-residue peptide, is an effective inhibitor of the activation of complement component C3 and thus blocks a ... Undesired complement activation is a major cause of tissue injury in various pathological conditions and contributes to several ... Structure of Compstatin in Complex With Complement Component C3c Reveals a New Mechanism of Complement Inhibition Bert J C ... Structure of Compstatin in Complex With Complement Component C3c Reveals a New Mechanism of Complement Inhibition Bert J C ...
Complement C3c, anti_human IgG \ 11222-05015 for more molecular products just contact us ... Complement C3c alpha chain fragment 1; Complement C3dg fragment; Complement C3g fragment; Complement C3d fragment; Complement ... Complement C3c alpha chain fragment 1; Complement C3dg fragment; Complement C3g fragment; Complement C3d fragment; Complement ... Complement C3c alpha chain fragment 1; Complement C3dg fragment; Complement C3g fragment; Complement C3d fragment; Complement ...
Service Area , Support , Reference Ranges , Complement C3c. Complement C3c. Lowered C3 values are found in inflammatory and ...
... a serine protease that cleaves the central complement protein C3, and generates the major cleavage fragment C3b. ... In the presence of complement regulatory molecules C3b may be further degraded sequentially to iC3b, C3c, C3dg and C3d. Unlike ... The complement pathway generates a C3 convertase, a serine protease that cleaves the central complement protein C3, and ... All Quidel complement components are tested for functional activity in a standard lytic or applicable functional assay and for ...
... complement components C3c and C4c (5704); and total complement (CH50) (618). ... Serum 14-3-3 eta is a novel marker that complements current serological measurements to enhance detection of patients with ...
C3 deposition was detected with alkaline phosphatase-conjugated rabbit anti-C3c antibodies. Absorbance values were corrected ... Mannan-binding lectin activates C3 and the alternative complement pathway without involvement of C2.. Selander B1, Mårtensson U ... Complement requirements for C3 deposition induced by CO antigen (1,000 ng/well). ... MBL-dependent C2 bypass activation could be particularly important in various inherited and acquired complement deficiency ...
Complement C3c and related protein biomarkers in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinsons disease. Biochem Biophys Res ...
C3c and C4c deposition were measured with specific Abs, respectively. In the presence of serial dilution of SFMI peptides, ... Identification of Complin, a novel complement inhibitor that targets complement proteins factor B and C2. J. Immunol. 184: 7116 ... Complement protease MASP-1 activates human endothelial cells: PAR4 activation is a link between complement and endothelial ... Moreover, the complement system bridges the innate and adaptive immunity, because the activated complement components ...
Complement C3c levels increased significantly during this period. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and levels of complement C4 ... Complement consumption, as indicated by C3c, was found to correlate most closely with the course of the disease. C3c reflected ... complement factors C3c and C4, total haemolytic complement CH50, RF, antinuclear antibodies, antibodies against extractable ... Levels of complement C3c significantly increased during that period. All patients achieved either a complete or partial ...
Complement C3c Determinarea valorilor Activitatii Complementului C3c se face in caz de: suspiciune de deficit er ... ... Complement C4 C4 este un alt component al sistemului complement sintetizat in plaman si tesutul osos. Concentra ... ...
Complement C3c and related protein biomarkers in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinsons disease. Biochem Biophys Res ... Combination of neurofilament heavy chain and complement C3 as CSF biomarkers for ALS. J Neurochem. 2011 May;117(3):528-37. ... inflammatory molecules such as complement component C3 (Goldknopf et al., 2006); and other proteins such as cystatin C (Wilson ...
Complement C3c and related protein biomarkers in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinsons disease. Biochem Biophys Res ... showing that proteins of the immune/complement system contributed to disease profiles for both PD and ALS (see Goldknopf et al ...
Complement C3c alpha chain fragment 2 antibody. *Complement component 3 antibody. *Complement factor 3 antibody ... Defects in C3 are the cause of complement component 3 deficiency (C3D) [MIM:120700]. A rare defect of the complement classical ... Apply antigen C3 complement about 100 ng/50 ul per well in PBS. Overnight at 4ºC. Discard liquid. Block with 200 ul of 1% BSA ( ... C3 plays a central role in the activation of the complement system. Its processing by C3 convertase is the central reaction in ...
... they were washed and stained with FITC-labeled rabbit polyclonal antibody to human C3c complement (F0201, DAKO). ... the fixed B cells were first treated with human serum to EBNA containing complement (a gift from F. Mizuno, Tokyo Medical ...
The complement system is an important part of the humoral response in innate immunity, consisting of three different pathways. ... Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Human Placenta tissue stained with Complement C3c Antibody Cat.-No AP21459SU-N at 1/200 ... Rabbit Polyclonal antibody to Complement C3 (complement component 3). Rabbit. IgG. Aff - Purified. Hu, Ms. ICC/IF, P, WB. 0.1 ... Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Human Adrenal, Adipocytes stained with Complement C3c Antibody Cat.-No AP21459SU-N at 1/200 ...
人补体片段3c(C3c)ELISA试剂盒 Human Complement fragment 3c,C3c ELISA kit ... Human Complement 7,C7 ELISA kit EK0560 人肺表面活性物质相关蛋白D(SP-D)ELISA试剂盒 Human Pulmonary surfatcant-associated protein D,SP-D ELISA ... Human Complement 3,C3 ELISA kit EK0656 人过氧化物酶体增殖因子活
In particular, the invention relates to complement inhibitors derived from the saliv ... The invention relates to complement inhibitors that inhibit both the classical and alternative complement pathways. ... Konttinen et al., Complement in acute and chronic arthritides: assessment of C3c, C9 and protectin (CD59) in synovial membrane ... Rehrig et al., Complement Inhibitor, Complement Receptor 1-Related Gene/Protein y-Ig . Attenuates Intestinal Damage After the ...
Staphylococcal Complement Inhibitor (SCIN) in complex with Human Complement C3c. 3ohx. Molecular Basis for Complement ... Staphylococcal Complement Inhibitor (SCIN) in complex with Human Complement Component C3c. 3l5n. Staphylococcal Complement ... Structure of complement C5 in complex with SSL7. 3km9. Structure of complement C5 in complex with the C-terminal beta-grasp ... Structure of Complement C5 in Complex with CVF. 3t4a. Structure of a truncated form of Staphylococcal Complement Inhibitor B ...
Complement Component 3c (C3c) Catalog No: 194-32 Form: Lyophilized 194-32. Human Plasma. > 95% (SDS-PAGE). Lyophilized. More ... Complement Component 4c (C4c) Catalog No: 194-42 Form: Lyophilized 194-42. Human Plasma. > 95% (SDS-PAGE). Lyophilized. More ...
C3b is further degraded to iC3b, C3c and C3dg, products that serve as ligands for selective complement receptors on leukocytes ... Macrophage complement receptors and pathogen clearance.. van Lookeren Campagne M1, Wiesmann C, Brown EJ. ... Complement component C3 is central to opsonization. Its first cleavage product, C3b, forms the multisubunit enzyme, C3bBb, ... The recent structures of C3 and its breakdown products have increased our insights into the molecular basis of complement ...
Complement-activating protein in cobra venom. It is a structural and functional analog of complement component C3b, the ... Structurally, it resembles the C3b degradation product C3c, which is not able to form a C3/C5 convertase. Unlike C3b/Bb, CVF/Bb ... CVF continuously activates complement resulting in the depletion of complement activity. UniProt ... CVF/Bb is a C3/C5 convertase that cleaves both complement components C3 and C5. ...
Complement C3c, Human Plasma. Purity ≥95%. MW: 138 kDa. Complement C3 (C3) is the most abund…. 1 mg. P1271-1000. BIOVISION, INC ... Complement C3c, Human Plasma. Purity ≥95%. MW: 138 kDa. Complement C3 (C3) is the most abund…. 500 µg. P1271-500. BIOVISION, ... Complement factor I, Human, Natural. Complement Factor I (fI) is a protein of the complement…. 100 µg. HC2131. HYCULT BIOTECH ... Complement Component C3c, highly purified. purified human protein. n/a. AJ3032. AALTO BIO REAGENTS LTD. More Info ...
  • Here we present the crystal structure of compstatin in complex with C3c, a major proteolytic fragment of C3. (nih.gov)
  • Immunochemical studies of the alkaline-denatured C3 suggested that factor H interacts with surfaces of C3 that are situated within the C3c fragment and that are defined by C3(SN) antigens, while factor I predominantly interacts with C3(SN) antigens associated with the C3d fragment and with C3(D) antigens hidden in native C3. (diva-portal.org)
  • Surface expression of CR3 and CD46 on DC subsets of 30 antiretroviral naïve, 31 treated (cART) HIV-1 infected individuals and 30 seronegative controls was measured by flow cytometry and plasma levels of cytokines and complement activity (C3c levels) were quantitated by sandwich ELISA. (ovid.com)
  • Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and levels of complement C4 and CH50 did not change significantly. (bmj.com)
  • Whereas uEVs of young patients with ADPKD and preserved kidney function already had higher levels of complement, only uEVs of patients with advanced stages of ADPKD had increased levels of villin-1, periplakin, and envoplakin. (asnjournals.org)
  • More recently, work has shown that PTEC themselves have the capacity for synthesis of complement components ( 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 ), and that enhanced tubular C3 and C4 gene expression is present in a number of glomerular and interstitial disorders ( 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 ). (asnjournals.org)