Complement Pathway, Classical: Complement activation initiated by the binding of COMPLEMENT C1 to ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES at the COMPLEMENT C1Q subunit. This leads to the sequential activation of COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S subunits. Activated C1s cleaves COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 forming the membrane-bound classical C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Complement C3: A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.Complement C4: A glycoprotein that is important in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C4 is cleaved by the activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C4A and COMPLEMENT C4B.Complement Activation: The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.Complement C1q: A subcomponent of complement C1, composed of six copies of three polypeptide chains (A, B, and C), each encoded by a separate gene (C1QA; C1QB; C1QC). This complex is arranged in nine subunits (six disulfide-linked dimers of A and B, and three disulfide-linked homodimers of C). C1q has binding sites for antibodies (the heavy chain of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M). The interaction of C1q and immunoglobulin activates the two proenzymes COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S, thus initiating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION via the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.Complement C3-C5 Convertases: Serine proteases that cleave COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, or cleave COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. These include the different forms of C3/C5 convertases in the classical and the alternative pathways of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Both cleavages take place at the C-terminal of an ARGININE residue.Complement C2: A component of the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C2 is cleaved by activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C2B and COMPLEMENT C2A. C2a, the COOH-terminal fragment containing a SERINE PROTEASE, combines with COMPLEMENT C4B to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).Complement C4b: The large fragment formed when COMPLEMENT C4 is cleaved by COMPLEMENT C1S. The membrane-bound C4b binds COMPLEMENT C2A, a SERINE PROTEASE, to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).Complement C3b: The larger fragment generated from the cleavage of COMPLEMENT C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. It is a constituent of the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb), and COMPLEMENT C5 CONVERTASES in both the classical (C4b2a3b) and the alternative (C3bBb3b) pathway. C3b participates in IMMUNE ADHERENCE REACTION and enhances PHAGOCYTOSIS. It can be inactivated (iC3b) or cleaved by various proteases to yield fragments such as COMPLEMENT C3C; COMPLEMENT C3D; C3e; C3f; and C3g.Complement Pathway, Alternative: Complement activation initiated by the interaction of microbial ANTIGENS with COMPLEMENT C3B. When COMPLEMENT FACTOR B binds to the membrane-bound C3b, COMPLEMENT FACTOR D cleaves it to form alternative C3 CONVERTASE (C3BBB) which, stabilized by COMPLEMENT FACTOR P, is able to cleave multiple COMPLEMENT C3 to form alternative C5 CONVERTASE (C3BBB3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Complement C4a: The smaller fragment formed when complement C4 is cleaved by COMPLEMENT C1S. It is an anaphylatoxin that causes symptoms of immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE) but its activity is weaker than that of COMPLEMENT C3A or COMPLEMENT C5A.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Complement C5: C5 plays a central role in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C5 is cleaved by C5 CONVERTASE into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. The smaller fragment C5a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of inflammatory process. The major fragment C5b binds to the membrane initiating the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components, C5-C9, into the MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Complement Activating Enzymes: Enzymes that activate one or more COMPLEMENT PROTEINS in the complement system leading to the formation of the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX, an important response in host defense. They are enzymes in the various COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION pathways.Complement C3a: The smaller fragment generated from the cleavage of complement C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. C3a, a 77-amino acid peptide, is a mediator of local inflammatory process. It induces smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION, and HISTAMINE RELEASE from MAST CELLS and LEUKOCYTES. C3a is considered an anaphylatoxin along with COMPLEMENT C4A; COMPLEMENT C5A; and COMPLEMENT C5A, DES-ARGININE.Complement Inactivator Proteins: Serum proteins that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host. The complement system is tightly regulated by inactivators that accelerate the decay of intermediates and certain cell surface receptors.Complement C1: The first complement component to act in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. It is a calcium-dependent trimolecular complex made up of three subcomponents: COMPLEMENT C1Q; COMPLEMENT C1R; and COMPLEMENT C1S at 1:2:2 ratios. When the intact C1 binds to at least two antibodies (involving C1q), C1r and C1s are sequentially activated, leading to subsequent steps in the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Proprotein Convertase 2: A serine endopeptidase that has specificity for cleavage at ARGININE. It cleaves a variety of prohormones including PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN, proluteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone, proenkephalins, prodynorphin, and PROINSULIN.Complement C5a: The minor fragment formed when C5 convertase cleaves C5 into C5a and COMPLEMENT C5B. C5a is a 74-amino-acid glycopeptide with a carboxy-terminal ARGININE that is crucial for its spasmogenic activity. Of all the complement-derived anaphylatoxins, C5a is the most potent in mediating immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE), smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION; HISTAMINE RELEASE; and migration of LEUKOCYTES to site of INFLAMMATION.Proprotein Convertase 1: A CALCIUM-dependent endopeptidase that has specificity for cleavage at ARGININE that is near paired basic residues. It cleaves a variety of prohormones including PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN; PRORENIN; proenkephalins; prodynorphin; prosomatostatin; and PROINSULIN.Complement Factor B: A glycine-rich, heat-labile serum glycoprotein that contains a component of the C3 CONVERTASE ALTERNATE PATHWAY (C3bBb). Bb, a serine protease, is generated when factor B is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR D into Ba and Bb.Complement C1s: A 77-kDa subcomponent of complement C1, encoded by gene C1S, is a SERINE PROTEASE existing as a proenzyme (homodimer) in the intact complement C1 complex. Upon the binding of COMPLEMENT C1Q to antibodies, the activated COMPLEMENT C1R cleaves C1s into two chains, A (heavy) and B (light, the serine protease), linked by disulfide bonds yielding the active C1s. The activated C1s, in turn, cleaves COMPLEMENT C2 and COMPLEMENT C4 to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL C3 CONVERTASE).Complement C6: A 105-kDa serum glycoprotein with significant homology to the other late complement components, C7-C9. It is a polypeptide chain cross-linked by 32 disulfide bonds. C6 is the next complement component to bind to the membrane-bound COMPLEMENT C5B in the assembly of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. It is encoded by gene C6.Complement C5 Convertase, Classical Pathway: A serine protease that cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT 5 into COMPLEMENT 5A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT 5B in the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. It is a complex of CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C4b2a) with an additional COMPLEMENT C3B, or C4b2a3b.Complement C3d: A 302-amino-acid fragment in the alpha chain (672-1663) of C3b. It is generated when C3b is inactivated (iC3b) and its alpha chain is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I into C3c, and C3dg (955-1303) in the presence COMPLEMENT FACTOR H. Serum proteases further degrade C3dg into C3d (1002-1303) and C3g (955-1001).Complement C3c: A 206-amino-acid fragment in the alpha chain (672-1663) of C3b. It is generated when C3b is inactivated (iC3b) and its alpha chain is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I into C3c (749-954), and C3dg (955-1303) in the presence COMPLEMENT FACTOR H.Receptors, Complement: Molecules on the surface of some B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that recognize and combine with the C3b, C3d, C1q, and C4b components of complement.Complement C9: A 63-kDa serum glycoprotein encoded by gene C9. Monomeric C9 (mC9) binds the C5b-8 complex to form C5b-9 which catalyzes the polymerization of C9 forming C5b-p9 (MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX) and transmembrane channels leading to lysis of the target cell. Patients with C9 deficiency suffer from recurrent bacterial infections.Complement C1r: A 80-kDa subcomponent of complement C1, existing as a SERINE PROTEASE proenzyme in the intact complement C1 complex. When COMPLEMENT C1Q is bound to antibodies, the changed tertiary structure causes autolytic activation of complement C1r which is cleaved into two chains, A (heavy) and B (light, the serine protease), connected by disulfide bonds. The activated C1r serine protease, in turn, activates COMPLEMENT C1S proenzyme by cleaving the Arg426-Ile427 bond. No fragment is released when either C1r or C1s is cleaved.Complement C3 Convertase, Classical Pathway: A serine protease that cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT 3 into COMPLEMENT 3A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT 3B in the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. It is a complex of COMPLEMENT 4B and COMPLEMENT 2A (C4b2a).Proprotein Convertase 5: A serine endopeptidase found primarily in the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. It has specificity for cleavage of a variety of substrates including PRORENIN, pro-membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase, and NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULE L1.Complement Membrane Attack Complex: A product of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION cascade, regardless of the pathways, that forms transmembrane channels causing disruption of the target CELL MEMBRANE and cell lysis. It is formed by the sequential assembly of terminal complement components (COMPLEMENT C5B; COMPLEMENT C6; COMPLEMENT C7; COMPLEMENT C8; and COMPLEMENT C9) into the target membrane. The resultant C5b-8-poly-C9 is the "membrane attack complex" or MAC.Proprotein Convertases: Proteolytic enzymes that are involved in the conversion of protein precursors such as peptide prohormones into PEPTIDE HORMONES. Some are ENDOPEPTIDASES, some are EXOPEPTIDASES.Properdin: A 53-kDa protein that is a positive regulator of the alternate pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It stabilizes the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb) and protects it from rapid inactivation, thus facilitating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and the formation of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Individuals with mutation in the PFC gene exhibit properdin deficiency and have a high susceptibility to infections.Complement C2a: The COOH-terminal fragment of COMPLEMENT 2, released by the action of activated COMPLEMENT C1S. It is a SERINE PROTEASE. C2a combines with COMPLEMENT C4B to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).Complement Factor D: A serum protein which is important in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. This enzyme cleaves the COMPLEMENT C3B-bound COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form C3bBb which is ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE.Complement C7: A 93-kDa serum glycoprotein encoded by C7 gene. It is a polypeptide chain with 28 disulfide bridges. In the formation of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX; C7 is the next component to bind the C5b-6 complex forming a trimolecular complex C5b-7 which is lipophilic, resembles an integral membrane protein, and serves as an anchor for the late complement components, C8 and C9.Complement C2b: The N-terminal fragment of COMPLEMENT 2, released by the action of activated COMPLEMENT C1S.Complement C3 Convertase, Alternative Pathway: A serine protease that is the complex of COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT FACTOR BB. It cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT C3B in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY.Complement C5b: The larger fragment generated from the cleavage of C5 by C5 CONVERTASE that yields COMPLEMENT C5A and C5b (beta chain + alpha' chain, the residual alpha chain, bound by disulfide bond). C5b remains bound to the membrane and initiates the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components to form C5b-8-poly-C9, the MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Complement C1 Inactivator Proteins: Serum proteins that inhibit, antagonize, or inactivate COMPLEMENT C1 or its subunits.Complement Factor H: An important soluble regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It is a 139-kDa glycoprotein expressed by the liver and secreted into the blood. It binds to COMPLEMENT C3B and makes iC3b (inactivated complement 3b) susceptible to cleavage by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I. Complement factor H also inhibits the association of C3b with COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form the C3bB proenzyme, and promotes the dissociation of Bb from the C3bBb complex (COMPLEMENT C3 CONVERTASE, ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY).Complement C4b-Binding Protein: A serum protein that regulates the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. It binds as a cofactor to COMPLEMENT FACTOR I which then hydrolyzes the COMPLEMENT C4B in the CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C4bC2a).Receptors, Complement 3b: Molecular sites on or in some B-lymphocytes and macrophages that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3B. The primary structure of these receptors reveal that they contain transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, with their extracellular portion composed entirely of thirty short consensus repeats each having 60 to 70 amino acids.Complement Hemolytic Activity Assay: A screening assay for circulating COMPLEMENT PROTEINS. Diluted SERUM samples are added to antibody-coated ERYTHROCYTES and the percentage of cell lysis is measured. The values are expressed by the so called CH50, in HEMOLYTIC COMPLEMENT units per milliliter, which is the dilution of serum required to lyse 50 percent of the erythrocytes in the assay.Complement C3b Inactivator Proteins: Endogenous proteins that inhibit or inactivate COMPLEMENT C3B. They include COMPLEMENT FACTOR H and COMPLEMENT FACTOR I (C3b/C4b inactivator). They cleave or promote the cleavage of C3b into inactive fragments, and thus are important in the down-regulation of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and its cytolytic sequence.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Complement Factor I: A plasma serine proteinase that cleaves the alpha-chains of C3b and C4b in the presence of the cofactors COMPLEMENT FACTOR H and C4-binding protein, respectively. It is a 66-kDa glycoprotein that converts C3b to inactivated C3b (iC3b) followed by the release of two fragments, C3c (150-kDa) and C3dg (41-kDa). It was formerly called KAF, C3bINF, or enzyme 3b inactivator.Complement C3 Nephritic Factor: An IgG autoantibody against the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE, found in serum of patients with MESANGIOCAPILLARY GLOMERULONEPHRITIS. The binding of this autoantibody to C3bBb stabilizes the enzyme thus reduces the actions of C3b inactivators (COMPLEMENT FACTOR H; COMPLEMENT FACTOR I). This abnormally stabilized enzyme induces a continuous COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and generation of C3b thereby promoting the assembly of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX and cytolysis.Complement C3-C5 Convertases, Classical Pathway: Important enzymes in the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. They cleave COMPLEMENT C3 and COMPLEMENT C5.Subtilisins: A family of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES isolated from Bacillus subtilis. EC 3.4.21.-Furin: A proprotein convertase with specificity for the proproteins of PROALBUMIN; COMPLEMENT 3C; and VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR. It has specificity for cleavage near paired ARGININE residues that are separated by two amino acids.Complement Inactivating Agents: Compounds that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Complement C8: A 150-kDa serum glycoprotein composed of three subunits with each encoded by a different gene (C8A; C8B; and C8G). This heterotrimer contains a disulfide-linked C8alpha-C8gamma heterodimer and a noncovalently associated C8beta chain. C8 is the next component to bind the C5-7 complex forming C5b-8 that binds COMPLEMENT C9 and acts as a catalyst in the polymerization of C9.Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein: An endogenous 105-kDa plasma glycoprotein produced primarily by the LIVER and MONOCYTES. It inhibits a broad spectrum of proteases, including the COMPLEMENT C1R and the COMPLEMENT C1S proteases of the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY, and the MANNOSE-BINDING PROTEIN-ASSOCIATED SERINE PROTEASES. C1-INH-deficient individuals suffer from HEREDITARY ANGIOEDEMA TYPES I AND II.Opsonin Proteins: Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Complement Pathway, Mannose-Binding Lectin: Complement activation triggered by the interaction of microbial POLYSACCHARIDES with serum MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN resulting in the activation of MANNOSE-BINDING PROTEIN-ASSOCIATED SERINE PROTEASES. As in the classical pathway, MASPs cleave COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 to form C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Receptor, Anaphylatoxin C5a: A G-protein-coupled receptor that signals an increase in intracellular calcium in response to the potent ANAPHYLATOXIN peptide COMPLEMENT C5A.Blood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.Neuroendocrine Secretory Protein 7B2: An acidic protein found in the NEUROENDOCRINE SYSTEM that functions as a molecular chaperone for PROPROTEIN CONVERTASE 2.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Receptors, Complement 3d: Molecular sites on or in B-lymphocytes, follicular dendritic cells, lymphoid cells, and epithelial cells that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3D. Human complement receptor 2 (CR2) serves as a receptor for both C3dg and the gp350/220 glycoprotein of HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN, and binds the monoclonal antibody OKB7, which blocks binding of both ligands to the receptor.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Anaphylatoxins: Serum peptides derived from certain cleaved COMPLEMENT PROTEINS during COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. They induce smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION; mast cell HISTAMINE RELEASE; PLATELET AGGREGATION; and act as mediators of the local inflammatory process. The order of anaphylatoxin activity from the strongest to the weakest is C5a, C3a, C4a, and C5a des-arginine.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Collectins: A class of C-type lectins that target the carbohydrate structures found on invading pathogens. Binding of collectins to microorganisms results in their agglutination and enhanced clearance. Collectins form trimers that may assemble into larger oligomers. Each collectin polypeptide chain consists of four regions: a relatively short N-terminal region, a collagen-like region, an alpha-helical coiled-coil region, and carbohydrate-binding region.Mannose-Binding Lectin: A specific mannose-binding member of the collectin family of lectins. It binds to carbohydrate groups on invading pathogens and plays a key role in the MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Carboxypeptidase H: A ZINC-containing exopeptidase primarily found in SECRETORY VESICLES of endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. It catalyzes the cleavage of C-terminal ARGININE or LYSINE residues from polypeptides and is active in processing precursors of PEPTIDE HORMONES and other bioactive peptides.Cobra Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.ZymosanMannose-Binding Protein-Associated Serine Proteases: Serum serine proteases which participate in COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. They are activated when complexed with the MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN, therefore also known as Mannose-binding protein-Associated Serine Proteases (MASPs). They cleave COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 to form C4b2a, the CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Cryoglobulins: Abnormal immunoglobulins, especially IGG or IGM, that precipitate spontaneously when SERUM is cooled below 37 degrees Celsius. It is characteristic of CRYOGLOBULINEMIA.Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Mannans: Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Glomerulonephritis: Inflammation of the renal glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) that can be classified by the type of glomerular injuries including antibody deposition, complement activation, cellular proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These structural and functional abnormalities usually lead to HEMATURIA; PROTEINURIA; HYPERTENSION; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Mice, Inbred C57BLComplement C5 Convertase, Alternative Pathway: A serine protease that cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT C5B in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. It is the complex of ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb) with an additional COMPLEMENT C3B, or C3bBb3b.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Protein PrecursorsRabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Steroid 21-Hydroxylase: An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Complement C3-C5 Convertases, Alternative Pathway: Important enzymes in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. They cleave COMPLEMENT C3 and COMPLEMENT C5.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Surface Plasmon Resonance: A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Eosinophil-Derived Neurotoxin: A 19-kDa cationic peptide found in EOSINOPHIL granules. Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin is a RIBONUCLEASE and may play a role as an endogenous antiviral agent.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Enzyme Precursors: Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases: A sub-subclass of endopeptidases that depend on an ASPARTIC ACID residue for their activity.Pituitary Hormones: Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Proglucagon: The common precursor polypeptide of pancreatic GLUCAGON and intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Proglucagon is the 158-amino acid segment of preproglucagon without the N-terminal signal sequence. Proglucagon is expressed in the PANCREAS; INTESTINES; and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Posttranslational processing of proglucagon is tissue-specific yielding numerous bioactive peptides.Eosinophil Peroxidase: A 66-kDa peroxidase found in EOSINOPHIL granules. Eosinophil peroxidase is a cationic protein with a pI of 10.8 and is comprised of a heavy chain subunit and a light chain subunit. It possesses cytotoxic activity towards BACTERIA and other organisms, which is attributed to its peroxidase activity.Pro-Opiomelanocortin: A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Glomerulonephritis, Membranoproliferative: Chronic glomerulonephritis characterized histologically by proliferation of MESANGIAL CELLS, increase in the MESANGIAL EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX, and a thickening of the glomerular capillary walls. This may appear as a primary disorder or secondary to other diseases including infections and autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Various subtypes are classified by their abnormal ultrastructures and immune deposits. Hypocomplementemia is a characteristic feature of all types of MPGN.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.EsterasesComplement C5a, des-Arginine: A derivative of complement C5a, generated when the carboxy-terminal ARGININE is removed by CARBOXYPEPTIDASE B present in normal human serum. C5a des-Arg shows complete loss of spasmogenic activity though it retains some chemotactic ability (CHEMOATTRACTANTS).Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Egtazic Acid: A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.Macrophage-1 Antigen: An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.Metalloendopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Kidney Glomerulus: A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.Serum: The clear portion of BLOOD that is left after BLOOD COAGULATION to remove BLOOD CELLS and clotting proteins.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Glicentin: A 69-amino acid peptide derived from the N-terminal of PROGLUCAGON. It is mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. Further processing of glicentin yield a 30-amino acid N-terminal peptide (glicentin-related polypeptide) and a 37-amino acid peptide OXYNTOMODULIN. Both glicentin and oxyntomodulin can reduce digestive secretions and delay gastric emptying.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Carboxypeptidases: Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.Schistosoma: A genus of trematode flukes belonging to the family Schistosomatidae. There are over a dozen species. These parasites are found in man and other mammals. Snails are the intermediate hosts.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Subtilisin: A serine endopeptidase isolated from Bacillus subtilis. It hydrolyzes proteins with broad specificity for peptide bonds, and a preference for a large uncharged residue in P1. It also hydrolyzes peptide amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 188.8.131.52.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Arteriolosclerosis: Thickening of the walls of small ARTERIES or ARTERIOLES due to cell proliferation or HYALINE deposition.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Receptors, LDL: Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal: A condition characterized by the recurrence of HEMOGLOBINURIA caused by intravascular HEMOLYSIS. In cases occurring upon cold exposure (paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria), usually after infections, there is a circulating antibody which is also a cold hemolysin. In cases occurring during or after sleep (paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria), the clonal hematopoietic stem cells exhibit a global deficiency of cell membrane proteins.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Mice, Inbred BALB CPolymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.ADAM Proteins: A family of membrane-anchored glycoproteins that contain a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain. They are responsible for the proteolytic cleavage of many transmembrane proteins and the release of their extracellular domain.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Oxyntomodulin: A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the C-terminal of GLICENTIN. It is mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. Oxyntomodulin can reduce digestive secretions, delay gastric emptying, and reduced food intake.Proteolysis: Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.alpha 1-Antitrypsin: Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.Haptoglobins: Plasma glycoproteins that form a stable complex with hemoglobin to aid the recycling of heme iron. They are encoded in man by a gene on the short arm of chromosome 16.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Protease Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Isoflurophate: A di-isopropyl-fluorophosphate which is an irreversible cholinesterase inhibitor used to investigate the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Peptides, Cyclic: Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Separation of decay-accelerating and cofactor functional activities of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus complement control protein using monoclonal antibodies. (1/3)Complement is an essential part of the innate immune system, which clears pathogens without requirement for previous exposure, although it also greatly enhances the efficacy and response of the cellular and humoral immune systems. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the most recently identified human herpesvirus and the likely aetiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman's disease. We previously reported that the KSHV complement control protein (KCP) was expressed on infected cells and virions, and could inhibit complement through decay-accelerating activity (DAA) of the classical C3 convertase and cofactor activity (CFA) for factor I (FI)-mediated degradation of C4b and C3b, as well as acting as an attachment factor for binding to heparan sulphate on permissive cells. Here, we determined the ability of a panel of monoclonal anti-KCP antibodies to block KCP functions relative to their recognized epitopes, as determined through binding to recombinant KCP containing large (entire domain) or small (2-3 amino acid residue) alterations. One antibody recognizing complement control protein (CCP) domain 1 blocked heparin binding, DAA and C4b CFA, but was poor at blocking C3b CFA, while a second antibody recognizing CCP4 blocked C3b CFA and 80% DAA, but not C4b CFA or heparan sulphate binding. Two antibodies recognizing CCP2 and CCP3 were capable of blocking C3b and C4b CFA and heparan sulphate binding, but only one could inhibit DAA. These results show that, while KCP is a multifunctional protein, these activities do not completely overlap and can be isolated through incubation with monoclonal antibodies. (+info)
Autoantibody stabilization of the classical pathway C3 convertase leading to C3 deficiency and Neisserial sepsis: C4 nephritic factor revisited. (2/3)(+info)
Sushi domain-containing protein 4 (SUSD4) inhibits complement by disrupting the formation of the classical C3 convertase. (3/3)(+info)
List of EC numbers (EC 3)
... complement component C5 convertase. Now EC 184.108.40.206, classical-complement-pathway C3/C5 convertase EC 220.127.116.11: complement ... complement subcomponent C1s EC 18.104.22.168: classical-complement-pathway C3/C5 convertase EC 22.214.171.124: Transferred entry: ... factor I EC 126.96.36.199: complement factor D EC 188.8.131.52: alternative-complement-pathway C3/C5 convertase EC 184.108.40.206: ... Proprotein convertase 1 EC 220.127.116.11: Proprotein convertase 2 EC 18.104.22.168: Snake venom factor V activator EC 22.214.171.124: ...
Complement component 3
In the alternative complement pathway, C3 is cleaved by C3bBb, another form of C3-convertase composed of activated forms of C3 ... Its activation is required for both classical and alternative complement activation pathways. People with C3 deficiency are ... "Entrez Gene: C3 complement component 3". Sahu A, Lambris JD (Apr 2001). "Structure and biology of complement protein C3, a ... C3 convertase. C3bBb is deactivated in steps. First, the proteolytic component of the convertase, Bb, is removed by complement ...
"Formation of classical C3 convertase during the alternative pathway of human complement activation". PubMed Article. Retrieved ... Since C3 convertases cleave C3 to produce C3b which can then form an additional C3 convertase through the alternative pathway, ... C3 convertase (EC 126.96.36.199, C42 , C4bC2b, C3bBb, complement C.hivin.4.hivin2, complement C3 convertase) belongs to family of ... C3 convertase can be used to refer to the form produced in the alternative pathway (C3bBb) or the classical and lectin pathways ...
The MASPs cleave C4 and C2, resulting in C3 convertase formation. The alternative pathway of complement activation is typically ... The classical pathway of complement activation is initiated when the C1 complex, made up of C1r and C1s serine proteases, ... Levels of complement are regulated by moderating convertase formation and enzymatic activity. C3 convertase formation is ... C3 convertase activity is also regulated without C3b inactivation, through complement control proteins, including decay- ...
The three pathways of activation all generate homologous variants of the protease C3-convertase. The classical complement ... Three biochemical pathways activate the complement system: the classical complement pathway, the alternative complement pathway ... C4b and C2a then bind together to form the classical C3-convertase, as in the classical pathway. Ficolins are homologous to MBL ... bind to form the classical pathway C3-convertase (C4b2b complex), which promotes cleavage of C3 into C3a and C3b. C3b later ...
Complement component 1s
C1s cleaves C4 and C2, which eventually leads to the production of the classical pathway C3-convertase. C1q - another part of ... Complement component 1s (EC 188.8.131.52, C1 esterase, activated complement C1s, complement C overbar 1r, C1s) is a protein ... "Entrez Gene: C1S Complement component 1, s subcomponent". Luo C, Thielens NM, Gagnon J, Gal P, Sarvari M, Tseng Y, Tosi M, ... Complement C1s at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human C1S genome location and C1S gene ...
Complement component 2
In the classical and lectin pathways of complement activation, formation of the C3-convertase and C5-convertases requires ... The protein encoded by this gene is part of the classical pathway of the complement system, acting as a multi-domain serine ... C2b is the larger, enzymatically active fragment which is incorporated into the C3 convertase in this pathway, C4b2b. C2a is ... a fragment of complement component C2 produced during C3 convertase formation". Acta Crystallographica D. 65 (Pt 3): 266-74. ...
Classical complement pathway
The larger and active fragments, C4b and C2b form C4bC2b, a C3 convertase. C3 convertase then cleaves C3 into C3a and C3b. ... Alternative complement pathway - another complement system pathway Lectin pathway - another complement system pathway Noris, ... The classical complement pathway is one of three pathways which activate the complement system, which is part of the immune ... Activation of the complement pathway through the classical, lectin or alternative complement pathway is followed by a cascade ...
Outline of immunology
C5a C3-convertase C5-convertase Late stage Membrane attack complex (MAC) C6 C7 C8 C9 Complement pathway inhibitors C1-inhibitor ... system Complement system Classical complement pathway Mannan-binding lectin pathway Alternate complement pathway Complement ... divided by pathway) Classical complement pathway C1Q complex - C1R / C1S C4 - C4a C2 Mannan-binding lectin pathway MASP1 / ... MASP2 Mannan-binding lectin Alternative complement pathway Factor B Factor D Factor P (Properdin) Middle stage C3 - C3a / C3b ...
... classical or lectin pathway) or C3 (alternative pathway). Interaction of DAF with cell-associated C4b of the classical and ... Thus, by limiting the amplification convertases of the complement cascade, DAF indirectly blocks the formation of the membrane ... thereby preventing formation of the C4b2b C3-convertase, and interaction of DAF with C3b of the alternative pathway interferes ... thereby preventing formation of the C3bBb C3 convertase of the alternative pathway. ...
Thioester-containing protein 1
Therefore, unlike the classical complement pathway the TEP1 pathway is antibody independent and instead relies on the presence ... The discovery of C3 like molecules in a diverse range of species suggests that the complement pathway in particular the ... Furthermore, both the TEP1 pathway and the alternative pathway utilise convertase mediated amplification loops to increase ... from a complement-like protein to a complement-like pathway". Cell Host Microbe. 3 (6): 364-74. doi:10.1016/j.chom.2008.05.007 ...
List of MeSH codes (D12.776.124)
... complement c3-c5 convertases, classical pathway MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.860.387.750.500 -- complement c3 convertase, classical ... complement c3-c5 convertases MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.860.387.500 -- complement c3-c5 convertases, alternative pathway MeSH ... complement c3 convertase, alternative pathway MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.860.387.500.750 -- complement c5 convertase, alternative ... pathway MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.860.387.750.750 -- complement c5 convertase, classical pathway MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.860. ...
C3 and C5 convertase activity is generated upon addition of Factors B and D. The classical pathway C5 convertase is composed of ... Two of the convertases are physiological complement enzymes, associate to the cell-surface and mediate the classical pathway ( ... and C3b produced by cleavage mediated by the classical pathway C3 convertase (C4bC2b). The formation of the alternative pathway ... Cell-bound C3 and C5 convertase differ in their C3b requirement. C3-convertase (C3bBb) need only one molecule of C3b to form, ...
As a part of the alternative complement pathway, the spontaneous activation of a complement cascade converts C3 to C3b, a ... The antigen-antibody complex can also activate complement through the classical complement pathway. Phagocytic cells do not ... including C3b and C4b which are both parts of C3-convertase. C1q, a member of the C1 complex, is able to interact with the Fc ... Antibodies can also activate complement via the classical pathway, resulting in deposition of C3b and C4b onto the antigen ...
The classical pathway C3-convertase (C4bC2b complex) is created, which promotes cleavage of C3. Janeway, CA Jr; Travers P; ... is a protein complex involved in the complement system. It is the first component of the classical complement pathway and is ... Activation of the C1 complex initiates the classical complement pathway. This occurs when C1q binds to antigen-antibody ... 2001). "The complement system and innate immunity". Immunobiology: The Immune System in Health and Disease. New York: Garland ...
Alternative complement pathway
This complex is also known as a fluid-phase C3-convertase. This convertase, the alternative pathway C3-convertase, although ... Classical complement pathway Lectin pathway Conrad DH, Carlo JR, Ruddy S (June 1978). "Interaction of beta1H globulin with cell ... The alternative pathway is one of three complement pathways that opsonize and kill pathogens. The pathway is triggered when the ... After the creation of C5 convertase (either as (C3b)2BbP or C4b2b3b from the classical pathway), the complement system follows ...
The complement system can be activated through three pathways: the classical pathway, the alternative pathway, and the lectin ... and initiate the formation of a C3-convertase. The subsequent complement cascade catalyzed by C3-convertase results in creating ... Binding of MBL to a micro-organism results in activation of the lectin pathway of the complement system. Another important ... In order to activate the complement system when MBL binds to its target (for example, mannose on the surface of a bacterium), ...
C4BP accelerates decay of C3-convertase and is a cofactor for serine protease factor I which cleaves C4b and C3b. C4BP binds ... It inhibits the action the classical and the lectin pathways, more specifically C4. It also has ability to bind C3b. ... C4b-binding protein (C4BP) is a protein involved in the complement system where it acts as inhibitor. C4BP has an octopus-like ... The genes coding for C4BP α-chain (C4BPA) and β-chain (C4BPB) are located in the regulators of complement activation (RCA) gene ...
Complement component 4
... participates in all three of the complement pathways (classical, alternative, and lectin); the alternative pathway is " ... the C4b-C2a complex with protease activity has been termed the C3 convertase. Protein 4b can be further cleaved into 4c and 4d ... All three pathways converge at a step in which complement protein C3 is cleaved into proteins C3a and C3b, which results in a ... In the classical pathway, the complement component-hereafter abbreviated by the "C" preceding the protein number- termed C1s, a ...
... classical pathway, alternative pathway and lectin pathway) that ultimately lead to the formation of a C3 convertase. Formation ... In the classical pathway, the microbial pathogen is coated in antibodies (IgG and IgM) released by B cells. The C1 complement ... Additionally, C3b plays a role in forming a C3 convertase when bound to Factor B (C3bBb complex), or a C5 convertase when bound ... Incorporation of an additional C3b into the C3bBb C3 convertase leads to the formation of C3Bb3b C5 convertase. Once cleaved ...
... the C3 convertase generating protease of the MBLectin complement activating pathway". Immunobiology. 199 (2): 348-57. doi: ... MASP-2 is involved in the complement system. MASP-2 is very similar to the C1s molecule, of the classical complement pathway, ... Petersen SV, Thiel S, Jensenius JC (2001). "The mannan-binding lectin pathway of complement activation: biology and disease ... Mannan-binding lectin Mannan-binding lectin pathway (lectin pathway) GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000009724 - Ensembl, May ...
If it is not then inactivated, it will combine with C2b to form the classical C3 convertase (C4bC2b) on the surface of the ... Classical complement pathway Alternative complement pathway Mannan-binding lectin Wallis R, Mitchell DA, Schmid R, Schwaeble WJ ... The lectin pathway is a type of cascade reaction in the complement system, similar in structure to the classical complement ... In contrast to the classical complement pathway, the lectin pathway does not recognize an antibody bound to its target. The ...
Pattern recognition receptor
MASP2 and initiate the lectin pathway of complement activation which is somewhat similar to the classical complement pathway. ... C4b and C2a are known as the C3 convertase. C3 is cleaved into its a and b subunits, and C3b binds the convertase. These ... dependent signaling pathway. MyD88 - dependent pathway is induced by various PAMPs stimulating the TLRs on macrophages and ... dependent pathway and triggers the signaling through NF-κB and the MAP kinase pathway and therefore the secretion of pro- ...
In classical type I lissencephaly, neuronal migration begins but is unable to continue to completion. This process is likely ... Many of the specifics of this pathway are still being investigated. It is not yet known if Dab1 is phosphorylated as a result ... Francis PJ, Hamon SC, Ott J, Weleber RG, Klein ML (May 2009). "Polymorphisms in C2, CFB and C3 are associated with progression ... "The proprotein convertase PCSK9 induces the degradation of low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and its closest family ...
Acts as complement inhibitor by disrupting the formation of the classical C3 convertase. Isoform 3 inhibits the classical complement pathway, while membrane-bound isoform 1 inhibits deposition of C3b via both the classical and alternative complement pathways.
Product Name: PrEST Antigen SUSD4Synonym: FLJ10052Product Type: ChemicalCAS NO: 52-51-7Wee1 inhibitorsAssay: |80% (SDS-PAGE)Concentration:
Human SUSD3 full-length ORF ( NP_659443.1, 1 a.a. - 255 a.a.) recombinant protein with GST-tag at N-terminal. (H00203328-P01) - Products - Abnova
Routinely used therapies are not adequate to treat the heterogeneity of breast cancer, and consequently, more therapeutic targets are desperately needed. To identify novel targets, we generated a breast cancer cDNA library enriched for genes that encode membrane and secreted proteins. From this library we identified SUSD2 (Sushi Domain Containing 2), which encodes an 822-amino acid protein containing a transmembrane domain and functional domains inherent to adhesion molecules. Previous studies describe the mouse homolog, Susd2, but there are no studies on the human gene associated with breast cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis of human breast tissues showed weak or no expression of SUSD2 in normal epithelial cells, with the endothelial lining of vessels staining positive for SUSD2. However, staining was observed in pathologic breast lesions and in lobular and ductal carcinomas. SUSD2 interacts with galectin-1 (Gal-1), a 14-kDa secreted protein that is synthesized by carcinoma cells and ...
STOCKTON - A seat is empty on the Stockton Unified School District governing board as Ed Garcia, who had served as a trustee for seven years, resigned.
Use Bio-Rads PrimePCR assays, controls, templates for your target gene. Every primer pair is optimized, experimentally validated, and performance guaranteed.
With two holes open, the filtering effect of the downstream holes is clear at frequencies above about 1.5 kHz. Compare this spectrum with more regular impedance spectrum for D4 on the classical instrument with a D foot. The regular, harmonically spaced minima in the latter spectrum allow greater power in the higher harmonics, and thus a brighter tone for this note.. ...
Located in Aventura, Sushi Sakes sushi rolls are bursting with flavor and color.Diners will appreciate the quick and easy parking options located near this dining establishment.If you have a hankering for some unique sushi dishes, make your way over to Sushi Sake.
There are five basic kinds of sushi: maki, nigiri, temaki, chirashi, and inari sushi. Though most people think of sushi as simply...
The heart of sushi is the rice. Without rice there would not be sushi. The very word "sushi" means "vinegared rice." There are a number of important factors to successful, delicious sushi rice. First, you must use white, short or medium grain rice which will give you a soft, sticky consistency. Secondly, you must use a rice cooker. An electric rice cooker is essential for perfect, no fail rice for sushi.. ...
Although sushi is the common food, most people have doubt that is sushi healthy or not? 100% sushi is the diet food and has low caloric value and high
How do you roll? This extensive list of sushi rolls contains the most popular Westernized varieties of the Japanese delight (i.e. Texas rolls are n...
Sushi is more popular than ever before but eating it has become the new Russian roulette in terms of safety. One mans love of sashimi nearly killed him after
Make the perfect sushi roll every time by yourself whenever you use the Yomo Sushi maker. Its a simple sushi rolling system and roll cutter, the purpose of which is to give you the power of making perfect Sushis at home. The one piece set will not only help you in getting to that ideal roll but also gives you the correct side piece with the roll cutter. The patented and mat replace the traditional bamboo and messy and inconsistent handmade rolls ...
The expression values of Her2, PR, and ER and subtype designation are correlated with the metagenes of BCAM and therefore are indirectly taken into account. They obviously provide vital information and improved understanding of breast cancer biology, which has led to effective treatments. However, our results suggest that an optimum breast cancer biomarker product does not need to include them.. Many early versions of microarray platforms, notably the popular Affymetrix U133A, do not contain probes for FGD3 and SUSD3, which may provide some explanation as to why these genes were not found earlier as highly prognostic in breast cancer. The two genes are genomically adjacent to each other and are correlated with ESR1 and PGR. The simultaneous silencing of FGD3 and SUSD3 is strongly associated (6) with poor prognosis. Furthermore, a recent study (21) identified SUSD3 as the single most predictive gene (more than ESR1) of response to aromatase inhibitor therapy. On the basis of the above facts, we ...
Once you have mastered plain rice, turning it into sushi rice (shari) just requires a few more steps. Sushi rice (called shari by sushi chefs) is rice that is flavored with dashi, rice vinegar, and salt.. Substitute cooled dashi stock for the water. Cook as per the above instructions.. You will need a large bowl or plate for the next step, preferably a wooden one made for this purpose called a hangiri. You can buy a hangiri at any Japanese kitchen equipment store, and even from Amazon. The advantage of using a wooden hangiri is that the untreated wood absorbs excess moisture from the rice. You can also use a large serving plate or a bowl, though that wont have the moisture-absorbing quality.. You also need a sturdy rice paddle or spatula. rice cookers come with a rice paddle.. Take 1/4 cup of bottled or homemade sushi vinegar (sushi-zu or awase-zu, see recipe below). Moisten your spatula or paddle with a little of the vinegar. Turn your hot rice out into the bowl or plate, Pour the sushi ...
You can order lots of varieties of Sushi. There are various types of rolls, fishes, vegetables, garnishes, etc. to choose from. You will never be tired of eating Sushi. You will always find something new to taste.. So, if you havent tried Sushi yet, there are many reasons to try it now. Its a unique dish that looks great and tastes good, too! So, dont miss it!. ...
Create some of the most visually appealing and tasty sushi rolls imaginable with this Bamboo Rolling Mat from Kotobuki. This sushi mat allows the user
Book now at Sushi Lounge in Hoboken, NJ. Explore menu, see photos and read 93 reviews: Specialty rolls were very creative but the sushi was not as good as expected. A few rolls had been refrigerated. Others seemed not so fresh. I will pro...
The Japanese are so evolved, theyve figured out nearly everything to an art. We thought these cute little sushi couldnt probably look any cuter. We were
Many people believed sushi was a nutritious meal and a smart choice for heart health, but a recent study suggests the Japanese food could actually increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.
A small American restaurant chain called Sticky Rice has successfully launched the very first sushi into space on Jan. 1 this year. As...
Pat Pong in Bangkok. The place charges 199 baht (about RM 20) for an all-you-can-eat buffet of shabu shabu (not that kind, the Japanese steamboat) and sushi. The name "Shabu shi" is a contraction of the words "Shabu shabu" and "Sushi".. ...
Hello Susan! For me it has to be coconut & lime because it just such a summery scent and for us in New Zealand Christmas means long hot days at the beach with family & friends (and kind of reminds me of the coconut oil we used to slather on ourselves years ago - yikes!) We love a warm Christmas - strange concept I know!! Camphor is also a favourite as it reminds me of my grandmothers camphorwood chest that we were never allowed to rummage through (but desperately wanted to) as kids. When she did open it... ahhhh that smell. Also anything floral as everything in my garden is in full bloom - heavenly ...
Minumnya seperti biasa, ocha yang free...hahahaha. Buat gua, Sushi Tei tetep yang paling enak dibanding restoran sushi lainnya. Btw, sedikit intermezzo. Katanya kalo di Jepang itu hampir semua sushi mentah, ga ada yang mateng. Sushi mateng macam fussion roll itu modifikasi dari barat karena mereka ga suka makanan mentah. Dan katanya lagi, kalo di Jepang, wasabi itu uda ada di dalem sushinya, bukan dicampur ke soyu kayak di Indonesia. Dan lagi, di Jepang, mereka makan sushi tanpa soyu. Kalaupun dengan soyu, paling cuma dicocol dikit, bukan direndem kayak yang biasa nyokap gua makan...hahahaha. ...
I had the opportunity to try out their Asian Fusion Restaurant named Bashi.. This resturant is a must try not only because of its gorgous views, but also because of their great happy hour deal! During their happy hour which is daily between 4:00-6:00PM they offer half off sushi rolls and special prices sake and cocktails. I found the sushi to be of great quality and fresh.. ...
When eaten properly, sushi is very good for you. Though some have fears about eating raw fish, properly prepared sushi is actually...
Moosoo Sushi has more than 70 kinds of fusion sushi rolls and dishes. Our reccipes and culinary methods follow Japanese traditions fused with refreshing, new and exciting ideas.We are committed to quality and freshness.
The next time you have a serious craving for sushi — and a lunch date with your vegetarian buddy — consider Manpuku. This smallish sushi...
Umi Sushi, Jacksonville: See 71 unbiased reviews of Umi Sushi, rated 4.5 of 5 on TripAdvisor and ranked #11 of 26 restaurants in Jacksonville.
I will use this thread to document the whole making of my movie: SLICE OF LIFE. So, apart from Sushi bar there will be many other models, props, tests, videos and stuff. Hope youll like it! ------------------------------------------------------ Hi! Im sure most of you are familiar with the Sushi bar building. It was just one of randomly put together buildings and used in most of the SFX shots in the movie called Blade Runner. I was fascinated with the shape and look of that building
I will use this thread to document the whole making of my movie: SLICE OF LIFE. So, apart from Sushi bar there will be many other models, props, tests, videos and stuff. Hope youll like it! ------------------------------------------------------ Hi! Im sure most of you are familiar with the Sushi bar building. It was just one of randomly put together buildings and used in most of the SFX shots in the movie called Blade Runner. I was fascinated with the shape and look of that building
OK, so here are some industry secrets to help you buy sushi grade fish when Kazari can’t help you. That being said, the following can apply to any...
We went out a couple nights ago for the last MNO for me - probably ever. Sad, sad. And they surprised me by bringing a gift - supplies for sushi making no less! They explained that they were concerned that I wouldnt have yummy sushi access after the move ...
fruit sushi - Traditionally, sushi consists of rice, seaweed, vegetables and raw fish, but this fruit sushi is a slightly sweeter take on the Japanese cuisine. C...
There are 367 calories in 1 container, 3 pieces (4.9 oz) of Hissho Sushi Inari Sushi. Youd need to walk 96 minutes to burn 367 calories. Visit CalorieKing to see calorie count and nutrient data for all portion sizes.
There are 494 calories in 1 container, 8 pieces (9.9 oz) of Hissho Sushi The Alaskan Sushi. Youd need to walk 129 minutes to burn 494 calories. Visit CalorieKing to see calorie count and nutrient data for all portion sizes.
We left her house at 6 pm to go pick up some sushi. Seems like an easy enough task! We went to a Thai place where they told us they only had sushi on Thursday nights. So she decided to order a couple of meals and then we would go by and pick up a little bit of sushi from another place. After waiting 30 min and the food STILL wasnt out she decided to call in the sushi order to save some time. 15 min later we finally got our food and were headed to the sushi place. I usually eat at 6:30 or 7:00 and by this time it was 7:00. If you know me, you know I cant go more than 2 to 3 hours without eating! We arrived at the sushi place 30 min after she called it in. It wasnt ready! We waited there another 30 min! Every single "Jersey Shore" want to be guy must have been at that sushi place. They were like sharks circling their prey. At this time Julie looks at me and says she needs to go by McDonalds to get Austin something. Im about to lose it at this point so I told her to go and I would wait for the ...
Best Sushi in Roslyn, Washington: Find TripAdvisor traveller reviews of Roslyn Sushi restaurants and search by price, location, and more.
Best Sushi in Kato Daratso, Chania Prefecture: Find TripAdvisor traveller reviews of Kato Daratso Sushi restaurants and search by price, location, and more.
Book now at RA Sushi Bar Restaurant - Tempe in Tempe, AZ. Explore menu, see photos and read 73 reviews: Really enjoyed the sushi, great variety.
Reserve a table at Istana Sushi and Wok Inc, Hoboken on TripAdvisor: See 4 unbiased reviews of Istana Sushi and Wok Inc, rated 4 of 5 on TripAdvisor and ranked #200 of 308 restaurants in Hoboken.
The owner of Japanese restaurant chain Genki Sushi Co (9828.T) will buy a one-third stake in bigger rival Sushiro Global Holdings Ltd (3563.T) from private equity firm Permira [PERM.UL], a person with direct knowledge of the deal said.
Is Sushi Healthy. There is so much misinformation on this subject so we take the most popular ingredients and weigh both the positive and negative benefits on your health.
THE SUSHI BAR in Sofia - information in Golden Pages: see phone, address and address on the map for the company. Activity in the field Restaurants - sushi
Recipe for Salmon Roe Battleship Sushi -- Ikura. Salmon Roe is a big hit around the world for its rich flavor and this easy sushi has just four ingredients.
Restaurant Sayori: Great Sushi! :-) - See 82 traveler reviews, 13 candid photos, and great deals for Baden, Switzerland, at TripAdvisor.
Trevor Corsons journey into the world of sushi, conveyed in his new book, began more than two decades ago at DCs Sidwell Friends School. Photograph by Matthew Worden. You could say that Trevor Corsons book The Zen of Fish:...
Esta temporada a Gucci mostra- nos peças que protagonizam um lookbook simplesmente maravilhoso:))) estou de boca aberta, adoro as combinações de cores que eles fazem...ficam aqui algumas imagens para deliciarem-se (já que os preços é melhor nem vê-los ...
Are RXBars safe to eat now? Can I eat safely in Atlanta or should I cancel my trip? Should I allow regular flour in my house? Is May Contain Wheat safe? Why am I recommending Sushi when it may not be safe?
The main component in this whole kit is the sushi tube which is 12 inches long. It has the diameter of 2.5 inches which might seem a bit too large for many sushi lovers. You have to put in the rice and whatever ingredients you want to add inside. Then close down the tube and use the plunger to push it onto nori sheet. Then wrap it up and serve the delicious pieces! This process is easy enough to be followed and adopted by anybody.. All these pieces are made of food grade plastic which is both safe and durable. They can be utilized to make crunchy dessert items too like walnut rolls, cake rolls, biscuit cookies and more! You can throw them in the dishwasher after use for easy cleanup. For more ease, grease up the cylinder sides with olive oil.. Beware of the knock-off products by checking if your roller has the Sushezi logo on its outer side. Only buy the authentic sushi roller kit from trusted suppliers at an affordable price. This sushi maker set also comes with a full-color box so that you can ...
Set to open in three weeks, Ai Sushi Lounge (358 W. Ontario St.; 312-335-9888) is the third brain child of Agnes Yoshikawa and Eugene Chua, the brother-and-sister team who own Tsuki (1441 W. Fullerton Ave.; 773-883-8722) and Ringo (2507 N. Lincoln Ave.; 773-248-5788). Since Toyoji Hemmi, Tsukis sushi whiz, will now split his time between Tsuki and Ai, we asked Rai Calma, Ai Sushis general manager, whether we should expect a Tsuki knockoff. "Tsuki is more tapas style. The nigiri and sushi will be there, but this kitchen will focus on entrées, so people can course out a more traditional meal," said Calma. Heres hoping the place does better than the previous sushi bar at this address. That was Kizoku, a Vegas-type extravaganza where you could pick well-placed sushi off of barely clad women. Not a tradition in Chicago. Panini and Gelato ...
Doctors have issued a serious warning about sushis recent spike in popularity after a man in Lisbon, Portugal, was violently sickened by the Japanese delicacy.. Photo: BMJ Case Reports. Read more…. …read more ...
Doctors have a warning for you. A dangerous parasite is showing up in sushi. The worm attaches to the lining of your stomach and could lead to a fever, vomiting, digestive bleeding and even life-threatening reactions.
Bedste sushi i Sulphur: Se TripAdvisor-rejsendes anmeldelser af restauranter i Sulphur, Louisiana, og søg på køkken, pris, sted og meget mere.
Art and Designing. When it comes to exploring your options for commercial fit-out, there are a few things that you need to consider. A commercial fit-out company can have several differences from a residential one. It makes sense to choose a fit-out company […]. ...
mannose-binding lectin pathway - meddic
C3 convertase is, in classical terms, C4b2a.. Clinical significance. It has been found that people deficient in MBL experience ... The lectin pathway is a type of cascade reaction in the complement system, similar in structure to the classical complement ... C3 convertase. C4b and C2a combine on the surface of the pathogen to form C3-convertase (C4b and C2a), while C4a and C2b act as ... In contrast to the classical complement pathway, the lectin pathway does not recognize an antibody bound to its target. The ...http://meddic.jp/mannose-binding_lectin_pathway
Robin McKenzie - Research Output - Johns Hopkins University
Complement System Proteins Vaccinia virus Classical Pathway Complement C3 Convertase Classical Complement Pathway ... Regulation of complement activity by vaccinia virus complement-control protein. McKenzie, R., Kotwal, G. J., Moss, B., Hammer, ... Inhibition of the complement cascade by the major secretory protein of vaccinia virus. Kotwal, G. J., Isaacs, S. N., McKenzie, ...https://jhu.pure.elsevier.com/en/persons/robin-mckenzie/publications/?type=%2Fdk%2Fatira%2Fpure%2Fresearchoutput%2Fresearchoutputtypes%2Fcontributiontojournal%2Farticle
Terminologia de ciències de la salut | TERMCAT
fr C3 convertase classique * en classical-complement-pathway C3/C5-convertase Immunologia ... C3/C5-convertasa de la via clàssica del complement C3/C5-convertasa de la via clàssica del complement ... ca C3/C5-convertasa de la via clàssica del complement, n f ... es C3/C5-convertasa de la vía clásica del complemento * ... de la via clàssica del complement amb la via alternativa i amb la via de la lectina i que escindeix el factor del complement C3 ...https://www.termcat.cat/en/diccionaris-en-linia/198/fitxa/MzM2MDk2NQ%3D%3D
Keith A Joiner - Research Output - University of Arizona
Classical Pathway Complement C3 Convertase * Trypanosoma cruzi * Alternative Pathway Complement C3 Convertase ... Classical complement pathway activation by antipneumococcal antibodies leads to covalent binding of C3b to antibody molecules. ... Interaction of desialated guinea pig erythrocytes with the classical and alternative pathways of guinea pig complement in vivo ... Developmentally regulated expression by Trypanosoma cruzi of molecules that accelerate the decay of complement C3 convertases. ...https://arizona.pure.elsevier.com/en/persons/keith-a-joiner/publications/?page=3
The multiple roles of microRNA-155 in oncogenesis | Journal of Clinical Bioinformatics | Full Text
C3: Classical Complement Pathway C3-convertase. CCL5: Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 ... Tables 2 and 3 below show some of the pathways regulated by miR-155.. Table 2 Pathways up-regulated in Eμ-miR-155 mice naïve B ... Because of its role in signaling pathways, miR-155 is a key contributor to cancers of the breast, lung, stomach, and ... The previous studies show that miR-155 plays an integral role in numerous pathways. Specifically, miR-155 was shown to enhance ...https://jclinbioinformatics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/2043-9113-3-17
... classical-complement-pathway C3/C5 convertase. Reaction: Selective cleavage of Arg. Ser bond in complement component C3 α-chain ... Other names: C3 convertase; C. ; C4b,2a; C5 convertase; C. ; C4b,2a,3b; C42; C5 convertase; C423; C4b,2a,3b; complement C.hivin ... complement C3 convertase. Comments: A complex of complement fragments C4b, C2a and C2b. C2a contains the active site, C2b the ... C2a and C2b are formed by cleavage of proenzyme C2 by complement subcomponent C. . Cleavage of C5 requires complement fragment ...http://www.sbcs.qmul.ac.uk/iubmb/enzyme/EC3/4/21/43.html
Complement C3-C5 Convertases - C3 Convertase Summary Report | CureHunter
These include the different forms of C3/C5 convertases in the classical and the alternative pathways of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. ... Serine proteases that cleave COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, or cleave COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A ... Complement 5 Convertase; Complement C3 Convertases; Complement C5 Convertases; Activator, C3; C3 Convertases, Complement; C3-C5 ... Convertase, C3; Convertase, C3-C5; Convertase, Complement 3; Convertases, Complement C3; Convertases, Complement C3-C5; ...http://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD050577-Complement-C3-C5-Convertases-C3-Convertase.do
Protein S deficiency | Haematologica
The protein participates in the regulation of the classical complement pathway C3 convertase (C4bC2a complex), functioning as a ... classical complement pathway by localizing C4b-BP to the surface of negatively charged phospholipids and controlling complement ... 2006) Protein S stimulates inhibition of the tissue factor pathway by tissue factor pathway inhibitor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA ... The binding of protein S-C4b-BPβ+ to apoptotic cells can provide local regulation of the complement system and inhibition of ...http://www.haematologica.org/content/93/4/498
Anticomplementary | definition of anticomplementary by Medical dictionary
Anticomplementary activity of Boswellia acids--an inhibitor of C3-convertase of the classical complement pathway. ... Denoting a substance possessing the power to diminish or abolish the action of a complement. ... on the differential anticomplementary effects of dextran sulphate and heparin in the assay for the mouse alternative pathway.. ...https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/anticomplementary
List of EC numbers (EC 3) - Wikipedia
... complement component C5 convertase. Now EC 184.108.40.206, classical-complement-pathway C3/C5 convertase EC 220.127.116.11: complement ... complement subcomponent C1s EC 18.104.22.168: classical-complement-pathway C3/C5 convertase EC 22.214.171.124: Transferred entry: ... factor I EC 126.96.36.199: complement factor D EC 188.8.131.52: alternative-complement-pathway C3/C5 convertase EC 184.108.40.206: ... Proprotein convertase 1 EC 220.127.116.11: Proprotein convertase 2 EC 18.104.22.168: Snake venom factor V activator EC 22.214.171.124: ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_EC_numbers_(EC_3)
Eosinophil colony-stimulating factor | definition of eosinophil colony-stimulating factor by Medical dictionary
... enzyme that regulates both classical and alternative pathways of complement activation by inactivating their C3 convertases. ... C3 nephritic factor (C3 NeF) an autoantibody that stabilizes the alternative complement pathway C3 convertase, preventing its ... C3 nephritic factor (C3 NeF) an autoantibody that stabilizes the alternative complement pathway C3 convertase, preventing its ... enzyme that regulates both classical and alternative pathways of complement activation by inactivating their C3 convertases. ...https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/eosinophil+colony-stimulating+factor
SUSD4 - Sushi domain-containing protein 4 precursor - Homo sapiens (Human) - SUSD4 gene & protein
Isoform 3 inhibits the classical complement pathway, while membrane-bound isoform 1 inhibits deposition of C3b via both the ... Acts as complement inhibitor by disrupting the formation of the classical C3 convertase. ... Acts as complement inhibitor by disrupting the formation of the classical C3 convertase. Isoform 3 inhibits the classical ... "Sushi domain-containing protein 4 (SUSD4) inhibits complement by disrupting the formation of the classical C3 convertase.". ...http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q5VX71
Complement subcomponent C1r 126.96.36.199 Complement subcomponent C1s 188.8.131.52 Classical-complement-pathway C3/C5 convertase 3.4. ... Complement factor D 184.108.40.206 Alternative-complement-pathway C3/C5 convertase 220.127.116.11 Cerevisin 18.104.22.168 Hypodermin C 3.4. ... Proprotein convertase 1 22.214.171.124 Proprotein convertase 2 126.96.36.199 Snake venom factor V activator 188.8.131.52 Lactocepin 3.4. ... 21.44 Transferred entry: 184.108.40.206 220.127.116.11 Complement factor I 18.104.22.168 ...https://enzyme.expasy.org/EC/3.4.21.-
Complement subcomponent C1r 22.214.171.124 Complement subcomponent C1s 126.96.36.199 Classical-complement-pathway C3/C5 convertase 3.4. ... Complement factor D 188.8.131.52 Alternative-complement-pathway C3/C5 convertase 184.108.40.206 Cerevisin 220.127.116.11 Hypodermin C 3.4. ... Proprotein convertase 1 18.104.22.168 Proprotein convertase 2 22.214.171.124 Snake venom factor V activator 126.96.36.199 Lactocepin 3.4. ... 21.44 Transferred entry: 188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206 Complement factor I 220.127.116.11 ...https://enzyme.expasy.org/EC/3.-.-.-
Complement component 3 - Wikipedia
In the alternative complement pathway, C3 is cleaved by C3bBb, another form of C3-convertase composed of activated forms of C3 ... Its activation is required for both classical and alternative complement activation pathways. People with C3 deficiency are ... "Entrez Gene: C3 complement component 3". Sahu A, Lambris JD (Apr 2001). "Structure and biology of complement protein C3, a ... C3 convertase. C3bBb is deactivated in steps. First, the proteolytic component of the convertase, Bb, is removed by complement ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Complement_component_3
WikiGenes - CDK5RAP1 - CDK5 regulatory subunit associated protein 1
... which have been shown to stabilize the cell bound classical pathway C3 convertase of complement, C42 . ... Relative resistance of the F-42-stabilized classical pathway C3 convertase to inactivation by C4-binding protein. Daha, M.R., ... The susceptibility of the PNH cell to complement lysis because of an increased fixation of C3 to its membrane is not due to a ... The C42 enzyme can be replaced by trypsin, so that bridging units may consist of C3 + C42, C5 + C42 OR C3 + trypsin, and C5 + ...https://www.wikigenes.org/e/gene/e/51654.html
Expression of complement regulatory proteins CD55, CD59, CD35, and CD46 in rheumatoid arthritis
C3, into C3a, an anaphylactic and antimicrobial peptide, and opsonin C3b. In the classical and lectin pathways, C3 convertase ... C3 convertase and amplification. C3 convertase cleaves the central component of complement, ... The complement cascade (CC) can be divided into four major phases: early complement activation; C3-convertase activation and ... Early complement activation. Complement is activated through three different pathways. The alternative pathway is spontaneously ...http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0482-50042011000500009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en
Mannan-binding lectin activates C3 and the alternative complement pathway without involvement of C2. - PubMed - NCBI
... or ficolins and generation of classical pathway C3 convertase via cleavage of C4 and C2 by MBL-associated serine protease 2 ( ... Mannan-binding lectin activates C3 and the alternative complement pathway without involvement of C2.. Selander B1, Mårtensson U ... Independent of MBL, specific antibodies to CO supported C3 deposition through classical and alternative pathways. MBL-dependent ... Mannan-binding lectin activates C3 and the alternative complement pathway without involvement of C2 ...https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16670774?dopt=Abstract
Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) | Plant Profiler | Sigma-Aldrich
... sheep erythrocytes by guinea pig serum via possible inhibition of the C3 convertase of the classical complement pathway. ... been reported to demonstrate inhibitory effects on both the classical pathway convertase and the alternative pathway convertase ... 28 Rosmarinic acid was also reported to inhibit C5 convertase in the classical pathway.48,28 ... a new inhibitor of complement C3-convertase with anti- inflammatory activity. Int J Immunopharmacol 1988;10(6):729-737. 3198307 ...https://www.sigmaaldrich.com/life-science/nutrition-research/learning-center/plant-profiler/melissa-officinalis.html
Immunology Flashcards by | Brainscape
... autoantibodies targeted at complement components. Stabilise C3 convertase leading to consumption of C3 ... SLE: The classical pathway clears necrotic and apoptotic cells. Failure leads to build up of self antigens especially nuclear ... Formation of antigen-antibody complexes activates which complement pathway? Starts with which protein? ... C4b binds to the pathogen and starts the process forming C3 convertase. ...https://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/immunology-4870435/packs/7066822
Frontiers | Complement System Part II: Role in Immunity | Immunology
... far exceeding the classical examples of diseases associated with complement deficiencies. Finally, we discuss complement as a ... Inadequate complement activation becomes a disease cause, as in atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, C3 glomerulopathies, and ... In pathology, complement can be a friend or a foe. It acts as a friend in the defense against pathogens, by inducing a direct ... In pathology, complement can be a friend or a foe. It acts as a friend in the defense against pathogens, by inducing ...https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2015.00257/full
Allograft Rejection (Homo sapiens) - WikiPathways
C3 CONVERTASE. CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT. PATHWAY. Treg. nucleus. CHRONIC AMR REJECTION. CD 8+ T cell. Donor Cell. Maturation. TH2. ... C3. TUBA1B. PDGFRA. GDNF. CXCL12. CCL21. GABPA. AGTR1. CXCL11. CSNK2A2. C3. CCL21. IL1A. C4A. COL5. IL8. HARS. IFNG. CXCL11. ... C3. CD55. ECULIZUMAB. CD40LG. CD40. CD 8+ T cell. CD 8+ T cell. CD 8+ T cell. TH1. cell. CD 8+ T cell. CD 8+ T cell. CD 8+ T ... ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT. PATHWAY. Apoptosis. C1 COMPLEX. TT: Therapeutic Target (increase). Calcineurin Inhibitor Nephrotoxicity ...https://www.wikipathways.org/index.php/Pathway:WP2328
SUSD4 cDNA ORF Clone,Human | SinoBiological
SUSD4 augments the alternative but not the classical pathway of complement activation at the C3 convertase step. SUSD4 ...http://www.sinobiological.com/Human-SUSD4-Gene-cDNA-Clone-full-length-ORF-Clone-expression-ready-C-HA-tagged-p89268.html
C4BPA Gene - GeneCards | C4BPA Protein | C4BPA Antibody
... pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium ... Complement Component 4 Binding Protein Alpha, including: function, proteins, disorders, ... complement component 4,binding protein alpha,70kDa,regulator of C3 convertase of classical pathway,see [email protected] *C4BPA ... Immune response Lectin induced complement pathway. Immune response Lectin induced complement pathway ...https://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=C4BPA&keywords=GH01J207103&prefilter=genomic_location
2ODQ | Genus
The crystal structure of c2a, the catalytic fragment of classical pathway c3 and c5 convertase of human complement. pubmed doi ... Complement component c2a, the catalytic fragment of c3- and c5-convertase of human complement ... ec 18.104.22.168: Classical-complement-pathway C3/C5 convertase. pdb deposition date 2006-12-25. ...https://genus.fuw.edu.pl/view/2ODQ/A/
ProteinsCleavageSerumMannan-bindinAntibodiesSystemic Lupus ErythemHemolytic uremic sNephritic FactorInnate ImmuneFragmentDegradationComponent of complementComplexesRole of complementClear that complementEnzymaticInflammatoryAntigenTherapeutic targetEffectorDeficienciesKEGGInteractionsReactionSusceptibilityReactive thioesterDefectsHuman
- First, the proteolytic component of the convertase, Bb, is removed by complement regulatory proteins having decay-accelerating factor (DAF) activity. (wikipedia.org)
- The decreased expression of complement regulatory proteins (CRP) seems to play an important role in RA activity, and is associated with worsening of the clinical symptoms. (scielo.br)
- rheumatoid arthritis, complement system proteins, complement activation. (scielo.br)
- The complement system (CS) is composed of receptors and regulators bound to the cell membrane and different plasma proteins that interact with cells and mediators of the immune system ( Figure 1 ). (scielo.br)
- Reconstitution of undiluted serum with C1q (70 mg/l, not shown) or D (1 mg/l) together with P (25 mg/l) did not promote C3 deposition, showing that the CO antigen did not activate complement in the absence of recognition proteins. (nih.gov)
- Unfortunately, the lack of coherence in complement proteins nomenclature and the complexity of the enzymatic cascade render complement one of the "most complicated and incomprehensible" parts of immunology and is frequently avoided by students and scientists. (frontiersin.org)
- One component of the innate immune system is the complement system, encompassing more than 30 different recognition, effector, and control proteins. (asm.org)
- The structural and functional properties of MBL, L-ficolin, and H-ficolin appear very similar, suggesting that the three proteins may serve similar biological functions through activation of the complement system upon binding to microorganisms. (asm.org)
- The complement system is made up of a large number of distinct plasma proteins that react with one another to opsonize pathogens and induce a series of inflammatory responses that help to fight infection. (nih.gov)
- A number of complement proteins are proteases that are themselves activated by proteolytic cleavage. (nih.gov)
- In this way, the activation of a small number of complement proteins at the start of the pathway is hugely amplified by each successive enzymatic reaction, resulting in the rapid generation of a disproportionately large complement response. (nih.gov)
- First, it generates large numbers of activated complement proteins that bind covalently to pathogens, opsonizing them for engulfment by phagocytes bearing receptors for complement. (nih.gov)
- Second, the small fragments of some complement proteins act as chemoattractants to recruit more phagocytes to the site of complement activation, and also to activate these phagocytes. (nih.gov)
- Complement is a system of plasma proteins that is activated by the presence of pathogens. (wikipathways.org)
- Cleavage of C5 requires complement fragment C3b which binds C5 and renders it susceptible to cleavage by the C4b,2a complex. (qmul.ac.uk)
- It catalyzes the proteolytic cleavage of C3 into C3a and C3b, generated during activation through the classical pathway as well as the lectin pathway. (wikipedia.org)
- Lectin pathway activation of C3 is known to involve target recognition by mannan-binding lectin (MBL) or ficolins and generation of classical pathway C3 convertase via cleavage of C4 and C2 by MBL-associated serine protease 2 (MASP-2). (nih.gov)
- In such a cascade, an active complement enzyme generated by cleavage of its zymogen precursor then cleaves its substrate, another complement zymogen, to its active enzymatic form. (nih.gov)
- however, in two patients with nephritic factor in their serum fractional catabolism of C5 was normal despite markedly increased C3 turnover, suggesting that in patients with alternative pathway activation by nephritic factor little or no C5 convertase is generated. (curehunter.com)
- The capacity of serum to support C3 deposition was examined by ELISA using microtiter plates coated with O antigen-specific oligosaccharides derived from Salmonella typhimurium, S. thompson, and S. enteritidis corresponding to serogroups B, C, and D (BO, CO, and DO). (nih.gov)
- C3 deposition onto wells coated with O antigen-specific BO, CO, and DO following incubation in PNHS or C2-deficient serum. (nih.gov)
- C3 deposition induced by CO antigen (1,000 ng/well) in an MBL-deficient serum that was depleted of C1qDP and Igs. (nih.gov)
- The serum was used at a final concentration of 20% and was studied with or without reconstitution of the alternative pathway. (nih.gov)
- The mannan-binding lectin pathway ( MB-lectin pathway ) is initiated by binding of the mannan-binding lectin, a serum protein, to mannose-containing carbohydrates on bacteria or viruses. (nih.gov)
- Independent of MBL, specific antibodies to CO supported C3 deposition through classical and alternative pathways. (nih.gov)
- C3 deposition was detected with alkaline phosphatase-conjugated rabbit anti-C3c antibodies. (nih.gov)
- After generation of pathogen-specific antibodies, complement contributes in the clearance of immune complexes and pathogen elimination. (frontiersin.org)
- Activated B cells lead to plasma cell formation followed by IgG antibodies and the complement cascade pathway in acute antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) and chronic AMR with C3 being the therapeutic target. (wikipathways.org)
- Complement was discovered many years ago as a heat-labile component of normal plasma that augments the opsonization of bacteria by antibodies and allows antibodies to kill some bacteria. (nih.gov)
- Although first discovered as an effector arm of the antibody response, complement can also be activated early in infection in the absence of antibodies. (nih.gov)
- Having been traditionally utilized as a marker of infection and cardiovascular events, there is now growing evidence that CRP plays important roles in inflammatory processes and host responses to infection including the complement pathway, apoptosis, phagocytosis, nitric oxide (NO) release, and the production of cytokines, particularly interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α. (frontiersin.org)
- The three main consequences of complement activation are the opsonization of pathogens, the recruitment of inflammatory and immunocompetent cells, and the direct killing of pathogens. (wikipathways.org)
- Hence, it seems that stroke treatment needs more efficient and inflammatory-targeted compounds to modulate inflammatory-related pathways. (boswellia.org)
- Complement component 3 has been shown to interact with Factor H. Deficiencies in C3 lead to generic infections, usually fatal to the newborn. (wikipedia.org)
- Age-related macular degeneration and cancer will be described as examples showing that complement contributes to a large variety of conditions, far exceeding the classical examples of diseases associated with complement deficiencies. (frontiersin.org)
- 1. Kerr, M.A. The second component of human complement. (qmul.ac.uk)
- Anti-C3 NAbs showed up to 400-fold and anti-F(ab')2 NAbs, up to 30-fold enrichment as compared to pooled normal human IgG. (curehunter.com)
- The genes encoding both alpha and beta chains are located adjacent to each other on human chromosome 1 in the regulator of complement activation gene cluster. (genecards.org)