Proprotein Convertases: Proteolytic enzymes that are involved in the conversion of protein precursors such as peptide prohormones into PEPTIDE HORMONES. Some are ENDOPEPTIDASES, some are EXOPEPTIDASES.Complement C3: A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.Complement C3-C5 Convertases: Serine proteases that cleave COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, or cleave COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. These include the different forms of C3/C5 convertases in the classical and the alternative pathways of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Both cleavages take place at the C-terminal of an ARGININE residue.Complement C4: A glycoprotein that is important in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C4 is cleaved by the activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C4A and COMPLEMENT C4B.Complement C4a: The smaller fragment formed when complement C4 is cleaved by COMPLEMENT C1S. It is an anaphylatoxin that causes symptoms of immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE) but its activity is weaker than that of COMPLEMENT C3A or COMPLEMENT C5A.Furin: A proprotein convertase with specificity for the proproteins of PROALBUMIN; COMPLEMENT 3C; and VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR. It has specificity for cleavage near paired ARGININE residues that are separated by two amino acids.Proprotein Convertase 2: A serine endopeptidase that has specificity for cleavage at ARGININE. It cleaves a variety of prohormones including PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN, proluteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone, proenkephalins, prodynorphin, and PROINSULIN.Complement C5: C5 plays a central role in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C5 is cleaved by C5 CONVERTASE into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. The smaller fragment C5a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of inflammatory process. The major fragment C5b binds to the membrane initiating the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components, C5-C9, into the MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Complement C3a: The smaller fragment generated from the cleavage of complement C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. C3a, a 77-amino acid peptide, is a mediator of local inflammatory process. It induces smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION, and HISTAMINE RELEASE from MAST CELLS and LEUKOCYTES. C3a is considered an anaphylatoxin along with COMPLEMENT C4A; COMPLEMENT C5A; and COMPLEMENT C5A, DES-ARGININE.Complement Activation: The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.Complement C4b: The large fragment formed when COMPLEMENT C4 is cleaved by COMPLEMENT C1S. The membrane-bound C4b binds COMPLEMENT C2A, a SERINE PROTEASE, to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).Subtilisins: A family of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES isolated from Bacillus subtilis. EC 3.4.21.-Complement C1q: A subcomponent of complement C1, composed of six copies of three polypeptide chains (A, B, and C), each encoded by a separate gene (C1QA; C1QB; C1QC). This complex is arranged in nine subunits (six disulfide-linked dimers of A and B, and three disulfide-linked homodimers of C). C1q has binding sites for antibodies (the heavy chain of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M). The interaction of C1q and immunoglobulin activates the two proenzymes COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S, thus initiating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION via the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.Complement C3b: The larger fragment generated from the cleavage of COMPLEMENT C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. It is a constituent of the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb), and COMPLEMENT C5 CONVERTASES in both the classical (C4b2a3b) and the alternative (C3bBb3b) pathway. C3b participates in IMMUNE ADHERENCE REACTION and enhances PHAGOCYTOSIS. It can be inactivated (iC3b) or cleaved by various proteases to yield fragments such as COMPLEMENT C3C; COMPLEMENT C3D; C3e; C3f; and C3g.Complement C5a: The minor fragment formed when C5 convertase cleaves C5 into C5a and COMPLEMENT C5B. C5a is a 74-amino-acid glycopeptide with a carboxy-terminal ARGININE that is crucial for its spasmogenic activity. Of all the complement-derived anaphylatoxins, C5a is the most potent in mediating immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE), smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION; HISTAMINE RELEASE; and migration of LEUKOCYTES to site of INFLAMMATION.Proprotein Convertase 1: A CALCIUM-dependent endopeptidase that has specificity for cleavage at ARGININE that is near paired basic residues. It cleaves a variety of prohormones including PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN; PRORENIN; proenkephalins; prodynorphin; prosomatostatin; and PROINSULIN.Complement C2: A component of the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C2 is cleaved by activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C2B and COMPLEMENT C2A. C2a, the COOH-terminal fragment containing a SERINE PROTEASE, combines with COMPLEMENT C4B to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Proprotein Convertase 5: A serine endopeptidase found primarily in the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. It has specificity for cleavage of a variety of substrates including PRORENIN, pro-membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase, and NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULE L1.Complement C6: A 105-kDa serum glycoprotein with significant homology to the other late complement components, C7-C9. It is a polypeptide chain cross-linked by 32 disulfide bonds. C6 is the next complement component to bind to the membrane-bound COMPLEMENT C5B in the assembly of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. It is encoded by gene C6.Complement C3c: A 206-amino-acid fragment in the alpha chain (672-1663) of C3b. It is generated when C3b is inactivated (iC3b) and its alpha chain is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I into C3c (749-954), and C3dg (955-1303) in the presence COMPLEMENT FACTOR H.Complement C3d: A 302-amino-acid fragment in the alpha chain (672-1663) of C3b. It is generated when C3b is inactivated (iC3b) and its alpha chain is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I into C3c, and C3dg (955-1303) in the presence COMPLEMENT FACTOR H. Serum proteases further degrade C3dg into C3d (1002-1303) and C3g (955-1001).Receptors, Complement: Molecules on the surface of some B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that recognize and combine with the C3b, C3d, C1q, and C4b components of complement.Complement C9: A 63-kDa serum glycoprotein encoded by gene C9. Monomeric C9 (mC9) binds the C5b-8 complex to form C5b-9 which catalyzes the polymerization of C9 forming C5b-p9 (MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX) and transmembrane channels leading to lysis of the target cell. Patients with C9 deficiency suffer from recurrent bacterial infections.Complement Pathway, Classical: Complement activation initiated by the binding of COMPLEMENT C1 to ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES at the COMPLEMENT C1Q subunit. This leads to the sequential activation of COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S subunits. Activated C1s cleaves COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 forming the membrane-bound classical C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Complement Pathway, Alternative: Complement activation initiated by the interaction of microbial ANTIGENS with COMPLEMENT C3B. When COMPLEMENT FACTOR B binds to the membrane-bound C3b, COMPLEMENT FACTOR D cleaves it to form alternative C3 CONVERTASE (C3BBB) which, stabilized by COMPLEMENT FACTOR P, is able to cleave multiple COMPLEMENT C3 to form alternative C5 CONVERTASE (C3BBB3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Complement Inactivator Proteins: Serum proteins that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host. The complement system is tightly regulated by inactivators that accelerate the decay of intermediates and certain cell surface receptors.Complement C1s: A 77-kDa subcomponent of complement C1, encoded by gene C1S, is a SERINE PROTEASE existing as a proenzyme (homodimer) in the intact complement C1 complex. Upon the binding of COMPLEMENT C1Q to antibodies, the activated COMPLEMENT C1R cleaves C1s into two chains, A (heavy) and B (light, the serine protease), linked by disulfide bonds yielding the active C1s. The activated C1s, in turn, cleaves COMPLEMENT C2 and COMPLEMENT C4 to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL C3 CONVERTASE).Complement Factor B: A glycine-rich, heat-labile serum glycoprotein that contains a component of the C3 CONVERTASE ALTERNATE PATHWAY (C3bBb). Bb, a serine protease, is generated when factor B is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR D into Ba and Bb.Complement Membrane Attack Complex: A product of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION cascade, regardless of the pathways, that forms transmembrane channels causing disruption of the target CELL MEMBRANE and cell lysis. It is formed by the sequential assembly of terminal complement components (COMPLEMENT C5B; COMPLEMENT C6; COMPLEMENT C7; COMPLEMENT C8; and COMPLEMENT C9) into the target membrane. The resultant C5b-8-poly-C9 is the "membrane attack complex" or MAC.Complement C2a: The COOH-terminal fragment of COMPLEMENT 2, released by the action of activated COMPLEMENT C1S. It is a SERINE PROTEASE. C2a combines with COMPLEMENT C4B to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).Complement C1r: A 80-kDa subcomponent of complement C1, existing as a SERINE PROTEASE proenzyme in the intact complement C1 complex. When COMPLEMENT C1Q is bound to antibodies, the changed tertiary structure causes autolytic activation of complement C1r which is cleaved into two chains, A (heavy) and B (light, the serine protease), connected by disulfide bonds. The activated C1r serine protease, in turn, activates COMPLEMENT C1S proenzyme by cleaving the Arg426-Ile427 bond. No fragment is released when either C1r or C1s is cleaved.Complement C7: A 93-kDa serum glycoprotein encoded by C7 gene. It is a polypeptide chain with 28 disulfide bridges. In the formation of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX; C7 is the next component to bind the C5b-6 complex forming a trimolecular complex C5b-7 which is lipophilic, resembles an integral membrane protein, and serves as an anchor for the late complement components, C8 and C9.Complement Activating Enzymes: Enzymes that activate one or more COMPLEMENT PROTEINS in the complement system leading to the formation of the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX, an important response in host defense. They are enzymes in the various COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION pathways.Complement C8: A 150-kDa serum glycoprotein composed of three subunits with each encoded by a different gene (C8A; C8B; and C8G). This heterotrimer contains a disulfide-linked C8alpha-C8gamma heterodimer and a noncovalently associated C8beta chain. C8 is the next component to bind the C5-7 complex forming C5b-8 that binds COMPLEMENT C9 and acts as a catalyst in the polymerization of C9.Complement C1: The first complement component to act in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. It is a calcium-dependent trimolecular complex made up of three subcomponents: COMPLEMENT C1Q; COMPLEMENT C1R; and COMPLEMENT C1S at 1:2:2 ratios. When the intact C1 binds to at least two antibodies (involving C1q), C1r and C1s are sequentially activated, leading to subsequent steps in the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Complement Hemolytic Activity Assay: A screening assay for circulating COMPLEMENT PROTEINS. Diluted SERUM samples are added to antibody-coated ERYTHROCYTES and the percentage of cell lysis is measured. The values are expressed by the so called CH50, in HEMOLYTIC COMPLEMENT units per milliliter, which is the dilution of serum required to lyse 50 percent of the erythrocytes in the assay.Complement C3-C5 Convertases, Classical Pathway: Important enzymes in the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. They cleave COMPLEMENT C3 and COMPLEMENT C5.Receptors, Complement 3b: Molecular sites on or in some B-lymphocytes and macrophages that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3B. The primary structure of these receptors reveal that they contain transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, with their extracellular portion composed entirely of thirty short consensus repeats each having 60 to 70 amino acids.Complement Factor H: An important soluble regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It is a 139-kDa glycoprotein expressed by the liver and secreted into the blood. It binds to COMPLEMENT C3B and makes iC3b (inactivated complement 3b) susceptible to cleavage by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I. Complement factor H also inhibits the association of C3b with COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form the C3bB proenzyme, and promotes the dissociation of Bb from the C3bBb complex (COMPLEMENT C3 CONVERTASE, ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY).Complement C5b: The larger fragment generated from the cleavage of C5 by C5 CONVERTASE that yields COMPLEMENT C5A and C5b (beta chain + alpha' chain, the residual alpha chain, bound by disulfide bond). C5b remains bound to the membrane and initiates the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components to form C5b-8-poly-C9, the MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Receptor, Anaphylatoxin C5a: A G-protein-coupled receptor that signals an increase in intracellular calcium in response to the potent ANAPHYLATOXIN peptide COMPLEMENT C5A.Complement C3-C5 Convertases, Alternative Pathway: Important enzymes in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. They cleave COMPLEMENT C3 and COMPLEMENT C5.Complement Factor D: A serum protein which is important in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. This enzyme cleaves the COMPLEMENT C3B-bound COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form C3bBb which is ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE.Complement Factor I: A plasma serine proteinase that cleaves the alpha-chains of C3b and C4b in the presence of the cofactors COMPLEMENT FACTOR H and C4-binding protein, respectively. It is a 66-kDa glycoprotein that converts C3b to inactivated C3b (iC3b) followed by the release of two fragments, C3c (150-kDa) and C3dg (41-kDa). It was formerly called KAF, C3bINF, or enzyme 3b inactivator.Complement Inactivating Agents: Compounds that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host.Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases: A sub-subclass of endopeptidases that depend on an ASPARTIC ACID residue for their activity.Complement C1 Inactivator Proteins: Serum proteins that inhibit, antagonize, or inactivate COMPLEMENT C1 or its subunits.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Protein PrecursorsNeuroendocrine Secretory Protein 7B2: An acidic protein found in the NEUROENDOCRINE SYSTEM that functions as a molecular chaperone for PROPROTEIN CONVERTASE 2.Receptors, Complement 3d: Molecular sites on or in B-lymphocytes, follicular dendritic cells, lymphoid cells, and epithelial cells that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3D. Human complement receptor 2 (CR2) serves as a receptor for both C3dg and the gp350/220 glycoprotein of HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN, and binds the monoclonal antibody OKB7, which blocks binding of both ligands to the receptor.Anaphylatoxins: Serum peptides derived from certain cleaved COMPLEMENT PROTEINS during COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. They induce smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION; mast cell HISTAMINE RELEASE; PLATELET AGGREGATION; and act as mediators of the local inflammatory process. The order of anaphylatoxin activity from the strongest to the weakest is C5a, C3a, C4a, and C5a des-arginine.Complement C3 Convertase, Alternative Pathway: A serine protease that is the complex of COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT FACTOR BB. It cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT C3B in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Properdin: A 53-kDa protein that is a positive regulator of the alternate pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It stabilizes the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb) and protects it from rapid inactivation, thus facilitating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and the formation of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Individuals with mutation in the PFC gene exhibit properdin deficiency and have a high susceptibility to infections.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Cobra Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.Carboxypeptidase H: A ZINC-containing exopeptidase primarily found in SECRETORY VESICLES of endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. It catalyzes the cleavage of C-terminal ARGININE or LYSINE residues from polypeptides and is active in processing precursors of PEPTIDE HORMONES and other bioactive peptides.Complement C4b-Binding Protein: A serum protein that regulates the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. It binds as a cofactor to COMPLEMENT FACTOR I which then hydrolyzes the COMPLEMENT C4B in the CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C4bC2a).Pro-Opiomelanocortin: A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).alpha 1-Antitrypsin: Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.Complement C3b Inactivator Proteins: Endogenous proteins that inhibit or inactivate COMPLEMENT C3B. They include COMPLEMENT FACTOR H and COMPLEMENT FACTOR I (C3b/C4b inactivator). They cleave or promote the cleavage of C3b into inactive fragments, and thus are important in the down-regulation of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and its cytolytic sequence.Complement Pathway, Mannose-Binding Lectin: Complement activation triggered by the interaction of microbial POLYSACCHARIDES with serum MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN resulting in the activation of MANNOSE-BINDING PROTEIN-ASSOCIATED SERINE PROTEASES. As in the classical pathway, MASPs cleave COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 to form C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Complement C2b: The N-terminal fragment of COMPLEMENT 2, released by the action of activated COMPLEMENT C1S.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Pituitary Hormones: Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Steroid 21-Hydroxylase: An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein: An endogenous 105-kDa plasma glycoprotein produced primarily by the LIVER and MONOCYTES. It inhibits a broad spectrum of proteases, including the COMPLEMENT C1R and the COMPLEMENT C1S proteases of the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY, and the MANNOSE-BINDING PROTEIN-ASSOCIATED SERINE PROTEASES. C1-INH-deficient individuals suffer from HEREDITARY ANGIOEDEMA TYPES I AND II.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Complement C5 Convertase, Classical Pathway: A serine protease that cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT 5 into COMPLEMENT 5A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT 5B in the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. It is a complex of CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C4b2a) with an additional COMPLEMENT C3B, or C4b2a3b.Complement C3 Convertase, Classical Pathway: A serine protease that cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT 3 into COMPLEMENT 3A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT 3B in the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. It is a complex of COMPLEMENT 4B and COMPLEMENT 2A (C4b2a).Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Opsonin Proteins: Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.ZymosanSecretogranin II: A type of chromogranin which was initially characterized in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND. It is found in several species including human, rat, mouse, and others. Secretogranin II is an acidic protein of 559 to 586 amino acid residues that can stimulate DOPAMINE release from neurons and release of pituitary GONADOTROPINS.Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Complement C5 Convertase, Alternative Pathway: A serine protease that cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT C5B in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. It is the complex of ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb) with an additional COMPLEMENT C3B, or C3bBb3b.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Glicentin: A 69-amino acid peptide derived from the N-terminal of PROGLUCAGON. It is mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. Further processing of glicentin yield a 30-amino acid N-terminal peptide (glicentin-related polypeptide) and a 37-amino acid peptide OXYNTOMODULIN. Both glicentin and oxyntomodulin can reduce digestive secretions and delay gastric emptying.Chromogranins: A group of acidic proteins that are major components of SECRETORY GRANULES in the endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. They play important roles in the aggregation, packaging, sorting, and processing of secretory protein prior to secretion. They are cleaved to release biologically active peptides. There are various types of granins, usually classified by their sources.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.HIV Envelope Protein gp160: An envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus that is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 160,000 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. It serves as a precursor for both the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 and the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP41.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Complement C5a, des-Arginine: A derivative of complement C5a, generated when the carboxy-terminal ARGININE is removed by CARBOXYPEPTIDASE B present in normal human serum. C5a des-Arg shows complete loss of spasmogenic activity though it retains some chemotactic ability (CHEMOATTRACTANTS).Proinsulin: A pancreatic polypeptide of about 110 amino acids, depending on the species, that is the precursor of insulin. Proinsulin, produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, is comprised sequentially of the N-terminal B-chain, the proteolytically removable connecting C-peptide, and the C-terminal A-chain. It also contains three disulfide bonds, two between A-chain and B-chain. After cleavage at two locations, insulin and C-peptide are the secreted products. Intact proinsulin with low bioactivity also is secreted in small amounts.Proglucagon: The common precursor polypeptide of pancreatic GLUCAGON and intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Proglucagon is the 158-amino acid segment of preproglucagon without the N-terminal signal sequence. Proglucagon is expressed in the PANCREAS; INTESTINES; and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Posttranslational processing of proglucagon is tissue-specific yielding numerous bioactive peptides.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Mice, Inbred C57BLMacrophage-1 Antigen: An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.alpha-MSH: A 13-amino acid peptide derived from proteolytic cleavage of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE, the N-terminal segment of ACTH. ACTH (1-13) is amidated at the C-terminal to form ACTH (1-13)NH2 which in turn is acetylated to form alpha-MSH in the secretory granules. Alpha-MSH stimulates the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Kidney Glomerulus: A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.Enzyme Precursors: Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.Serum: The clear portion of BLOOD that is left after BLOOD COAGULATION to remove BLOOD CELLS and clotting proteins.Glomerulonephritis, Membranoproliferative: Chronic glomerulonephritis characterized histologically by proliferation of MESANGIAL CELLS, increase in the MESANGIAL EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX, and a thickening of the glomerular capillary walls. This may appear as a primary disorder or secondary to other diseases including infections and autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Various subtypes are classified by their abnormal ultrastructures and immune deposits. Hypocomplementemia is a characteristic feature of all types of MPGN.Angiopoietins: A family of structurally-related angiogenic proteins of approximately 70 kDa in size. They have high specificity for members of the TIE RECEPTOR FAMILY.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Schistosoma: A genus of trematode flukes belonging to the family Schistosomatidae. There are over a dozen species. These parasites are found in man and other mammals. Snails are the intermediate hosts.beta-Endorphin: A 31-amino acid peptide that is the C-terminal fragment of BETA-LIPOTROPIN. It acts on OPIOID RECEPTORS and is an analgesic. Its first four amino acids at the N-terminal are identical to the tetrapeptide sequence of METHIONINE ENKEPHALIN and LEUCINE ENKEPHALIN.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Glomerulonephritis: Inflammation of the renal glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) that can be classified by the type of glomerular injuries including antibody deposition, complement activation, cellular proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These structural and functional abnormalities usually lead to HEMATURIA; PROTEINURIA; HYPERTENSION; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Arteriolosclerosis: Thickening of the walls of small ARTERIES or ARTERIOLES due to cell proliferation or HYALINE deposition.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Serine Proteinase Inhibitors: Exogenous or endogenous compounds which inhibit SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Neurosecretory Systems: A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Matrix Metalloproteinases, Membrane-Associated: Matrix metalloproteinases that are associated with the CELL MEMBRANE, either through transmembrane domains or GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL ANCHORS. Membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases may act within the pericellular environment to influence the process of CELL MIGRATION.Protease Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Mice, Inbred BALB CBlood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Mannose-Binding Lectin: A specific mannose-binding member of the collectin family of lectins. It binds to carbohydrate groups on invading pathogens and plays a key role in the MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.Enkephalins: One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla.Metalloendopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Complement C3 Nephritic Factor: An IgG autoantibody against the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE, found in serum of patients with MESANGIOCAPILLARY GLOMERULONEPHRITIS. The binding of this autoantibody to C3bBb stabilizes the enzyme thus reduces the actions of C3b inactivators (COMPLEMENT FACTOR H; COMPLEMENT FACTOR I). This abnormally stabilized enzyme induces a continuous COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and generation of C3b thereby promoting the assembly of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX and cytolysis.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Haptoglobins: Plasma glycoproteins that form a stable complex with hemoglobin to aid the recycling of heme iron. They are encoded in man by a gene on the short arm of chromosome 16.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Surface Plasmon Resonance: A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.Peptides, Cyclic: Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).Lupus Nephritis: Glomerulonephritis associated with autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Lupus nephritis is histologically classified into 6 classes: class I - normal glomeruli, class II - pure mesangial alterations, class III - focal segmental glomerulonephritis, class IV - diffuse glomerulonephritis, class V - diffuse membranous glomerulonephritis, and class VI - advanced sclerosing glomerulonephritis (The World Health Organization classification 1982).Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Secretory Vesicles: Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Cosmids: Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.Cricetulus: A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Mannose-Binding Protein-Associated Serine Proteases: Serum serine proteases which participate in COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. They are activated when complexed with the MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN, therefore also known as Mannose-binding protein-Associated Serine Proteases (MASPs). They cleave COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 to form C4b2a, the CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE.Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital: A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Immunologic Factors: Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Channel catfish virus gene 50 encodes a secreted, mucin-like glycoprotein. (1/215)Cells infected with the wild-type (WT) strain of channel catfish virus (CCV) secreted a glycoprotein with an apparent molecular mass (MM) superior to 200 kDa into the culture medium. This protein, designated gp250, was the sole viral glycoprotein detected in the culture medium after [3H]mannose labeling of the infected cells. When cells were infected with the attenuated V60 strain, a glycoprotein of 135 kDa (designated gp135) was detected instead of gp250. Because WT gene 50 is predicted to encode a secreted, mucin-type glycoprotein, we expressed this gene transiently and detected a glycoprotein of the same apparent MM as gp250 in the culture medium of transfected catfish cells. The increased mobility in SDS-PAGE of the secreted V60 glycoprotein correlated with the presence of a major deletion in V60 gene 50. Therefore, we concluded that gp250 in the WT and gp135 in the V60 strains are both likely encoded by gene 50. An important shift in the relative mobility of gp250 in SDS-PAGE was observed after tunicamycin treatment of infected cells labeled with [3H]glucosamine, confirming the presence of N-linked sugars on gp250. We observed variations in the size of PCR products derived from gene 50 amplification in three different field isolates. Such genetic variations are a characteristic feature of mucin genes and are linked to crossing-over events between internal repeated sequences, such as those present in gene 50. (+info)
Active sites in complement components C5 and C3 identified by proximity to indels in the C3/4/5 protein family. (2/215)We recently suggested that sites of length polymorphisms in protein families (indels) might serve as useful guides for locating protein:protein interaction sites. This report describes additional site-specific mutagenesis and synthetic peptide inhibition studies aimed at testing this idea for the paralogous complement C3, C4, and C5 proteins. A series of C5 mutants was constructed by altering the C5 sequence at each of the 27 indels in this protein family. Mutants were expressed in COS cells and were assayed for hemolytic activity and protease sensitivity. Mutants at five indels showed relatively normal expression but substantially reduced sp. act., indicating that the mutations damaged sites important for C5 function. Twenty-three synthetic peptides with C5 sequences and 10 with C3 sequences were also tested for the ability to inhibit C hemolytic activity. Three of the C5 peptides and one of the C3 peptides showed 50% inhibition of both C hemolytic and bactericidal activities at a concentration of 100 microM. In several cases both the mutational and peptide methods implicated the same indel site. Overall, the results suggest that regions important for function of both C3 and C5 lie proximal to residues 150-200 and 1600-1620 in the precursor sequences. Additional sites potentially important for C5 function are near residue 500 in the beta-chain and at two or three sites between the N-terminus of the alpha'-chain and the C5d fragment. One of the latter sites, near residue 865, appears to be important for proteolytic activation of C5. (+info)
Alterations in C3 activation and binding caused by phosphorylation by a casein kinase released from activated human platelets. (3/215)A casein kinase released from activated human platelets phosphorylates a number of plasma proteins extracellularly, and that activation of platelets in systemic lupus erythematosus patients parallels an increase in the phosphate content of plasma proteins, including C3. The present study was undertaken to characterize this platelet protein kinase and to further elucidate the effect(s) on C3 function of phosphorylation by platelet casein kinase. The phosphate content of human plasma C3 was increased from 0.15 to 0.60 mol phosphate/mol of C3 after platelet activation in whole blood or platelet-rich plasma. The platelet casein kinase was distinct from other casein kinases in terms of its dependence on cations, inhibition by specific protein kinase inhibitors, and immunological reactivity. C3 that had been phosphorylated with platelet casein kinase was tested for its susceptibility to cleavage by trypsin or the classical and alternative pathway convertases and its binding to EAC and IgG. Phosphorylation did not affect the cleavage of C3 into C3a and C3b, but the binding of fragments from phosphorylated C3 to EAC14oxy2 cells and to IgG in purified systems and in serum was increased by 1.6-4.5 times over that of unphosphorylated C3. A covariation was seen between the enhanced binding of C3 fragments to IgG after phosphorylation and an increased ratio of glycerol/glycine binding, from 2.0 for unphosphorylated C3 to 4.9 for phosphorylated C3. The present study suggests that an overall effect of phosphorylation of C3 by platelet casein kinase is to enhance the opsonization of immune complexes. (+info)
Enhancement of lectin pathway haemolysis by immunoglobulins. (4/215)We recently reported that indicator sheep erythrocytes (E) coated with mannan and sensitized with mannan-binding lectin (MBL) (E-M-MBL) are lysed by human serum in the absence of calcium via the lectin pathway of complement activation by a process which requires alternative pathway amplification and is associated with increased binding of and control by complement regulatory proteins C4 bp and factor H. In the present study, we investigated the effect of immunoglobulin (Ig) on this haemolysis. Co-sensitization of indicator E with anti-E haemolysin led to threefold enhancement of lectin pathway haemolysis in the absence of calcium, associated with increased binding of C3 and C5. Lysis was enhanced approximately twofold when E-M-MBL were chemically or immunologically coated with IgM or IgA, and fourfold when coated with IgG, prior to lysis in human serum-Mg-ethyleneglycol tetraacetic acid. The presence of haemolysin did not reduce the binding or inhibitory activity of C4 bp, and the enhancing activity of haemolysin was retained in serum depleted of C4 bp. By contrast, binding of factor H was greatly reduced in the presence of haemolysin, which had no enhancing effect in serum depleted of factor H. These experiments demonstrate the ability of IgG, IgM and IgA to enhance lectin pathway cytolysis, and that this enhancement occurs by neutralization of the inhibitory activity of factor H. Immunoglobulin enhancement of lectin pathway cytolysis represents another interaction between the innate and adaptive systems of immunity. (+info)
Mechanism of complement-dependent haemolysis via the lectin pathway: role of the complement regulatory proteins. (5/215)Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is an acute phase protein which activates the classical complement pathway at the level of C4 and C2 via two novel serine proteases homologous to C1r and C1s. We recently reported that haemolysis via this lectin pathway requires alternative pathway amplification. The present experiments sought to establish the basis for this requirement, and hence focused on the activity and regulation of the C3 convertases. Complement activation was normalized between the lectin and classical pathways such that identical amounts of bound C4 and of haemolytically active C4,2 sites were present on the indicator cells. Under these conditions, there was markedly less haemolysis, associated with markedly less C3 and C5 deposited, via the lectin pathway than via the classical pathway, particularly when alternative pathway recruitment was blocked by depletion of factor D. Lectin pathway activation was associated with enhanced binding in the presence of MBL of complement control proteins C4bp and factor H to C4b and C3b, respectively, with decreased stability of the C3-converting enzyme C4b,2a attributable to C4bp. Immunodepletion of C4bp and/or factor H increased lectin pathway haemolysis and allowed lysis to occur in absence of the alternative pathway. Thus, the lectin pathway of humans is particularly susceptible to the regulatory effects of C4bp and factor H, due at least in part to MBL enhancement of C4bp binding to C4b and factor H binding to C3b. (+info)
Decay accelerating activity of complement receptor type 1 (CD35). Two active sites are required for dissociating C5 convertases. (6/215)The goal of this study was to identify the site(s) in CR1 that mediate the dissociation of the C3 and C5 convertases. To that end, truncated derivatives of CR1 whose extracellular part is composed of 30 tandem repeating modules, termed complement control protein repeats (CCPs), were generated. Site 1 (CCPs 1-3) alone mediated the decay acceleration of the classical and alternative pathway C3 convertases. Site 2 (CCPs 8-10 or the nearly identical CCPs 15-17) had one-fifth the activity of site 1. In contrast, for the C5 convertase, site 1 had only 0.5% of the decay accelerating activity, while site 2 had no detectable activity. Efficient C5 decay accelerating activity was detected in recombinants that carried both site 1 and site 2. The activity was reduced if the intervening repeats between site 1 and site 2 were deleted. The results indicate that, for the C5 convertases, decay accelerating activity is mediated primarily by site 1. A properly spaced site 2 has an important auxiliary role, which may involve its C3b binding capacity. Moreover, using homologous substitution mutagenesis, residues important in site 1 for dissociating activity were identified. Based on these results, we generated proteins one-fourth the size of CR1 but with enhanced decay accelerating activity for the C3 convertases. (+info)
Mutational analysis of the primary substrate specificity pocket of complement factor B. Asp(226) is a major structural determinant for p(1)-Arg binding. (7/215)Factor B is a serine protease, which despite its trypsin-like specificity has Asn instead of the typical Asp at the bottom of the S(1) pocket (position 189, chymotrypsinogen numbering). Asp residues are present at positions 187 and 226 and either one could conceivably provide the negative charge for binding the P(1)-Arg of the substrate. Determination of the crystal structure of the factor B serine protease domain has revealed that the side chain of Asp(226) is within the S(1) pocket, whereas Asp(187) is located outside the pocket. To investigate the possible role of these atypical structural features in substrate binding and catalysis, we constructed a panel of mutants of these residues. Replacement of Asp(187) caused moderate (50-60%) decrease in hemolytic activity, compared with wild type factor B, whereas replacement of Asn(189) resulted in more profound reductions (71-95%). Substitutions at these two positions did not significantly affect assembly of the alternative pathway C3 convertase. In contrast, elimination of the negative charge from Asp(226) completely abrogated hemolytic activity and also affected formation of the C3 convertase. Kinetic analyses of the hydrolysis of a P(1)-Arg containing thioester by selected mutants confirmed that residue Asp(226) is a primary structural determinant for P(1)-Arg binding and catalysis. (+info)
Functional role of the noncatalytic subunit of complement C5 convertase. (8/215)The C5 convertase is a serine protease that consists of two subunits: a catalytic subunit which is bound in a Mg2+-dependent complex to a noncatalytic subunit. To understand the functional role of the noncatalytic subunit, we have determined the C5-cleaving properties of the cobra venom factor-dependent C5 convertase (CVF, Bb) made with CVF purified from the venom of Naja naja (CVFn) and Naja haje (CVFh) and compared them to those for two C3b-dependent C5 convertases (ZymC3b,Bb and C3b,Bb). A comparison of the kinetic parameters indicated that although the four C5 convertases (CVFn,Bb, ZymC3b,Bb, CVFh,Bb, and C3b,Bb) had similar catalytic rate constants (kcat = 0.004-0.012 s-1) they differed 700-fold in their affinity for the substrate as indicated by the Km values (CVFn,Bb = 0.036 microM, ZymC3b,Bb = 1.24 microM, CVFh,Bb = 14.0 microM, and C3b,Bb = 24 microM). Analysis of binding interactions between C5 and the noncatalytic subunits (CVFh or C3b, or CVFn) using the BIAcore, revealed dissociation binding constants (Kd) that were similar to the Km values of the respective enzymes. The kinetic and binding data demonstrate that the binding site for C5 resides in the noncatalytic subunit of the enzyme, the affinity for the substrate is solely determined by the noncatalytic subunit and the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme appears not to be influenced by the nature of this subunit. (+info)
Overactivation of the alternative pathway of the complement system is associated with the renal diseases atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) and C3 glomerulopathy (C3G). C3 nephritic factors (C3NeF) play an important role in C3G pathogenesis by stabilizing the key enzymatic complex of complement, the C3 convertase. However, the reliability of assays detecting these autoantibodies is limited. Therefore, in this study, we validated and optimized a prototype hemolytic method for robust detection and characterization of factors causing convertase overactivity in large patient cohorts. The assay assesses convertase activity directly in the physiological milieu of serum and therefore is not restricted to detection of stabilizing autoantibodies such as C3NeF but may also reveal genetic variants resulting in prolonged convertase activity. We first defined clear cutoff values based on convertase activity in healthy controls. Next, we evaluated 27 C3G patient samples and found 16 positive for prolonged
Secretion, cleavage and binding of complement component C3 by the human monocytic cell line U937 | Biochemical Journal
Secretion of complement component C3 by U937 cells was studied. Preliminary evidence for a cell-associated proteolytic activity specific for C3 is given, as well as for a covalent-like binding of C3 fragments to the cell membranes. Secretion of C3, in the presence of 10 ng of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate/ml, is 120-140 ng/10(6) cells per 24 h on the third day after addition of the activator. As shown by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, the intracellular pro-C3 (200 kDa) and the extracellular secreted C3 (alpha-chain 110 kDa and beta-chain 75 kDa) are identical with the forms of C3 previously characterized from human serum. Incubation of U937 cells in the presence of exogenous radiolabelled C3 shows that membrane-bound proteinase(s), not related to the classical-pathway or the alternative-pathway C3 convertases, is (are) able to cleave C3; this cleavage leads to the binding of the resulting C3 fragments to the cell membrane through reaction of membrane acceptors with the carbonyl group ...
The assembly of early components of complement on antibody-antigen aggregates and on antibody-coated erythrocytes | Biochemical...
Radioimmune assays were developed to assay the binding of complement components C1q, C1s and C4 to antibody aggregates and to cell-bound antibody. The binding of the components was compared with the haemolytic activity and with the capacity to form the C3 convertase activity in the presence of excess C2. The destruction of whole complement and of C4 activity is similar per 1,000 molecules of antibody in aggregates and cell-bound antibody, as is the binding of C1g and C1s, the latter being in a 1:2 molar ratio. The binding of C4 is about 12 times greater, per 1,000 molecules of antibody, on cells than in aggregates. However, the effective C4 molecules, as judged by the formation of C3 convertase activity, are much more similar on cells and aggregates. An assembly mechanism of the early components of complement on antibody-coated cells, which is compatible with these results, is suggested. ...
There are two concepts behind the alternative pathway of complement: what occurs when a non-self cell is absent; and what occurs when a non-self cell is present. When a non-self cell is absent (meaning the tissue is healthy) then there is fluid-phase activation. Fluid-phase activation occurs continuously, spontaneously and very slowly. In fluid-phase activation, C3 spontaneously activates via hydrolysis to form C3H2O -- since it is unstable, C3H2O usually reverts to C3. However, if C3H2O encounters Factor B, then the two molecules bind to form a more stable C3H2OB molecule. Factor D then cleaves C3H2OB molecule to yield the enzyme C3H2OBb (aka fluid-phase C3 convertase). C3H2OBb has an active site on Bb; to culminate fluid-phase activation, this active site cleaves C3 into C3a and C3b. Fluid-phase activation is depicted in the figure to the left.. When a non-self cell is present, then a much faster process occurs. C3b binds to the surface of the non-self cell, then Factor B binds to the C3b. ...
Generation of an alternative pathway convertase by contact-activated C3 is dependent on the conformation of C3
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology. Linnaeus Univ, Ctr Biomat Chem, Kalmar, Sweden.. ...
Substrate recognition by complement convertases revealed in the C5-cobra venom factor complex | The EMBO Journal
In terms of sequence homology, CVF is 49% identical to human C3 compared with, for example, 77% sequence identity between human and bovine C3. In combination with the functional and structural similarities between CVF and C3b, we expect that C3b in the AP convertases binds the substrates (C3 and C5) in a manner analogously to how CVF recognizes C5. By further extrapolation-which is justified by the pronounced functional similarities between the AP and the CP convertases-we also expect this to apply to C4b in the CP convertases. We therefore propose a general model for substrate-convertase recognition applicable to both C3 and C5 convertases. In this model, the MG4-MG5 domains of C3b/C4b interact with the MG4-MG5 domains of the substrates C3 and C5 at one interface (the MG4-MG5 interface), while the MG6-MG7 domains of C3b/C4b interact with the substrate MG7 domain at a second interface (the MG7 interface). This proposal is compatible with a variety of experimental results.. With respect to the AP ...
There is increasing evidence that human complement factor H-related protein 1 (CFHR1) plays a crucial role in the development of malignant diseases. However, few studies have identified the roles of CFHR1 in the occurrence and prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma (LADC). In the present study, comprehensive bioinformatic analyses of data obtained from the Oncomine platform, UALCAN and Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA) demonstrated that CFHR1 expression is significantly reduced in both LADC tissues and cancer cells. The patients presenting with downregulation of CFHR1 had significantly lower overall survival (OS) and post progression survival (PPS) times. Through analysis of the datasets from Gene Expression Omnibus database, we found that the compound actinomycin D promoted CFHR1 expression, further displaying the cytotoxic effect in the LADC cell line A549. In addition, the expression level of CFHR1 in the cisplatin-resistant LADC cell line CDDP-R (derived from H460) was also ...
An international team of scientists has identified a protein that is strongly linked to the commonest cause of blindness in developed countries when its levels are raised in the blood. The discovery is a major step forward in the understanding of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), which affects 1.5 million people in the UK alone. The study, carried out by a team from the Universities of Manchester, Cardiff, London, and Nijmegen, and Manchester Foundation NHS Trust was published online on February 7, 2020 in Nature Communications. The open-access article is titled ""Increased Circulating Levels of Factor H Related Protein 4 Are Strongly Associated with Age-Related Macular Degeneration." The protein, Factor H-Related Protein 4 (FHR4), was found by the team to be present at higher levels in the blood of patients with AMD compared to individuals of a similar age without the disease. The findings were confirmed in 484 patient and 522 control samples from two independent collections across ...
With two holes open, the filtering effect of the downstream holes is clear at frequencies above about 1.5 kHz. Compare this spectrum with more regular impedance spectrum for D4 on the classical instrument with a D foot. The regular, harmonically spaced minima in the latter spectrum allow greater power in the higher harmonics, and thus a brighter tone for this note.. ...
The three distinct activation pathways of complement converge with the formation of a C5 convertase. The cleavage of C5 by this convertase initiates…
The three distinct activation pathways of complement converge with the formation of a C5 convertase. The cleavage of C5 by this convertase initiates…
Glomerulonephritis With Isolated C3 Deposits and Monoclonal Gammopathy: A Fortuitous Association? | American Society of...
The association of proliferative glomerular disease with isolated C3 deposits is an extremely rare condition in adults (27). Isolated intramembranous diffuse C3 deposits is characteristic of DDD (27,28), but disseminated granular glomerular CW and mesangial C3 deposits, without IgG deposits, are sometimes observed in late stages of poststreptococcal GN. These two conditions result from CAP activation. C3NeF, an autoantibody with anti-CAP C3 convertase activity, is found in more than 80% of DDD cases and in some cases of poststreptococcal GN (23,27). Recently, Servais et al. (29) introduced the term glomerulonephritis C3 (GNC3) to describe glomerular disease in a series of 19 patients, mostly adults, with isolated glomerular C3 deposits distinct from classical DDD and poststreptococcal GN. Thirteen patients displayed features of type I MPGN, whereas five patients had mesangial and epimembranous deposits without mesangial proliferation and subendothelial deposits. Circulating C3NeF and low serum ...
A Serum protein which is important in the Alternative Complement Activation Pathway. This enzyme cleaves the Complement C3b-bound Complement Factor B to form C3bBb which is Alternative Pathway C3 Convertase ...
The reduction in C in this study was accomplished, as in our previous study (44), by use of CVF, which activates the alternative pathway of the C cascade (10). It forms a complex with factor B, CVF Bb, which is functionally analogous to C3b Bb, the natural C3 convertase that cleaves catalytically the α-chain of C3. The difference between the two compounds is that CVF Bb is highly resistant to the normal control mechanisms that limit the activity of C3b Bb, so that fluid-phase C activation continues unabated, drastically depleting C. Consequently, absent the substrates from which they are produced, all the subsequent C components are also depleted; hence, hypocomplementemia results. Since the present data showed, in confirmation of our earlier observations (44), that CVF-induced hypocomplementemia, as indicated by a decreased serum CH100 activity, impaired the febrile response of conscious guinea pigs to systemic LPS, some or all of the fragments from C3 to C9 must be important for fever ...
C3b is the larger of two elements formed by the cleavage of complement component 3, and is considered an important part of the innate immune system. C3b is potent in opsonization: tagging pathogens, immune complexes (antigen-antibody), and apoptotic cells for phagocytosis. Additionally, C3b plays a role in forming a C3 convertase when bound to Factor B (C3bBb complex), or a C5 convertase when bound to C4b and C2b (C4b2b3b complex) or when an additional C3b molecule binds to the C3bBb complex (C3bBb3b complex). C3bs ability to perform these important functions derives from its ability to covalently bind to the surface of invading pathogens within an organisms body. The cleavage of C3 leaves C3b with an exposed thioester bond, allowing C3b to effectively coat and tag foreign cells by covalently binding to hydroxyl (-OH) and amine (-NH2) groups on foreign cell surfaces. This cleavage can occur via three mechanisms (classical pathway, alternative pathway and lectin pathway) that ultimately lead to ...
2WY7: A Structural Basis for Staphylococcal Complement Subversion: X-Ray Structure of the Complement- Binding Domain of Staphylococcus Aureus Protein Sbi in Complex with Ligand C3D.
Returns an iterator pointing to the first element in the container whose key is not considered to go before k (i.e., either it is equivalent or goes after ...
Barraquer-Simons syndrome (or acquired partial lipodystrophy, cephalothoracic lipodystrophy, and progressive lipodystrophy)) is a rare form of lipodystrophy, which usually first affects the head, and then spreads to the thorax. It is named for Luis Barraquer Roviralta (1855-1928), a Spanish physician, and Arthur Simons (1879-1942), a German physician. Some evidence links it to LMNB2. The etiology of this condition has not been fully elucidated. Lipodystrophy is often associated with glomerulonephritis, low C3 serum complement levels, and the presence of a C3 nephritic factor. C3 nephritic factor is a serum immunoglobulin G that interacts with the C3bBb alternative pathway convertase to activate C3. C3 nephritic factor induces the lysis of adipocytes that secrete adipsin, a product identical to complement factor D. The distribution of the lipoatrophy is postulated to be dictated by the variable amounts of adipsin secreted by the adipocytes at different locations. Human PTRF mutations may cause ...
Complement C3-C5 Convertases: Serine proteases that cleave COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, or cleave COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. These include the different forms of C3/C5 convertases in the classical and the alternative pathways of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Both cleavages take place at the C-terminal of an ARGININE residue.
Inhibition of complement activation on the surface of cells after incorporation of decay-accelerating factor (DAF) into their...
Decay-accelerating factor (DAF), extracted from the stroma of human erythrocytes, was purified to homogeneity and incorporated into the membrane of sheep red cell complement intermediates, where its functional properties were analyzed. Incorporation of DAF into the cell membranes was temperature dependent, took place on pronase- or trypsin-treated erythrocytes, and did not depend on prior deposition of antibody, C1 or C4. Serum lipoproteins (high and low density) effectively inhibited DAF incorporation, but had no effect on the activity of DAF after its association with the cell membrane. The incorporated DAF could not be removed from the red cell surface by repeated washings in the presence of high salt concentration but was solubilized when the stroma were extracted with 0.1% Nonidet P-40. The presence of DAF in the membrane of EA did not affect the deposition of C1 and C4, but as few as 10(2) DAF molecules per cell profoundly inhibited the assembly of C3 and C5 convertases of both the ...
Identification of a C3bi-specific membrane complement receptor that is expressed on lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, and...
Cells expressing a membrane C receptor (CR(3)) specific for C3b-inactivator- cleaved C3b (C3bi) were identified by rosette assay with C3bi-coated sheep erythrocytes (EC3bi) or C3bi-coated fluorescent microspheres (C3bi-ms). C3bi- ms, probably because of their smaller size, bound to a higher proportion of cells than did EC3bi. C3bi-ms bound to greater than 90 percent of mature neutrophils, 85 percent of monocytes, 92 percent of erythrocytes, and 12 percent of peripheral blood lymphocytes. Binding of C3bi-ms to neutrophils, monocytes, and erythrocytes was inhibited by fluid-phase C3bi, Fab anti-C3c, or Fab anti-C3d but was not inhibited by F(ab)(2) anti-CR(1) (C3b receptor) or F(ab)(2) anti-CR(2) (C3d receptor) nor by fluid-phase C3b, C3c, or C3d. This indicated that monocytes, neutrophils, and erythrocytes expressed C3bi receptors (CR(3)) that were separate and distinct from CR(1) and CR(2) and specific for a site in the C3 molecule that was only exposed subsequently to cleavage of C3b by C3b ...
A 53-kDa protein that is a positive regulator of the alternate pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It stabilizes the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb) and protects it from rapid inactivation, thus facilitating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and the formation of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Individuals with mutation in the PFC gene exhibit properdin deficiency and have a high susceptibility to infections. . ...
Vg convertase: subtilisin-like enzyme which cleaves pro-vitellogenin in fat bodies; isolated from the mosquito A. aegypti; amino acid sequence in first source; GenBank L46373
Monoclonal antibodies against neoantigens of the terminal C5b-9 complex of human complement | Bioscience Reports
Assembly of the terminal C5b-C9 complement components into the cytolytic C5b-9 complex is accompanied by exposure of characteristic neoantigens on the macromolecule. We report the production and characterization of mouse monoclonal antibodies to C9-dependent neoantigens of human C5b-9. Binding-inhibition assays with EDTA-human plasma and micro-ELISA assays with purified C9 showed that the antibodies did not react with native complement components and thus confirmed the specificity of the antibodies for the neoantigens. The monoclonal antibodies did, however, cross-react with cytolyticaIly inactive, fluid-phase C5b-9 complexes, Thus, expression of the neoantigenic determinants was not dependent on the formation of high molecular weight C9 polymers with the complex, since these are absent in fluid-phase C5b-9. Radioiodinated antibodies could be utilized in immunoradiometric assays for the detection and quantitation of C5b-9 on cell membranes. Cross-reactivities of the antibodies with C9-dependent ...
Distribution of decay-accelerating factor in the peripheral blood of normal individuals and patients with paroxysmal nocturnal...
Decay-accelerating factor (DAF) is a 70,000 Mr protein that has been isolated from the membrane of red cells. The function of DAF is to inhibit the assembly of amplifying enzymes of the complement cascade on the cell surface, thereby protecting them from damage by autologous complement. We raised monoclonal antibodies to DAF and used them to study its distribution in cells from the peripheral blood of normal individuals and of patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), a disease characterized by the unusual susceptibility of red cells to the hemolytic activity of complement. The results of immunoradiometric assays and of fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis showed that DAF was present not only on red cells but was widely distributed on the surface membrane of platelets, neutrophils, monocytes, and B and T lymphocytes. By Western blotting, we observed small but consistent differences in the Mr of DAF from the membranes of various cell types. Quantitative studies showed that ...
MUC5B molecule. Computer model showing the structure of a molecule of the protein MUC5B (mucin 5 subtype B). Mucins key characteristic is their ability to form gels. They are therefore a key component in most gel-like secretions, serving functions from lubrication to cell signalling to forming chemical barriers. - Stock Image C015/4507
RCSB PDB - 6RUV: Structure of the SCIN stabilized C3bBb convertase bound to Properdin and a the non-inhibitory nanobody hFPNb1
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
... has a cleavage activity and it is essential for forming lectin C3 and C5 convertases and for activation of the complement. For ... Collectin MBL is involved in activation of the lectin complement pathway. There are three serine proteases, MASP-1, 2 and 3 ( ... Check date values in: ,date= (help) Fujita, Teizo (2002-05). "Evolution of the lectin-complement pathway and its role in innate ... MBL can bind to microorganisms and this interaction can lead to opsonization through complement activation, or it can opsonize ...
... a novel C3d-targeted C3/C5 convertase inhibitor for treatment of human complement alternative pathway-mediated diseases". Blood ... These SNPs were located in the gene encoding complement factor H, which was an unexpected finding in the research of ARMD. The ... "Complement factor H variant increases the risk of age-related macular degeneration". Science. 308 (5720): 419-21. doi:10.1126/ ... "Complement factor H polymorphism in age-related macular degeneration". Science. 308 (5720): 385-9. doi:10.1126/science.1109557 ...
Bb remains bound to C3(H2O) to form C3(H2O)Bb. This complex is also known as a fluid-phase C3-convertase. This convertase, the ... The C5-convertase of the alternative pathway consists of (C3b)2BbP (sometimes referred to as C3b2Bb). After the creation of C5 ... Complement Factor H can inhibit the formation of the C3 convertase by competing with factor B for binding to C3b; accelerate ... The formation of a C3 convertase can also be prevented when a plasma protease called complement factor I cleaves C3b into its ...
... complement component C5 convertase. Now EC 18.104.22.168, classical-complement-pathway C3/C5 convertase EC 22.214.171.124: complement ... complement subcomponent C1s EC 126.96.36.199: classical-complement-pathway C3/C5 convertase EC 188.8.131.52: Transferred entry: ... factor I EC 184.108.40.206: complement factor D EC 220.127.116.11: alternative-complement-pathway C3/C5 convertase EC 18.104.22.168: ... Proprotein convertase 1 EC 22.214.171.124: Proprotein convertase 2 EC 126.96.36.199: Snake venom factor V activator EC 188.8.131.52: ...
C3b binds to the C3 convertase (C4bC2a), to form C5 convertase (C4bC2aC3b). C5 convertase then cleaves C5 into C5a and C5b. ... The C3b component of the cleaved C3 binds to C3 convertase (C4bC2b) to generate C5 convertase (C4bC2bC3b), which cleaves the C5 ... The larger and active fragments, C4b and C2b form C4bC2b, a C3 convertase. C3 convertase then cleaves C3 into C3a and C3b. ... In addition, the C5 convertase initiates the terminal phase of the complement system, leading to the assembly of the membrane ...
Cell-bound C3 and C5 convertase differ in their C3b requirement. C3-convertase (C3bBb) need only one molecule of C3b to form, ... The complement component C5 can be also activated by fluid phase C5 convertase. C5 is activated by CVFBb in the presence of ... Target of function The target of C5 convertase is complement protein C5. C5 is a two-chain (α, β) plasma glycoprotein (Mr = ... CVFBb does not require C3 for cleavage of C5, whereas C4b2boxy need native C3 for cleavage of C5 protein. The modified C5 ...
C3 convertase (EC 184.108.40.206, C42 , C4bC2b, C3bBb, complement C.hivin.4.hivin2, complement C3 convertase) belongs to family of ... can be used as an opsonin or bind to either type of C3 convertase to form the trimolecular C5 convertase to activate C5 for the ... Thus, the alternative C3 convertase (C3bBb) is formed and is able to cleave C3 via its dimeric Bb subunit. Since C3 convertases ... both C3 convertases will catalyze the proteolytic cleavage of C3 into C3a and C3b (hence the name "C3-convertase"). The smaller ...
C5 convertase, (C3b)n,Bb, complement C 3(C 5) convertase (amplification), alternative complement pathway C3(C5) convertase, C5 ... Alternative-complement-pathway C3/C5 convertase (EC 220.127.116.11, complement component C3/C5 convertase (alternative), proenzyme ... Alternative-complement-pathway C3/C5 convertase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... bond in complement component C5 alpha-chain to yield C5a and C5b This enzyme is a bimolecular complex of complement fragment Bb ...
... iC3b C5 - C5a C3-convertase C5-convertase Late stage Membrane attack complex (MAC) C6 C7 C8 C9 Complement pathway inhibitors C1 ... system Complement system Classical complement pathway Mannan-binding lectin pathway Alternate complement pathway Complement ... MASP2 Mannan-binding lectin Alternative complement pathway Factor B Factor D Factor P (Properdin) Middle stage C3 - C3a / C3b ... Secreted PRRs Complement system (see complement proteins section) Collectins Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) Surfactant protein A ( ...
Alternative-complement-pathway C3/C5 convertase. *Aqualysin 1. *Assemblin. *ATP-dependent Clp protease proteolytic subunit ...
Rawal N, Pangburn MK (March 2001). "Structure/function of C5 convertases of complement". International Immunopharmacology. 1 (3 ... components of the alternative-pathway C3 convertase of complement". The Biochemical Journal. 253 (3): 667-75. PMC 1149358 . ... The active subunit Bb is a serine protease that associates with C3b to form the alternative pathway C3 convertase. Bb is ... Complement factor B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CFB gene. This gene encodes complement factor B, a component ...
... which promotes cleavage of C3 into C3a and C3b. C3b later joins with C4b2b to make C5 convertase (C4b2b3b complex). ... complement factor B, and complement factor I, as well as deletion of complement factor H-related 3 and complement factor H- ... The three pathways of activation all generate homologous variants of the protease C3-convertase. The classical complement ... The complex of C3b(2)Bb is a protease which cleaves C5 into C5b and C5a. C5 convertase is also formed by the Classical Pathway ...
In the classical and lectin pathways of complement activation, formation of the C3-convertase and C5-convertases requires ... a fragment of complement component C2 produced during C3 convertase formation". Acta Crystallographica D. 65 (Pt 3): 266-74. ... C2b is the larger, enzymatically active fragment which is incorporated into the C3 convertase in this pathway, C4b2b. C2a is ... Complement C2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the C2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is part of the classical ...
Additionally, C3b plays a role in forming a C3 convertase when bound to Factor B (C3bBb complex), or a C5 convertase when bound ... C3a - the other fragment C3 is cleaved into along with C3b Liszewski, M. Kathryn; Atkinson, John P. (2015-06-10). "Complement ... Incorporation of an additional C3b into the C3bBb C3 convertase leads to the formation of C3Bb3b C5 convertase. Once cleaved ... Formation of a C3 convertase functions as a positive feedback loop, so as more C3b is cleaved, more C3 convertases are formed, ...
C3 is cleaved into its a and b subunits, and C3b binds the convertase. These together are called the C5 convertase. Similarly ... Complement receptors, collectins, ficolins, pentraxins such as serum amyloid and C-reactive protein, lipid transferases, ... Together, MBL, C4b and C2a are known as the C3 convertase. ... C5, C6, C7, C8 and C9 form the membrane attack complex (MAC). ... Once bound to the ligands MBL and Ficolin oligomers recruit MASP1 and MASP2 and initiate the lectin pathway of complement ...
... complement c3-c5 convertases MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.860.387.500 -- complement c3-c5 convertases, alternative pathway MeSH ... complement c5 convertase, alternative pathway MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.860.387.750 -- complement c3-c5 convertases, classical ... complement c3 convertase, classical pathway MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.860.387.750.750 -- complement c5 convertase, classical ... complement c2a MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.150.750 -- complement c2b MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.250 -- complement c3 MeSH D12.776. ...
... the C4b-C2a complex with protease activity has been termed the C3 convertase. Protein 4b can be further cleaved into 4c and 4d ... C5 binding sites, 4) private allelic residues. Additionally, the same study identified the expression of human complement C4 ... an effect produced by the effector proteins of the complement system in which the C4 partakes). Complement system Complement ... All three pathways converge at a step in which complement protein C3 is cleaved into proteins C3a and C3b, which results in a ...
C1s cleaves C4 and C2, which eventually leads to the production of the classical pathway C3-convertase. ... Complement component 1s (EC 18.104.22.168, C1 esterase, activated complement C1s, complement C overbar 1r, C1s) is a protein ... complement activation, lectin pathway. • complement activation. • regulation of complement activation. Sources:Amigo / QuickGO ... complement activation, classical pathway. • immune system process. • innate immune response. • ...
The membrane attack complex is initiated when the complement protein C5 convertase cleaves C5 into C5a and C5b. All three ... Media related to Complement membrane attack complex at Wikimedia Commons. *Complement+Membrane+Attack+Complex at the US ... The membrane attack complex (MAC) or terminal complement complex (TCC) is a structure typically formed on the surface of ... Reid K. B. M., The complement system, in: B. D. Hames and D. M. Glover (eds.), Molecular Immunology, Oxford: IRL Press, 1988, ...
Seejärel C3-konvertaas lagundab C3, moodustades nii C3b ja C3a. Tekkinud C3b seondub omakorda C4b-ga, mille tulemusena tekib C5 ... Zipfel, P. F., Hallström, T., & Riesbeck, K. (2013). Human complement control and complement evasion by pathogenic microbes- ... Xu, Y., Narayana, S. V, & Volanakis, J. E. (2001). Structural biology of the alternative pathway convertase. Immunological ... Kõigi kolme raja korral C3-konvertaas lagundab ja aktiveerib C3 komponendi. C3 laguneb produktideks C3a ja C3b, mis käivitavad ...
... and decay accelerating activity against the alternative pathway C3-convertase, C3bBb. Factor H exerts its protective action on ... "The development of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome depends on complement C5". Journal of the American Society of Nephrology ... Moreover, the complement inhibitory activities of factor H, and other complement regulators, are often used by pathogens to ... Factor H is a member of the regulators of complement activation family and is a complement control protein. It is a large (155 ...
C5 *C5a. *C5b. *C3-convertase. *C5-convertase. Late. *MAC *C5b. *C6. *C7 ...
C5 convertase, (C3b)n,Bb, complement C 3(C 5) convertase (amplification), alternative complement pathway C3(C5) convertase, C5 ... Alternative-complement-pathway C3/C5 convertase (EC 22.214.171.124, complement component C3/C5 convertase (alternative), proenzyme ... Alternative-complement-pathway C3/C5 convertase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... bond in complement component C5 alpha-chain to yield C5a and C5b This enzyme is a bimolecular complex of complement fragment Bb ...
... or cleave COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. These include the different forms of C3/C5 convertases in the ... Serine proteases that cleave COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, ... classical and the alternative pathways of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Both cleavages take place at the C-terminal of an ARGININE ... C3; C3 Convertases, Complement; C3-C5 Convertases, Complement; C5 Convertases, Complement; Complement C3 C5 Convertases; ...
C3-Glomerulopathy Autoantibodies Mediate Distinct Effects on Complement C3- and C5-Convertases. ... Targeting Complement Pathways in Polytrauma- and Sepsis-Induced Multiple-Organ Dysfunction.. Karasu E, Nilsson B, Köhl J, ... Interpretation of Serological Complement Biomarkers in Disease.. Ekdahl KN, Persson B, Mohlin C, Sandholm K, Skattum L, Nilsson ... Is generation of C3(H2O) necessary for activation of the alternative pathway in real life? ...
C3-Glomerulopathy Autoantibodies Mediate Distinct Effects on Complement C3- and C5-Convertases. ...
fr C3 convertase classique * en classical-complement-pathway C3/C5-convertase Immunologia ... C3/C5-convertasa de la via clàssica del complement C3/C5-convertasa de la via clàssica del complement ... ca C3/C5-convertasa de la via clàssica del complement, n f ... es C3/C5-convertasa de la vía clásica del complemento * ... de la via clàssica del complement amb la via alternativa i amb la via de la lectina i que escindeix el factor del complement C3 ...
CD55 prevents the cleavage of C3 and C5 by inhibiting the formation of new C3 and C5 convertases, in addition to accelerating ... C3 convertase and amplification. C3 convertase cleaves the central component of complement, C3, into C3a, an anaphylactic and ... early complement activation; C3-convertase activation and amplification; C5-convertase activation; and formation of the ... C5 convertase. If activation progresses, a new enzyme is generated, C5 convertase (C4b2a3b for the classical and lectin ...
CVF/Bb is a C3/C5 convertase that cleaves both complement components C3 and C5. Structurally, it resembles the C3b degradation ... which is not able to form a C3/C5 convertase. Unlike C3b/Bb, CVF/Bb is a stable complex and completely resistant to the actions ... It is a structural and functional analog of complement component C3b, the activated form of C3. It binds factor B (CFB), which ... CVF continuously activates complement resulting in the depletion of complement activity. UniProt ...
Initial complement component- C4, C2. C3 convertase- C4bC2b. C5 convertase- C4bC2bC3b. 12 ... Initial complement: activates the classical pathway, in which it breaks c4 into multiple parts (c4a=small c4b= big). ... Initial complement component- C3, Factor B, Factor D, & properdin. C3 convertase- C3bBb ... activator- contact of microbial cell wall with C3. ...
AP C3 convertase and all C5 convertases). In contrast to SCIN, Efb-C does not stabilize convertases and directly binds isolated ... The C3 convertases cleave large amounts of complement protein C3 into C3a and C3b, thus, providing amplification. Convertase ... SCIN residues 31-48 are crucial for complement inhibition and stabilization of C3 convertases. A, CH-α1CA, CH-α2NA, and CH-α2NB ... high local concentrations of C3b induce formation of C5 convertases (13). Cleavage of C5 by these convertases results in the ...
C5 convertases cleave C5 to generate C5a (anaphylatoxin) and C5b, which combines with complement proteins C6-9 to form C5b-9 ( ... they all converge to generate C3 convertases, specifically C4b2b (CP, LP) and C3bBb (AP). C3 convertases cleave C3 to generate ... Animal models also support a dominant role for C5, relative to C3, in both complement-mediated kidney injury and adverse ... complement gene mutations (eg, CD46 gene mutations)39 may predispose to increased production of C5 convertases that generate ...
C2a, a serine protease, then combines with complement factor C4b to generate the C3 or C5 convertase. ... Component C2 which is part of the classical pathway of the complement system is cleaved by activated factor C1 into two ... C2a, a serine protease, then combines with complement factor C4b to generate the C3 or C5 convertase. ... R-MMU-166663 Initial triggering of complement. R-MMU-174577 Activation of C3 and C5. R-MMU-977606 Regulation of Complement ...
This C3/C5 convertase, because of its weak affinity for C5, will function primarily as a C3 convertase cleaving thousands of C3 ... surface-bound C5 convertase assembled on ER; ESC3b,Bb, surface-bound C5 convertase assembled on ES; C3b,Bb, monomeric C3/C5 ... These convertases will predominantly cleave C5 at catalytic rates close to Vmax (Fig. 7⇑) thus switching the C3/C5 convertase ... The monomeric C3/C5 convertases will spend most of their time cleaving C3 because of their weak affinity for C5. As ...
Buy our Recombinant Human Complement factor B protein (denatured). Ab174401 is a protein fragment produced in Escherichia coli ... Bb, a serine protease, then combines with complement factor 3b to generate the C3 or C5 convertase. It has also been implicated ... Recombinant Human Complement factor B protein (denatured). See all Complement factor B proteins and peptides. ... Factor B which is part of the alternate pathway of the complement system is cleaved by factor D into 2 fragments: Ba and Bb. ...
Study of the idiotypic response to autoantibody to the alternative pathway C3/C5 convertase in normal individuals, patients ... "Complement C3 Nephritic Factor" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Complement C3 Nephritic Factor" ... Nucleotide sequence of a human autoantibody to the alternative pathway C3/C5 convertase (C3NeF). Hybridoma. 1993 Jun; 12(3):231 ... Spitzer RE, Stitzel AE, Tsokos G. On the origin of C3 nephritic factor (antibody to the alternative pathway C3 convertase): ...
C3 convertase (EC 126.96.36.199, C42 , C4bC2b, C3bBb, complement C.hivin.4.hivin2, complement C3 convertase) belongs to family of ... can be used as an opsonin or bind to either type of C3 convertase to form the trimolecular C5 convertase to activate C5 for the ... Thus, the alternative C3 convertase (C3bBb) is formed and is able to cleave C3 via its dimeric Bb subunit. Since C3 convertases ... both C3 convertases will catalyze the proteolytic cleavage of C3 into C3a and C3b (hence the name "C3-convertase"). The smaller ...
Inhibits complement activation by destabilizing and preventing the formation of C3 and C5 convertases, which prevents ... Patients T lymphocytes show increased complement activation causing surface deposition of complement and the generation of ... the amplification convertases of the complement cascade (PubMed:7525274). ... This gene encodes a glycoprotein involved in the regulation of the complement cascade. Binding of the encoded protein to ...
Complement C2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene ... complement component 2,110kDa,activated by C1r to form C2a and C2b,combining with C4A and C4B to form C3/C5 convertase, ... The serine proteinase C2a then combines with complement factor 4b to create the C3 or C5 convertase. Deficiency of C2 has been ... C2a, a serine protease, then combines with complement factor C4b to generate the C3 or C5 convertase. *CO2_HUMAN,P06681 ...
1979) The alternative pathway C3/C5 convertase: chemical basis of factor B activation. J. Immunol. 123:529-534. ... Kinetics of C3 deposition to yeast cells was analyzed over 20 min in a complement binding medium containing (i) 40% NHS, (ii) ... Quantitative analysis of C3 binding using125I-C3.Binding of C3 to candidal yeast cells was analyzed by the procedure of Kozel ... 125I-labeled C3 sufficient to provide a specific activity of 50,000 cpm/μg of C3 for the mixture of labeled and unlabeled C3 in ...
The serine proteinase C2a then combines with complement factor 4b to create the C3 or C5 convertase. Deficiency of C2 has been ... Component C2 is a serum glycoprotein that functions as part of the classical pathway of the complement system. Activated C1 ...
The serine proteinase C2a then combines with complement factor 4b to create the C3 or C5 convertase. Deficiency of C2 has been ... Component C2 is a serum glycoprotein that functions as part of the classical pathway of the complement system. Activated C1 ...
Complement Factor Properdin, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The ... A positive regulator of the alternate pathway of complement. It binds to and stabilizes the C3- and C5-convertase enzyme ... A positive regulator of the alternate pathway of complement. It binds to and stabilizes the C3- and C5-convertase enzyme ... This protein binds to many microbial surfaces and apoptotic cells and stabilizes the C3- and C5-convertase enzyme complexes in ...
C2a, a serine protease, then combines with complement factor 4b to generate the C3 or C5 convertase. ... Defects in C2 are the cause of complement component 2 deficiency (C2D) [MIM:217000]. A deficiency of the complement classical ... Human complement component C2: production and characterization of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against C2.. Mol Immunol ... Component C2 which is part of the classical pathway of the complement system is cleaved by activated factor C1 into two ...
Cleavage of C3 leads to the formation of C3a and C3b. C3b functions cooperatively as a C5 convertase, which cleaves C5 into C5a ... Yates JR Sepp T Matharu BK . Complement C3 variant and the risk of age-related macular degeneration. N Engl J Med. 2007;357:553 ... Several lines of evidence indicate that the complement system is central to the pathogenesis of AMD. These include C5 and C5b-9 ... variants in complement genes C2/CFB, 27 C3, 28 and SERPING1 29 have been reported in AMD patients. ...
... hCVF lacks C5-convertase activity and hence does not generate the potent pro-inflammatory C5a anaphylatoxin.19,21 FVIII- ... generating an initial C3 convertase, C3(H2O)Bb, that activates complement by cleaving C3 into its active fragments, C3a and C3b ... In vitro reconstitution of the C3-convertase, or addition of the C3-activation fragment C3b, in the absence of other complement ... The tick-over theory revisited: formation and regulation of the soluble alternative complement C3 convertase (C3(H2O)Bb). Mol ...
C3 And PZP Like Alpha 2 Macroglobulin Domain Containing Protein 4 or C5) - Pipeline Review, H2 2017 Download the full report: ... Activation of C5 by a C5 convertase initiates the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components, C5-C9, into the ... C3 And PZP Like Alpha 2 Macroglobulin Domain Containing Protein 4 or C5)- The report reviews Complement C5 (C3 And PZP Like ... 12, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- Complement C5 (C3 And PZP Like Alpha 2 Macroglobulin Domain Containing Protein 4 or C5) - Pipeline ...
ProteinsProteinBindsDepositionSerumComplexesDeficiencyLysisGeneration of C5 convertaseRegulatoryUnregulated complement activationCleavage of C5FragmentAntibodiesNephritic FactorSolublePATHWAY C5 CONVERTASEInhibitComponentImmunePhagocytosisPathways of complement activationCD59ProteasesEnzymesSerine proteaseForm C5 convertaseMoleculesBindEnzymeMembrane-boundProactivatorLectin pathwayInhibits complement activationRegulatorTerminalHomologousRegulators of complementFormation
- The decreased expression of complement regulatory proteins (CRP) seems to play an important role in RA activity, and is associated with worsening of the clinical symptoms. (scielo.br)
- rheumatoid arthritis, complement system proteins, complement activation. (scielo.br)
- The complement system (CS) is composed of receptors and regulators bound to the cell membrane and different plasma proteins that interact with cells and mediators of the immune system ( Figure 1 ). (scielo.br)
- 4 Under normal pregnancy conditions, the fetus is protected from maternal immune responses through an array of mechanisms, including trophoblast expression of complement regulatory proteins that inhibit complement at different steps of the activation cascade. (ahajournals.org)
- The AP convertase is formed in a similar manner by the proteins C3b and B, which are homologous to C4b and C2, respectively. (jimmunol.org)
- Binding of the encoded protein to complement proteins accelerates their decay, thereby disrupting the cascade and preventing damage to host cells. (nih.gov)
- The complement system is part of the innate immune system and is composed of a diverse array of structural proteins and enzymes that promote or inhibit complement activation, which, in turn, leads to target cell chemotaxis, cellular activation, lysis, or apoptosis. (arvojournals.org)
- The accelerating effect of antimannan IgG on alternative pathway initiation was dose dependent and was reproduced in a complement binding reaction consisting of six purified proteins of the alternative pathway. (asm.org)
- The Classical pathway of activation of the complement system is a group of blood proteins that mediate the specific antibody response. (wikipathways.org)
- The complement system is a network of more than 50 plasma proteins and receptors, which have the role of mediating innate and adaptive host defence mechanisms, whereas they also participate in various (patho)physiological processes. (els.net)
- The primary functions mediated by complement proteins include phagocytosis of foreign elements (bacteria, viruses, particles etc .), cell lysis, inflammation, solubilisation of immune complexes, apoptotic cell clearance and enhancement of humoral immune responses. (els.net)
- Complement is a multiprotein network of plasma proteins and cell surface receptors. (els.net)
- Membrane complement regulatory proteins (mCRPs) such as CD46, CD55, and CD59, protect host cells from complement attack. (arvojournals.org)
- These include targeting the recognition molecules for the avoidance of detection, targeting key enzymes and complexes of the complement pathways like C3 convertases and C5b-9 formation - either by encoding complement regulators or by recruiting membrane-bound and soluble host complement regulators, cleaving complement proteins by encoding protease, and inhibiting the synthesis of complement proteins. (frontiersin.org)
- Without these GPI anchor proteins, such as CD59, terminal complement molecules would bind to the target cell and lyse the cell through the membrane attack complex (MAC). (davidson.edu)
- There are many molecules and proteins that are used in collaboration to activate different pathways of the complement system. (davidson.edu)
- Fearon DT, Austen KF (1977) Activation of the alternative complement pathway with rabbit erythrocytes by circumvention of the regulatory action of endogenous control proteins. (springer.com)
- Kirjavainen V, Jarva H, Biedzka Sarek M, Blom A, Skurnik M, Meri S. Yersinia enterocolitica serum resistance proteins YadA and ail bind the complement regulator C4b-binding protein. (labome.org)
- Methods and Results- Human coronary artery or human saphenous vein ECs were incubated with CRP (0 to 100 μg/mL, 0 to 72 hours), and the expression of the complement-inhibitory proteins decay-accelerating factor (DAF), membrane cofactor protein (CD46), and CD59 were measured by flow cytometry. (ahajournals.org)
- The increased expression of complement-inhibitory proteins was functionally effective, resulting in significant reduction of complement-mediated lysis of antibody-coated human saphenous vein ECs. (ahajournals.org)
- The complement system is a complex cascade of enzymes and regulatory proteins that normally participate in host defenses against microorganisms via opsonization, chemoattraction of leukocytes, cell lysis, and cell activation. (ahajournals.org)
- Because complement-inhibitory proteins protect the endothelium from complement-mediated injury and CRP is proatherogenic, in part because of its ability to activate complement, we hypothesized that the detrimental effect of CRP may involve the downregulation of these protective proteins. (ahajournals.org)
- This family contains two mammalian proteins, complement C2 and complement factor B, which, respectively, have analogous roles in the classical and alternative pathways of complement activation. (ebi.ac.uk)
- These proteins are composed of three regions, an N-terminal three-module complement control protein domain, a von Willebrand factor A domain, and a C-terminal serine protease domain. (ebi.ac.uk)
- Briefly, they are activated by cleavage and function as the serine protease components of the C3/C5 convertases, which play similar roles in these pathways although composed of different proteins. (ebi.ac.uk)
- The contribution of the complement cascade to acute inflammation is well established, as is the continuous activation and consumption of complement proteins in chronic inflammatory states ( 7 , 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Thus, the recent finding that complement proteins C3, C4, and C5a may aid tumor growth through immunosuppression ( 11 ) is unexpected and suggests an insidious and previously unrecognized relationship between the complement system and cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
- The latter fragment is the critical first protein that combines with C6, C7, C8, and multiple C9 proteins to form the MAC, the terminal, pore-forming complement protein complex responsible for lysis of cells and pathogens. (aacrjournals.org)
- Additionally, C3b generated by alternative pathway C3 convertase can attach to target surfaces and bind Bb, forming a C3 convertase that amplifies downstream complement proteins locally at the target surface. (aacrjournals.org)
- The mammalian complement system is a key serum-borne immune mechanism, which consists of a collection of soluble proteins that circulate as inactive precursors. (asm.org)
- Mutations in alternative pathway complement proteins in American patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. (proteopedia.org)
- Human complement receptor 1 (CR1, CD35) is a single chain transmembrane glycoprotein of molecular weight 160 kd to 250 kd (depending on allotype) and is a member of the regulators of complement activators (RCA) family of proteins that prevent excessive complement activation by inhibiting key enzymes, C3 and C5 convertases of the 3 complement pathways, namely the classical, alternative, and lectin. (bloodjournal.org)
- The complement system, which consists of more than 30 soluble and cell surface proteins, is a major component of innate immunity that functions to recognize and eliminate invading pathogens ( 9 ). (asm.org)
- It is a Glycosyl phosphatidylinositol anchored (GPI-anchored) member of the membrane bound complement regulatory proteins that inhibit autologous complement cascade activation. (biotium.com)
- The complement system is composed of about 20 different proteins released into the blood after production in the liver. (epomedicine.com)
- The classical pathway consists of 4 proteins C1, C2, C3 and C4. (epomedicine.com)
- The lectin pathway consists of C2, C3, C4 and some calcium-dependent lectin family proteins which are homologous to C1 component. (epomedicine.com)
- When MBL grabs its target (mannose on the surface of a bacterium, for example), the MASP protein functions like a convertase to clip C3 complement proteins to make C3b. (epomedicine.com)
- demonstrates a lack of a significant pathogenic role for C1q and C3 proteins (and thus upstream complement activation pathways) in SOD1 mutant ALS mice survival, it does not suggest-as the title indicates-that "global" complement activation is not pathogenic in ALS. (pnas.org)
- Complement activation in myasthenia gravis (MG) may damage muscle endplate and complement regulatory proteins such as decay-accelerating factor (DAF) or CD55 may be protective. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Innate complement control mechanisms include complement regulatory proteins expressed on all serum-exposed cells, each of which intervenes at key points in the cascade, thereby protecting cell membranes against autologous complement damage. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Kurtoğllu A, Koçtekin B, Kurtoğlu E, Yildiz M. The effect of splenectomy on complement regulatory proteins in erythrocytes in β-thalassemia major. (termedia.pl)
- Hemolysis induced by activation of the complement system is prevented by complement regulatory proteins. (termedia.pl)
- Decay accelerating factor (DAF, CD55), membrane inhibitor of reactive lysis (MIRL, CD59), and complement reception 1 (CD35) are among these proteins. (termedia.pl)
- The absence of these proteins thus accounts for the increased susceptibility of erythrocytes to complement lysis [ 4 - 6 ]. (termedia.pl)
- In this study we investigated how splenectomy affects complement regulatory proteins on erythrocytes in β-TM patients. (termedia.pl)
- a biochemical process involving the C1 to C9 complement proteins in which one protein interacts with another in a specific sequence called a complement pathway. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Complement comprises 25 to 30 discrete proteins, labeled numerically as C1 to C9, and by letters, i.e. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Various proteins of the complement system interact specifically with platelets, which, in turn, activates them and promotes thrombosis. (rupress.org)
- Complement is a multi-component system that involves several plasma and cell-expressed proteins, and has been conserved throughout evolution. (rupress.org)
- Also, C3b on the cell surface participates in the serial activation of complement proteins (C5-C9) that polymerize and form the C5b-9 complex, also known as the membrane attack complex. (rupress.org)
- Several negative regulatory proteins exist to prevent uncontrolled activation of the complement system and widespread tissue damage. (rupress.org)
- Several proteins of the complement system, including C3 and C5-C9, were shown to potentiate thrombin-induced platelet secretion and aggregation ( 4 ). (rupress.org)
- Also, treatment of platelets with sublytic concentrations of C5b-9 caused transient membrane depolarization ( 6 ), granule secretion ( 7 ), generation of procoagulant platelet microparticles ( 8 ), and translocation of phosphatidylserine to the outer membrane leaflet ( 9 , 10 ) Collectively, these studies make the case that the complement system may serve as a link between inflammation and thrombosis, and reveal specific interactions between complement proteins and platelets. (rupress.org)
- Complement acts as a danger‐sensing system in the innate immune system, and its activation initiates a strong inflammatory response and cleavage of the proteins C3 and C5 by proteolytic enzymes, the convertases. (embopress.org)
- Activation of the proteolytic complement cascade triggers cleavage of the homologous 185-200 kDa proteins C3, C4, and C5 ( Supplementary Figure S1 ). (embopress.org)
- There are currently known 4 counter-regulatory proteins (Factor H, Factor I, MCP, thrombomodulin) in which inactivating mutations lead to excessive complement activity. (omicsonline.org)
- There are 2 proteins (Factor B, C3) that are integral complement component in which gain of function mutations lead to excessive complement activity. (omicsonline.org)
- The complement system is an enzyme cascade that is a collection of blood and cell surface proteins to help the abilities of antibodies to clear pathogens from an organism. (sinobiological.com)
- The complement system that comprises 30 different proteins, including serum proteins, serosal proteins, and cell membrane receptors is an important part of the innate immune system. (sinobiological.com)
- Some complement proteins bind to immunoglobulins or to membrane components of cells. (sinobiological.com)
- Others are proenzymes that, when activated, cleave one or more other complement proteins and initiate an amplifying cascade of further cleavages. (sinobiological.com)
- We explored the hypothesis that thrombin induces EC expression of the complement-regulatory proteins decay-accelerating factor (DAF), membrane cofactor protein (MCP), and CD59 and that this maintains vascular integrity during coagulation associated with complement activation. (bloodjournal.org)
- The complement system consists of a large group of plasma proteins that plays a central role in the defense against infections and in the modulation of inflammatory responses. (bloodjournal.org)
- Most complement proteins are zymogens which are proteases that become activated when cleaved. (davidson.edu)
- C3b is a membrane associated protein which binds covalently to other complement proteins already on the pathogen surface. (davidson.edu)
- The complex of complement proteins on the cell surface after C3b binds forms the C5 convertase. (davidson.edu)
- After cleavage C5b interacts nonenzymatically with other complement proteins to form the MAC. (davidson.edu)
- The binding domain of C5b for other complement proteins such as C6 and C7 has been recently characterized and is homologous to a complement binding domain on C3 and C4. (davidson.edu)
- Other complement proteins such as C6 and C7 interact with C5 at the active site C345C in forming the MAC. (davidson.edu)
- In vivo, regulation of complement at the C3 and C5 activation steps is provided by both plasma and membrane proteins. (justia.com)
- The plasma protein inhibitors are factor H and C4-binding protein, and the regulatory membrane proteins located on cell surfaces are complement receptors 1 (CR1), decay-accelerating factor (DAF), and membrane cofactor protein (MCP). (justia.com)
- These proteins inhibit the C3 and C5 convertases (multi-subunit proteases), by promoting dissociation of the multisubunit complexes and/or by inactivating the complexes through proteolysis (catalyzed by factor I). Several pharmacological agents that regulate or modulate complement activity have been identified by in vitro assay, but most have been shown in vivo to be of low activity or toxic. (justia.com)
- The complement system consists of more than 30 molecules and forms three major pathways: the classical pathway (CP), alternative pathway (AP), and lectin pathway (LP). Italic characters mean complement regulatory proteins. (clinicalgate.com)
- It is composed of plasma and membrane proteins that complement antibody-mediated immunity through activation by three pathways. (lecturio.com)
- Complement proteins C1-9 are named after C as complement and numbers in order of activation, except that C4 is activated before C2. (lecturio.com)
- Serum sickness is an example of immune complex clearance by complement proteins. (lecturio.com)
- The complement protein fragments with the lowest number attach to the target and act to activate other proteins. (lecturio.com)
- Growing evidence suggests that complement proteins not only serve as mediators of innate immune defense against foreign pathogens but can also modulate diverse developmental processes, such as cell survival, growth, and differentiation in various tissues ( 1 , 2 ). (rupress.org)
- Complement-activating protein in cobra venom. (rcsb.org)
- It is a membrane protein and regulates also C5 convertase of the classical and alternative pathway. (wikipedia.org)
- C4 binding protein (C4BP) interferes with the assembly of the membrane-bound C3 convertase of the classical pathway. (wikipedia.org)
- This protein binds to many microbial surfaces and apoptotic cells and stabilizes the C3- and C5-convertase enzyme complexes in a feedback loop that ultimately leads to formation of the membrane attack complex and lysis of the target cell. (genecards.org)
- CFP (Complement Factor Properdin) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
- The C3 convertases cleave large amounts of complement protein C3 into C3a and C3b, thus, providing amplification. (jimmunol.org)
- This protein recognizes C4b and C3b fragments that condense with cell-surface hydroxyl or amino groups when nascent C4b and C3b are locally generated during C4 and c3 activation. (nih.gov)
- Complement hyperactivation, angiopathic thrombosis, and protein-losing enteropathy (CHAPLE): An autosomal recessive disease characterized by abdominal pain and diarrhea, primary intestinal lymphangiectasia, edema due to hypoproteinemia, malabsorption, and less frequently, bowel inflammation, recurrent infections, and angiopathic thromboembolic disease. (nih.gov)
- Full length native complement component C2 protein isolated from human plasma. (abcam.com)
- C2 (Complement C2) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
- Regulatory protein of the alternative pathway of complement activation. (emdmillipore.com)
- Download the full report: https://www.reportbuyer.com/product/4368352 Summary Complement C5 (C3 And PZP Like Alpha 2 Macroglobulin Domain Containing Protein 4 or C5) - Complement component 5 is a protein is encoded by the C5 gene. (medindia.net)
- C5a is also a potent chemokine which stimulates the locomotion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and directs their migration toward sites of inflammation.Complement C5 (C3 And PZP Like Alpha 2 Macroglobulin Domain Containing Protein 4 or C5) pipeline Target constitutes close to 31 molecules. (medindia.net)
- It also reviews key players involved in Complement C5 (C3 And PZP Like Alpha 2 Macroglobulin Domain Containing Protein 4 or C5) targeted therapeutics development with respective active and dormant or discontinued projects.The report is built using data and information sourced from proprietary databases, company/university websites, clinical trial registries, conferences, SEC filings, investor presentations and featured press releases from company/university sites and industry-specific third party sources. (medindia.net)
- 11 12 In addition, a unique rodent transmembrane protein known as Crry (complement-receptor 1-related gene/protein y) has both CD46 and CD55 activities and is considered a functional homologue of human CD46. (arvojournals.org)
- Recombinant protein encompassing a sequence within the center region of human Complement C2. (genetex.com)
- CD59 is a membrane-bound protein that is present in many types of cells and binds to homologous complement factors C8 and C9 of the terminal complement system. (davidson.edu)
- The CD59 protein is a complement system regulator that can inhibit the formation of the membrane attack complex (MAC). (davidson.edu)
- Eculizumab (h5G1.1-mAb, Soliris, Alexion Pharmaceuticals) is a monoclonal antibody designed to target the complement protein C5 and prevent its cleavage. (haematologica.org)
- Meri T, Blom A, Hartmann A, Lenk D, Meri S, Zipfel P. The hyphal and yeast forms of Candida albicans bind the complement regulator C4b-binding protein. (labome.org)
- Background- Because complement-mediated vascular injury participates in atherosclerosis and C-reactive protein (CRP) can activate the complement cascade, we sought to determine whether CRP affects the expression of the protective complement-inhibitory factors on the cell surface of endothelial cells (ECs). (ahajournals.org)
- Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Purple sea urchin) has an atypical factor B with a five-module complement control protein domain. (ebi.ac.uk)
- Using FACS to simultaneously evaluate viability, acrosomal status, and complement deposition, we found that complement activation was initiated by C-reactive protein (CRP) and was C1q, C2, and factor B dependent. (jci.org)
- Comparison of infection in mice lacking the central complement protein C3 with infection in their wild-type counterparts demonstrated decreases in gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production, IgG secretion, and spleen hyperplasia in animals lacking complement. (asm.org)
- CO3_NAJKA ] Complement-activating protein in cobra venom. (proteopedia.org)
- Complement factor H (CFH) is a soluble complement regulatory protein essential for the down-regulation of the alternative pathway on interaction with specific markers on the host cell surface. (biochemj.org)
- In bony fish, although C5 has been identified at the DNA or the protein level in trout, carp and gilthead seabream, only partial C5 sequences are available. (elsevier.com)
- The deduced amino acid sequences of C5-1 and C5-2 share 83% identity and predict a typical two-chain structure of the mature protein that lacks the thioester bond, as in C5 from other animals. (elsevier.com)
- The protein mediates cellular binding to particles and immune complexes that have activated complement. (nih.gov)
- Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen Complement Factor B Antikörper (211) und Complement Factor B Proteine (34) und viele weitere Produktgruppen zu diesem Protein an. (antikoerper-online.de)
- The complement Factor H protein is secreted into the bloodstream and acts in the regulation of complement activation. (acris-antibodies.com)
- Factor H is a major regulatory protein of the complement system. (acris-antibodies.com)
- The complement system consists of a series of plasma protein interactions which mediate direct attack on pathogens (opsonization) and induce inflammation. (davidson.edu)
- Compounds comprising peptides and peptidomimetics capable of binding the C3 protein and inhibiting complement activation are disclosed. (justia.com)
- In particular, this invention provides peptides and peptidomimetics capable of binding the C3 protein and inhibiting complement activation. (justia.com)
- DAF decay-accelerating factor, Bb activated split form of factor B, MCP membrane cofactor protein, CFI complement factor I, C1-INH C1 inhibitor (The figure was modified from Kavanagh et al. (clinicalgate.com)
- In most cases, heterozygotes produce one-half of the normal plasma level of a specific complement protein. (clinicalgate.com)
- The breakdown product of C3, C3a desArg or, in another term, "acylation-stimulating protein (ASP)," is recognized as one type of adipocytokine. (clinicalgate.com)
- It binds to and stabilizes the C3- and C5-convertase enzyme complexes. (genecards.org)
- The CP and LP convertases are formed when a C4b molecule covalently binds to the cell surface and is recognized by C2. (jimmunol.org)
- Cleavage of complement component C5 requires additional C3b which binds C5 and renders it susceptible to cleavage by C3b,Bb complex. (expasy.org)
- C3b binds to other C3 convertases, forming C2a4b3b, also known as C5 convertase. (aacrjournals.org)
- Generated C3b binds Bb, a cleavage fragment of factor B, and properdin, resulting in the formation of the alternative pathway C3 convertase. (aacrjournals.org)
- In the presence of calcium, CRP binds to polysaccharides such as phosphocholine (PCh) on microorganisms and triggers the classical complement pathway of innate immunity by activating C1q ( 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
- If the serum contains antibody, i.e. is positive, an antibody-antigen complex is formed which also binds (fixes) complement. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Eculizumab binds to C5 which prevent C5a production and the membrane attack complex. (wikipathways.org)
- The alternative pathway initiates when spontaneously hydrolyzed C3 binds to activating surfaces (i.e., certain bacteria and viruses). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- DAF prevents the formation and accelerates the decay of C3 and C5 convertases, 2 while MCP binds C3b and C4b and allows their degradation by factor I. 4 In contrast, CD59 operates at the distal end of the complement cascade, binding to C9 and preventing its incorporation into the C5b-9 complex, thereby inhibiting the function of the membrane attack complex (MAC). (bloodjournal.org)
- describes the use of a phage-displayed combinatorial random peptide library to identify a 27-residue peptide that binds to C3 and inhibits complement activation. (justia.com)
- Most of C4b attaches to the target cells while only a few binds to C2a to form C3 convertase. (lecturio.com)
- Patients' T lymphocytes show increased complement activation causing surface deposition of complement and the generation of soluble C5a. (nih.gov)
- Candida albicans activates the classical and alternative complement pathways, leading to deposition of opsonic complement fragments on the cell surface. (asm.org)
- Immunofluorescence analysis showed that addition of antimannan IgG to EGTA-chelated and mannan-absorbed serum promoted an early deposition of C3 molecules on the yeast cells but had little or no effect on distribution of the cellular sites for C3 activation. (asm.org)
- C3 deposition via the antimannan IgG-dependent classical pathway occurs rapidly and can be detected within 1 min following incubation of the yeast cells with NHS ( 40 ). (asm.org)
- C3 deposition through the alternative pathway exhibits distinctly different characteristics. (asm.org)
- If the classical pathway of NHS is blocked by either treatment with the Ca 2+ chelator EGTA ( 21 , 40 ) or mannan absorption to remove antimannan IgG ( 40 ), deposition of initial C3 molecules occurs at a few discrete sites on the yeast cell surface. (asm.org)
- Furthermore, deposition of initial C3 molecules via the alternative pathway requires a much longer incubation time than C3 binding through the antimannan IgG-dependent classical pathway. (asm.org)
- Alternatively, the naturally occurring antimannan IgG that is present in EGTA-chelated NHS may facilitate C3 deposition via the alternative pathway. (asm.org)
- We propose that this localized deposition of complement fragments aids in the fusion process between the spermatozoa and egg, in a role akin to that of complement in immune adherence. (jci.org)
- Following transfusion of human group O RBCs into mice lacking detectable pre-existing antibodies against the transfused RBCs, systemic coadministration of 10 mg/kg sCR1, a dose well tolerated in human subjects for prevention of tissue injury, completely inhibited the in vivo clearance of the transfused RBCs and surface C3 deposition in the first hour after transfusion, correlating with the half-life of sCR1 in the circulation. (bloodjournal.org)
- Treatment with sCR1 increased the survival of transfused human group A RBCs in the circulation of mice with pre-existing anti-A for 2 hours after transfusion by 50%, reduced intravascular hemolysis, and lowered the levels of complement deposition (C3 and C4), but not immunoglobulin G (IgG) or IgM, on the transfused cells by 100-fold. (bloodjournal.org)
- Decay-accelerating factor (DAF, also known as CD55) inhibits complement activation by suppressing the function of C3/C5 convertases, thereby limiting local generation or deposition of C3a/C5a and membrane attack complex (MAC or C5b-9) production. (harvard.edu)
- complement deposition has been observed at the muscle endplate of human subjects with MG and in experimental allergic MG (EAMG). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- CD35 is also involved in the regulation of C3 fragment deposition. (termedia.pl)
- As assessed by flow cytometry and immunoblotting, C3 deposition increased on the platelet surface upon cell activation with different agonists. (rupress.org)
- Using heterologous cells expressing P-selectin, we found that P-selectin alone is sufficient to activate the complement system, marked by increases in C3b deposition, C3a generation, and C5b-9 formation. (rupress.org)
- The binding of these physiological forms accelerates complement activation on the Chlamydia pneumoniae surface, as measured by C3b and C9 deposition. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The increased DAF expression was functionally relevant because it significantly reduced C3 deposition and complement-mediated EC lysis. (bloodjournal.org)
- Immune complexes can activate complement deposition on the antibody portion of the immune complexes leading to further activation of phagocytic and hematopoietic cells that clear the immune complexes from the circulation. (lecturio.com)
- The ultimate goal for complement activation is C3b deposition on the target cell membrane followed by the membrane attack complex (MAC) responsible for opsonization . (lecturio.com)
- however, in two patients with nephritic factor in their serum fractional catabolism of C5 was normal despite markedly increased C3 turnover, suggesting that in patients with alternative pathway activation by nephritic factor little or no C5 convertase is generated. (curehunter.com)
- Component C2 is a serum glycoprotein that functions as part of the classical pathway of the complement system. (genecards.org)
- Our interest has focused on the observed difference in the time required for C3 accumulation via the alternative pathway on C. albicans yeast cells incubated in EGTA-chelated serum versus mannan-absorbed serum. (asm.org)
- This possibility appears unlikely because addition of affinity-purified antimannan IgG to mannan-absorbed serum restores characteristic C3 binding kinetics to levels observed in intact serum ( 40 ). (asm.org)
- Bartholomew RM, Esser AF, Müller-Eberhard HJ (1978) Lysis of oncornaviruses by human serum: Isolation of the viral complement (Cl) receptor and identification as pl5E. (springer.com)
- Beebe DP, Cooper NR (1981) Neutralization of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) by human complement requires a natural IgM antibody present in human serum. (springer.com)
- Cooper NR, Jensen FC, Welsh RM, Oldstone MBA (1976) Lysis of RNA tumor viruses by human serum: Direct antibody independent triggering of the classical complement pathway. (springer.com)
- Lipodystrophy is often associated with glomerulonephritis, low C3 serum complement levels, and the presence of a C3 nephritic factor. (medscape.com)
- In the first, also referred to as the test system, antigen is mixed usually with serial dilutions of a test serum in the presence of complement. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Body mass index (BMI) and serum complement parameters such as C3, C4, and CH50 have a positive correlation. (clinicalgate.com)
- Especially, the serum level of C3 has a strong correlation with BMI and can fluctuate with insulin resistance. (clinicalgate.com)
- C3 convertases of the alternative pathway (monomeric C3/C5 convertase assembled with monomeric C3b (C3b,Bb)) and the classical pathway (C4b,C2a) are bimolecular complexes ( 1 , 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Central to innate immunity, complement activation is heightened in pregnancy, 1 in part, to facilitate normal clearance of fetoplacental material, including apoptotic blebs, 2 circulating fetal DNA, 3 and immune complexes. (ahajournals.org)
- Cleavage of C5 by these convertases results in the release of C5a, an important chemoattractant, and C5b, the initiator of the membrane attack complexes (C5b-9) that directly lyses Gram-negative bacteria. (jimmunol.org)
- Importantly, targeting C5 also preserves the early complement components of C3-mediated activity critical for the clearance of micro-organisms and immune complexes. (haematologica.org)
- The various complement activation pathways converge at the formation of active protease complexes called C3 convertases ( 3 ). (asm.org)
- These short-lived protease complexes are formed through pro-convertases, which for the alternative pathway consist of the complement component C3b and the pro-enzyme factor B (FB). (proteopedia.org)
- The complement system, an important arm of innate immunity, provides host defense and physiologic clearance of immune complexes and plays an adjuvant role in the immune response. (asmscience.org)
- 1 , 2 Although IgG1-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) complexes can modulate AChRs by cross-linking and accelerating degradation as well as functionally blocking AChRs, it is the activation of complement through successive stimulation of C3 and C5 convertase that ultimately results in a membrane attack complex with lysis of the post-synaptic muscle endplate. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- One of these is decay-accelerating factor (DAF) or CD55, and its main function is to bind and inactivate pre-formed C3/C5 convertase complexes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Both the classical and the lectin pathway share the identical C3 and C5 convertase complexes formed after cleavage of C4 by either activated C1s (classical pathway) or activated MASP-2 (lectin pathway) (see 1) and subsequent cleavage and activation of C4b-bound C2 through activated C1s or MASP-2 (see 2). (asmscience.org)
- Mediates the binding by these cells of particles and immune complexes that have activated complement to eliminate them from the circulation (PubMed:2963069). (nih.gov)
- C4b2a is the widely used short‐hand nomenclature for the C4b-C2a complex in the complement field, and similar nomenclature is used for the remaining complexes in the following). (embopress.org)
- Defects in C2 are the cause of complement component 2 deficiency (C2D) [MIM: (abcam.com)
- A deficiency of the complement classical pathway associated with the development of autoimmune disorders, mainly systemic lupus erythematosus. (abcam.com)
- Patients with complement component 2 deficiency are also reported to have recurrent or invasive infections. (abcam.com)
- Linton S (2001) Animal models of inherited complement deficiency. (els.net)
- O'Neil KM (2000) Complement deficiency. (els.net)
- Defects in this gene cause complement factor I deficiency, an autosomal recessive disease associated with a susceptibility to pyogenic infections. (genetex.com)
- C3 deficiency is most severe and occurs in humans, Brittany spaniels and Finnish-Landrace lambs. (thefreedictionary.com)
- A deficiency in the negative regulators of complement leads to excessive complement activation, as observed in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) and atypical or familial hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). (rupress.org)
- Early component deficiency in the complement pathway may be associated with what symptoms? (cramberry.net)
- Deficiency of DAF which normally breaks down C3 convertase on RBCs. (cramberry.net)
- Mice with dual C3 and C5 deficiency had a more exacerbated phenotype that was reversed by combined C3a and C5a reconstitution. (rupress.org)
- This infers resistance to complement-mediated cell lysis, allowing parasite survival and infection. (genecards.org)
- C5b subsequently takes the lead in formation of the terminal C5b-9 complement complex ( TCC ), ultimately resulting into cell lysis. (els.net)
- Activation of an alternate complement pathway, C3 hypocomplementemia with lysis of adipocytes induced by C3NeF, has been implicated. (medscape.com)
- C3 nephritic factor induces the lysis of adipocytes that secrete adipsin, a product identical to complement factor D. The distribution of the lipoatrophy is postulated to be dictated by the variable amounts of adipsin secreted by the adipocytes at different locations. (medscape.com)
- Model of the adipocyte destruction in acquired partial lipodystrophy showing complement activation at the adipocyte surface resulting in adipocyte lysis. (medscape.com)
- 9 This is supported by the presence of activated complement components in atherosclerotic plaques, such as the membrane attack complex (MAC, C5b-9), which promotes cellular activation, upregulates adhesion molecules, stimulates chemokine secretion, and can cause cell lysis. (ahajournals.org)
- the sequence of reactions, each being the catalyst for the next, that leads to the terminal complement pathway and cell lysis. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The complement system has four major function, including lysis of infectious organisms, activation of inflammation, opsonization and immune clearance.There are three different complement pathways, the classical complement pathway, the alternative complement pathway, and the mannose-binding lectin pathway. (sinobiological.com)
- Activation of C3 by complement pathway C3 convertases and its subsequent attachment to target surface leads to assembly of the membrane attack complex and ultimately to damage or lysis of the target cells. (justia.com)
- No matter, how the complement system is activated, generation of C5 convertase is important for the culmination of the complement mediated effector mechanisms, leading to the formation of Membrane Attack Complex (MAC). (epomedicine.com)
- The abundance of C3b leads to the generation of C5 convertase, C3bBbC3b, which is step 4. (asmscience.org)
- The generation of C5 convertase is the end of the classical pathway. (sinobiological.com)
- Unlike C3b/Bb, CVF/Bb is a stable complex and completely resistant to the actions of complement regulatory factors H ( CFH ) and I ( CFI ). (rcsb.org)
- Activation of the alternative pathway is tightly controlled by membrane associated complement regulatory components and the competition of the main fluid phase antagonists factor B and factor H for binding C3b or hydrolsed C3. (asmscience.org)
- Two renal disorders have been etiologically linked to complement regulatory pathology. (omicsonline.org)
- The catalytic rate of these convertases approaches maximum velocity, thereby switching the enzyme from cleavage of C3 to cleavage of C5, and production of the cytolytic C5b-9 complex. (jimmunol.org)
- Cleavage of C5 into C5a and C5b takes place by the C5 convertases, which consist of a complex of C3 convertases with C3b. (els.net)
- This step is initiated by the cleavage of C5 into C5a and C5b. (asmscience.org)
- By binding to C5, it prevents C5 convertase-mediated cleavage of C5 to C5a and C5b. (asmscience.org)
- This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction Cleavage of Arg-Ser bond in complement component C3 alpha-chain to yield C3a and C3b, and Arg- bond in complement component C5 alpha-chain to yield C5a and C5b This enzyme is a bimolecular complex of complement fragment Bb with either C3b or cobra venom factor. (wikipedia.org)
- C5a, the smaller fragment, is a potent chemotactic and spasmogenic anaphylatoxin that mediates inflammatory responses by stimulating platelets, endothelial cells, eosinophils, neutrophils, and phagocytes to the site of complement activation ( 4 , 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Complement factor B Bb fragment. (abcam.com)
- The smaller fragment called C3a serves to increase vascular permeability and promote extravasation of phagocytes, while the larger C3b fragment can be used as an opsonin or bind to either type of C3 convertase to form the trimolecular C5 convertase to activate C5 for the membrane attack complex. (wikipedia.org)
- Conclusions These data demonstrate a previously masked mechanism of red cell clearance in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and suggests that blockade of complement at C5 allows C3 fragment accumulation on some paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria red cells, explaining the residual low-level hemolysis occurring in some eculizumab-treated patients. (haematologica.org)
- The large fragment formed when COMPLEMENT C4 is cleaved by COMPLEMENT C1S. (labome.org)
- 3. The combination according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the epitope is selected from within a fragment consisting of amino acids 33-124 of the beta chain (SEQ ID NO: 1) or a fragment consisting of amino acids 1-999 of the alpha chain (SEQ ID NO: 10) of C5. (patents.com)
- Cleaved by complement factor D into a non-catalytic and catalytic fragment (Ba and Bb respectively). (guidetopharmacology.org)
- C4 is homologous to C3 in that it contains an internal thioester bond that ends up on C4b and thus it can form covalent amide or ester linkages with the plasma membrane membrane of the pathogen and any associated antibodies, where it then behaves as an opsonin. (wikipedia.org)
- Ehrnst A (1977) Complement activation by measles virus cytotoxic antibodies: Alternative pathway C activation by hemagglutination-inhibition antibodies but classical activation by hemolysin antibodies. (springer.com)
- Monitoring patients with the C1q assay, which detects antibodies that fix complement, offers a minimally invasive means of identifying patients at risk for transplant glomerulopathy and graft loss. (labome.org)
- 05). The results of our study suggest that anti-beta2GPI antibodies may play a role in GMT formation, and this process might involve complement activation. (labome.org)
- 3 The majority of blood group antibodies (including both alloantibodies and autoantibodies) that can fix complement, however, activate complement up to the C3 stage but do not go on to act as hemolysins. (bloodjournal.org)
- In cold type autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) IgM antibodies are formed against the polysaccharide antigens of red blood cells, which cause agglutination in low temperatures leading to complement activation and hemolysis. (biomedcentral.com)
- The present invention provides a combination of two or more isolated or purified anti-C5 antibodies, wherein the isolated or purified anti-C5 antibodies bind to an epitope within the beta chain or alpha chain of C5 and wherein the isolated or purified anti-C5 antibodies to be combined do not compete with each other for binding to the epitope. (patents.com)
- 4. The combination according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein one or more of the anti-C5 antibodies bind to C5 with a higher affinity at neutral pH than at acidic pH. (patents.com)
- 5. The combination according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein one or more of the isolated or purified anti-C5 antibodies bind to the same epitope as any one of reference antibodies described in Table 2. (patents.com)
- In renal transplant, the allograft is responsible for triggering many innate and adaptive immune mechanisms, either mediated by cells, such as macrophages and lymphocytes, or by soluble components, such as antibodies and the complement system, which can ultimately lead to graft rejection [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Acquired auto-antibodies resulting in excessive activity include: Inactivating Factor H antibodies, C3 nephritic factor stabilizing C3 convertase, and C4 nephritic factor stabilizing C4 convertase. (omicsonline.org)
- Anti-C3 NAb preparations exhibited nephritic factor activity that was up to 60 times stronger than that of total IgG from a patient with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type 2. (curehunter.com)
- In addition, anti-C3 NAbs promoted C3 convertase generation, when added to the convertase precursor or during convertase assembly, suggesting a non-nephritic-factor mechanism. (curehunter.com)
- Complement C3 Nephritic Factor" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
- This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Complement C3 Nephritic Factor" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Complement C3 Nephritic Factor" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
- Below are the most recent publications written about "Complement C3 Nephritic Factor" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
- [ 4 ] Patients with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis are more likely to have low C3 levels and the presence of C3 nephritic factor (C3NeF). (medscape.com)
- In all complement activation pathways, chimeras lacking these SCIN residues completely fail to inhibit production of the potent mediator of inflammation C5a. (jimmunol.org)
- Rosmarinic acid has been reported not to inhibit t-butyl hydroperoxide-induced paw edema in the rat, indicating selectivity for complement-dependent processes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- This effect is attributed to the ability of DAF to limit complement activation and inhibit the activity of Src and caspases 9 and 3. (harvard.edu)
- CD55 and CD59, which are glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchored, inhibit formation of the C3 convertases and prevent the terminal polymerization of the membrane attack complex on the cell surface of erythrocytes. (termedia.pl)
- Component C2 which is part of the classical pathway of the complement system is cleaved by activated factor C1 into two fragments: C2b and C2a. (uniprot.org)
- Xaa bond in complement component C5 alpha-chain to form C5a and C5b. (uniprot.org)
- It is a structural and functional analog of complement component C3b, the activated form of C3. (rcsb.org)
- Complement component C3/C5 convertase (alternative). (expasy.org)
- The complement system is a key component of the innate immune system that is involved in eliminating unwanted self and nonself material via cellular and humoral mechanisms. (els.net)
- Daniels CA, Borsos T, Snyderman R, Notkins AL (1969) Neutralization of sensitized virus by the fourth component of complement. (springer.com)
- Previous studies using a mouse model of RRV-induced disease demonstrated that viral infection results in a severe inflammatory arthritis and myositis and that complement component 3 (C3) contributes to the destructive phase of the inflammatory disease but not the recruitment of cellular infiltrates to the sites of RRV-induced inflammation. (asm.org)
- It recognizes the complement component 3b (C3b) and 3d (C3d) fragments in addition to self cell markers (i.e. glycosaminoglycans, sialic acid) to distinguish host cells that deserve protection from pathogens that should be eliminated. (biochemj.org)
- The complement component C5 plays important roles in inflammatory responses and complement-mediated cytolysis. (elsevier.com)
- The complement system provides a fundamental component of the body's immune response to invading microorganisms. (asmscience.org)
- Complement Factor B, also known as CFB, encodes complement factor B which is a component of the alternative pathway of complement activation. (prospecbio.com)
- CFB / Complement Factor B is complement factor B, a component of the alternative pathway of complement activation. (lsbio.com)
- The complement system is a central component of the innate immune response and is involved in many functions, including recognition, opsonization, phagocytosis, and destruction of foreign cells, as well as generation of chemotactic fragments (C3a and C5a) and activation of adaptive immunity ( 30 , 32 , 51 ) Three pathways of complement activation are known: the classical, lectin, and alternative pathways. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- A protease component of the alternative complement pathway. (guidetopharmacology.org)
- 2006) Variation in factor B (BF) and complement component 2 (C2) genes is associated with age-related macular degeneration. (guidetopharmacology.org)
- Biopsies demonstrating a proliferative component represent C3 glomerulonephritis as distinct from Dense Deposit Disease. (omicsonline.org)
- Complement component C3 plays a central role in activation of all three pathways. (justia.com)
- Activation of complement via the innate and the adaptive immune systems is vital to the body's defenses in fighting infections. (jimmunol.org)
- This gene encodes a plasma glycoprotein that positively regulates the alternative complement pathway of the innate immune system. (genecards.org)
- The pathogenic bacterium Staphylococcus aureus counteracts the host immune defense by excretion of the 85 residue staphylococcal complement inhibitor (SCIN). (jimmunol.org)
- As a key part of the innate immune system complement activation triggers acute inflammatory and cytolytic reactions but also participates in regulation of adaptive immunity ( 1 , 2 , 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Among its related pathways are Immune response Lectin induced complement pathway and Complement Pathway . (genecards.org)
- While a role for the complement system on innate as well as adaptive immunity has been documented, the implication of complement activation on the onset of the anti-FVIII immune response is unknown. (haematologica.org)
- Here, using in vitro assays for FVIII endocytosis by human monocyte-derived dendritic cells and presentation to T cells, as well as in vivo complement depletion in FVIII-deficient mice, we show a novel role for complement C3 in enhancing the immune response against therapeutic FVIII. (haematologica.org)
- Being a major first line of immune defense, the complement system keeps a constant vigil against viruses. (frontiersin.org)
- The correlation between loss of secondary immune functions and loss of complement indicates that the proinflammatory signaling components of the complement system, and not membrane attack complex or opsonophagocytosis, contribute to the immune response to this pathogen. (asm.org)
- Immune protection by the complement system critically depends on assembly of C3 convertases on the surface of pathogens and altered host cells. (proteopedia.org)
- Collectively, our data highlight a potential use of CR1-based inhibitors for prevention of complement-dependent immune hemolysis. (bloodjournal.org)
- The complement system is an important mediator of the host immune response to infection and tissue damage, but may cause substantial injury when activated inappropriately. (bloodjournal.org)
- In immune destruction of red blood cells (RBCs), complement plays a critical role, being involved in both intravascular and extravascular hemolysis. (bloodjournal.org)
- Indeed, as many as 50% of patients with immune hemolytic diseases have both IgG and complement on their red cells. (bloodjournal.org)
- 4 Because of the contribution of complement in RBC destruction, we have taken the approach of activation using recombinant complement inhibitory molecules to block complement-mediated immune hemolysis, and thereby prevent some of its associated life-threatening effects. (bloodjournal.org)
- This chapter highlights the various roles of the complement system in the orchestration of the immune response towards microbial infections, gives examples of microbial strategies to evade complement-mediated clearance, and discusses how acquired and inherited complement deficiencies may predispose an organism to infectious disease. (asmscience.org)
- During this journey, from circulating cells to endothelial cells, C. pneumoniae encounters the innate immune system, in which the complement system may play a fundamental role in controlling Chlamydia infection. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- C3 is unique in that it possesses a rich architecture that provides a multiplicity of diverse ligand binding sites that are important in immune surveillance and immune response pathways. (justia.com)
- Having been traditionally utilized as a marker of infection and cardiovascular events, there is now growing evidence that CRP plays important roles in inflammatory processes and host responses to infection including the complement pathway, apoptosis, phagocytosis, nitric oxide (NO) release, and the production of cytokines, particularly interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α. (frontiersin.org)
- The nCRP isoform activates the classical complement pathway, induces phagocytosis, and promotes apoptosis. (frontiersin.org)
- These include the different forms of C3/C5 convertases in the classical and the alternative pathways of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. (curehunter.com)
- 5 C5 is the point at which the three pathways of complement activation converge. (haematologica.org)
- present three C3-dependent pathways of complement activation (classic, lectin, and alternative). (pnas.org)
- CD59) to prevent host tissue bystander damage after complement activation. (arvojournals.org)
- 1 , 2 This lack of GPI expression results in the loss of the terminal complement inhibitor CD59 from the surface of hematopoietic cells, leaving red blood cells susceptible to complement-mediated intravascular hemolysis and unregulated activation of platelet and endothelial cells. (haematologica.org)
- 12 , 13 Both DAF and, another complement regulator, CD59, appear to be concentrated at neuromuscular junctions and both can be upregulated by muscle cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Accelerates complement activation by binding to and stabilizing the alternative pathway C3 and C5 convertase enzymes. (emdmillipore.com)
- Potential roles in the proteolytic activation of C3 and C5 have also been assigned to noncomplement proteinases, including enzymes of the coagulation and fibrinolysis cascades. (els.net)
- The active subunit Bb is a serine protease which connects with C3b to form the alternative pathway C3 convertase. (prospecbio.com)
- CVF functions as a relatively rigid binding scaffold inducing a conformational change in C5, which positions its cleavage site in proximity to the serine protease Bb. (embopress.org)
- Attachment of the additional C3b molecules near the C3 convertase was originally thought to be required for generating C5 convertase activity ( 6 , 8 , 15 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Convertase action results in labeling of Ags with a large number of C3b molecules and their inactive derivative iC3b ( 8 , 9 , 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Moreover, initial C3 molecules bound through the classical pathway are uniformly distributed over the entire yeast cell surface ( 21 , 40 ). (asm.org)
- Dotted black lines within the C3 and C3‐derived molecules indicate the presence of disulfide bonds. (els.net)
- Developmentally regulated expression by Trypanosoma cruzi of molecules that accelerate the decay of complement C3 convertases. (elsevier.com)
- Complement activation cascades are regulated by humoral and cell membrane-bound molecules. (clinicalgate.com)
- In the present study, we examined the effect of the density of C3b (the proteolytically activated form of C3) on the function of the noncatalytic subunit of natural surface-bound forms of the enzyme. (jimmunol.org)
- Cleavage of C3 produces the proteolytically activated form of C3 (C3b), 3 which forms the nonenzymatic subunit of the enzyme complex responsible for C3 and C5 cleavage ( 1 , 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
- The alternative pathway C3 convertase (C3b,Bb) has C3b as the noncatalytic subunit attached in a Mg 2+ -dependent fashion to the catalytic subunit (Bb) of the enzyme complex. (jimmunol.org)
- The natural surface-bound C5 convertases are the more complex forms of the enzyme and are made up of a C3 convertase and an additional C3b molecule ( 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 13 , 14 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Both pathways lead to the formation of a common C3 convertase, an enzyme complex with serine proteinase trypsin‐like specificity. (els.net)
- These chimeras also display reduced capacity to stabilize the C3 convertases of both the alternative and the classical/lectin pathway indicating the stabilizing effect is pivotal for the complement inhibitory activity of SCIN. (jimmunol.org)
- Complement is activated by three pathways: the classical pathway, the alternative pathway, and the lectin pathway. (asmscience.org)
- A simplified diagram of the three complement activation pathways: the classical, the lectin pathway, and the alternative pathway. (asmscience.org)
- Cleavage of C4 by MASP-2, the initiating protease of the lectin pathway, is a crucial event in the activation of this pathway, preceding the eventual formation of the C3 convertase (C4bC2a) complex on the pathogen surface. (edu.au)
- Proteolysis of C4 is also triggered via recognition of microbial carbohydrates in the lectin pathway (LP). C4b combines with C2 and subsequent cleavage of C2 to C2a results in generation of the LP/CP C3 convertase C4b2a. (embopress.org)
- Inhibits complement activation by destabilizing and preventing the formation of C3 and C5 convertases, which prevents complement damage (PubMed:28657829). (nih.gov)
- It inhibits complement activation at the yeast surface and, in addition, mediates adhesion of C. albicans to host endothelial cells. (labome.org)
- High C5 convertase activity was associated with the formation of C3b-C3b or C3b-C4b dimers in which the additional C3b molecule was shown to be covalently attached to a specific site on the first C3b or C4b molecule ( 10 , 16 ). (jimmunol.org)
- C3 convertase formation can occur in three different pathways: the classical, lectin, and alternative pathways. (wikipedia.org)
- All three pathways converge to the formation of an active protease complex on the pathogenic surface, the C3 convertase. (jimmunol.org)
- Furthermore, high local concentrations of C3b induce formation of C5 convertases ( 13 ). (jimmunol.org)
- These insights into formation of convertases provide a basis for further development of complement therapeutics. (proteopedia.org)
- 1 The pathobiologic effects of complement are mediated directly by the formation of the cytolytic membrane attack complex (C5b-9), and indirectly by the generation of anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. (bloodjournal.org)
- Furthermore, complement activation can result in formation of opsonins (C3b), promoting the engulfment of target cells by phagocytes. (bloodjournal.org)
- Three activation pathways converge at the formation of C3 convertases, cleaving C3 into C3a and C3b. (embopress.org)