Complement C3: A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.Complement C4: A glycoprotein that is important in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C4 is cleaved by the activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C4A and COMPLEMENT C4B.Complement C4a: The smaller fragment formed when complement C4 is cleaved by COMPLEMENT C1S. It is an anaphylatoxin that causes symptoms of immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE) but its activity is weaker than that of COMPLEMENT C3A or COMPLEMENT C5A.Complement C3a: The smaller fragment generated from the cleavage of complement C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. C3a, a 77-amino acid peptide, is a mediator of local inflammatory process. It induces smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION, and HISTAMINE RELEASE from MAST CELLS and LEUKOCYTES. C3a is considered an anaphylatoxin along with COMPLEMENT C4A; COMPLEMENT C5A; and COMPLEMENT C5A, DES-ARGININE.Complement C1q: A subcomponent of complement C1, composed of six copies of three polypeptide chains (A, B, and C), each encoded by a separate gene (C1QA; C1QB; C1QC). This complex is arranged in nine subunits (six disulfide-linked dimers of A and B, and three disulfide-linked homodimers of C). C1q has binding sites for antibodies (the heavy chain of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M). The interaction of C1q and immunoglobulin activates the two proenzymes COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S, thus initiating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION via the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.Complement C5a: The minor fragment formed when C5 convertase cleaves C5 into C5a and COMPLEMENT C5B. C5a is a 74-amino-acid glycopeptide with a carboxy-terminal ARGININE that is crucial for its spasmogenic activity. Of all the complement-derived anaphylatoxins, C5a is the most potent in mediating immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE), smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION; HISTAMINE RELEASE; and migration of LEUKOCYTES to site of INFLAMMATION.Complement Activation: The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.Complement C4b: The large fragment formed when COMPLEMENT C4 is cleaved by COMPLEMENT C1S. The membrane-bound C4b binds COMPLEMENT C2A, a SERINE PROTEASE, to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).Complement C5: C5 plays a central role in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C5 is cleaved by C5 CONVERTASE into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. The smaller fragment C5a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of inflammatory process. The major fragment C5b binds to the membrane initiating the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components, C5-C9, into the MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Complement C3b: The larger fragment generated from the cleavage of COMPLEMENT C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. It is a constituent of the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb), and COMPLEMENT C5 CONVERTASES in both the classical (C4b2a3b) and the alternative (C3bBb3b) pathway. C3b participates in IMMUNE ADHERENCE REACTION and enhances PHAGOCYTOSIS. It can be inactivated (iC3b) or cleaved by various proteases to yield fragments such as COMPLEMENT C3C; COMPLEMENT C3D; C3e; C3f; and C3g.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Complement C6: A 105-kDa serum glycoprotein with significant homology to the other late complement components, C7-C9. It is a polypeptide chain cross-linked by 32 disulfide bonds. C6 is the next complement component to bind to the membrane-bound COMPLEMENT C5B in the assembly of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. It is encoded by gene C6.Complement C3c: A 206-amino-acid fragment in the alpha chain (672-1663) of C3b. It is generated when C3b is inactivated (iC3b) and its alpha chain is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I into C3c (749-954), and C3dg (955-1303) in the presence COMPLEMENT FACTOR H.Complement C3d: A 302-amino-acid fragment in the alpha chain (672-1663) of C3b. It is generated when C3b is inactivated (iC3b) and its alpha chain is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I into C3c, and C3dg (955-1303) in the presence COMPLEMENT FACTOR H. Serum proteases further degrade C3dg into C3d (1002-1303) and C3g (955-1001).Complement C2: A component of the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C2 is cleaved by activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C2B and COMPLEMENT C2A. C2a, the COOH-terminal fragment containing a SERINE PROTEASE, combines with COMPLEMENT C4B to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).Complement C9: A 63-kDa serum glycoprotein encoded by gene C9. Monomeric C9 (mC9) binds the C5b-8 complex to form C5b-9 which catalyzes the polymerization of C9 forming C5b-p9 (MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX) and transmembrane channels leading to lysis of the target cell. Patients with C9 deficiency suffer from recurrent bacterial infections.Receptors, Complement: Molecules on the surface of some B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that recognize and combine with the C3b, C3d, C1q, and C4b components of complement.Complement C1s: A 77-kDa subcomponent of complement C1, encoded by gene C1S, is a SERINE PROTEASE existing as a proenzyme (homodimer) in the intact complement C1 complex. Upon the binding of COMPLEMENT C1Q to antibodies, the activated COMPLEMENT C1R cleaves C1s into two chains, A (heavy) and B (light, the serine protease), linked by disulfide bonds yielding the active C1s. The activated C1s, in turn, cleaves COMPLEMENT C2 and COMPLEMENT C4 to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL C3 CONVERTASE).Complement Membrane Attack Complex: A product of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION cascade, regardless of the pathways, that forms transmembrane channels causing disruption of the target CELL MEMBRANE and cell lysis. It is formed by the sequential assembly of terminal complement components (COMPLEMENT C5B; COMPLEMENT C6; COMPLEMENT C7; COMPLEMENT C8; and COMPLEMENT C9) into the target membrane. The resultant C5b-8-poly-C9 is the "membrane attack complex" or MAC.Complement C1r: A 80-kDa subcomponent of complement C1, existing as a SERINE PROTEASE proenzyme in the intact complement C1 complex. When COMPLEMENT C1Q is bound to antibodies, the changed tertiary structure causes autolytic activation of complement C1r which is cleaved into two chains, A (heavy) and B (light, the serine protease), connected by disulfide bonds. The activated C1r serine protease, in turn, activates COMPLEMENT C1S proenzyme by cleaving the Arg426-Ile427 bond. No fragment is released when either C1r or C1s is cleaved.Complement Inactivator Proteins: Serum proteins that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host. The complement system is tightly regulated by inactivators that accelerate the decay of intermediates and certain cell surface receptors.Complement C7: A 93-kDa serum glycoprotein encoded by C7 gene. It is a polypeptide chain with 28 disulfide bridges. In the formation of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX; C7 is the next component to bind the C5b-6 complex forming a trimolecular complex C5b-7 which is lipophilic, resembles an integral membrane protein, and serves as an anchor for the late complement components, C8 and C9.Complement C3-C5 Convertases: Serine proteases that cleave COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, or cleave COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. These include the different forms of C3/C5 convertases in the classical and the alternative pathways of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Both cleavages take place at the C-terminal of an ARGININE residue.Complement Factor B: A glycine-rich, heat-labile serum glycoprotein that contains a component of the C3 CONVERTASE ALTERNATE PATHWAY (C3bBb). Bb, a serine protease, is generated when factor B is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR D into Ba and Bb.Complement Pathway, Alternative: Complement activation initiated by the interaction of microbial ANTIGENS with COMPLEMENT C3B. When COMPLEMENT FACTOR B binds to the membrane-bound C3b, COMPLEMENT FACTOR D cleaves it to form alternative C3 CONVERTASE (C3BBB) which, stabilized by COMPLEMENT FACTOR P, is able to cleave multiple COMPLEMENT C3 to form alternative C5 CONVERTASE (C3BBB3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Complement Pathway, Classical: Complement activation initiated by the binding of COMPLEMENT C1 to ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES at the COMPLEMENT C1Q subunit. This leads to the sequential activation of COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S subunits. Activated C1s cleaves COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 forming the membrane-bound classical C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Complement C8: A 150-kDa serum glycoprotein composed of three subunits with each encoded by a different gene (C8A; C8B; and C8G). This heterotrimer contains a disulfide-linked C8alpha-C8gamma heterodimer and a noncovalently associated C8beta chain. C8 is the next component to bind the C5-7 complex forming C5b-8 that binds COMPLEMENT C9 and acts as a catalyst in the polymerization of C9.Complement C1: The first complement component to act in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. It is a calcium-dependent trimolecular complex made up of three subcomponents: COMPLEMENT C1Q; COMPLEMENT C1R; and COMPLEMENT C1S at 1:2:2 ratios. When the intact C1 binds to at least two antibodies (involving C1q), C1r and C1s are sequentially activated, leading to subsequent steps in the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Receptors, Complement 3b: Molecular sites on or in some B-lymphocytes and macrophages that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3B. The primary structure of these receptors reveal that they contain transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, with their extracellular portion composed entirely of thirty short consensus repeats each having 60 to 70 amino acids.Complement Factor H: An important soluble regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It is a 139-kDa glycoprotein expressed by the liver and secreted into the blood. It binds to COMPLEMENT C3B and makes iC3b (inactivated complement 3b) susceptible to cleavage by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I. Complement factor H also inhibits the association of C3b with COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form the C3bB proenzyme, and promotes the dissociation of Bb from the C3bBb complex (COMPLEMENT C3 CONVERTASE, ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY).Complement C5b: The larger fragment generated from the cleavage of C5 by C5 CONVERTASE that yields COMPLEMENT C5A and C5b (beta chain + alpha' chain, the residual alpha chain, bound by disulfide bond). C5b remains bound to the membrane and initiates the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components to form C5b-8-poly-C9, the MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Complement C2a: The COOH-terminal fragment of COMPLEMENT 2, released by the action of activated COMPLEMENT C1S. It is a SERINE PROTEASE. C2a combines with COMPLEMENT C4B to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).Receptor, Anaphylatoxin C5a: A G-protein-coupled receptor that signals an increase in intracellular calcium in response to the potent ANAPHYLATOXIN peptide COMPLEMENT C5A.Complement Activating Enzymes: Enzymes that activate one or more COMPLEMENT PROTEINS in the complement system leading to the formation of the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX, an important response in host defense. They are enzymes in the various COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION pathways.Complement Inactivating Agents: Compounds that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host.Complement Hemolytic Activity Assay: A screening assay for circulating COMPLEMENT PROTEINS. Diluted SERUM samples are added to antibody-coated ERYTHROCYTES and the percentage of cell lysis is measured. The values are expressed by the so called CH50, in HEMOLYTIC COMPLEMENT units per milliliter, which is the dilution of serum required to lyse 50 percent of the erythrocytes in the assay.Complement C1 Inactivator Proteins: Serum proteins that inhibit, antagonize, or inactivate COMPLEMENT C1 or its subunits.Receptors, Complement 3d: Molecular sites on or in B-lymphocytes, follicular dendritic cells, lymphoid cells, and epithelial cells that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3D. Human complement receptor 2 (CR2) serves as a receptor for both C3dg and the gp350/220 glycoprotein of HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN, and binds the monoclonal antibody OKB7, which blocks binding of both ligands to the receptor.Anaphylatoxins: Serum peptides derived from certain cleaved COMPLEMENT PROTEINS during COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. They induce smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION; mast cell HISTAMINE RELEASE; PLATELET AGGREGATION; and act as mediators of the local inflammatory process. The order of anaphylatoxin activity from the strongest to the weakest is C5a, C3a, C4a, and C5a des-arginine.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Complement Factor D: A serum protein which is important in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. This enzyme cleaves the COMPLEMENT C3B-bound COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form C3bBb which is ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE.Complement Factor I: A plasma serine proteinase that cleaves the alpha-chains of C3b and C4b in the presence of the cofactors COMPLEMENT FACTOR H and C4-binding protein, respectively. It is a 66-kDa glycoprotein that converts C3b to inactivated C3b (iC3b) followed by the release of two fragments, C3c (150-kDa) and C3dg (41-kDa). It was formerly called KAF, C3bINF, or enzyme 3b inactivator.Complement C4b-Binding Protein: A serum protein that regulates the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. It binds as a cofactor to COMPLEMENT FACTOR I which then hydrolyzes the COMPLEMENT C4B in the CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C4bC2a).Complement C3b Inactivator Proteins: Endogenous proteins that inhibit or inactivate COMPLEMENT C3B. They include COMPLEMENT FACTOR H and COMPLEMENT FACTOR I (C3b/C4b inactivator). They cleave or promote the cleavage of C3b into inactive fragments, and thus are important in the down-regulation of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and its cytolytic sequence.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Complement C3-C5 Convertases, Classical Pathway: Important enzymes in the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. They cleave COMPLEMENT C3 and COMPLEMENT C5.Complement C2b: The N-terminal fragment of COMPLEMENT 2, released by the action of activated COMPLEMENT C1S.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Cobra Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Steroid 21-Hydroxylase: An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Complement C3-C5 Convertases, Alternative Pathway: Important enzymes in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. They cleave COMPLEMENT C3 and COMPLEMENT C5.Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein: An endogenous 105-kDa plasma glycoprotein produced primarily by the LIVER and MONOCYTES. It inhibits a broad spectrum of proteases, including the COMPLEMENT C1R and the COMPLEMENT C1S proteases of the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY, and the MANNOSE-BINDING PROTEIN-ASSOCIATED SERINE PROTEASES. C1-INH-deficient individuals suffer from HEREDITARY ANGIOEDEMA TYPES I AND II.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Complement C3 Convertase, Alternative Pathway: A serine protease that is the complex of COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT FACTOR BB. It cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT C3B in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY.Complement C5 Convertase, Classical Pathway: A serine protease that cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT 5 into COMPLEMENT 5A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT 5B in the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. It is a complex of CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C4b2a) with an additional COMPLEMENT C3B, or C4b2a3b.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Complement C3 Convertase, Classical Pathway: A serine protease that cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT 3 into COMPLEMENT 3A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT 3B in the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. It is a complex of COMPLEMENT 4B and COMPLEMENT 2A (C4b2a).Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Opsonin Proteins: Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Complement C5 Convertase, Alternative Pathway: A serine protease that cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT C5B in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. It is the complex of ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb) with an additional COMPLEMENT C3B, or C3bBb3b.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Complement Pathway, Mannose-Binding Lectin: Complement activation triggered by the interaction of microbial POLYSACCHARIDES with serum MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN resulting in the activation of MANNOSE-BINDING PROTEIN-ASSOCIATED SERINE PROTEASES. As in the classical pathway, MASPs cleave COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 to form C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Properdin: A 53-kDa protein that is a positive regulator of the alternate pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It stabilizes the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb) and protects it from rapid inactivation, thus facilitating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and the formation of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Individuals with mutation in the PFC gene exhibit properdin deficiency and have a high susceptibility to infections.Complement C5a, des-Arginine: A derivative of complement C5a, generated when the carboxy-terminal ARGININE is removed by CARBOXYPEPTIDASE B present in normal human serum. C5a des-Arg shows complete loss of spasmogenic activity though it retains some chemotactic ability (CHEMOATTRACTANTS).Mice, Inbred C57BLMacrophage-1 Antigen: An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Kidney Glomerulus: A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.Serum: The clear portion of BLOOD that is left after BLOOD COAGULATION to remove BLOOD CELLS and clotting proteins.Glomerulonephritis, Membranoproliferative: Chronic glomerulonephritis characterized histologically by proliferation of MESANGIAL CELLS, increase in the MESANGIAL EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX, and a thickening of the glomerular capillary walls. This may appear as a primary disorder or secondary to other diseases including infections and autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Various subtypes are classified by their abnormal ultrastructures and immune deposits. Hypocomplementemia is a characteristic feature of all types of MPGN.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Schistosoma: A genus of trematode flukes belonging to the family Schistosomatidae. There are over a dozen species. These parasites are found in man and other mammals. Snails are the intermediate hosts.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Glomerulonephritis: Inflammation of the renal glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) that can be classified by the type of glomerular injuries including antibody deposition, complement activation, cellular proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These structural and functional abnormalities usually lead to HEMATURIA; PROTEINURIA; HYPERTENSION; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Arteriolosclerosis: Thickening of the walls of small ARTERIES or ARTERIOLES due to cell proliferation or HYALINE deposition.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mice, Inbred BALB CBinding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Blood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Mannose-Binding Lectin: A specific mannose-binding member of the collectin family of lectins. It binds to carbohydrate groups on invading pathogens and plays a key role in the MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Complement C3 Nephritic Factor: An IgG autoantibody against the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE, found in serum of patients with MESANGIOCAPILLARY GLOMERULONEPHRITIS. The binding of this autoantibody to C3bBb stabilizes the enzyme thus reduces the actions of C3b inactivators (COMPLEMENT FACTOR H; COMPLEMENT FACTOR I). This abnormally stabilized enzyme induces a continuous COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and generation of C3b thereby promoting the assembly of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX and cytolysis.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Haptoglobins: Plasma glycoproteins that form a stable complex with hemoglobin to aid the recycling of heme iron. They are encoded in man by a gene on the short arm of chromosome 16.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Surface Plasmon Resonance: A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.Peptides, Cyclic: Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).Lupus Nephritis: Glomerulonephritis associated with autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Lupus nephritis is histologically classified into 6 classes: class I - normal glomeruli, class II - pure mesangial alterations, class III - focal segmental glomerulonephritis, class IV - diffuse glomerulonephritis, class V - diffuse membranous glomerulonephritis, and class VI - advanced sclerosing glomerulonephritis (The World Health Organization classification 1982).Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cosmids: Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Mannose-Binding Protein-Associated Serine Proteases: Serum serine proteases which participate in COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. They are activated when complexed with the MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN, therefore also known as Mannose-binding protein-Associated Serine Proteases (MASPs). They cleave COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 to form C4b2a, the CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE.Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital: A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Immunologic Factors: Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.ZymosanTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Proteinuria: The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Collectins: A class of C-type lectins that target the carbohydrate structures found on invading pathogens. Binding of collectins to microorganisms results in their agglutination and enhanced clearance. Collectins form trimers that may assemble into larger oligomers. Each collectin polypeptide chain consists of four regions: a relatively short N-terminal region, a collagen-like region, an alpha-helical coiled-coil region, and carbohydrate-binding region.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Protein PrecursorsSteroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Macular Degeneration: Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Immune Adherence Reaction: A method for the detection of very small quantities of antibody in which the antigen-antibody-complement complex adheres to indicator cells, usually primate erythrocytes or nonprimate blood platelets. The reaction is dependent on the number of bound C3 molecules on the C3b receptor sites of the indicator cell.Mice, Inbred DBAEscherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal: A condition characterized by the recurrence of HEMOGLOBINURIA caused by intravascular HEMOLYSIS. In cases occurring upon cold exposure (paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria), usually after infections, there is a circulating antibody which is also a cold hemolysin. In cases occurring during or after sleep (paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria), the clonal hematopoietic stem cells exhibit a global deficiency of cell membrane proteins.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.

Nuclear phosphoinositide 3-kinase C2beta activation during G2/M phase of the cell cycle in HL-60 cells. (1/5)

The activity of nuclear phosphoinositide 3-kinase C2beta (PI3K-C2beta) was investigated in HL-60 cells blocked by aphidicolin at G(1)/S boundary and allowed to progress synchronously through the cell cycle. The activity of immunoprecipitated PI3K-C2beta in the nuclei and nuclear envelopes showed peak activity at 8 h after release from the G(1)/S block, which correlates with G(2)/M phase of the cell cycle. In the nuclei and nuclear envelopes isolated from HL-60 cells at 8 h after release from G(1)/S block, a significant increase in the level of incorporation of radiolabeled phosphate into phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P) was observed with no change in the level of radiolabeled PtdIns(4)P, PtdIns(4,5)P(2) and PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3). On Western blots, PI3K-C2beta revealed a single immunoreactive band of 180 kDa, whereas in the nuclei and nuclear envelopes isolated at 8 h after release, the gel shift of 18 kDa was observed. When nuclear envelopes were treated for 20 min with mu-calpain in vitro, the similar gel shift and increase in PI3K-C2beta activity was observed which was completely inhibited by pretreatment with calpain inhibitor calpeptin. The presence of PI3K inhibitor LY 294002 completely abolished the calpain-mediated increase in the activity of PI3K-C2beta but did not prevent the gel shift. When HL-60 cells were released from G(1)/S block in the presence of either calpeptin or LY 294002, the activation of nuclear PI3K-C2beta was completely inhibited. These results demonstrate the calpain-mediated activation of the nuclear PI3K-C2beta during G(2)/M phase of the cell cycle in HL-60 cells.  (+info)

The structure of C2b, a fragment of complement component C2 produced during C3 convertase formation. (2/5)

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Postsynaptic regulation of synaptic plasticity by synaptotagmin 4 requires both C2 domains. (3/5)

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Effect of sodium chloride concentration on fluid-phase assembly and stability of the C3 convertase of the classical pathway of the complement system. (4/5)

The assembly of the classical-pathway C3 convertase from C4 and I2-treated C2 by the action of C1s is an Mg2(+)-dependent reaction. The Mg2+ concentration necessary for the assembly of C3 convertase in the fluid phase was found to be dependent on NaCl concentration. In the absence of NaCl more than 5 mM-MgCl2 was found to be required, whereas 0.5 mM-MgCl2 was adequate for the assembly of C3 convertase in the presence of 150 mM-NaCl. The C3 convertase assembled in a low-ionic-strength buffer was extremely labile compared with that assembled in buffer of physiological ionic strength, and the stability of C3 convertase was improved with the increase in NaCl concentration. It was found that the stabilizing effect of NaCl on C3 convertase was due to inhibition of the dissociating activity of C2b, which was formed during the assembly of C3 convertase. In addition to the dissociation-accelerating effect, C2b inhibited the assembly of C3 convertase in low-ionic-strength buffer, and this effect also was diminished with increase in NaCl concentration. An increase in NaCl concentration to more than 200 mM resulted in a decrease in the assembly of C3 convertase. This effect was not due to the lability of the assembled C3 convertase but due rather to the inhibition of C2 cleavage by C1s. Purified C3 convertase itself is stable in dilute medium or high-ionic-strength medium such as 500 mM-NaCl, suggesting that the interactions between C4b and C2a are hydrophobic. In these respects C2b seemed to be functionally similar to C4bp, but C2b failed to act as a cofactor for the Factor I-catalysed C4b cleavage.  (+info)

Purification and characterization of the C3 convertase of the classical pathway of human complement system by size exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography. (5/5)

The C3 convertase of the classical pathway of the complement system is a liable complex, C4b,2a, and is activated by limited proteolysis of two components, C4 and C2, by C1s. By utilizing iodine-treated C2 and size exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), we have succeeded in isolating for the first time the classical pathway C3 convertase. Size exclusion HPLC demonstrated that the apparent molecular mass of the C3 convertase was 280K daltons. The C3 convertase decay-dissociates spontaneously into C4b and C2a. The decay-dissociation is a temperature-dependent reaction and the half-lives of the C3 convertase at 24, 30, and 37 degrees C were estimated to be 400, 180, and 60 min, respectively. The decay-dissociation was also dependent on pH and was accelerated by increasing pH. In addition, the decay-dissociation of the C3 convertase was accelerated by C2b. This result suggests that C2b acts as a feedback inhibitor on the activation of the classical pathway of complement system.  (+info)

*Complement component 2

C2 complement component 2". Krishnan V, Xu Y, Macon K, Volanakis JE, Narayana SV (2009). "The structure of C2b, a fragment of ... Complement C2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the C2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is part of the classical ... C2b is the larger, enzymatically active fragment which is incorporated into the C3 convertase in this pathway, C4b2b. C2a is ... It is thought that cleavage of C2 by C1s, while bound to C4b, results in a conformational rotation of C2b whereas the released ...

*C5-convertase

The classical pathway C5 convertase is composed of the larger fragments of complement proteins, C4b, C2b produced by cleavage ... The complement component C5 can be also activated by fluid phase C5 convertase. C5 is activated by CVFBb in the presence of ... In these respects, the mode of action of C5 is completely analogous to that of the other components of complement. The C5 step ... The binding of C5 is influenced by C6 and C7, components which are thought to act subsequent to it in the complement sequence. ...

*Complement system

... and C2b. C4b and C2b (historically, the larger fragment of C2 was called C2a but is now referred to as C2b) bind to form the ... Polymorphisms of complement component 3, complement factor B, and complement factor I, as well as deletion of complement factor ... Here, for consistency, we shall call all large fragments of complement b, so the larger fragment of C2 will be designated C2b. ... Three biochemical pathways activate the complement system: the classical complement pathway, the alternative complement pathway ...

*C3-convertase

DAF protects host cells from damage by autologous complement. DAF acts on C2b and Bb and dissociates them rapidly from C4b and ... C3 convertase (EC 3.4.21.43, C42 , C4bC2b, C3bBb, complement C.hivin.4.hivin2, complement C3 convertase) belongs to family of ... Cleavage of complement C3 by a free floating convertase, thrombin, plasmin or even a bacterial enzyme leads to formation of C3a ... The fragments C4a and C2b are also released, and C4a is a weak chemokine. C3 convertases are unstable (half-life 10 - 20 min ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.124)

... complement c2a MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.150.750 -- complement c2b MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.250 -- complement c3 MeSH D12.776. ... complement c6 MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.650 -- complement c7 MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.750 -- complement c8 MeSH D12.776.124.486. ... complement c4a MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.024.270 -- complement c5a MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.024.270.255 -- complement c5a, des- ... complement c1r MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.050.290 -- complement c1s MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.150 -- complement c2 MeSH D12.776. ...

*Complement component 4

It interacts with protein C2; the same protease invoked earlier, C1s, then cleaves C2 into two parts, termed C2a and C2b, with ... an effect produced by the effector proteins of the complement system in which the C4 partakes). Complement system Complement ... Complement component 4 (C4), in humans, is a protein involved in the intricate complement system, originating from the human ... All three pathways converge at a step in which complement protein C3 is cleaved into proteins C3a and C3b, which results in a ...

*C2B

... or C2b may refer to: Consumer-to-business, a business model a cleavage fragment of the complement component 2 protein that ...

*MASP2 (protein)

MASP-2 is activated to cleave complement components C4 and C2 into C4a, C4b, C2a, and C2b. Mannan-binding lectin Mannan-binding ... MASP-2 is involved in the complement system. MASP-2 is very similar to the C1s molecule, of the classical complement pathway, ... The Ra-reactive factor (RARF) is a complement-dependent bactericidal factor that binds to the Ra and R2 polysaccharides ... Petersen SV, Thiel S, Jensenius JC (2001). "The mannan-binding lectin pathway of complement activation: biology and disease ...

*Lectin pathway

MASP-1 and MASP-2 are activated to cleave complement components C4 and C2 into C4a, C4b, C2a, and C2b. In addition, two smaller ... C4a and C2b act as potent cytokines, with C4a causing degranulation of mast cells and basophils and C2b acting to increase ... Classical complement pathway Alternative complement pathway Mannan-binding lectin Wallis R, Mitchell DA, Schmid R, Schwaeble WJ ... The lectin pathway is a type of cascade reaction in the complement system, similar in structure to the classical complement ...

*C1 complex

The C1 complex (complement component 1, C1) is a protein complex involved in the complement system. It is the first component ... Active C1s splits C4 and then C2, producing C4a, C4b, C2a and C2b. The classical pathway C3-convertase (C4bC2b complex) is ... 2001). "The complement system and innate immunity". Immunobiology: The Immune System in Health and Disease. New York: Garland ... The antibodies IgM or certain subclasses of IgG complexed with antigens are able to initiate the complement system: a single ...

*Decay-accelerating factor

Complement decay-accelerating factor, also known as CD55 or DAF, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the CD55 gene. DAF ... Interaction of DAF with cell-associated C4b of the classical and lectin pathways interferes with the conversion of C2 to C2b, ... DAF contains four complement control protein (CCP) repeats with a single N-linked glycan positioned between CCP1 and CCP2. CCP2 ... Thus, by limiting the amplification convertases of the complement cascade, DAF indirectly blocks the formation of the membrane ...

*C3a (complement)

... and C2b). C4a and C2b form C4bC2b, also known as C3 convertase. The lectin pathway is activated when pattern-recognition ... 12th European Meeting on Complement in Human Disease12th European Meeting on CHD12th European Meeting on Complement in Human ... C3a is one of the proteins formed by the cleavage of complement component 3; the other is C3b. C3a is a 77 residue ... Anaphylatoxins are small complement peptides that induce proinflammatory responses in tissues. C3a is primarily regarded for ...

*Pattern recognition receptor

Complement receptors, collectins, ficolins, pentraxins such as serum amyloid and C-reactive protein, lipid transferases, ... binding of C2 causes release of C2b. Together, MBL, C4b and C2a are known as the C3 convertase. C3 is cleaved into its a and b ... Once bound to the ligands MBL and Ficolin oligomers recruit MASP1 and MASP2 and initiate the lectin pathway of complement ... "/"self turned nonself" type pathogen pattern are also identified and destroyed (e.g. by complement fixation or other cytotoxic ...

*Classical complement pathway

The activated C1s cleaves C4 into C4a and C4b, and C2 into C2a and C2b. The larger and active fragments, C4b and C2b form ... Alternative complement pathway - another complement system pathway Lectin pathway - another complement system pathway Noris, ... The classical complement pathway is one of three pathways which activate the complement system, which is part of the immune ... Activation of the complement pathway through the classical, lectin or alternative complement pathway is followed by a cascade ...

*C3b

The C1 complement complex binds to these antibodies resulting in its activation via cross proteolysis. This activated C1 ... or a C5 convertase when bound to C4b and C2b (C4b2b3b complex) or when an additional C3b molecule binds to the C3bBb complex ( ... C3b is the larger of two elements formed by the cleavage of complement component 3, and is considered an important part of the ... The key to the success of the complement system in clearing antigens is regulating the effects of C3b to pathogens alone and ...

*Enterovirus 71

An analysis of strains isolated in Europe (Austria, France and Germany) showed that the clades C1b and C2b originated in 1994 ( ... complement proteins, and proapoptosis proteins." "Enterovirus 71 (EV71), one of the major causative agents for hand, foot and ...

No data available that match "complement c2b"


C2 - Complement C2 precursor - Mus musculus (Mouse) - C2 gene & proteinC2 - Complement C2 precursor - Mus musculus (Mouse) - C2 gene & protein

C2b and C2a. C2a, a serine protease, then combines with complement factor C4b to generate the C3 or C5 convertase. ... Component C2 which is part of the classical pathway of the complement system is cleaved by activated factor C1 into two ... R-MMU-166663 Initial triggering of complement. R-MMU-174577 Activation of C3 and C5. R-MMU-977606 Regulation of Complement ... R-MMU-166663 Initial triggering of complement. R-MMU-174577 Activation of C3 and C5. R-MMU-977606 Regulation of Complement ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P21180

Membrane Docking Pathway Bioinformatics: Novus BiologicalsMembrane Docking Pathway Bioinformatics: Novus Biologicals

Complement Component C2b Antibody (269716). MAB1936. Mouse Monoclonal Species Human. Applications WB, IP ... The Membrane Docking Pathway complements our catalog of research reagents including antibodies and ELISA kits against SNARE, ...
more infohttps://www.novusbio.com/pathways/membrane-docking

UniProtKB/SwissProt variant VAR 008545UniProtKB/SwissProt variant VAR 008545

Complement C2b fragment. Helix. 207 - 211. Literature citations. Type II human complement C2 deficiency. Allele-specific amino ... Complement component 2 deficiency (C2D) [MIM:217000]: A rare defect of the complement classical pathway associated with the ... Patients with complement component 2 deficiency are also reported to have recurrent invasive infections. {ECO:0000269,PubMed: ...
more infohttps://web.expasy.org/variant_pages/VAR_008545.html

C2 Gene - GeneCards | CO2 Protein | CO2 AntibodyC2 Gene - GeneCards | CO2 Protein | CO2 Antibody

Complement C2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene ... complement component 2,110kDa,activated by C1r to form C2a and C2b,combining with C4A and C4B to form C3/C5 convertase, ... Activated C1 cleaves C2 into C2a and C2b. The serine proteinase C2a then combines with complement factor 4b to create the C3 or ... Complement component 2 (A2BE06_HUMAN). *cDNA FLJ38939 fis, clone NT2NE2015747, highly similar to COMPLEMENT C2 (EC 3.4.21.43) ( ...
more infohttp://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=C2

Human Gene C2 (uc011hbu.2) Description and Page Index	Human Gene C2 (uc011hbu.2) Description and Page Index

DESCRIPTION: SubName: Full=Complement C2b fragment; SubName: Full=cDNA FLJ54376, highly similar to Complement C2 (EC 3.4.21.43 ... h_compPathway - Complement Pathway. h_classicPathway - Classical Complement Pathway. h_lectinPathway - Lectin Induced ... Genetic variation in complement component 2 of the classical complement pathway is associated with increased mortality and ... hsa04610 - Complement and coagulation cascades. hsa05322 - Systemic lupus erythematosus. BioCarta from NCI Cancer Genome ...
more infohttp://rohsdb.cmb.usc.edu/GBshape/cgi-bin/hgGene?hgg_gene=uc011hbu.2&hgg_prot=B4DQI1&hgg_chrom=chr6_mann_hap4&hgg_start=3244195&hgg_end=3256269&hgg_type=knownGene&db=hg19&hgsid=1289098_rEYyzmWZ9Xw4hhMOGbGzlYRwArae

Code System ConceptCode System Concept

Complement component C2b (substance). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Complement component C2b (substance). ... Complement component fragment (substance) {78036008 , SNOMED-CT } Complement component, classic pathway (substance) {67899004 ...
more infohttps://phinvads.cdc.gov/vads/ViewCodeSystemConcept.action?oid=2.16.840.1.113883.6.96&code=46336004

complement c4bcomplement c4b

complement c2b*endocardium*complement fixation tests*complement inactivator proteins. Genomes and Genes. *C4B products*C4A ... complement c4a*complement c3b*complement c3d*complement factor i*complement c1q*complement c4*complement membrane attack ... complement factor b*complement receptors*complement factor h*cd55 antigens*mannose binding lectin*complement c2* ... complement c4b. Summary. Summary: The large fragment formed when COMPLEMENT C4 is cleaved by COMPLEMENT C1S. The membrane-bound ...
more infohttp://www.labome.org/topics/and/proteins/blood/immunoproteins/complement/complement/complement-c4b-53963.html

Complement component 2 - WikipediaComplement component 2 - Wikipedia

C2 complement component 2". Krishnan V, Xu Y, Macon K, Volanakis JE, Narayana SV (2009). "The structure of C2b, a fragment of ... Complement C2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the C2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is part of the classical ... C2b is the larger, enzymatically active fragment which is incorporated into the C3 convertase in this pathway, C4b2b. C2a is ... It is thought that cleavage of C2 by C1s, while bound to C4b, results in a conformational rotation of C2b whereas the released ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Complement_component_2

EC 3.4.21.43EC 3.4.21.43

... complement C3 convertase. Comments: A complex of complement fragments C4b, C2a and C2b. C2a contains the active site, C2b the ... C2a and C2b are formed by cleavage of proenzyme C2 by complement subcomponent C. . Cleavage of C5 requires complement fragment ... Ser bond in complement component C3 α-chain to form C3a and C3b, and Arg. bond in complement component C5 α-chain to form C5a ... Complement component C2a is in peptidase family S1 (trypsin family). Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MEROPS, ...
more infohttp://www.sbcs.qmul.ac.uk/iubmb/enzyme/EC3/4/21/43.html

Pyruvate Carboxylase Antibody (NBP1-49536): Novus BiologicalsPyruvate Carboxylase Antibody (NBP1-49536): Novus Biologicals

Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-Pyruvate Carboxylase Antibody. Validated: WB, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat, and more. 100% Guaranteed.
more infohttps://www.novusbio.com/products/pyruvate-carboxylase-antibody_nbp1-49536

C5-convertase - WikipediaC5-convertase - Wikipedia

The classical pathway C5 convertase is composed of the larger fragments of complement proteins, C4b, C2b produced by cleavage ... The complement component C5 can be also activated by fluid phase C5 convertase. C5 is activated by CVFBb in the presence of ... In these respects, the mode of action of C5 is completely analogous to that of the other components of complement. The C5 step ... The binding of C5 is influenced by C6 and C7, components which are thought to act subsequent to it in the complement sequence. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C5-convertase

Resident focus groups were used to defin - spingreen topResident focus groups were used to defin - spingreen top

The structure of C2b, a fragment of complement component C2 produced during C3 convertase formation. Fibroblast growth factor 4 ...
more infohttp://spingreen.top/resident-focus-groups-were-used-to-defin/

Sthanam, NarayanaSthanam, Narayana

The structure of C2b, a fragment of complement component C2 produced during C3 convertase formation.. Acta Crystallographica ... Structure of human factor D. A complement system protein at 2.0 A resolution.. Journal of Molecular Biology. 235:695-708. 1994 ... Catalytic role of a surface loop of the complement serine protease factor D.. Journal of Immunology. 154:6073-6079. 1995 ... Complement Evasion by Group B Streptococcus awarded by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases/NIH/DHHS 2014 - ...
more infohttp://scholars.uab.edu/display/narayana

Complement System and Fc Receptors: GeneticsComplement System and Fc Receptors: Genetics

The complement system is a key component of the innate immune system that is involved in eliminating unwanted self and nonself ... The release of soluble mediators (C4a, C2b, C3a, Ba, C5a) is indicated with small arrows. Activator‐bound complement components ... Schneider PM and Rittner C (1997) Complement genetics. In: Dodds AW, Sim RB (eds.) Complement. A Practical Approach, pp. 165- ... The complement system is a key component of the innate immune system that is involved in eliminating unwanted self and nonself ...
more infohttp://www.els.net/WileyCDA/ElsArticle/refId-a0005992.html

anti-Complement C2 antibody [N3C3]  | GeneTexanti-Complement C2 antibody [N3C3] | GeneTex

... complement component 2) for ICC/IF, WB. Anti-Complement C2 pAb (GTX105404) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance. ... Activated C1 cleaves C2 into C2a and C2b. The serine proteinase C2a then combines with complement factor 4b to create the C3 or ... CO2 antibody, DKFZp779M0311 antibody, C2 antibody, complement C2 antibody, complement component C2 antibody, C3/C5 convertase ... complement component 2. Background. Component C2 is a serum glycoprotein that functions as part of the classical pathway of the ...
more infohttp://www.genetex.com/Complement-C2-antibody-N3C3-GTX105404.html

Complement in Immune and Inflammatory Disorders: Pathophysiological Mechanisms | The Journal of ImmunologyComplement in Immune and Inflammatory Disorders: Pathophysiological Mechanisms | The Journal of Immunology

The enzymatic fragment of C2 is referred to as C2b in this review; the same fragment is sometimes designated as C2a in ... Complement beyond microbial defense. The past decade revealed a new perception of complement that reaches beyond the ... Complement can also be therapeutically engaged for the killing of tumor cells via complement-dependent cytotoxicity; for ... Beneficial effects of complement inhibition with soluble complement receptor 1 (TP10) during cardiac surgery: is there a gender ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/190/8/3831

Anti-C2 antibody [5C3] (ab17451) | AbcamAnti-C2 antibody [5C3] (ab17451) | Abcam

C2b and C2a. C2a, a serine protease, then combines with complement factor 4b to generate the C3 or C5 convertase. ... Defects in C2 are the cause of complement component 2 deficiency (C2D) [MIM:217000]. A deficiency of the complement classical ... Human complement component C2: production and characterization of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against C2.. Mol Immunol ... No se ha testado si el anticuerpo reacciona con el fragmento C2b en su forma purificada. Espero haberte ayudado. Para cualquier ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/c2-antibody-5c3-ab17451.html

Cone-Rod Homeobox (CRX) AntibodiesCone-Rod Homeobox (CRX) Antibodies

anti-Complement Fragment C4a Antibodies * anti-Complement Fragment C2b Antibodies * anti-Complement Fragment 3a Antibodies ...
more infohttps://www.antibodies-online.com/abstract/Cone-Rod+Homeobox+

C2 MaxPab mouse polyclonal antibody (B01) - (H00000717-B01) - Products - AbnovaC2 MaxPab mouse polyclonal antibody (B01) - (H00000717-B01) - Products - Abnova

Activated C1 cleaves C2 into C2a and C2b. The serine proteinase C2a then combines with complement factor 4b to create the C3 or ... Component C2 is a serum glycoprotein that functions as part of the classical pathway of the complement system. ...
more infohttps://www.abnova.com/products/products_detail.asp?Catalog_id=H00000717-B01

C2 monoclonal antibody (M17), clone 5C3 - (H00000717-M17) - Products - AbnovaC2 monoclonal antibody (M17), clone 5C3 - (H00000717-M17) - Products - Abnova

Activated C1 cleaves C2 into C2a and C2b. The serine proteinase C2a then combines with complement factor 4b to create the C3 or ... Component C2 is a serum glycoprotein that functions as part of the classical pathway of the complement system. ...
more infohttp://www.abnova.com/products/products_detail.asp?Catalog_id=H00000717-M17

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Referral to a third function, complement components cascade fragment c2b binds c5b man ah, pillai s: Cellular and molecular ...
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Frontiers | The Complement System: A Prey of Trypanosoma cruzi | MicrobiologyFrontiers | The Complement System: A Prey of Trypanosoma cruzi | Microbiology

The complement consists of at least 35 or more plasma proteins and cell surface receptors/regulators, which can be activated by ... The complement consists of at least 35 or more plasma proteins and cell surface receptors/regulators, which can be activated by ... In this context, the complement, as one of the first line of host defense against infection was shown to play an important role ... Nevertheless, the parasite uses a sequence of events in order to escape from complement-mediated lysis. In fact, several T. ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2017.00607/full

Reactome | Ficolin-1:activated MASP-1:activated MASP-2:Ca2+:ficolin ligand [plasma membrane]Reactome | Ficolin-1:activated MASP-1:activated MASP-2:Ca2+:ficolin ligand [plasma membrane]

Complement cascade (Homo sapiens) * Initial triggering of complement (Homo sapiens) * Conversion of C2 into C2a and C2b (Homo ... Lectin pathway of complement activation (Homo sapiens) * Activation of MASPs (Homo sapiens) * MBL2,FCN:activated MASPs: ...
more infohttps://reactome.org/content/detail/R-HSA-2855106

Reactome | Ig lambda chain V-II region TOG [extracellular region]Reactome | Ig lambda chain V-II region TOG [extracellular region]

Complement cascade (Homo sapiens) * Initial triggering of complement (Homo sapiens) * Conversion of C2 into C2a and C2b (Homo ... Classical antibody-mediated complement activation (Homo sapiens) * Activation of C1r (Homo sapiens) * Antigen:IgG:C1Q:2x ... Regulation of Complement cascade (Homo sapiens) * Antigen:IgG:C1Q:2xActivated C1R:SERPING1:2xActivated C1S:SERPING1 dissociates ...
more infohttps://reactome.org/content/detail/R-HSA-983664

Immuno Five: Complement Flashcards - Cram.comImmuno Five: Complement Flashcards - Cram.com

Complement at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want! ... C2b a weak kinin, and so can increase vascular permeability, it is a proteolytic fragment of C2 ... term which refers to the spontaneous production of C3b which will activate AP of complement ... ":"Immuno Five: Complement","payreferer_url":"\/flashcards\/copy\/immuno-five-complement-503728","isGuest":true,"ga_id":"UA- ...
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  • AK300892 - Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ54076 complete cds, highly similar to Complement C2 precursor (EC 3.4.21.43). (usc.edu)
  • Fortunately, our knowledge about the functions of complement in health and disease has much improved, and new discoveries have revealed a fascinating cross-talk network that ties complement closely into the immune-inflammatory network ( 1 , 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Low complement C4B gene copy number predicts short-term mortality after acute myocardial infarction. (labome.org)
  • The 'complement cascade' is constitutive and non-specific but it must be activated in order to function. (atwebpages.com)
  • Once initiated, a cascade of events (the 'complement cascade') ensues, providing the functions listed above. (atwebpages.com)
  • Volanakis JE (1995) Transcriptional regulation of complement genes. (els.net)
  • Research has found Lion's Mane is capable of inhibiting reverse transcriptase of HIV retrovirus ( R ), as well as increasing the expression of the antioxidant genes Nrf2 and gamma glutamyl cysteine (which activates glutathione directly) ( R ). Lion's mane also has neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects, by acting to increase NGF (nerve growth factor) ( R ). Does lion's mane activate the complement immune system? (metabolichealing.com)
  • Although the exact involvement of complement needs to be carefully investigated for each disease, therapeutic modulation of complement activity emerges as an attractive target for upstream inhibition of inflammatory processes. (jimmunol.org)
  • Moreover, T. cruzi promotes secretion of plasma membrane-derived vesicles from host cells, which prevent the activity of C3 convertase C4b2a and thereby may hinder complement. (frontiersin.org)
  • In view of this upstream position in inflammatory homeostasis, there is growing interest in understanding the role of complement in pathological processes and in exploiting complement targets for therapeutic modulation ( 3 , 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The catalytic subunits of these multimolecular proteases are C2b and Bb. (wikipedia.org)
  • Baumann U and Schmidt RE (2001) The role of Fc receptors and complement in autoimmunity. (els.net)
  • Ravetch JV and Clynes RA (1998) Divergent roles for Fc receptors and complement in vivo. (els.net)
  • Structure and function of complement activating enzyme complexes: C1 and MBL-MASPs. (cbrc.jp)
  • Yet it has become evident that complement not only acts as a sensor of pathogens but also recognizes diseased and damaged host cells, and it closely collaborates with other immune and defense systems to eliminate potential danger ( 1 , 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The past decade revealed a new perception of complement that reaches beyond the elimination of pathogens and includes key functions in immune surveillance, homeostasis, and mediation of inflammatory responses ( 1 , 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In this context, the complement, as one of the first line of host defense against infection was shown to play an important role in recognizing T. cruzi metacyclic trypomastigotes and in controlling parasite invasion. (frontiersin.org)
  • Nevertheless, the parasite uses a sequence of events in order to escape from complement-mediated lysis. (frontiersin.org)
  • This review provides an update about the functional and collaborative capabilities of complement, highlights major disease areas with known complement contribution, and indicates the potential for complement as a focal point in immunomodulatory strategies for treating inflammatory diseases. (jimmunol.org)
  • However, insufficient, excessive, or poorly controlled complement activation can tip the balance between health and disease and lead to self-attack of host cells ( 1 - 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In this review we provide an update on complement and its dialog with associated systems, discuss major disease areas, and indicate opportunities for therapeutic intervention (see the accompanying Brief Review in Ref. 6 for more). (jimmunol.org)
  • Complement has been argued to have a component or factor in certain disease. (iahealth.net)