A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.
A glycoprotein that is important in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C4 is cleaved by the activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C4A and COMPLEMENT C4B.
The smaller fragment formed when complement C4 is cleaved by COMPLEMENT C1S. It is an anaphylatoxin that causes symptoms of immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE) but its activity is weaker than that of COMPLEMENT C3A or COMPLEMENT C5A.
The smaller fragment generated from the cleavage of complement C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. C3a, a 77-amino acid peptide, is a mediator of local inflammatory process. It induces smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION, and HISTAMINE RELEASE from MAST CELLS and LEUKOCYTES. C3a is considered an anaphylatoxin along with COMPLEMENT C4A; COMPLEMENT C5A; and COMPLEMENT C5A, DES-ARGININE.
A subcomponent of complement C1, composed of six copies of three polypeptide chains (A, B, and C), each encoded by a separate gene (C1QA; C1QB; C1QC). This complex is arranged in nine subunits (six disulfide-linked dimers of A and B, and three disulfide-linked homodimers of C). C1q has binding sites for antibodies (the heavy chain of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M). The interaction of C1q and immunoglobulin activates the two proenzymes COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S, thus initiating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION via the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.
The minor fragment formed when C5 convertase cleaves C5 into C5a and COMPLEMENT C5B. C5a is a 74-amino-acid glycopeptide with a carboxy-terminal ARGININE that is crucial for its spasmogenic activity. Of all the complement-derived anaphylatoxins, C5a is the most potent in mediating immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE), smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION; HISTAMINE RELEASE; and migration of LEUKOCYTES to site of INFLAMMATION.
The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.
The large fragment formed when COMPLEMENT C4 is cleaved by COMPLEMENT C1S. The membrane-bound C4b binds COMPLEMENT C2A, a SERINE PROTEASE, to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).
C5 plays a central role in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C5 is cleaved by C5 CONVERTASE into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. The smaller fragment C5a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of inflammatory process. The major fragment C5b binds to the membrane initiating the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components, C5-C9, into the MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
The larger fragment generated from the cleavage of COMPLEMENT C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. It is a constituent of the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb), and COMPLEMENT C5 CONVERTASES in both the classical (C4b2a3b) and the alternative (C3bBb3b) pathway. C3b participates in IMMUNE ADHERENCE REACTION and enhances PHAGOCYTOSIS. It can be inactivated (iC3b) or cleaved by various proteases to yield fragments such as COMPLEMENT C3C; COMPLEMENT C3D; C3e; C3f; and C3g.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
A 105-kDa serum glycoprotein with significant homology to the other late complement components, C7-C9. It is a polypeptide chain cross-linked by 32 disulfide bonds. C6 is the next complement component to bind to the membrane-bound COMPLEMENT C5B in the assembly of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. It is encoded by gene C6.
A 206-amino-acid fragment in the alpha chain (672-1663) of C3b. It is generated when C3b is inactivated (iC3b) and its alpha chain is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I into C3c (749-954), and C3dg (955-1303) in the presence COMPLEMENT FACTOR H.
A 302-amino-acid fragment in the alpha chain (672-1663) of C3b. It is generated when C3b is inactivated (iC3b) and its alpha chain is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I into C3c, and C3dg (955-1303) in the presence COMPLEMENT FACTOR H. Serum proteases further degrade C3dg into C3d (1002-1303) and C3g (955-1001).
A component of the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C2 is cleaved by activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C2B and COMPLEMENT C2A. C2a, the COOH-terminal fragment containing a SERINE PROTEASE, combines with COMPLEMENT C4B to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).
A 63-kDa serum glycoprotein encoded by gene C9. Monomeric C9 (mC9) binds the C5b-8 complex to form C5b-9 which catalyzes the polymerization of C9 forming C5b-p9 (MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX) and transmembrane channels leading to lysis of the target cell. Patients with C9 deficiency suffer from recurrent bacterial infections.
Molecules on the surface of some B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that recognize and combine with the C3b, C3d, C1q, and C4b components of complement.
A 77-kDa subcomponent of complement C1, encoded by gene C1S, is a SERINE PROTEASE existing as a proenzyme (homodimer) in the intact complement C1 complex. Upon the binding of COMPLEMENT C1Q to antibodies, the activated COMPLEMENT C1R cleaves C1s into two chains, A (heavy) and B (light, the serine protease), linked by disulfide bonds yielding the active C1s. The activated C1s, in turn, cleaves COMPLEMENT C2 and COMPLEMENT C4 to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL C3 CONVERTASE).
A product of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION cascade, regardless of the pathways, that forms transmembrane channels causing disruption of the target CELL MEMBRANE and cell lysis. It is formed by the sequential assembly of terminal complement components (COMPLEMENT C5B; COMPLEMENT C6; COMPLEMENT C7; COMPLEMENT C8; and COMPLEMENT C9) into the target membrane. The resultant C5b-8-poly-C9 is the "membrane attack complex" or MAC.
A 80-kDa subcomponent of complement C1, existing as a SERINE PROTEASE proenzyme in the intact complement C1 complex. When COMPLEMENT C1Q is bound to antibodies, the changed tertiary structure causes autolytic activation of complement C1r which is cleaved into two chains, A (heavy) and B (light, the serine protease), connected by disulfide bonds. The activated C1r serine protease, in turn, activates COMPLEMENT C1S proenzyme by cleaving the Arg426-Ile427 bond. No fragment is released when either C1r or C1s is cleaved.
Serum proteins that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host. The complement system is tightly regulated by inactivators that accelerate the decay of intermediates and certain cell surface receptors.
A 93-kDa serum glycoprotein encoded by C7 gene. It is a polypeptide chain with 28 disulfide bridges. In the formation of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX; C7 is the next component to bind the C5b-6 complex forming a trimolecular complex C5b-7 which is lipophilic, resembles an integral membrane protein, and serves as an anchor for the late complement components, C8 and C9.
Serine proteases that cleave COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, or cleave COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. These include the different forms of C3/C5 convertases in the classical and the alternative pathways of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Both cleavages take place at the C-terminal of an ARGININE residue.
A glycine-rich, heat-labile serum glycoprotein that contains a component of the C3 CONVERTASE ALTERNATE PATHWAY (C3bBb). Bb, a serine protease, is generated when factor B is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR D into Ba and Bb.
Complement activation initiated by the interaction of microbial ANTIGENS with COMPLEMENT C3B. When COMPLEMENT FACTOR B binds to the membrane-bound C3b, COMPLEMENT FACTOR D cleaves it to form alternative C3 CONVERTASE (C3BBB) which, stabilized by COMPLEMENT FACTOR P, is able to cleave multiple COMPLEMENT C3 to form alternative C5 CONVERTASE (C3BBB3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
Complement activation initiated by the binding of COMPLEMENT C1 to ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES at the COMPLEMENT C1Q subunit. This leads to the sequential activation of COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S subunits. Activated C1s cleaves COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 forming the membrane-bound classical C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
A 150-kDa serum glycoprotein composed of three subunits with each encoded by a different gene (C8A; C8B; and C8G). This heterotrimer contains a disulfide-linked C8alpha-C8gamma heterodimer and a noncovalently associated C8beta chain. C8 is the next component to bind the C5-7 complex forming C5b-8 that binds COMPLEMENT C9 and acts as a catalyst in the polymerization of C9.
The first complement component to act in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. It is a calcium-dependent trimolecular complex made up of three subcomponents: COMPLEMENT C1Q; COMPLEMENT C1R; and COMPLEMENT C1S at 1:2:2 ratios. When the intact C1 binds to at least two antibodies (involving C1q), C1r and C1s are sequentially activated, leading to subsequent steps in the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
Molecular sites on or in some B-lymphocytes and macrophages that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3B. The primary structure of these receptors reveal that they contain transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, with their extracellular portion composed entirely of thirty short consensus repeats each having 60 to 70 amino acids.
An important soluble regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It is a 139-kDa glycoprotein expressed by the liver and secreted into the blood. It binds to COMPLEMENT C3B and makes iC3b (inactivated complement 3b) susceptible to cleavage by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I. Complement factor H also inhibits the association of C3b with COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form the C3bB proenzyme, and promotes the dissociation of Bb from the C3bBb complex (COMPLEMENT C3 CONVERTASE, ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY).
The larger fragment generated from the cleavage of C5 by C5 CONVERTASE that yields COMPLEMENT C5A and C5b (beta chain + alpha' chain, the residual alpha chain, bound by disulfide bond). C5b remains bound to the membrane and initiates the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components to form C5b-8-poly-C9, the MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
The COOH-terminal fragment of COMPLEMENT 2, released by the action of activated COMPLEMENT C1S. It is a SERINE PROTEASE. C2a combines with COMPLEMENT C4B to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).
A G-protein-coupled receptor that signals an increase in intracellular calcium in response to the potent ANAPHYLATOXIN peptide COMPLEMENT C5A.
Enzymes that activate one or more COMPLEMENT PROTEINS in the complement system leading to the formation of the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX, an important response in host defense. They are enzymes in the various COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION pathways.
Compounds that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host.
A screening assay for circulating COMPLEMENT PROTEINS. Diluted SERUM samples are added to antibody-coated ERYTHROCYTES and the percentage of cell lysis is measured. The values are expressed by the so called CH50, in HEMOLYTIC COMPLEMENT units per milliliter, which is the dilution of serum required to lyse 50 percent of the erythrocytes in the assay.
Serum proteins that inhibit, antagonize, or inactivate COMPLEMENT C1 or its subunits.
Molecular sites on or in B-lymphocytes, follicular dendritic cells, lymphoid cells, and epithelial cells that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3D. Human complement receptor 2 (CR2) serves as a receptor for both C3dg and the gp350/220 glycoprotein of HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN, and binds the monoclonal antibody OKB7, which blocks binding of both ligands to the receptor.
Serum peptides derived from certain cleaved COMPLEMENT PROTEINS during COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. They induce smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION; mast cell HISTAMINE RELEASE; PLATELET AGGREGATION; and act as mediators of the local inflammatory process. The order of anaphylatoxin activity from the strongest to the weakest is C5a, C3a, C4a, and C5a des-arginine.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A serum protein which is important in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. This enzyme cleaves the COMPLEMENT C3B-bound COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form C3bBb which is ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE.
A plasma serine proteinase that cleaves the alpha-chains of C3b and C4b in the presence of the cofactors COMPLEMENT FACTOR H and C4-binding protein, respectively. It is a 66-kDa glycoprotein that converts C3b to inactivated C3b (iC3b) followed by the release of two fragments, C3c (150-kDa) and C3dg (41-kDa). It was formerly called KAF, C3bINF, or enzyme 3b inactivator.
A serum protein that regulates the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. It binds as a cofactor to COMPLEMENT FACTOR I which then hydrolyzes the COMPLEMENT C4B in the CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C4bC2a).
Endogenous proteins that inhibit or inactivate COMPLEMENT C3B. They include COMPLEMENT FACTOR H and COMPLEMENT FACTOR I (C3b/C4b inactivator). They cleave or promote the cleavage of C3b into inactive fragments, and thus are important in the down-regulation of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and its cytolytic sequence.
GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.
Important enzymes in the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. They cleave COMPLEMENT C3 and COMPLEMENT C5.
The N-terminal fragment of COMPLEMENT 2, released by the action of activated COMPLEMENT C1S.
Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)
Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).
Important enzymes in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. They cleave COMPLEMENT C3 and COMPLEMENT C5.
An endogenous 105-kDa plasma glycoprotein produced primarily by the LIVER and MONOCYTES. It inhibits a broad spectrum of proteases, including the COMPLEMENT C1R and the COMPLEMENT C1S proteases of the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY, and the MANNOSE-BINDING PROTEIN-ASSOCIATED SERINE PROTEASES. C1-INH-deficient individuals suffer from HEREDITARY ANGIOEDEMA TYPES I AND II.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
A serine protease that is the complex of COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT FACTOR BB. It cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT C3B in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY.
A serine protease that cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT 5 into COMPLEMENT 5A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT 5B in the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. It is a complex of CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C4b2a) with an additional COMPLEMENT C3B, or C4b2a3b.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A serine protease that cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT 3 into COMPLEMENT 3A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT 3B in the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. It is a complex of COMPLEMENT 4B and COMPLEMENT 2A (C4b2a).
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
A serine protease that cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT C5B in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. It is the complex of ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb) with an additional COMPLEMENT C3B, or C3bBb3b.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Complement activation triggered by the interaction of microbial POLYSACCHARIDES with serum MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN resulting in the activation of MANNOSE-BINDING PROTEIN-ASSOCIATED SERINE PROTEASES. As in the classical pathway, MASPs cleave COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 to form C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
A 53-kDa protein that is a positive regulator of the alternate pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It stabilizes the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb) and protects it from rapid inactivation, thus facilitating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and the formation of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Individuals with mutation in the PFC gene exhibit properdin deficiency and have a high susceptibility to infections.
A derivative of complement C5a, generated when the carboxy-terminal ARGININE is removed by CARBOXYPEPTIDASE B present in normal human serum. C5a des-Arg shows complete loss of spasmogenic activity though it retains some chemotactic ability (CHEMOATTRACTANTS).
An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.
The clear portion of BLOOD that is left after BLOOD COAGULATION to remove BLOOD CELLS and clotting proteins.
Chronic glomerulonephritis characterized histologically by proliferation of MESANGIAL CELLS, increase in the MESANGIAL EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX, and a thickening of the glomerular capillary walls. This may appear as a primary disorder or secondary to other diseases including infections and autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Various subtypes are classified by their abnormal ultrastructures and immune deposits. Hypocomplementemia is a characteristic feature of all types of MPGN.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A genus of trematode flukes belonging to the family Schistosomatidae. There are over a dozen species. These parasites are found in man and other mammals. Snails are the intermediate hosts.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Inflammation of the renal glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) that can be classified by the type of glomerular injuries including antibody deposition, complement activation, cellular proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These structural and functional abnormalities usually lead to HEMATURIA; PROTEINURIA; HYPERTENSION; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
Thickening of the walls of small ARTERIES or ARTERIOLES due to cell proliferation or HYALINE deposition.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A specific mannose-binding member of the collectin family of lectins. It binds to carbohydrate groups on invading pathogens and plays a key role in the MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
An IgG autoantibody against the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE, found in serum of patients with MESANGIOCAPILLARY GLOMERULONEPHRITIS. The binding of this autoantibody to C3bBb stabilizes the enzyme thus reduces the actions of C3b inactivators (COMPLEMENT FACTOR H; COMPLEMENT FACTOR I). This abnormally stabilized enzyme induces a continuous COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and generation of C3b thereby promoting the assembly of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX and cytolysis.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Plasma glycoproteins that form a stable complex with hemoglobin to aid the recycling of heme iron. They are encoded in man by a gene on the short arm of chromosome 16.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.
Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).
Glomerulonephritis associated with autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Lupus nephritis is histologically classified into 6 classes: class I - normal glomeruli, class II - pure mesangial alterations, class III - focal segmental glomerulonephritis, class IV - diffuse glomerulonephritis, class V - diffuse membranous glomerulonephritis, and class VI - advanced sclerosing glomerulonephritis (The World Health Organization classification 1982).
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Serum serine proteases which participate in COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. They are activated when complexed with the MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN, therefore also known as Mannose-binding protein-Associated Serine Proteases (MASPs). They cleave COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 to form C4b2a, the CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE.
A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
A class of C-type lectins that target the carbohydrate structures found on invading pathogens. Binding of collectins to microorganisms results in their agglutination and enhanced clearance. Collectins form trimers that may assemble into larger oligomers. Each collectin polypeptide chain consists of four regions: a relatively short N-terminal region, a collagen-like region, an alpha-helical coiled-coil region, and carbohydrate-binding region.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A method for the detection of very small quantities of antibody in which the antigen-antibody-complement complex adheres to indicator cells, usually primate erythrocytes or nonprimate blood platelets. The reaction is dependent on the number of bound C3 molecules on the C3b receptor sites of the indicator cell.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
A condition characterized by the recurrence of HEMOGLOBINURIA caused by intravascular HEMOLYSIS. In cases occurring upon cold exposure (paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria), usually after infections, there is a circulating antibody which is also a cold hemolysin. In cases occurring during or after sleep (paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria), the clonal hematopoietic stem cells exhibit a global deficiency of cell membrane proteins.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Group of diseases mediated by the deposition of large soluble complexes of antigen and antibody with resultant damage to tissue. Besides SERUM SICKNESS and the ARTHUS REACTION, evidence supports a pathogenic role for immune complexes in many other IMMUNE SYSTEM DISEASES including GLOMERULONEPHRITIS, systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC) and POLYARTERITIS NODOSA.

Immune complexes and complement hypercatabolism in patients with leprosy. (1/321)

The occurrence of immune complexes in the serum and the level of the C3 breakdown product C3d in the plasma from patients with leprosy were studied by quantitative methods and the results were compared in various forms of the disease. These studies were performed on sixty-two samples from twenty-six patients. The serum 125I-C1q binding activity was found to be increased by more than 2 s.d., as compared to the normal values, in most of the sera from patients with erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) (80%) and uncomplicated lepromatous leprosy (82%), but also in the sera from patients with tuberculoid leprosy (58%). In vitro studies suggested that immune complexes involving mycobacterial antigens were present in leprosy sera. An increased C3d level (greater than 2s.d.) was also found in most of the plasma from patients with ENL (70%), but rarely in the plasma from patients with uncomplicated lepromatous leprosy (18%) and never in tuberculoid leprosy patients' plasma. The absence of a significant correlation between the 125I-C1q binding activity and the C3d level in leprosy patients may suggest that extravascular immune complexes are involved in the complement activation occurring in ENL. The quantitation of C3d in plasma may be of some practical interest in the early diagnosis of ENL complications of leprosy.  (+info)

Binding of soluble immune complexes to Raji lymphocytes. Role of receptors for complement components, C1q and C3-C3b. (2/321)

We have found that, although the binding of particulate antigen-antibody complement complexes such as EAC to lymphoblastoid Raji cells is mediated largely through receptors for C3b, the binding of complement-containing soluble complexes such as those prepared with aggregated human IgG (AHG) occurs also via receptors for C1q. Evidence supporting this conclusion included: (1) Binding of AHG to Raji cells takes place after incubation in EDTA serum; (2) Binding of AHG does not occur in C1q deficient EDTA serum but does take place after addition of C1q; (3) The extent of binding of AHG in EDTA serum is a function of the amount of C1q present; (4) Raji cells can bind up to 5-4 times 10(5) molecules of 125I C1q per cell which can be blocked by unlabelled C1q; (5) AHG pre-incubated with C can bind to a T-cell line MOLT, which lacks receptors for C3b but possesses receptors for C1q to the same extent as Raji cells; (6) Immunoassays for immune complexes in human sera yield similar results whether Raji cells, MOLT cells or C1q precipitation is used for assay; (7) EAC-Raji cell rosettes can be inhibited with inulin-treated, C1q deficient serum containing C3b or C3d whereas binding of AHG or immune complexes in patient samples to Raji or MOLT cells is not inhibited by this reagent. We conclude that receptors for C1q on certain B and T lymphocytes may play an important role in physiologic functions of lymphocytes depending on binding of soluble immune complexes to their surfaces.  (+info)

A truncated form of mannose-binding lectin-associated serine protease (MASP)-2 expressed by alternative polyadenylation is a component of the lectin complement pathway. (3/321)

The lectin complement pathway is initiated by binding of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and MBL-associated serine protease (MASP) to carbohydrates. In the human lectin pathway, MASP-1 and MASP-2 are involved in the proteolysis of C4, C2 and C3. Here we report that the human MBL-MASP complex contains a new 22 kDa protein [small MBL-associated protein (sMAP)] bound to MASP-1. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of sMAP cDNA revealed that it is a truncated form of MASP-2, consisting of the first two domains (i.e. the first internal repeat and the epidermal growth factor-like domain) with four different C-terminal amino acids. sMAP mRNAs are expressed in liver by alternative polyadenylation of the MASP-2 gene, in which a sMAP-specific exon containing an in-frame stop codon and a polyadenylation signal is used. The involvement of sMAP in the MBL-MASP complex suggests that the activation mechanism of the lectin pathway is more complicated than that of the classical pathway.  (+info)

Isolation of two forms of activated C1s, a subcomponent of the first component of rabbit complement. (4/321)

Two forms of activated C1s, a subcomponent of the first component of complement, were present in preparations of C1 specifically purified from rabbit serum by affinity chromatography on IgG-Sepharose 6B and were separated by DEAE-cellulose chromatography in the presence of EDTA. These two activated C1s, designated C1s(I) and C1s(II), were indistinguishable with regard to hemolytic activity as well as C1s esterase activity, though they had different molecular weights. C1s(I) had a molecular weight of 106,000, consisting of H and L chains connected by disulfide bonds; the molecular weights of the chains were 70,000 and 36,000, respectively. On the other hand, C1s(II), with a molecular weight of 72,000, consisted of two chains each with a molecular weight of about 37,000, which were also connected by disulfide bonds. These results suggest that, in the case of rabbit C1s, the primary product of activation with C1r, C1s(I), may be susceptible to further cleavage of its H chain without any loss of C1s activity, resulting in the formation of C1s(II), though the active principle responsible for this conversion remains to be elucidated.  (+info)

Complement C1s activation in degenerating articular cartilage of rheumatoid arthritis patients: immunohistochemical studies with an active form specific antibody. (5/321)

OBJECTIVE: The first complement component C1s was reported to have novel functions to degrade matrix components, besides its activities in the classic complement pathway. This study explores participation of C1s in articular cartilage degradation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Normal articular cartilage (n = 6) and cartilage obtained from joints with RA (n = 15) and osteoarthritis (OA, n = 10) were immunostained using anti-C1s monoclonal antibodies PG11, which recognises both active and inactive C1s, and M241, which is specifically reactive to activated C1s. The effects of inflammatory cytokines on C1s production by human articular chondrocytes were also examined by sandwich ELISA. RESULTS: In normal articular cartilage, C1s was negative in staining with both PG11 and M241. In contrast, degenerating cartilage of RA was stained with PG11 (14 of 15 cases), and in most of the cases (13 of 15 cases) C1s was activated as revealed by M241 staining. In OA, C1s staining was restricted in severely degrading part of cartilage (5 of 10 cases), and even in that part C1s was not activated. In addition, C1s production by chondrocytes in vitro was increased by an inflammatory cytokine, tumour necrosis factor alpha. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that C1s activated in degenerative cartilage matrix of RA but not in that of OA. C1s is thought to participate in the pathogenesis of RA through its collagenolytic activity in addition to the role in the classic cascade.  (+info)

Possible mechanisms of the first step of the classical complement activation pathway: binding and activation of C1. (6/321)

Different immunoglobulin preparations of human monoclonal IgM, normal human and rat IgG, as well as purified rabbit antibodies were treated by various methods, fragmentation, aggregation and complexing with antigen. The ability of the treated and untreated preparations to fix isolated human C1, to activate the classical complement pathway (to consume C4 in normal human serum) were compared. It was found that the different methods affected the conformation of the immunoglobulin molecules in different ways and induced changes to a greater or lesser extent in the two capacities of the preparations tested. In the case of the monoclonal IgM preparation a strong C1-fixation was observed without measurable complement activation. Other preparations, interfacially aggregated human IgG, BSA-anti-BSA and OA-anti-OA immune complexes had a very weak C1-fixing but a marked complement activating capacity. Some preparations, e.g. heat-aggregated IgG, both fixed and activated C1 effectively, aggregates with a complement-activating capacity without C1-fixing effect were separated by gel-filtration. It was demonstrated further, that at a given time only a part of the activated C1 molecules could be found fixed to the immunoglobulins, the other part was released into the fluid phase after activation. On the basis of the results of this and previous studies a hypothesis is proposed suggesting three possible results of the interaction between C1 and the different preparations: (1) firm fixation and activation; (2) binding not followed by activation and (3) a transient binding leading to activation. The possible application of this hypothesis for the interpretation of the results of the different methods for detecting immune complexes is discussed.  (+info)

C1q and C4b bind simultaneously to CR1 and additively support erythrocyte adhesion. (7/321)

Previously, we showed that soluble C1q bound specifically to CR1 on transfected cells. If the CR1-C1q interaction were to participate in immune complex clearance, then this interaction should support E adhesion. Using a tip plate adhesion assay, we found that immobilized C1q mediated adhesion of human E. E binding to C1q was specifically inhibited by polyclonal anti-CR1 Fab fragments. Intact C1 was not efficient as an adherence ligand until it was treated with EDTA or the C1 inhibitor to remove the C1r2C1s2 complex from C1, leaving C1q. Titration of C1q alone, C4b alone, and C1q + C4b indicated that the two complement ligands were additive in their ability to support CR1-mediated adhesion of E. Analysis of binding to immobilized CR1 using a BIAcore instrument documented that C1q, C4b, and C3b binding were independent events. Additionally, C1q-dependent binding of immune complexes and heat-aggregated IgG to E was documented. These experiments confirm that the immune adherence receptor in humans, CR1, is the single receptor for all of the opsonic ligands of complement, provide evidence for a single C1q binding site on LHR-D of CR1, and suggest that C1q may participate in immune clearance.  (+info)

Inhibitory effect of bilirubin on complement-mediated hemolysis. (8/321)

We investigated the in vitro action of the bile pigments, unconjugated bilirubin (UB) and bilirubin monoglucuronide (BMG) on complement (C) cascade reaction. Both UB and BMG inhibited hemolysis in the classical pathway (CP) in a dose-dependent manner at low micromolar concentrations, UB showing a stronger effect than BMG. The analysis of the action of UB on the hemolytic activity of the C1, C4, C2 and C-EDTA components of the C cascade revealed that the C1 step was the most inhibited. An enzyme immunoassay was developed to evaluate the effect of UB on the binding of C1q, one of the subcomponents of C1, to human IgM and IgG. The study demonstrated that the unconjugated pigment interferes both the C1q-IgM and -IgG interactions, thus tentatively explaining the inhibitory action of UB on hemolytic activity of C1. We conclude that the anti-complement effect of UB is mainly exerted on the C1 component, the recognition unit of CP. The potential clinical implication of the reported effects in hyperbilirubinemia is discussed.  (+info)

1. A partial amino acid sequence of 95 residues of the 191 residues in the oxidized A chain of human subcomponent C1q was determined. The partial nature of the sequence is because one overlapping peptide is missing in the proposed sequence, also the proof of some of the overlapping peptides depends partly on their amino acid composition and not on their complete sequence. 2. This region of the A chain contained a repeating sequence of glycine-X-Y (where X is often proline and Y is often hydroxyproline) for 78 residues. 3. The five hydroxylysine residues and the five hydroxyproline residues present in the oxidized A chain were all in these 78 residues and only in the Y position of the repeating sequence. 4. Prolonged collagenase digestion of the oxidized A chain yielded a large, apparently C-terminal, peptide which contained most of the non-collagenous sequences present in the chain. 5. It is concluded that there is a collagen-like region in the A chain of subcomponent C1q which constitutes most ...
Human saliva has been shown to reduce the infectivity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) particles in vitro (Fox et al., 1988). The factors in human saliva involved in this inhibition of HIV infectivity are unknown, although the salivary sediment of normal individuals has the major HIV neutralizing activity (Fox et al., 1989). Interestingly, the first complement component (Cl) has been detected on the surface of the salivary sediment in the whole saliva of normal individuals (Wirtz et al., 1987). We determined that at the low ionic strength of saliva, human Clq bound with high affinity to the envelope glycoprotein of HIV (Su and Boackle, 1991). Normally, the interaction of the Clq globular heads with immune complexes causes Cl activation. However, direct interactions between Cl and rgp120 (or rgp160) did not lead to Cl fixation, as determined by hemolytic studies with rate limiting levels of Cl, nor did rgpl20 cause Cl activation (as determined by the formation of CroCI-Inh complexes or by ...
Retroscreen Virology is continuing its plans for growth this year with the appointment of Reid Tripp as Executive Vice President Business Development and Marketing.. Joining from TKL Research where he was Vice President, Global Business Development and Marketing, Reid Tripp will assume responsibility for Retroscreens overall sales and marketing agenda as well as driving biomarker discovery collaborations. He will report to Kym Denny, Retroscreens CEO, and will be a member of the executive team.. Kym Denny said she is confident that Reid will add significant value to the company and that his involvement will be crucial in continuing to make Retroscreen the worlds premier conductor of human challenge studies and forge new relationships as we develop respiratory biomarkers that will change the way drugs are developed. ...
Another spot is opening up on The X Factor judges table.After undergoing a major overhaul for the singing competitions current season, L.A. Reid will be exiting the show to devote more time to his day job as chairman of Epic Records, according to The Hollywood Reporter. I have the utmost respect for Simon Cowell. He is the very best and I have had the opportunity to learn so much from him, Reid said in a statement obtained by THR. Working with him on X Factor has been a once-in-a-lifetime
Another spot is opening up on The X Factor judges table.After undergoing a major overhaul for the singing competitions current season, L.A. Reid will be exiting the show to devote more time to his day job as chairman of Epic Records, according to The Hollywood Reporter. I have the utmost respect for Simon Cowell. He is the very best and I have had the opportunity to learn so much from him, Reid said in a statement obtained by THR. Working with him on X Factor has been a once-in-a-lifetime
Another spot is opening up on The X Factor judges table.After undergoing a major overhaul for the singing competitions current season, L.A. Reid will be exiting the show to devote more time to his day job as chairman of Epic Records, according to The Hollywood Reporter. I have the utmost respect for Simon Cowell. He is the very best and I have had the opportunity to learn so much from him, Reid said in a statement obtained by THR. Working with him on X Factor has been a once-in-a-lifetime
Another spot is opening up on The X Factor judges table.After undergoing a major overhaul for the singing competitions current season, L.A. Reid will be exiting the show to devote more time to his day job as chairman of Epic Records, according to The Hollywood Reporter. I have the utmost respect for Simon Cowell. He is the very best and I have had the opportunity to learn so much from him, Reid said in a statement obtained by THR. Working with him on X Factor has been a once-in-a-lifetime
Another spot is opening up on The X Factor judges table.After undergoing a major overhaul for the singing competitions current season, L.A. Reid will be exiting the show to devote more time to his day job as chairman of Epic Records, according to The Hollywood Reporter. I have the utmost respect for Simon Cowell. He is the very best and I have had the opportunity to learn so much from him, Reid said in a statement obtained by THR. Working with him on X Factor has been a once-in-a-lifetime
Another spot is opening up on The X Factor judges table.After undergoing a major overhaul for the singing competitions current season, L.A. Reid will be exiting the show to devote more time to his day job as chairman of Epic Records, according to The Hollywood Reporter. I have the utmost respect for Simon Cowell. He is the very best and I have had the opportunity to learn so much from him, Reid said in a statement obtained by THR. Working with him on X Factor has been a once-in-a-lifetime
Another spot is opening up on The X Factor judges table.After undergoing a major overhaul for the singing competitions current season, L.A. Reid will be exiting the show to devote more time to his day job as chairman of Epic Records, according to The Hollywood Reporter. I have the utmost respect for Simon Cowell. He is the very best and I have had the opportunity to learn so much from him, Reid said in a statement obtained by THR. Working with him on X Factor has been a once-in-a-lifetime
L.A. Reid discusses facing-off with Simon Cowell over Demi Lovato and Britney Spears on The X Factor. Reid foresees the top contestants to beat, as well as mentions his personal biggest challenge.
Sen. Harry Reid alleges Mitt Romney didnt pay taxes for a decade. On AC360, Paul Begala defends Reid and says theres evidence of Romneys tax avoidance.
Sen. Harry Reid alleges Mitt Romney didnt pay taxes for a decade. On AC360, Paul Begala defends Reid and says theres evidence of Romneys tax avoidance.
Tara Reid in Alone in the Dark Tara Reid is known as quite the party girl. But on-screen she s done her best to shed that image. She s an actress, after all, and her role as a brilliant anthropologist in the Christian Slater horror thriller made audiences believe she was, well, a party girl with...
Reid Schermer is a code compliance manager and property preservation and inspector for Altisource, Atlanta, Georgia. He can be reached at [email protected]
Mary Reid of Wherstead was the beneficiary of an annuity of £500 p.a under the will of her father George Reid senior and of £10,000 secured on the Friendship estate in Jamaica. Under her will, made in 1830 with administration granted 03/05/1836, she left her entire estate to her sister Ann Capper. Rev. George Capper (q.v.) as executor of Mary Reid [probably Mary Reid of Henley Hall, q.v.] claimed compensation for the Friendship estate in Jamaica, on which Mary Reid of Wherstead was an annuitant under the will of George Reid senior ...
Classical enzyme kinetic analyses were applied to define the mechanism of the effect of the fourth component (C4) on cleavage of the second component (C2) by the first component (C1) of human complement. The data indicated that the increased rate of cleavage of C2 by C1 in the presence of C4 was due to availability of a site for product deposition; the effect of C4 was reversed by blocking the site on C4 for C2 deposition. C2 cleavage by C1 followed first order kinetics.. In addition, our findings support the hypothesis that there are separate enzymatic sites on the C1 molecule for its natural substrates.. ...
A method mixes a first component, a second component, and a buffer material. The first component includes an electrophilic polymer material comprising poly(ethylene glycol) having a functionality of at least three. The second component includes a nucleophilic material comprising a natural or synthetic protein at a concentration of about 25% or less that, when mixed with the first component within a reaction pH range, cross-links with the first component to form a non-liquid, three-dimensional barrier. The buffer material includes tris-hydroxymethylaminomethane having a pH within the reaction pH range. The method applies the mixture to adhere to a tissue region.
AbeBooks.com: Rocks, Minerals and Fossils (Usborne Nature Trail) (9780746096338) by Struan Reid and a great selection of similar New, Used and Collectible Books available now at great prices.
Buy Illustrated Invertebrate Anatomy A Laboratory Guide by Lois Reid at TextbookX.com. ISBN/UPC: 9780195040777. Save an average of 50% on the marketplace.
Eagles coach Andy Reid apologizes for any adverse appearances after investigators reveal that anabolic steroids were found in Garrett Reids room during the investigation into his heroin overdose.
Dr. Reid Lyon: In the early childhood community, what the argument has been for many, many years, particularly in Head Start, is that what we need to do is focus on our little ones to ensure that they are socially competent that they know how to get along with kids, that they can attend and so on and so forth. Well, of course you do, you ve got to do that. You want the kids to feel socially competent. There s also an emphasis on emotional health. You want to make sure that kids are attaching well to adults, kids are getting along with other kids, they feel good about themselves; the nurturing environment is built to do that, of course. But the weird thing has been to not, while you re doing that, provide any kind of interaction that might look at letters or letter sounds or numbers or words and reading and so forth and so on because that s deemed developmentally inappropriate and it has been assumed that in fact will push them too quickly, push the nervous system too quickly and so on. That is ...
BETHLEHEM -- Andy Reid didnt rule out getting rookie safety Nate Allen signed and into camp before practices start Tuesday morning. - Jeff McLane, Philadelphia Inquirer
Andy Reid said he wasnt concerned (is he ever?) about the relatively low numbers the Eagles have at certain positions following Saturdays roster cut down to 53. - Jeff McLane, Philadelphia Inquirer
Jockwitz, C.; Caspers, S.; Lux, S.; Eickhoff, S.B.; Jütten, K.; Lenzen, S.; Moebus, S.; Pundt, N.; Reid, A.T. ; Hoffstaedter, F.; Jöckel, K.H.; Erbel, R.; Cichon, S.; Nöthen, M.M.; Shah, N.J.; Zilles, K.; Amunts, K. et al ...
The Psychology of Stalking: Clinical and Forensic Perspectives (J.Reid Meloy) pe OKIAN.ro. Pret: 201.99 lei. The Psychology of Stalking is the first schola
Rapid Starter Level Teaching Guide by Diana Bentley Dee Reid, 9780435911768, available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide.
Written by Penny Reid, Audiobook narrated by Chris Brinkley, Chloe Miller. Sign-in to download and listen to this audiobook today! First time visiting Audible? Get this book free when you sign up for a 30-day Trial.
Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid was unambiguous in his response when asked about a report that the U.S. Olympic teams opening ceremony uniforms were made in China rather than by American textile
HollywoodNews.com: American Pie actress Tara Reid has reportedly been hospitalized while in Nice, France for acute pancreatitis. While her condition is not
Sir John Rae Reids father, Sir Thomas Reid 1st bart. (1762-1824), East India merchant and head of Reid Irvine [sic] & Co. of Broad Street Buildings is shown by Rubinstein [1824/27] as leaving £300,000. Sir Thomas Reid of Ewell Grove and Graystone Park, Dumfries was a director and sometime Chairman of the East India Co., son of James Reid of Dumfries merchant, who married Elizabeth Goodfellow daughter of John Looker Goodfellow in Feb 1791, and was made a baronet on 10 Nov. 1823. Another son, George, was born 1800. ...
Harry Reid will include a public insurance plan in the pending health care reform bill, with a provision allowing individual states to refuse to participate. The Senate majority leaders bill is... Politics News Summaries. | Newser
Devilskin bassist Paul Martin has some serious prior form in the noise stakes: He played in the legendary (not a word we use lightly here) Kiwi hard rock bands Knightshade and Blackjack, and more recently was lead guitarist/lead singer for World War Four. But with Hamiltons Devilskin it seems it has all come to a higher plane. The band -- fronted by the nailhard vocals of Jennie Skulander... - THE FAMOUS ELSEWHERE QUESTIONNAIRE: Paul The Axeman Martin of Devilskin by Graham Reid
The Bill Reid Gallery is the only public Gallery in Canada dedicated to Indigenous Northwest Coast Art. Learn more about this downtown Vancouver art gallery here.
Visit Healthgrades for information on Dr. Reid Draeger, MD Find Phone & Address information, medical practice history, affiliated hospitals and more.
First lets say this, when graybeards bemoan young artists getting enormous attention on the back of just a single or two, this writer is forced to remind them that exactly the same happened for the favourite artists of their era: Beatles, Stones, Cilla Black, Animals et al. So we shouldnt be dismissive just because this 20-year old American singer got over 30 million streams on You Tube two... - Clairo: Immunity (Fader/digital outlets) by Graham Reid
Want to find the latest Tara Reid news and gossip? Look no further than WWTDD-What Would Tyler Durden Do-for whats going down in Hollywood.
Just days after being hospitalized, former actress Tara Reid was back on the party scene Monday, smoking cigs and hitting up nightclubs in St. Tropez.TMZ…
review by james reid of La Vita George Square on 13/11/2012 one of the many Glasgow to choose from online at 5pm.co.uk. You can view their latest restaurant offers, reviews, information and menus
Senate Majority Leader Harry M. Reid announced Monday that he will include a government-backed insurance plan in the chambers health-care reform legislation, a key concession to liberals who have threatened to oppose a bill without such a public option.
With the beats of her heart pounding rapidly, Joanne Reid tried to steady her rifle. A circle of less than two inches in diameter and 50 meters down range was her target, but her heart was going crazy, at nearly 220 beats per minute.
Consultant, Scientist Yvonne A. Reid, Ph.D., is a Consultant and former employee at ATCC. Dr. Reid has been at the forefront of developing and standardizing methods to characterize cell lines by enzymology, karyotyping, and more recently DNA profiling, and to propagate, cryopreserve, and track validated batches of thousands of animal cell lines and strains. These validation protocols have been adopted by cell banks around the world. In addition, Dr. Reid has been heavily involved in developing guidelines for authenticating cell lines and cell types.. ...
A cooling arrangement is disclosed for a vehicle having a first component, a first duct, and a cooling fan configured to deliver air through the first duct to the first component when the cooling fan
In a little while were clearing out this room so they can come in tomorrow and put down the rest of our new floors. The floors didnt get finished before Reid went into the hospital last December, so we had to wait to have them come in and finish. Actually, Reid isnt supposed to hang around while theyre working, but I dont expect too much dust this time since they only have to pull up some old carpeting in one room ...
The existence of the UFO study was first reported by the I-Team back in October. Thats when a high-ranking intelligence officer in charge of the program quit to take a job with a private...
Do you really want to delete this prezi? Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again. DeleteCancel ...
Rory was Recombus Editor In Chief until joining the cast of BBCs Top Gear. Since then he has become a brand ambassador, contributing to our …
Contents DR. FRANCIS (RANDY) REID 2 ROBERT RICKS 17 CANDE SEAY 27 METHODIST MEDICAL CENTER ORAL HISTORY: DR. FRANCIS (RANDY) REID Interviewed by Patricia Clark January 28, 2009 MRS. CLARK: Pat Clark interviewing Dr. Francis also know as Randy Reid an ophthalmologist and first thing I want to know Dr. Reid is some back ground information about you, where you were born, even the year if you are willing to say…. DR. REID: Oh sure. MRS. CLARK: And … DR. REID: I was born in Memphis, Tennessee in 1950. MRS. CLARK: Ok and you were educated? DR. REID: I did undergraduate work at University of Tennessee, Knoxville. I did my medical school at University of Tennessee, Memphis, and then stayed there for my internship and ophthalmology residency. MRS. CLARK: So you have been strictly a Tennessean. DR. REID: Strictly a Tennessean, I finished my residency in 1979 and came to Oak Ridge right from there, straight from residency. I have been practicing here since 1979, this is my 30th year. MRS. CLARK: Oh my ...
t reid electrical manufacturers and t reid electrical suppliers Directory - Find t reid electrical products,Choose Quality t reid electrical manufacturers, suppliers, factory at ECBAY
Posted on 07/16/2014 10:38:42 AM PDT by PoloSec. Pulitzer Prize-winning conservative columnist Charles Krauthammer wonders whether Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid is on his medication or not. But is this an official diagnosis? Among his impressive list of accomplishments in life, Krauthammer is a licensed psychiatrist and practiced medicine for three years at Massachusetts General Hospital, so some would argue he is qualified to assess Reid s mental health. The good doctor was a panelist on Fox News Special Report with Bret Baier on Tuesday and the participants were discussing the wave of illegal immigrant children overrunning the U.S. border with Mexico. Earlier in the day, Reid had the audacity to say the border is secure, and Dr. Krauthammer let him have it. When you hear Harry Reid saying the border is secure you got to wonder, you know, whether he s on his medication or not, he told his fellow panelists. That is so detached from reality. How many do we have now? 60,000 at least kids who ...
are at Stage 1 in the recovery process as both players are healing from concussions.. McCoy suffered his concussion late in the fourth quarter of Sundays loss to the Washington Redskins. Reid said that McCoy has a bit of a headache. The team will take it day-by-day with McCoy and follow the concussion protocol.. Reid said that while he wished McCoy did not get hurt; he does not regret keeping him in the game despite the fact that the Eagles were trailing 31-6 with 1:58 left in the game.. Vick incurred his concussion a week earlier against Dallas and missed Sundays game against Washington. Vick is improving and took the ImPACT test, but is still not at baseline. Reid said that he would be the starter next Monday night against Carolina, but it remains to be seen whether he will be able to play from a health standpoint.. Wide receiver Riley Cooper ...
Another spot is opening up on The X Factor judges table.After undergoing a major overhaul for the singing competitions current season, L.A. Reid will be exiting the show to devote more time to his day job as chairman of Epic Records, according to The Hollywood Reporter. I have the utmost respect for Simon Cowell. He is the very best and I have had the opportunity to learn so much from him, Reid said in a statement obtained by THR. Working with him on X Factor has been a once-in-a-lifetime
At the 2017 AOPO annual meeting, our Manager of Clinical Services, Reid Freeman, won 4th place in the poster exhibit. The poster explained how our OPO staff perform serial bronchoscopies with disposable bronchoscopies, which resulted in significant cost savings. Great job Reid!. ...
Majority Leader Harry Reid (D-NV) and Senator Tom Coburn (R-OK) sparred over the food safety bill on the Senate floor, providing no progress and more political hurdles for a bill that has been plagued by setbacks.. Yesterday afternoon Coburn rejected Reids attempt to bring the bill up under unanimous consent, a procedural move to limit debate and set rules for amendments. Coburn took the floor and reiterated his objection to the pending bill, citing the measures $1.4 billion price tag, and the fact that it does not address systemic jurisdictional issues.. Coburn then offered his own deal, which would require the authorizing bill to provide specific offsets. (Important to note: The unanimous consent agreement Reid is proposing would allow Coburn to bring this amendment to the floor during the debate). Congress response to years of its own failed oversight and fiscal. irresponsibility is to steal money from future generations and repeat. the same failed regulatory policies of the past. More ...
Nick Jonas was just confirmed as a guest mentor for The X Factor, set to be paired with Demi Lovato, and now it appears we have an idea as to who fellow judge L.A. Reid has recruited to join him on the show. Justin Bieber was photographed high-fiving and hugging Reid on Monday, after he and manager ...
Find 1 listings related to Jonathan Reid Ltd in Hadley on YP.com. See reviews, photos, directions, phone numbers and more for Jonathan Reid Ltd locations in Hadley, MA.
SALT Reid MMM (52-19-148) Glasses: SALT Reid MMM (52-19-148) GlassesThis is a designer classic frame that Eyediology Opticians has hand picked for our eyewear boutique store in Spitalfields
Tina Reid, advance practice registered nurse, has joined the medical team of Mercy Kidney Center in Mason City. Reid received her undergraduate degree from the University of Minnesota-Mankato and her
Reid applauded efforts by Sens. Jack Reed, D-R.I., and Dean Heller, R-Nev., to keep the issue alive. The two unveiled their latest proposal for a five-month unemployment extension earlier Tuesday. But Reid's statement suggests their latest bill won't reach the Senate floor. And House action is unlikely as Speaker A. John Boehner, R-Ohio, has said he wants to help boost the economy and create jobs rather than just revive emergency unemployment compensation. The speaker laid out the criteria before Christmas: We will take a look at any plan that is fiscally-responsible, and does something to help create private-sector jobs, Boehner spokesman Michael Steel said in an email. Republicans have in the past pointed to a pileup of House bills in the Senate as examples of items they would consider attaching to an unemployment extension. The proposal is the latest iteration of the five-month measure. The Senate in April passed the previous version that would have provided benefits going back ...
Neurosurgeon, Steven A. Reid MD, located in Gainesville, FL. Dr. Reid has been in practice in Gainesville since completing his residency in 1985. He served as an Assistant Professor
Robert Reid, PhD, is Deputy Division Head, Prevention and Rehabilitation at the University of Ottawa Heart Institute, and a Full Professor in the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Ottawa. Dr. Reid leads the Ottawa region strategic research Innovation Cluster on Behavioural and Environmental Interventions and Personal and Community Cardiovascular Health.
September 10, 2007 The Honorable Harry Reid Majority Leader United States Senate S-221 Capitol Building Washington, DC Dear Majority Leader Reid: On behalf of the undersigned organizations, we urge
An apparatus and method for implanting a prosthesis includes implanting a first component into a recess in a bone. The first component defines a main body defining a receiving portion and a locating bore. A second component is located into engagement with the first component, the second component defining a passage therethrough. A rod is inserted through the passage defined on the second component and into the locating bore of the first component. A handle associated with the rod is slidably actuated into contact with the second component to matingly lock the first component to the second component.
A medical device including a catheter having a first component having a first color and a wall thickness and a second component having a second color different from the first color and a wall thickness. The first component and the second component are joined by a lap weld having a wall thickness such that the wall thickness of the lap weld is greater than the first component wall thickness and also greater than the second component wall thickness. The first component wall thickness is spaced apart from the lap weld and the second component wall thickness is spaced apart from the lap weld. The first component is disposed over the second component and the first color is selected from the group consisting of blue, green, orange, yellow, or purple.
Recombinant Complement Component 1, R Subcomponent A (C1RA) Protein (His tag). Species: Mouse (Murine). Source: Insect Cells. Order product ABIN3125986.
Jackson Alaric Whittington was born on December 21, 2016.In mid-May of 2017 I took Jackson to… Amber Reid needs your support for Fighting Leukemia for Jackson
Reids aesthetics is well known for being an example of an expression theory of art. There is some controversy over whether his expression theory is inconsistent with his anti-subjectivism about aesthetic qualities. The controversy has centered on whether Reid holds that aesthetic qualities are primary or secondary qualities. This chapter argues that Reids views about the ontology of aesthetic qualities will not solve the controversy. Beauty and grandeur are properties of subjects, but this does not make them subjective properties. Typical perceivers perceive beauty and grandeur because they are aesthetically literate-they understand the aesthetic significance of ordinary properties of material objects. The aesthetically literate person treats properties of material objects as signs, attending not to the properties of the objects as such but to the beauty and grandeur that they signify.
49 matching references were found. Dawes, R.; Jasper, A.W.; Tao, C.; Richmold, C.; Mukarakate, C.; Kable, S.H.; Reid, S.A., Theoretical and Experimental Spectroscopy of the S, J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 2010, 1, 3, 641, https://doi.org/10.1021/jz900380a . [all data] Deselnicu, M.; Tao, C.; Mukarakate, C.; Reid, S.A., Fluorescence excitation and emission spectroscopy of the A [sup 1]A[sup ´´],--X [sup 1]A[sup ´] system of CHBr, J. Chem. Phys., 2006, 124, 13, 134302, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2183302 . [all data] Fan, H.; Mukarakate, C.; Deselnicu, M.; Tao, C.; Reid, S.A., Dispersed fluorescence spectroscopy of jet-cooled HCF and DCF: Vibrational structure of the X [sup 1]A[sup ´] state, J. Chem. Phys., 2005, 123, 1, 014314, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1948387 . [all data] Mukarakate, C.; Mishchenko, Y.; Brusse, D.; Tao, C.; Reid, S.A., Probing spin?orbit mixing and the singlet?triplet gap in dichloromethylene via?Ka-sorted emission spectra, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2006, 8, 37, 4320, ...
For COUPONS, reviews, directions, payment info and more on Reid Orthopedics at Eaton, OH, . More business profiles located here for Eaton
GOOD Morning Britain hosts Piers Morgan and Susanna Reid were quick to offer their congratulations to pregnant Cheryl after she stepped out last night sporting a sizeable bump.
The connectome is a term, coined in the past decade, that has been used to describe more than one phenomenon in neuroscience. Dr. R Clay Reid explains the basics of structural connections at the micro-, meso- and macroscopic scales.
Jason Biggs Makes Mean Comments About Tara Reids Body Tara Reid flashes a smile while heading to her car following a night out at 1 Oak on Thursday (June 12) in West Hollywood, Calif. The 38-year-old actress has…
Walter, T. Chad; Gaviria-Melo, S. (2015). Murunducaris Reid, 1994. In: Walter, T.C. & Boxshall, G. (2017). World of Copepods database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=347536 on 2017-11- ...
Theres no reason you need to live with an open sore. Reid Wound Healing Center, conveniently located on Chester Boulevard south of Reids main campus, is equipped and staffed to address the unique circumstances associated with each wound. In fact, weve been able to treat many open sores that have resisted traditional treatment with a success rate of 80% healed in 12-16 weeks!
LinkedIn cofounder Reid Hoffman, Omidyar Network, and John S. and the James L. Knight Foundation have today joined forces to create the Ethics and Governance of Artificial Intelligence Fund.
Eric Thompson the New Zealand Herald motorsport correspondent chats with V8 supercar driver Jonny Reid about the progression of his career.
Visit Healthgrades for information on Dr. Denzil Reid, MD Find Phone & Address information, medical practice history, affiliated hospitals and more.
Debra Reid Mccutcheon MD is a Anesthesiologist who practices in Winston Salem, NC. Get a full report about this doctors background by clicking here.
A measuring device for determining the relative offset between two components in a z-direction includes two measuring members. A first measuring member is affixable on a first component, and the second measuring member is affixable on a second component. Furthermore, the measuring device includes a sensor device for determining the relative position of the two measuring members. The first measuring member and the second measuring member are affixable on the first components at a rigid angle. At least one of the measuring members is able to be brought into adhesive contact with the first component or the second component. The measuring device includes support members for at least one measuring member so that the measuring member is able to assume a parking or an operating position. The measuring members are precisely and reproducibly aligned in space relative to each other in the parking position.
I always get the shivers when I see a very dedicated parent. A few months ago I was on the train on my way to work, when a mother entered with her approx. 10 year old daughter, who was in a wheelchair. The girl would do nothing but talk, ask questions and narrate everything she did, leaving almost no chance for anyone (her mother) to participate in the conversation. I felt bad for the child, because it seemed as it was impossible for her to keep a thought to herself, yet whatever she said ended up as a monologue. Her mother had very calm, pleasant and patient vibes. Not once did she judge or interrupt her daughter, while I was present. Whenever her daughter asked a question, she would answer it, not getting irritated by the fact that the girl would continue talking. Maybe she was listening after all. At times, the mother would encourage her daughter to elaborate certain thoughts and sometimes the girl did. ...
That said, I read a book once that traumatized me then and makes me shudder in revulsion to this day. I had no experiences in my life at that time (or since) that would have made me think to avoid triggers, even had there been a warning. In fact, my husband told me rather emphatically not to read it. Which of course made me more determined TO read it. The beginning was so unbearably dull and boring, I skipped ahead to the middle to see whether it ever got more interesting. One could argue that it did indeed get more interesting, interesting being a subjective term, and it was certainly no longer banal. I thought I was literally going to either vomit or pass out, perhaps both, after being dropped into that scene with no lead up. Although I doubt a lead up would have blunted the shock. I never read another page of this critically acclaimed, this modern classic, this important book ...
David Taylor interviewing Reuben Reid regarding boatbuilding, Winterton, Trinity Bay, Newfoundland. Interview takes place May 24, 1979. Mr Reid tells the story of learning how to build a boat. He discusses the parts and dimensions of a boat ...
SkinPen by Bellus Medical is the first FDA-cleared microneedling device.. It causes controlled micro-injuries that stimulate your bodys natural wound healing process, while minimizing cellular damage. The result is effective remodeling of scar tissue, while keeping the overall structure of the skin intact.1. ...
In this analysis, it is usually a reduced complement factor C4, rather than the C1-INH deficiency itself, that is detected. The ... Acute treatment consists of C1-INH (C1-esterase inhibitor) concentrate from donor blood, which must be administered ... especially depletion of complement factors 2 and 4, may indicate deficiency of C1-inhibitor. HAE type III is a diagnosis of ... C1-esterase (aka: C1-inhibitor or C1INH), and continuous production of kallikrein, another process inhibited by C1INH. This ...
Chicken IgY does not fix mammalian complement component C1 and it does not perform as a precipitating antibody using standard ... complement fixing nature] of the antibodies to be made. Immunization and phlebotomies are stress associated and, at least when ...
... named C1-inhibitor. The inhibition of C1-inhibitor leads to over-activation of the complement pathway and one protein that ... Consequently, levels of all complement proteins become low. The complement pathway is composed of several subset pathways: the ... Also, there has been some speculation as to an additional autoantibody against an inhibitor protein (in the complement pathway ... C1q is an integral component within the complement pathway - a complicated cascade of protein interactions, culminating in an ...
Sir Patrick Moore compiled the Caldwell catalogue in 1995 to complement the Messier catalog, listing 109 bright star clusters, ... nebulae, and galaxies named C1 to C109. This is a list of deep-sky objects of interest to amateur astronomy and not a catalog ...
Moreover, the hydrophobic nature of the binding pocket complements the C1 ester of the substrate and supports the observation ...
As of January 2019, the fleet consists of over 450 W, Z3, A1, B2, C1, C2, D and E class trams, operated from eight depots. In ... Trams took delivery of the first of 36 C class Alstom Citadis trams which have primarily operated on route 109 to complement ...
... which activate the classical pathway of the complement system. The cascade begins to work from C1 to C3b through C4b, C3b being ... London: Mosby, ISBN 0-7234-2918-9. Frank K, Atkinson JP (2001). "Complement system." In Austen KF, Frank K, Atkinson JP, Cantor ... Because primate erythrocytes express complement receptor 1 (CR1) on their surface and having binding specificity to C4b, C3b, ... Bala Subramanian V, Liszewski MK, Atkinson JP (2000). "The complement system and autoimmunity." In Lahita RG, Chiorazzi N, ...
The complement component C5 can be also activated by fluid phase C5 convertase. C5 is activated by CVFBb in the presence of ... C2a produced by cleavage mediated by C1 complex, and C3b produced by cleavage mediated by the classical pathway C3 convertase ( ... The target of C5 convertase is complement protein C5. C5 is a two-chain (α, β) plasma glycoprotein (Mr = 196,000). C5 and C3 ... In these respects, the mode of action of C5 is completely analogous to that of the other components of complement. The C5 step ...
104.7 started in 1948 as WSVS-FM, a complement to its AM sister WSVS. It broadcast just west of Crewe with 14,000 watts of ... In the late 1970s, the station upgraded to a class C1 station with 100,000 watts of power, which gave it an adequate signal ...
The proteins in this genus may lie either on the sense strand (positive orientation) or its complement (negative orientation). ... 12.8 kDa C1 (L1)-negative orientation: Replication initiation protein (Rep)-40.2 kDa C2: (L2)-negative orientation: ... Nuclear shuttle protein-33.1 kDa C1 (L1)-negative orientation: Movement protein-29.6 kDa Smaller than unit length virus ...
... set complement for complement, empty set as 0, X α {\displaystyle X^{\alpha }} as the unit, and ⊆ {\displaystyle \subseteq } ... C1) c κ 0 = 0 {\displaystyle c_{\kappa }0=0} (C2) x ≤ c κ x {\displaystyle x\leq c_{\kappa }x} (C3) c κ ( x ⋅ c κ y ) = c κ x ... C1) ∃ κ . f a l s e ⟺ f a l s e {\displaystyle \exists \kappa .{\mathit {false}}\iff {\mathit {false}}} (C2) x ⟹ ∃ κ . x {\ ... It necessarily validates the axioms C1-C7 of a cylindric algebra, with ∪ {\displaystyle \cup } instead of + {\displaystyle ...
B2 and C1 to match its London counterparts, had a full complement of 32, and was a big band with strings in the Billy May/ ... The C1 Orchestra's 16 players formed the same big band as that which was the basis of the B1, and was sometimes known as the ... and many of the BBC SRO's broadcasts featured just the C1 big band section. With this change in format, the orchestra now ...
Complement dysfunction may predispose some patients to bacterial infections. The diagnosis of the disease is mainly clinical ( ... Patients usually have decreased serum C3 levels, normal levels of C1 and C4, and high levels of C3NeF (autoantibody), which may ... C3 nephritic factor induces the lysis of adipocytes that secrete adipsin, a product identical to complement factor D. The ... Around 83% of APL patients had low complement 3 (C3) levels and the presence of polyclonal immunoglobulin C3 nephritic factor. ...
... a spinal nerve of the cervical segment C1 complex, the first component of the classical complement pathway C1 domain, an ... C1, C01, C.I or C-1 may refer to: C1, a note-octave in music C1 Television, a Mongolian television channel Schecter C-1 ... C-1), a Spanish submarine Cluster 1, also known as Rumba, an ESA satellite C1, a solo sprint canoe C1 (classification), a para- ... an American PRR steam locomotive Finnish Steam Locomotive Class C1 HMS C1, a C-class submarine of the Royal Navy USS C-1 (SS-9 ...
C1-inhibitor plays the role of inactivating C1r and C1s to prevent further downstream classical complement activity. C1- ... Alternative complement pathway - another complement system pathway Lectin pathway - another complement system pathway Noris, ... Obesity in turn results in an abnormally high level of complement activation via production of the C1 component of the ... Lack of regulation of the classical complement pathway through the deficiency in C1-inhibitor results in episodic angioedema. ...
The CH50 is testing the classical complement pathway in an individual thus requiring functioning C1-C9 factors. If an ... Total complement activity (TCA) refers to a series of tests that determine the functioning of the complement system in an ... Decreased CH50 values may be seen in cirrhosis or hepatitis as a result of impaired complement production in the liver. It can ... For example, if and individual has normal C3/C4 values but a decreased CH50, that can indicate a terminal complement pathway ...
The original facility was 16 structures with a complement of about 95 that grew to 24 major structures with a complement of 280 ... designated SD-C1 and the complete sea system officially designated AN/FQQ-11 (V), allowed a fourth generation of sonar sets, ...
Complement: Compute ones' complement of least significant byte = 0x61. S00F000068656C6C6F202020202000003C ... C-1-C-5. ISBN 978-0-13723289-5. "srec_examples". sourceforge.net. CCS Compiler Reference Manual PCB/PCM/PCH (PDF), Custom ... Checksum - two hex digits, the least significant byte of ones' complement of the sum of the values represented by the two hex ...
It is a "mid-size plus" version of the Enclave which utilizes GM's C1 short wheelbase platform. It went on sale in that region ... which complements its first switchable all-wheel-drive system. There are three level trims, including a new top of the line ...
... where C1 is the pedal of C, C2 is the pedal of C1, and so on. In this scheme, C1 is known as the first positive pedal of C, C2 ... Complementing the pedal curve, there is a unique point Y on the line normal to C at R so that PY is perpendicular to the normal ... Going the other direction, C is the first negative pedal of C1, the second negative pedal of C2, etc. Take P to be the origin. ... The pedal curve is the first in a series of curves C1, C2, C3, etc., ...
In this analysis, it is usually a reduced complement factor C4, rather than the C1-INH deficiency itself, that is detected. The ... Ruconest (C1-inhibitor). References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Bernstein, JA; Cremonesi, P; Hoffmann, TK ... especially depletion of complement factors 2 and 4, may indicate deficiency of C1-inhibitor. HAE type III is a diagnosis of ... Acute treatment consists of C1-INH (C1-esterase inhibitor) concentrate from donor blood, which must be administered ...
The human complement subcomponent C1q associates with C1r and C1s in order to yield the first component of the serum complement ... The protein encoded by this gene is known to bind to the globular heads of C1q molecules and inhibit C1 activation. This ... C1QBP, GHABP1, SF2p32, gC1Q-R, gC1qR, p32, complement component 1, q subcomponent binding protein, complement C1q binding ... Complement component 1 Q subcomponent-binding protein, mitochondrial is a protein that in humans is encoded by the C1QBP gene.[ ...
When a single gene deficiency does cause lupus, it is usually attributed to the complement protein genes C1, C2, or C4. The ...
10 C1,10 39.72 cM. Start. 79,704,491 bp[2]. End. 79,711,969 bp[2]. ...
... as the methods complement each other. Neuronal (MEG) and hemodynamic (fMRI) data do not necessarily agree, in spite of the ... C1 and P1 (neuroscience)) in response to visual stimulation are of particular interest in studying sensitivity and ...
Effector functions also require the use of complement proteins in serum or Fc-receptor on cell membranes. Ansuvimab has been ... August 2011). "Small molecule inhibitors reveal Niemann-Pick C1 is essential for Ebola virus infection". Nature. 477 (7364): ... August 2011). "Ebola virus entry requires the cholesterol transporter Niemann-Pick C1". Nature. 477 (7364): 340-3. Bibcode: ... Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1). This "competition" by ansuvimab prevents Ebola virus from binding to NPC1 and "neutralizes" the virus's ...
To complement Ascoli's success in Serie A, the club has also achieved 2 Cadetti (Serie B Championships) in 1977-78, and 1985-86 ... After just missing out on promotion for two years running, the club went into decline and were relegated to Serie C1 in 1995. ... They would remain there for seven seasons, returning to B as Serie C1/B champions in 2002. In August 2005, after the sentence ... Serie B: Winners (2): 1977-78, 1985-86 Serie C/Lega Pro: Winners (2): 1971-72, 2014-15 Supercoppa di Serie C1: Winners (1): ...
As a complement to football, Shurmur also played baseball at Albion, where he earned all-conference honors. Shurmur became a ... p. C1. Litsky, Frank (August 21, 1999). "Fritz Shurmur, 67, a Coach Of Innovative NFL Defenses". The New York Times. Retrieved ...
... soluble complement receptor type 1, anti-C5 antibodies, or C1 inhibitor (C1-INH). Disadvantages of this approach include the ... The binding of XNAs initiate complement activation through the classical complement pathway. Complement activation causes a ... Interruption of the complement cascade *The recipient's complement cascade can be inhibited through the use of cobra venom ... Expression of human complement regulators (CD55, CD46, and CD59) to inhibit the complement cascade.[27] ...
Complement deficiencies are the result of a lack of any of these proteins. They may predispose to infections but also to ... C1-inhibitor deficiency (hereditary angioedema) Factor I deficiency (pyogenic infections) Factor H deficiency (haemolytic- ... The complement system is part of the innate as well as the adaptive immune system; it is a group of circulating proteins that ... MASP2 deficiency Complement receptor 3 (CR3) deficiency Membrane cofactor protein (CD46) deficiency Membrane attack complex ...
displaystyle M={1 \over c(c-1)}\sum \mathrm {AUC} _{k,l}}. Where c is the number of classes, and the Rk,l term of AUCk,l ... Stated another way, the correlation is the difference between the common language effect size and its complement: r. =. f. −. ( ...
"Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 3 (4): 425-32. doi:10.1093/ecam/nel044. PMC 1697737 . PMID 17173105. Archived from the ... doi:10.1097/01.brs.0000167821.39373.c1. PMID 15990659.. *^ "Safety and regulation of chiropractic". NHS Choices. 20 August 2014 ... J Altern Complement Med. 14 (4): 361-68. doi:10.1089/acm.2007.0766. PMID 18435599.. ... J Altern Complement Med. 13 (5): 491-512. doi:10.1089/acm.2007.7088. PMID 17604553.. ...
Complement. deficiency. *C1-inhibitor (Angioedema/Hereditary angioedema). *Complement 2 deficiency/Complement 4 deficiency ...
Klassikalist rada inhibeerib C1-inhibiitor, mis seostudes C1 valguga hoiab ära selle aktiveerumise. Alternatiivset rada ... Zipfel, P. F., Hallström, T., & Riesbeck, K. (2013). Human complement control and complement evasion by pathogenic microbes- ... 1,0 1,1 1,2 1,3 Rus, H., Cudrici, C., & Niculescu, F. (2005). The role of the complement system in innate immunity. Immunologic ... 7,0 7,1 Lambris, J. D., Ricklin, D., & Geisbrecht, B. V. (2008). Complement evasion by human pathogens. Nature Reviews. ...
The first negative and positive swings (see Visual N1, C1 and P1 (neuroscience)) in response to visual stimulation are of ... as the methods complement each other. Neuronal (MEG) and hemodynamic (fMRI) data do not necessarily agree, in spite of the ...
This is followed by lactone formation with the hydrolase gluconolactonase between the carbonyl on C1 and hydroxyl group on C4. ... "Toward a phylogenetic classification of Primates based on DNA evidence complemented by fossil evidence". Molecular ... l-galactose dehydrogenase, whereby the lactone ring opens and forms again but with between the carbonyl on C1 and hydroxyl ...
Complement:. Varied by design type. The Type C4-class ship were the largest cargo ships built by the United States Maritime ... Type C1 ship. *Type C2 ship. *Type C3 ship. *T2 tanker. *Liberty ship ...
Complement. deficiency. *C1-inhibitor (Angioedema/Hereditary angioedema). *Complement 2 deficiency/Complement 4 deficiency ... ADCC is independent of the immune complement system that also lyses targets but does not require any other cell. ADCC requires ... 1987). "Functional role of the alpha-chain of complement receptor type 3 in human eosinophil-dependent antibody-mediated ...
"C-1 Population By Religious Community". Government of India, Ministry of Home Affairs. Archived from the original on 13 ... Complementing these government services are minibus routes operated by Setwin (Society for Employment Promotion & Training in ... which are complemented by private courier services.[46] ...
FC(F)(F)c1cc(cc(c1)C(F)(F)F)CN(C(=O)OC)[[email protected]@H]3c2c(ccc(c2)C(F)(F)F)N(C(=O)OCC)[[email protected]@H](C3)CC ... Drugs that interfere with the action of these peptides would aid in lowering cholesterol levels by complementing the action of ...
Corrocher R, Tedesco F, Rabusin P, De Sandre G (1975). "Effect of human erythrocyte stromata on complement activation". Br. J. ...
... (EC 3.4.21.42, C1 esterase, activated complement C1s, complement C overbar 1r, C1s) is a protein ... complement activation, lectin pathway. • complement activation. • regulation of complement activation. Sources:Amigo / QuickGO ... involved in the complement system. C1s is part of the C1 complex.[5][6][7][8] In humans, it is encoded by the C1S gene.[9] ... complement activation, classical pathway. • immune system process. • innate immune response. • ...
CC(C)(C)C(=O)OC1=CC=C(C=C1)S(=O)(=O)NC1=CC=CC=C1C(=O)NCC(O)=O ... Complement component 5 *Eculizumab. *TNF *Adalimumab. * ...
Watford WT, Ghio AJ, Wright JR (2000). "Complement-mediated host defense in the lung". Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 279: ... SP-A inhibuje rozpoznání imunitního komplexu C1q i C1.. Schopnost inhibovat klasickou cestu aktivace komplementu je specifická ... Watford WT, Wright JR, Hester CG, Jiang H, Frank MM (2001). "Surfactant Protein A Regulates Complement Activation". J Immunol ... Klasická cesta aktivace komplementu je spuštěna komplexem C1 (C1q, C1r, C1s), rozpozná-li Fc oblast imunoglobulinu navázaného ...
Activation of complements by antigen-associated antibodyEdit. In the classical pathway, C1 binds with its C1q subunits to Fc ... complement factor B, and complement factor I, as well as deletion of complement factor H-related 3 and complement factor H- ... Complement deficiencyEdit. Main article: Complement deficiency. It is thought that the complement system might play a role in ... Three biochemical pathways activate the complement system: the classical complement pathway, the alternative complement pathway ...
Complement. deficiency. *C1-inhibitor (Angioedema/Hereditary angioedema). *Complement 2 deficiency/Complement 4 deficiency ... Complement deficiency is where the function of the complement system is deficient ...
"A Selaginella lepidophylla trehalose-6-phosphate synthase complements growth and stress-tolerance defects in a yeast tps1 ... 68.9 g per 100 g at 20 °C[1]. Solubility soluble in ethanol, insoluble in diethyl ether and benzene[2]. ...
Media related to Complement membrane attack complex at Wikimedia Commons. *Complement+Membrane+Attack+Complex at the US ... The membrane attack complex (MAC) or terminal complement complex (TCC) is a structure typically formed on the surface of ... Reid K. B. M., The complement system, in: B. D. Hames and D. M. Glover (eds.), Molecular Immunology, Oxford: IRL Press, 1988, ... MAC is composed of a complex of four complement proteins (C5b, C6, C7, and C8) that bind to the outer surface of the plasma ...
... then C♯ = 1 ... A♯ = 10, B = 11, with "10" and "11" substituted by "t" and "e" in some sources,[5] A and B in others[6] (like ...
Proper segregation is essential for producing haploid meiotic products with a normal complement of chromosomes. The formation ...
Complementing the show's educational, real-world premise, the site hosted links to academic, archaeological, and exploratory ... Peoria Journal Star: C1.. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes ...
InChI=1S/C62H111N11O12/c1-25-27-28-40(15)52(75)51-56(79)65-43(26-2)58(81)67(18)33-48(74)68(19)44(29-34(3)4)55(78)66-49(38(11)12 ...
p. C1. An Australian murder case that was reported to have been decided on the basis of the so-called XYY syndrome actually was ... Erring in the other direction, however, is the XYY complement resulting in the "supermale." He is also unusually tall and ... Court Brown; W. Michael (December 1968). "Males with an XYY sex chromosome complement". J Med Genet. 5 (4): 341-59. doi:10.1136 ... the sex chromosome complement is XXY rather than XY, thus erring in the direction of femaleness. The resulting individual, ...
C1-inhibitor (which protects the body from excessive protease-triggered activation of its own complement system), antithrombin ... Here, it is released by mast cells and causes activation of complement and kinins.[5] This group includes the calpains. ... the complement system, apoptosis pathways, and the invertebrate prophenoloxidase-activating cascade). Proteases can either ...
Send 8-bit C1 Control Character to the Host Defined in ECMA-35.[19]:15.2 Makes the function keys send C1 codes.[20]. ... The change was designed to complement the Windows Subsystem for Linux, adding to the Windows Console Host used by Command ... C1 set element) ANSI escape sequences (not an exhaustive list) Sequence C1 Short Name Effect ... which would form C1 codes.[clarification needed]. *Konsole generates SS3 modifiers char. when F1-F4 are pressed with modifiers. ...
C1) of human complement. The data indicated that the increased rate of cleavage of C2 by C1 in the presence of C4 was due to ... The First Component of Human Complement (C1): Kinetics of Reaction with its Natural Substrates. Robert Strunk and Harvey R. ... The First Component of Human Complement (C1): Kinetics of Reaction with its Natural Substrates ... The First Component of Human Complement (C1): Kinetics of Reaction with its Natural Substrates ...
LabCorp test details for Complement C1 Esterase Inhibitor, Functional ... C1-inhibitor deficiency and angioedema. In Whaley K, ed. Complement in Health and Disease. MTP Press Limited; 1979:53. ... C1 Esterase Inhibitor, Func. 48494-9. 120221. C1 Est.Inhib.Funct.. %mean normal. 48494-9. ... and C1r subcomponent of the first component of complement by serum C1 esterase inhibitor. J Exp Med. 1969; 129(2):315-331. ...
Complement C1 esterase inhibitor is a man-made form of a protein in blood that helps control swelling in the body. People with ... What is complement C1 esterase inhibitor?. Complement C1 esterase inhibitor is a man-made form of a protein in blood that helps ... Complement C1 esterase inhibitor is used in people with hereditary angioedema. Berinert is used to treat attacks of angioedema ... What are the possible side effects of complement C1 esterase inhibitor?. Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an ...
Complement C1 Inactivator Proteins [D12.776.124.486.274.920.250]. *Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein [D12.776.124.486.274.920. ... "Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein" ... "Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... including the COMPLEMENT C1R and the COMPLEMENT C1S proteases of the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY, and the MANNOSE-BINDING ...
E-LDL is recognised by the C1q subunit of C1 and triggers direct C1 activation, suggesting that complement activation by E-LDL ... Final Report Summary - COMPLEMENT AND LDL (Complement and atherosclerosis: molecular mechanism of C1 activation by ... COMPLEMENT AND ATHEROSCLEROSIS: MOLECULAR MECHANISM OF C1 ACTIVATION BY ENZYMATICALLY MODIFIED LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. ... to activate C1, the complex that triggers activation of the classical pathway of complement. ...
Classical Pathway of Complement Activation: Longitudinal Associations of C1q and C1-INH With Cardiovascular Outcomes. The CODAM ... Classical Pathway of Complement Activation: Longitudinal Associations of C1q and C1-INH With Cardiovascular Outcomes ... Classical Pathway of Complement Activation: Longitudinal Associations of C1q and C1-INH With Cardiovascular Outcomes ... Classical Pathway of Complement Activation: Longitudinal Associations of C1q and C1-INH With Cardiovascular Outcomes ...
Deposition of purified C1. Bacteria were incubated with purified C1 (a and d), purified C1 with purified IgG (b and e), or heat ... C1 binding was investigated further. Incubation of B. pertussis with purified C1 alone, purified C1 with purified IgG, or heat- ... preventing complement function or recruiting a complement-inhibitory protein. BrkA could prevent complement function by acting ... BrkA Protein of Bordetella pertussisInhibits the Classical Pathway of Complement after C1 Deposition. Michael G. Barnes, Alison ...
Complement Factor H antibody LS-C707907 is an HRP-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to rat Complement Factor H (CFH). ... About CFH / Complement Factor H. CFH / Complement Factor H is a member of the Regulator of Complement Activation (RCA) gene ... Complement Factor H antibody LS-C707907 is an HRP-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to rat Complement Factor H (CFH). ... Complement Factor H antibody LS-C707907 is an HRP-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to rat Complement Factor H (CFH). ...
Complement Factor H antibody LS-C698886 is a Cy3-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to rat Complement Factor H (CFH). ... About CFH / Complement Factor H. CFH / Complement Factor H is a member of the Regulator of Complement Activation (RCA) gene ... Complement Factor H antibody LS-C698886 is a Cy3-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to rat Complement Factor H (CFH). ... Complement Factor H antibody LS-C698886 is a Cy3-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to rat Complement Factor H (CFH). ...
The structure and enzymic activities of the C1r and C1s subcomponents of C1, the first component of human serum complement. R B ... The structure and enzymic activities of the C1r and C1s subcomponents of C1, the first component of human serum complement ... The structure and enzymic activities of the C1r and C1s subcomponents of C1, the first component of human serum complement ... The structure and enzymic activities of the C1r and C1s subcomponents of C1, the first component of human serum complement ...
The catalytic chain of human complement subcomponent C1̅. Purification and N-terminal amino acid sequences of the major ... The catalytic chain of human complement subcomponent C1̅. Purification and N-terminal amino acid sequences of the major ... The catalytic chain of human complement subcomponent C1̅. Purification and N-terminal amino acid sequences of the major ... The catalytic chain of human complement subcomponent C1̅. Purification and N-terminal amino acid sequences of the major ...
Peptide inhibitor of complement C1 modulates acute intravascular hemolysis of mismatched red blood cells in rats. Transfusion. ... Peptide inhibitor of complement C1 modulates acute intravascular hemolysis of mismatched red blood cells in rats. / Kumar, ... Peptide inhibitor of complement C1 modulates acute intravascular hemolysis of mismatched red blood cells in rats. ... The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of the classical pathway inhibitor peptide inhibitor of complement C1 ( ...
... complement protein in the pathway, C1, must interact with a bound immunoglobulin. Specifically, C1 interacts with the tail of ... Once bound to the antibody, C1 is cleaved, a process that activates… ... Other articles where C1 is discussed: immune system: Activation of the complement system: … ... complement protein in the pathway, C1, must interact with a bound immunoglobulin. Specifically, C1 interacts with the tail of ...
C1-inhibitor) -- a serine protease inhibitor (serpin) protein, the main function of which is the inhibition of the complement ... Home » Index » C » Complement c1 inactivator proteins (C1-inhibitor) C1-inhibitor. also called Complement c1 inactivator ... This way, C1-inh prevents the proteolytic cleavage of later complement components C4 and C2 by C1 and MBL. created by factobot ... irreversibly binds to and inactivates C1r and C1s proteinases in the C1 complex of classical pathway of complement. created by ...
Complement, Immunity, Disease, Morbidity, Risk, Mortality, and Treatment ... Human complement regulators C4b-binding protein and C1 esterase inhibitor interact with a novel outer surface protein of ... Mechanisms of complement activation and effects of C1-inhibitor on the meconium-induced inflammatory reaction in human cord ... Human pasteurized C1-inhibitor concentrate for the treatment of hereditary angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency. Abstract ...
C1-inhibitor plays the role of inactivating C1r and C1s to prevent further downstream classical complement activity. C1- ... Alternative complement pathway - another complement system pathway Lectin pathway - another complement system pathway Noris, ... Obesity in turn results in an abnormally high level of complement activation via production of the C1 component of the ... Lack of regulation of the classical complement pathway through the deficiency in C1-inhibitor results in episodic angioedema. ...
Entry Terms : "C1 Inhibitor (Complement Component) Determination Reagents" , "Alpha-2-Globulin (C1 Protein Inhibitor) ... IVD Test Reagent/Kits, Immunoassay, Protein, Complement Component, C1 Inhibitor. Definition : Immunoassay reagents intended to ... Home > Specialties > IVD Test Reagent/Kits, Immunoassay, Protein, Complement Component, C1 Inhibitor ... an esterase inhibitor of the C1 protein found in the classic pathway of the complement components proteins. The absence of this ...
c1 functions as an electron donor to cytochrome c. ... complex III or cytochrome b-c1 complex), which is a respiratory ... complements,/strong> the information provided at the sequence level or describes modifications for which ,strong>position- ... The main subunits of complex b-c1 are: cytochrome b, cytochrome c1 and the Rieske protein. ... c1 functions as an electron donor to cytochrome c.. Caution. The sequence reported in PubMed:3004982 was thought to originate ...
Activation of first component of complement (C1) in guinea pig serum by a polysaccharide is prevented by C1 inhibitor. Journal ... Activation of first component of complement (C1) in guinea pig serum by a polysaccharide is prevented by C1 inhibitor. / ... title = "Activation of first component of complement (C1) in guinea pig serum by a polysaccharide is prevented by C1 inhibitor ... T1 - Activation of first component of complement (C1) in guinea pig serum by a polysaccharide is prevented by C1 inhibitor ...
Indeed, it now seems clear that complement first evolved as part of the innate immune system, where it still plays an important ... Although first discovered as an effector arm of the antibody response, complement can also be activated early in infection in ... This activity was said to complement the antibacterial activity of antibody, hence the name. ... Complement was discovered many years ago as a heat-labile component of normal plasma that augments the opsonization of bacteria ...
Complement component 1s (EC 3.4.21.42, C1 esterase, activated complement C1s, complement C overbar 1r, C1s) is a protein ... complement activation, lectin pathway. • complement activation. • regulation of complement activation. Sources:Amigo / QuickGO ... involved in the complement system. C1s is part of the C1 complex.[5][6][7][8] In humans, it is encoded by the C1S gene.[9] ... complement activation, classical pathway. • immune system process. • innate immune response. • ...
Media related to Complement membrane attack complex at Wikimedia Commons. *Complement+Membrane+Attack+Complex at the US ... The membrane attack complex (MAC) or terminal complement complex (TCC) is a structure typically formed on the surface of ... Reid K. B. M., The complement system, in: B. D. Hames and D. M. Glover (eds.), Molecular Immunology, Oxford: IRL Press, 1988, ... MAC is composed of a complex of four complement proteins (C5b, C6, C7, and C8) that bind to the outer surface of the plasma ...
Post a Comment for Activation and modulation of the first complement component, C1 ... Add tags for Activation and modulation of the first complement component, C1 ... It is speculated that the lower complement consuming activities of peptides 92 and 88 are due to the replacement of the ... Under these conditions, peptides 98 and 102 caused complement-mediated hemo~sis, while none of the other peptides tested were ...
Broad Susceptibility of Nucleolar Proteins and Autoantigens to Complement C1 Protease Degradation.. Cai Y1, Wee SYK1, Chen J1, ... After C1 treatment, cleaved nucleolar proteins were identified by proteomic two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel ... However, C1q targets at these nucleoli to cause C1 protease activation and the cleavage of many nucleolar proteins or ... The extent of nucleolar autoantigen degradation upon C1 treatment was estimated using SLE patient autoantibodies. The isolated ...
Complement C1s. Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein. Complement C1 Inactivator Proteins. Immunologic Factors. Physiological Effects ... Complement C4 Serum Levels [ Time Frame: Pre-infusion to 1 hour post-infusion ]. Change in complement C4 serum levels from pre- ... Nanofiltered C1-esterase inhibitor for the acute management and prevention of hereditary angioedema attacks due to C1-inhibitor ... Open-Label C1 Esterase Inhibitor (C1INH-nf) for the Treatment of Acute Hereditary Angioedema (HAE) Attacks (CHANGE 2). The ...
In this analysis, it is usually a reduced complement factor C4, rather than the C1-INH deficiency itself, that is detected. The ... Acute treatment consists of C1-INH (C1-esterase inhibitor) concentrate from donor blood, which must be administered ... especially depletion of complement factors 2 and 4, may indicate deficiency of C1-inhibitor. HAE type III is a diagnosis of ... C1-esterase (aka: C1-inhibitor or C1INH), and continuous production of kallikrein, another process inhibited by C1INH. This ...
Although the complement system-a vital part of the bodys defense against bacteria-was discovered more than a century ago, its ... C1-Inhibitor: Antigenic and Functional Analysis C. Erik Hack. Pages 159-172 ... Measurement of Complement Hemolytic Activity, Generation of Complement-Depleted Sera, and Production of Hemolytic Intermediates ... Although the complement system-a vital part of the bodys defense against bacteria-was discovered more than a century ago, its ...
Activation of the first complement component (C1) by salivary bacterial agglutinins (SBA) ... Post a Comment for Activation of the first complement component (C1) by salivary bacterial agglutinins (SBA) ... Add tags for Activation of the first complement component (C1) by salivary bacterial agglutinins (SBA) ... Activation of the first complement component (C1) by salivary bacterial agglutinins (SBA). ...
Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein. Complement Inactivating Agents. Immunosuppressive Agents. Immunologic Factors. Physiological ... The changes in the manufacturing process of C1-esteraseremmer-N, compared to Cetor® (the currently marketed C1-inhibitor ... The changes in the manufacturing process of C1-esteraseremmer-N, compared to Cetor® (the currently marketed C1-inhibitor ... Established diagnosis of hereditary angioedema type I: i.e. markedly decreased C1 inhibitor activity, decreased level of C1 ...
  • Deposition of complement proteins on the bacteria was monitored by Western blotting. (asm.org)
  • The complement system is a series of proteins that act in a defined sequence (Fig. 1 ) to promote immune clearance by opsonizing or killing microorganisms and augmenting the inflammatory response. (asm.org)
  • The nonactivated complement proteins are indicated above and to the right of the wide arrows, and the arrows pointing from them show the product that is released during activation. (asm.org)
  • To elucidate the molecular basis for complement resistance by BrkA, in this study we have attempted to determine which step in the complement cascade is affected by BrkA by monitoring the deposition of complement proteins on the surface of strains either expressing or not expressing BrkA. (asm.org)
  • The classical complement pathway can also be activated by apoptotic cells, necrotic cells, and acute phase proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • plasma is possible) to detect and/or measure levels of alpha-2-globulin, an esterase inhibitor of the C1 protein found in the classic pathway of the complement components proteins. (optometricmanagement.com)
  • The complement system is made up of a large number of distinct plasma proteins that react with one another to opsonize pathogens and induce a series of inflammatory responses that help to fight infection. (nih.gov)
  • A number of complement proteins are proteases that are themselves activated by proteolytic cleavage. (nih.gov)
  • In this way, the activation of a small number of complement proteins at the start of the pathway is hugely amplified by each successive enzymatic reaction, resulting in the rapid generation of a disproportionately large complement response. (nih.gov)
  • First, it generates large numbers of activated complement proteins that bind covalently to pathogens, opsonizing them for engulfment by phagocytes bearing receptors for complement. (nih.gov)
  • Second, the small fragments of some complement proteins act as chemoattractants to recruit more phagocytes to the site of complement activation, and also to activate these phagocytes. (nih.gov)
  • The membrane attack complex ( MAC ) or terminal complement complex ( TCC ) is a structure typically formed on the surface of pathogen cell membranes as a result of the activation of the host's complement system , and as such is one of the effector proteins of the immune system . (wikipedia.org)
  • MAC is composed of a complex of four complement proteins (C5b, C6, C7, and C8) that bind to the outer surface of the plasma membrane , and many copies of a fifth protein (C9) that hook up to one another, forming a ring in the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Broad Susceptibility of Nucleolar Proteins and Autoantigens to Complement C1 Protease Degradation. (cdc.gov)
  • Considering a recent finding that, in dead cells, nucleoli were targeted by C1q and two nucleolar autoantigens were degraded by C1r/C1s proteases, we considered that C1 could help protect against antinuclear autoimmunity by broadly degrading nucleolar proteins or autoantigens. (cdc.gov)
  • After C1 treatment, cleaved nucleolar proteins were identified by proteomic two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, and further verified by Western blotting using specific Abs. (cdc.gov)
  • 20 nucleolar proteins were identified as C1 cleavable. (cdc.gov)
  • However, C1q targets at these nucleoli to cause C1 protease activation and the cleavage of many nucleolar proteins or autoantigens. (cdc.gov)
  • The complement system is a group of nearly 60 proteins in blood plasma or on the surface of some cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The complement proteins work with your immune system to protect the body from infections. (medlineplus.gov)
  • There are nine major complement proteins. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Rarely, people may inherit deficiency of some complement proteins. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The complement system as understood today is a multimolecular system composed of more than 32 proteins and consisting of serum proteins, serosal proteins, and cell membrane receptors that bind to complement fragments. (medscape.com)
  • The complement system consists of 7 serum and 9 membrane regulatory proteins, 1 serosal regulatory protein, and 8 cell membrane receptors that bind complement fragments. (medscape.com)
  • Hereditary deficiency in one of the complement proteins will usually lead to a high frequency of recurrent microbial infections. (labcorp.com)
  • Complement protein levels are usually increased, along with other unrelated proteins called acute phase reactants, during acute or chronic inflammation. (labcorp.com)
  • When the complement system is turned on during inflammation, levels of complement proteins may go down. (medlineplus.gov)
  • For example, people with active lupus erythematosus may have lower-than-normal levels of the complement proteins C3 and C4 . (medlineplus.gov)
  • The cascade activates the complement proteins. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Objectives: To determine serum concentrations of proinflammatory (C reactive protein, complement C3 and C4) and anti-inflammatory (α1 antitrypsin, C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH)) acute phase proteins in elite cyclists before and during a three week cycle tour. (edu.au)
  • abstract = "Objectives: To determine serum concentrations of proinflammatory (C reactive protein, complement C3 and C4) and anti-inflammatory (α1 antitrypsin, C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH)) acute phase proteins in elite cyclists before and during a three week cycle tour.Methods: Seventeen professional cyclists participating in the Vuelta a Espańa volunteered for the study. (edu.au)
  • The inflammatory mediators, cytokines and complement proteins are believed to regulate the sequential events during the development. (elsevier.com)
  • In the present study, expression of complement proteins (C1 inhibitor, factor H, factor B, C4) by cultured endothelial cells obtained from human brain microvessels has been characterized. (elsevier.com)
  • Serine proteases, plasmin and miniplasmin induce the expression of C4, decrease the level of ELISA detectable C1 inhibitor, and do not affect the production of factors H and B. These data indicate that complement proteins are expressed locally by the brain microvessels, and may modulate the inflammatory responses of brain tissue. (elsevier.com)
  • Complement is the term used to describe a group of serum proteins that are critically important in our defense against infection. (primaryimmune.org)
  • The complement system consists of more than 30 proteins, present in blood and tissues, as well as other proteins anchored on the surfaces of cells. (primaryimmune.org)
  • Complement proteins in the circulation are not activated until triggered by an encounter with a bacterial cell, a virus, an immune complex, damaged tissue or other substance not usually present in the body. (primaryimmune.org)
  • Several studies indicate that complement proteins exert functions that are either more complex than previously thought, or go well beyond the innate immune character of the system. (springer.com)
  • The complement consists of at least 35 or more plasma proteins and cell surface receptors/regulators, which can be activated by three pathways: classical (CP), lectin (LP), and alternative (AP). (frontiersin.org)
  • During inflammation, vascular permeability is increased by various proteolytic events, such as the generation of bradykinin, that augment local tissue responses by enabling tissue penetration of serum proteins, including complement and acute-phase proteins. (sciencemag.org)
  • Of the proteins identified in normal skin, about half were cleaved, and phorbol ester-induced inflammation increased the proportion of cleaved proteins, including chemokines and complement proteins, that were processed at previously uncharacterized sites. (sciencemag.org)
  • Complement comprises 25 to 30 discrete proteins, labeled numerically as C1 to C9, and by letters, i.e. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The complement system consists of a number of small proteins found in the blood, normally circulating as inactive zymogens . (wikidoc.org)
  • Over 20 proteins and protein fragments make up the complement system, including serum proteins, serosal proteins, and cell membrane receptors. (wikidoc.org)
  • Kirjavainen V, Jarva H, Biedzka Sarek M, Blom A, Skurnik M, Meri S. Yersinia enterocolitica serum resistance proteins YadA and ail bind the complement regulator C4b-binding protein. (labome.org)
  • At the cell surface is thought to act as an endothelial receptor for plasma proteins of the complement and kallikrein-kinin cascades. (uniprot.org)
  • These include targeting the recognition molecules for the avoidance of detection, targeting key enzymes and complexes of the complement pathways like C3 convertases and C5b-9 formation - either by encoding complement regulators or by recruiting membrane-bound and soluble host complement regulators, cleaving complement proteins by encoding protease, and inhibiting the synthesis of complement proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • Antibody-mediated rejection is a major cause of kidney transplant failure and is often associated with activation of complement, a set of proteins that work with antibodies and play a role in the development of inflammation and tissue damage. (bio-medicine.org)
  • These proteins are part of your complement system, an important part of your immune system that helps kill disease-causing bacteria and viruses. (rochester.edu)
  • The complement system consists of a number of small proteins found in the blood, in general synthesized by the liver , and normally circulating as inactive precursors ( pro-proteins ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of the proteins and glycoproteins that constitute the complement system are synthesized by hepatocytes . (wikipedia.org)
  • The complement system is a group of proteins that move freely through your bloodstream. (stlukes-stl.com)
  • Complement C1 esterase inhibitor is a man-made form of a protein in blood that helps control swelling in the body. (wellspan.org)
  • Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • Bordetella pertussis produces a 73-kDa protein, BrkA (Bordetella resistance to killing), which inhibits the bactericidal activity of complement. (asm.org)
  • For example, the mannose binding protein is a pattern recognition molecule with structural similarity to C1 that bridges the classical and alternative pathways ( 18 ). (asm.org)
  • Mannose binding protein activates the classical pathway by binding to mannose residues on microbial surfaces and activating C4 in a manner similar to that for C1. (asm.org)
  • CFH / Complement Factor H is a member of the Regulator of Complement Activation (RCA) gene cluster and encodes a protein with twenty short consensus repeat (SCR) domains. (lsbio.com)
  • This protein is secreted into the bloodstream and has an essential role in the regulation of complement activation, restricting this innate defense mechanism to microbial infections. (lsbio.com)
  • complement protein in the pathway, C1 , must interact with a bound immunoglobulin. (britannica.com)
  • The classical complement pathway can be initiated by the binding of antigen-antibody complexes to the C1q protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The classical pathway can be initiated by the binding of C1q, the first protein in the complement cascade, directly to the pathogen surface. (nih.gov)
  • Complement component 1s ( EC 3.4.21.42 , C1 esterase , activated complement C1s , complement C overbar 1r , C1s ) is a protein involved in the complement system . (wikipedia.org)
  • The membrane attack complex is initiated when the complement protein C5 convertase cleaves C5 into C5a and C5b. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another complement protein, C6 , binds to C5b. (wikipedia.org)
  • C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) is a protein found in the fluid part of your blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It controls a protein called C1, which is part of the complement system. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The effect of 15 U C1-INH (intravenously) was evaluated in terms of general and focal neurologic deficits, ischemic volume, neutral red staining (to identify the brain areas subject to ischemic damage), and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity (to show astrocytic response). (gwu.edu)
  • This regulatory protein is a fluid phase serine protease that controls proenzyme activation and enzyme activity of not only the complement system but also the contact system. (uu.nl)
  • Complement C3 is a blood test that measures the activity of a certain protein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This protein is part of the complement system. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This fragment contains the C-terminal serine protease (SP) domain and the preceding two complement control protein (CCP) modules. (elsevier.com)
  • Patients with complement deficiencies encounter clinical problems that depend on the role of the specific complement protein in normal function. (primaryimmune.org)
  • Complement research is now faced with the challenge of trying to integrate isolated biochemical pathways into complex gene and protein regulatory circuits. (springer.com)
  • This volume represents a collection of topics on the "novel" functions of complement, patho-physiology, protein structures, design of complement inhibitors, and complement assays discussed during the conference. (springer.com)
  • The hublike organization of complement and its cell surface-directed action ( Fig. 1 ), involving some 50 constituents such as pattern-recognition molecules (PRM), protein components, proteases, regulators, and cell surface receptors, is essential for adjusting the complement response to different triggers ( Fig. 2A ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The occurrence of soluble immune complexes (IC) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 14 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, four acute polyradiculoneuritis patients, 30 patients with other neurological diseases (OND) and 30 patients with disc prolapse (DP) was examined by a solid phase C1q-protein A binding assay (C1q-PABA) and a complement consumption test. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Different initiators activate each pathway but all converge to complement protein C3 and are followed by a common cascade (C5-9), resulting in the deposition of a membrane-attack-complex on targets and the release of chemoattractants (C3a and C5a) for inflammatory cells. (hindawi.com)
  • This pathway is triggered by C1, a multimolecular complex composed of the recognition protein C1q and two serine proteases, C1r and C1s. (novusbio.com)
  • A complement protein attacking an invader. (wikidoc.org)
  • Complement receptor type 1 ( CR1 ) also known as C3b/C4b receptor or CD35 (cluster of differentiation 35) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CR1 gene . (wikidoc.org)
  • The protein mediates cellular binding to particles and immune complexes that have activated complement. (wikidoc.org)
  • In 5'-3' order the genes in this region are: membrane cofactor protein - CR1 - complement receptor type 2 - decay-accelerating factor - C4-binding protein. (wikidoc.org)
  • Meri T, Blom A, Hartmann A, Lenk D, Meri S, Zipfel P. The hyphal and yeast forms of Candida albicans bind the complement regulator C4b-binding protein. (labome.org)
  • There is wide variation of infections associated with complement deficiency depending on which complement protein and activation pathway is affected(Skattum et al 2011). (pediatriconcall.com)
  • Here we present evidence indicating that antibodies able to enhance infectivity of authentic Ebola Zaire virus are produced in humans and propose a novel mechanism for this antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) in which the complement protein C1q mediates the enhancement. (asm.org)
  • C1-INH is a human protein and an important inhibitor of the complement system. (bio-medicine.org)
  • 15 Type I angioedema is caused by low serum concentrations of C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) and represents 85% of cases, while type II is caused by normal or elevated concentrations of dysfunctional C1-INH protein in 15% of cases. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Complement component 4 is a blood test that measures the activity of a certain protein that is part of the complement system. (stlukes-stl.com)
  • The MicroVue C1 Inhibitor Plus Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA) measures functional levels of C1 Inhibitor protein present in human plasma or serum. (quidel.com)
  • Acquired C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency and angioedema: A review. (labcorp.com)
  • C1-inhibitor deficiency and angioedema. (labcorp.com)
  • Complement C1 esterase inhibitor is used in people with hereditary angioedema. (wellspan.org)
  • The Effectiveness and Value of Lanadelumab and C1 Esterase Inhibitors for Prophylaxis of Hereditary Angioedema Attacks. (harvard.edu)
  • Lack of regulation of the classical complement pathway through the deficiency in C1-inhibitor results in episodic angioedema. (wikipedia.org)
  • C1-inhibitor defiency can be hereditary or acquired, resulting in hereditary or acquired angioedema. (wikipedia.org)
  • HAE type III is a diagnosis of exclusion consisting of observed angioedema along with normal C1 levels and function. (wikipedia.org)
  • A multicentre study to investigate pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy and safety of nanofiltered Cetor® (called C1-esteraseremmer-N during the development phase) for the treatment of hereditary angioedema (HAE) will be performed. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This study KB2003.01 consists of three parts, part A pharmacokinetics (phase II), part B treatment of attacks of angioedema (phase III) and part C prophylactic use of C1 inhibitor (phase III). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In part A, the pharmacokinetics of C1-esteraseremmer-N in patients with hereditary angioedema will be compared with the current registered product, Cetor®, in a randomised, blinded cross-over design. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Both forms of angioedema are caused by low levels of C1-INH. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Low levels of C1-INH may cause certain types of angioedema. (medlineplus.gov)
  • There are two types of angioedema that result from decreased levels of C1-INH. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Diagnosis, course, and management of angioedema in patients with acquired C1-inhibitor deficiency. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 2. Gandhi PK, Gentry WM, Bottorff MB "Thrombotic events associated with C1 esterase inhibitor products in patients with hereditary angioedema: investigation from the United States Food and Drug Administration adverse event reporting system database. (drugs.com)
  • Hereditary angioedema is classified as a primary immunodeficiency of the complement system because it is characterized by the absence of C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) and by the periodic edema of any region of the body that involves soft tissue. (nih.gov)
  • Antecedentes: El angioedema hereditario se encuentra clasificado como una inmunodeficiencia primaria del sistema de complemento, debido a que se caracteriza por la ausencia de C1 inhibidor esterasa y por edema periódico de cualquier región del cuerpo que involucre tejido blando. (nih.gov)
  • Objetivo: Caracterizar a los pacientes adultos con diagnóstico de angioedema hereditario atendidos en el Servicio de Alergología Clínica del Hospital México de la Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social. (nih.gov)
  • Los datos fueron obtenidos de los expedientes clínicos de los pacientes con diagnóstico confirmado de angioedema hereditario que estaban en seguimiento en el Servicio de Alergología del Hospital México, Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social. (nih.gov)
  • C1 INH deficiency with prevalence of approximately 1 in 50 000 presents as hereditary angioedema. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • This agent increases levels of C4 component of complement and reduces attacks associated with angioedema. (medscape.com)
  • Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder associated with inherited (75%) or spontaneous (25%) mutations of the HAE C1-INH (hereditary angioedema C1 esterase inhibitor) gene located on chromosome 11q12-q13.1. (uspharmacist.com)
  • While functional anti-FceRIa and anti-lgE have the potential to play a role in histamine-mediated angioedema, C1 inhibitor (INH) deficiency or dysfunction, sometimes due to anti-C1 INH, plays a role in bradykinin (BK)-mediated angioedema. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Hereditary angioedema due to C1 inhibitor deficiency: Patient registry and approach to the prevalence in Spain. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Antigen-antibody complexes on the surface of a microorganism can activate the classical pathway of complement, a part of the acquired immune system (Fig. 1 ), by providing a binding site for C1. (asm.org)
  • Complement Factor H antibody LS-C707907 is an HRP-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to rat Complement Factor H (CFH). (lsbio.com)
  • We have recently developed a rat model of acute intravascular hemolysis showing that the classical complement pathway mediates antibody-dependent hemolysis. (elsevier.com)
  • Specifically, C1 interacts with the tail of the Y portion of the bound antibody molecule-i.e., the nonspecific part of the antibody that does not bind antigen. (britannica.com)
  • The classical complement pathway is initiated by antigen-antibody complexes with the antibody isotypes IgG and IgM. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain variants of the IgM antibody were found to bind the Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus these IgM were found to be critical in complement activation through the classical pathway and subsequent destruction of the bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • This activity was said to ' complement ' the antibacterial activity of antibody , hence the name. (nih.gov)
  • Although first discovered as an effector arm of the antibody response, complement can also be activated early in infection in the absence of antibodies. (nih.gov)
  • There are currently no images for Complement Component C1r Antibody (AF1807). (novusbio.com)
  • There are currently no images for Complement Factor H Antibody (NBP2-23542AF700). (novusbio.com)
  • If the serum contains antibody, i.e. is positive, an antibody-antigen complex is formed which also binds (fixes) complement. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • If antibody was not present in stage 1, then the free complement lyses the sensitized sheep red blood cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Complement and anticomplement antibody. (asm.org)
  • SAN FRANCISCO , July 30, 2014 /PRNewswire/ -- A study presented at the 2014 World Transplant Congress evaluated the safety and efficacy of CSL Behring's C1 Inhibitor (C1-INH) concentrate in preventing antibody-mediated rejection following kidney transplants in highly sensitized patients. (bio-medicine.org)
  • During the study period, no patient treated with C1-INH developed antibody-mediated rejection. (bio-medicine.org)
  • An antibody with an altered function, e.g. altered affinity for an effector ligand such as Fc receptor (FcR) on a cell or the C1 component of complement is produced by replacing at least one amino acid residue in the constant portion of the antibody with a different residue. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The classical complement pathway typically requires antigen-antibody complexes for activation (specific immune response), whereas the alternative pathway can be activated by spontaneous C3 hydrolysis, foreign material, pathogens, or damaged cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Absence of serum inhibitor of C1-esterase. (labcorp.com)
  • The inhibition of plasmin, plasma kallikrein, plasma permeability factor, and C1r subcomponent of the first component of complement by serum C1 esterase inhibitor. (labcorp.com)
  • Whereas treatment of E-LDL particles with human serum albumin reduced their free fatty acid content, both cholesterol and free fatty acids were decreased by methyl-beta cyclodextrin, both treatments resulting in a dose-dependent inhibition of the C1-activating ability of the particles. (europa.eu)
  • Although often overlooked as a defense of the respiratory tract, complement levels in this location are normally 10 to 20% of that found in serum and increase during inflammation ( 21 ). (asm.org)
  • causes the activation of the classical complement (C) pathway in normal human serum, but not in guinea pig serum. (elsevier.com)
  • To investigate why C was not activated in guinea pig serum, we partially purified guinea pig C1 in the presence of the protease inhibitor p-nitrophenyl, p'-guanidinobenzoate (NPGB). (elsevier.com)
  • The PS decreased the action of the C1 inhibitor for C1 in diluted guinea pig serum, and it also inhibited the activity of highly purified guinea pig C1 inhibitor for C1. (elsevier.com)
  • The activity of the human C1 inhibitor, either in diluted serum or highly purified, was not decreased by the PS. (elsevier.com)
  • These results show that the PS does not activate guinea pig C1 in serum because its action is blocked by the C1 inhibitor. (elsevier.com)
  • Schultz, DR & Arnold, PI 1981, ' Activation of first component of complement (C1) in guinea pig serum by a polysaccharide is prevented by C1 inhibitor ', Journal of Immunology , vol. 126, no. 4, pp. 1558-1561. (elsevier.com)
  • Arnold, P. I. / Activation of first component of complement (C1) in guinea pig serum by a polysaccharide is prevented by C1 inhibitor . (elsevier.com)
  • C3 complement (beta-1c-globulin) - serum. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In the first, also referred to as the test system, antigen is mixed usually with serial dilutions of a test serum in the presence of complement. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Synthetic attenuated androgens (eg, danazol, oxandrolone) taken prophylactically increase the serum concentration of C1 inhibitor (C1INH), presumably by enhancing the function of the C1INH gene ( SERPING1 ). (medscape.com)
  • Plasma or serum from convalescing patients enhanced the infection of primate kidney cells by the Zaire virus, and this enhancement was mediated by antibodies to the viral glycoprotein and by complement component C1q. (asm.org)
  • 293 and Vero E6 cells were grown in Dulbecco's minimal Eagle's medium complemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, l -glutamine, and antibiotics. (asm.org)
  • The MicroVue CH50 Eq EIA is designed to measure total hemolytic complement (CH50) in human serum samples. (quidel.com)
  • This is important for targeting the virus in its intracellular phase because the antibodies specific to the synthetic peptides can trigger the classical complement pathway and induce the death of HIV infected cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complement was discovered many years ago as a heat-labile component of normal plasma that augments the opsonization of bacteria by antibodies and allows antibodies to kill some bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • Researchers in the Sharp lab solved the structures of IgM antibodies with multiple components of the immune complement system, revealing insights into immune system activation. (lumc.nl)
  • IgM antibodies protect us against infections and mediate clearance of cellular debris by activating the immune complement system upon binding to cell-surface antigens. (lumc.nl)
  • were able to image activation of the immune system complement cascade by IgM antibodies. (lumc.nl)
  • In the early 20th century, this controversy was resolved when it was understood that complement can act in combination with specific antibodies, or on its own in a non-specific way. (wikidoc.org)
  • The classical complement pathway typically requires antibodies for activation (specific immune response), while the alternative and mannose-binding lectin pathways can be activated by C3 hydrolysis or antigens without the presence of antibodies (non-specific immune response). (wikidoc.org)
  • The classical pathway is triggered by activation of the C1-complex (which consists of one molecule C1q and two molecules C1r and C1s), either by C1q's binding to antibodies from classes M and G, complexed with antigens , or by its binding C1q to the surface of the pathogen. (wikidoc.org)
  • Monitoring patients with the C1q assay, which detects antibodies that fix complement, offers a minimally invasive means of identifying patients at risk for transplant glomerulopathy and graft loss. (labome.org)
  • 05). The results of our study suggest that anti-beta2GPI antibodies may play a role in GMT formation, and this process might involve complement activation. (labome.org)
  • The complement system is a part of the immune system that enhances (complements) the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear microbes and damaged cells from an organism, promotes inflammation, and attacks the pathogen's cell membrane . (wikipedia.org)
  • The complement system can be recruited and brought into action by antibodies generated by the adaptive immune system . (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study we characterized the step in the complement cascade where BrkA acts, using three strains: a wild-type strain, a strain containing an insertional disruption of brkA , and a strain containing two copies of the brkA locus. (asm.org)
  • The complement cascade. (asm.org)
  • The classical pathway is distinct from the other complement pathways in its unique activation triggers and cascade sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation of the complement pathway through the classical, lectin or alternative complement pathway is followed by a cascade of reactions eventually leading to the membrane attack complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The complement system activates through a triggered-enzyme cascade. (nih.gov)
  • In such a cascade, an active complement enzyme generated by cleavage of its zymogen precursor then cleaves its substrate, another complement zymogen, to its active enzymatic form. (nih.gov)
  • Schematic overview of the complement cascade. (nih.gov)
  • In the early phases of an infection, the complement cascade can be activated on the surface of a pathogen through any one, or more, of the three pathways shown in Fig. 2.8 . (nih.gov)
  • The complement system functions as an interactive sequence, with one reaction leading to another in the form of a cascade. (medscape.com)
  • C1s then enzymatically cleaves C4 to form C4b (cyan) and initiate the complement cascade. (lumc.nl)
  • The complement cascade is a series of reactions that take place in the blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The Classical Complement Cascade Mediates CNS Synapse Elimination. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Basic and clinical studies suggest that activation of complements in the common cascade, for example, complement component 3 (C3) and C5, is involved in the development of septic shock. (hindawi.com)
  • The complement system is a biochemical cascade which helps clear pathogens from an organism. (wikidoc.org)
  • It has been shown that CR1 can act as a negative regulator of the complement cascade, mediate immune adherence and phagocytosis and inhibit both the classic and alternative pathways. (wikidoc.org)
  • Plasma is the fluid compartment of blood containing many components essential to the complement cascade (ie, C1 esterase inhibitor). (medscape.com)
  • The end result of this complement activation or complement fixation cascade is stimulation of phagocytes to clear foreign and damaged material, inflammation to attract additional phagocytes, and activation of the cell-killing membrane attack complex . (wikipedia.org)
  • 11 C4 is the factor activated by C1 esterase during classic pathway activation of the complement cascade. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Immunofluorescence studies on the subcomponents of the first component of complement (C1): detection of C1q and C1s in different cells of biopsy material and on human as well as on guinea pig peritoneal macrophages. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Ehrlich believed that each antigen-specific amboceptor had its own specific complement, while Bordet believed that there is only one type of complement. (wikidoc.org)
  • The version related to bradykinin may occur due to an inherited problem known as C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency, medications known as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, or a lymphoproliferative disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 52 year old woman with marginal zone lymphoma developed recurrent episodes of angio-oedema and was found to have C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Regression of acquired C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency associated with spontaneous partial remission of lymphoma has not been reported previously. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 1- 3 We report a case of acquired C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency in a patient with splenic marginal zone lymphoma who subsequently showed spontaneous regression. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Complement tests, most commonly C3 and C4, are used to determine whether deficiencies or abnormalities in the complement system are causing, or contributing to, a person's disease or condition. (labcorp.com)
  • Other complement components are ordered as needed to look for deficiencies. (labcorp.com)
  • C3 and C4 levels are the most frequently ordered, but others, such as C1 inhibitor, may be ordered when other deficiencies are suspected. (labcorp.com)
  • There are deficiencies of each of the individual components of complement. (primaryimmune.org)
  • Some complement deficiencies caries risk of infection, other mainly associated with autoimmune diseases. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • Some genetic and molecular defects has been identified to be associated complement deficiencies. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • Complement deficiencies and associated genetic disorders and clinical manifestations is summarized in Table 1. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • Table 1 - Complement deficiencies and clinical associations. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • The measurement of CH50 allows detection of deficiencies of one or more complement. (quidel.com)
  • In the classical pathway (CP), this is mainly mediated by binding of the C1 complex, consisting of the PRM C1q and the proteases C1r and C1s, to Ig patches on the pathogen. (jimmunol.org)
  • C1r is a modular serine protease which is the autoactivating component of the C1 complex of the classical pathway of the complement system. (elsevier.com)
  • C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-inh) is a serine protease inhibitor (SERPIN) that acts by forming a complex with active enzymes to trap and inactivate them. (primaryimmune.org)
  • HAE is caused by excessive bradykinin and neurokinin due to a deficient or defective serine protease inhibitor, plasma-derived C1 esterase inhibitor (pdC1-INH). (uspharmacist.com)
  • The changes in the manufacturing process of C1-esteraseremmer-N, compared to Cetor® (the currently marketed C1-inhibitor product), nanofiltration and omission of hepatitis B immunoglobulin, most likely will not affect tolerability. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Interestingly, B. pertussis does not activate the alternative pathway of complement ( 7 ). (asm.org)
  • Finally, the alternative pathway can be initiated when a spontaneously activated complement component binds to the surface of a pathogen. (nih.gov)
  • Depending on the nature of complement activators, the classic pathway, the alternative pathway, or the more recently discovered lectin pathway is activated predominantly to produce C3 convertase. (medscape.com)
  • The Alternative Pathway (AP) is initiated by fragments of the complement component C3. (primaryimmune.org)
  • This in turn cleaves and activates the next zymogen in the complement pathway. (nih.gov)
  • The results indicate a surface trigger that activates complement and contributes to differentiating between silent removal of targeted host cells versus raising inflammatory responses to invading microbes. (lumc.nl)
  • Following the C1q recognition, C1r is autoactivated, and in turn activates C1s, which cleaves C4 and C2, the C1 substrates (1). (novusbio.com)
  • Structures of C1-IgG1 provide insights into how danger pattern recognition activates complement. (pdbj.org)
  • We determined the associations of the pattern recognition factor C1q and the regulator C1-INH with incident CVD, carotid intima-media thickness, endothelial dysfunction, and low-grade inflammation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Obesity in turn results in an abnormally high level of complement activation via production of the C1 component of the classical pathway, which can lead to tissue inflammation and eventually insulin resistance, however the exact mechanisms that causes this is yet unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complement testing may be ordered when a person has unexplained inflammation or edema or symptoms of an autoimmune disorder such as SLE. (labcorp.com)
  • Mediators of inflammation: complement. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The specific aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of recombinant human C1-inhibitor (rhC1INH), as a kidney recipient intra- and post operative treatment strategy to decrease systemic inflammation and decrease the incidence of DGF from donation after cardiac death donors (DCD). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Does complement icreases after inflammation? (brainscape.com)
  • Complement has long been regarded as a pivotal effector arm of the innate immune response, eliciting important immunoregulatory functions in the context of inflammation and also serving as a vital link between the innate and adaptive immune response. (springer.com)
  • Vag8 is a complement evasion molecule that mediates its effects by binding to the complement regulator C1 inhibitor (C1-INH). (uu.nl)
  • A unique feature of the AP is the presence of the only positive regulator in the complement system, Properdin. (primaryimmune.org)
  • Expression of Complement Regulator Genes in Aβ1-42 Stimulated Human Neuroblastoma Cell. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • All three pathways of the complement system ( classical , lectin and alternative pathways) initiate the formation of MAC. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent investigations have shed light on the role of lectin complement pathway in septic shock. (hindawi.com)
  • There are three pathways in the complement system: classical, alternative, and lectin. (hindawi.com)
  • Three biochemical pathways activate the complement system: the classical complement pathway , the alternative complement pathway , and the mannose-binding lectin pathway . (wikidoc.org)
  • Third, the terminal complement components damage certain bacteria by creating pores in the bacterial membrane. (nih.gov)
  • These cutting-edge techniques are suitable both for the basic scientist interested in understanding complement's mechanisms of activation and for the clinical scientist wishing to quantify its activation, and range from the purification of its components to generating complement-deficient mice by gene deletion. (springer.com)
  • Individual complement components may be ordered when the total complement activity (CH50, sometimes called CH100) is abnormal to help determine which of the components are deficient or abnormal. (labcorp.com)
  • C3 and C4 are the most commonly measured complement components. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The model is concordant with the stability of the C1 complex during activation of the next complement components. (elsevier.com)
  • various complement components may be deficient without serious effects on the host. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Human complement components C1 and C1q (Sigma, St. Louis, Mo. (asm.org)
  • The study shows that post-transplant treatment with C1-INH results in significant increases in the levels of complement components 3 and 4, suggesting that C1-INH inhibits activation of the complement system following transplantation. (bio-medicine.org)
  • This test measures all nine components of the complement system, from C1 to C9. (rochester.edu)
  • If only your C4 complement level is low, and all other complement components are normal, it is usually because of an inherited component deficiency. (rochester.edu)
  • More often, you will have lowered levels of several complement components at once. (rochester.edu)
  • The catalytic chain of human complement subcomponent C1̅. (biochemj.org)
  • 1. The a- and b-chains of reduced and alkylated human complement subcomponent C1r were separated by high-pressure gel-permeation chromatography and isolated in good yield and in pure form. (biochemj.org)
  • This gene is a member of the regulators of complement activation (RCA) family and is located in the 'cluster RCA' region of chromosome 1. (wikidoc.org)
  • [3] In mice, CR1 is an alternatively spliced variant of the complement receptor 2 (CR2) gene. (wikidoc.org)
  • Low complement C4B gene copy number predicts short-term mortality after acute myocardial infarction. (labome.org)
  • complement levels, especially depletion of complement factors 2 and 4, may indicate deficiency of C1-inhibitor. (wikipedia.org)
  • One such factor is complement C1 esterase inhibitor or C1INH. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Complement, a complex system of enzymes and regulators endowed with multiple biological activities (opsonisation, chemoattraction of leukocytes, cell lysis, cell activation), is a major component of innate defence against pathogens. (europa.eu)
  • It is also emerging as an important factor in atherosclerosis: complement activation, and formation of the terminal C5b-9 membrane attack complex of complement were shown to occur in atherosclerotic lesions. (europa.eu)
  • Recently we have studied the ability of an enzymatically modified form of LDL (E-LDL), obtained by treatment with trypsin and then cholesterol esterase, to activate C1, the complex that triggers activation of the classical pathway of complement. (europa.eu)
  • In addition, the C5 convertase initiates the terminal phase of the complement system, leading to the assembly of the membrane attack complex (MAC). (wikipedia.org)
  • In the absence of these activation factors, C1q is part of the inactive C1 complex which consists of six molecules of C1q, two molecules of C1r, and two molecules of C1s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Component of the ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase complex (complex III or cytochrome b-c1 complex), which is a respiratory chain that generates an electrochemical potential coupled to ATP synthesis. (uniprot.org)
  • C1s is part of the C1 complex . (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the causes of these Abs remain broad and ill-defined, a genetic deficiency in C1 complex (C1qC1r 2 C1s 2 ) or C4 is able to induce these Abs. (cdc.gov)
  • It may also be ordered when a health practitioner suspects that someone may have an immune complex-related condition and wants to check the status of the person's complement system. (labcorp.com)
  • The Terminal Pathway (TP) is the final set of steps in the complement activation process that forms a membrane lesion or hole (membrane attack complex or MAC) that kills susceptible bacteria or other cells that activate complement on their surfaces. (primaryimmune.org)
  • A fluid phase form of the MAC, called the Terminal Complement Complex (TCC) can be found in the circulation after complement activation occurs and makes a useful laboratory marker for complement activation. (primaryimmune.org)
  • In the liquid phase, beta-FXIIa was detected after 2.5 seconds and, 12 seconds later, FXIIa and FXIa in complex with the C1 esterase inhibitor appeared. (nih.gov)
  • The complement system plays a major role in the host's defence against infections and in immune complex diseases. (indigo.ca)
  • This then acts similarly to C1 esterase and cleaves C2 and C4 to form C2aC4b, which is the C3 esterase that cleaves C3 to form C3b. (medscape.com)
  • Complement is responsible for immune inflammatory response in adipose tissues which has been implicated in the development of obesity. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is tenable that the increase in α1 antitrypsin and C1-INH (anti-inflammatory mediators) at T2 served to attenuate the acute phase/inflammatory response. (edu.au)
  • Complement works with the inflammatory cells of the innate immune system and those of adaptive or acquired immunity. (primaryimmune.org)
  • In recent years, the complement system has been associated with a growing number of immunological and inflammatory conditions that include degenerative diseases, cancer, and transplant rejection. (jimmunol.org)
  • It becomes evident that excessive activation or insufficient control of complement activation on host cells can cause an immune imbalance that may fuel a vicious cycle between complement, inflammatory cells, and tissue damage that exacerbates clinical complications. (jimmunol.org)
  • Although the exact involvement of complement needs to be carefully investigated for each disease, therapeutic modulation of complement activity emerges as an attractive target for upstream inhibition of inflammatory processes. (jimmunol.org)
  • This review provides an update about the functional and collaborative capabilities of complement, highlights major disease areas with known complement contribution, and indicates the potential for complement as a focal point in immunomodulatory strategies for treating inflammatory diseases. (jimmunol.org)
  • Given the classic perception of complement as defense system against microbial intruders, it may appear surprising that this ancient pillar of innate immunity was identified as a contributor in various inflammatory pathologies. (jimmunol.org)
  • In the worst case, a vicious cycle between tissue damage, complement activation, and immune attack perpetually re-creates inflammatory stimulators rather than resolving them. (jimmunol.org)
  • In view of this upstream position in inflammatory homeostasis, there is growing interest in understanding the role of complement in pathological processes and in exploiting complement targets for therapeutic modulation ( 3 , 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Fortunately, our knowledge about the functions of complement in health and disease has much improved, and new discoveries have revealed a fascinating cross-talk network that ties complement closely into the immune-inflammatory network ( 1 , 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The past decade revealed a new perception of complement that reaches beyond the elimination of pathogens and includes key functions in immune surveillance, homeostasis, and mediation of inflammatory responses ( 1 , 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of the classical pathway inhibitor peptide inhibitor of complement C1 (PIC1) in this animal model. (elsevier.com)
  • The authors investigated the effect of the C1 inhibitor (C1-INH), the only known inhibitor of complement C1, in a murine model of transient focal ischemia. (gwu.edu)
  • Complement and its receptors: new insights into human disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • For example, they use complement receptors as well as membrane regulators for cellular entry as well as their spread. (frontiersin.org)
  • The classical complement pathway is one of three pathways which activate the complement system, which is part of the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • There was a direct correlation between the concentration of the guinea pig C1 inhibitor and the loss of ability of the PS to activate C1 in mixtures of constant concentrations of purified guinea pig C1 and purified venom PS, and increasing concentrations of purified guinea pig C1 inhibitor. (elsevier.com)
  • These findings indicate that SBA which are known to bind to a variety of oral microorganisms are also able to bind and activate the first complement component . (musc.edu)
  • There are three ways in which the complement system protects against infection. (nih.gov)
  • The primary functions of the complement system are to protect from infection, to remove particulate substances, (like damaged or dying cells, microbes or immune complexes) and to help modulate adaptive immune responses. (primaryimmune.org)
  • In this context, the complement, as one of the first line of host defense against infection was shown to play an important role in recognizing T. cruzi metacyclic trypomastigotes and in controlling parasite invasion. (frontiersin.org)
  • An important step during T. cruzi infection is when intracellular trypomastigotes are release to bloodstream where they may be target by complement. (frontiersin.org)
  • While complement is an important defense system against bacterial infection, earlier clinical observations suggest that activation of complement factors is associated with detrimental effects in septic shock, such as multiorgan damages and poor outcome [ 5 - 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The classical complement pathway plays a major role in innate immunity against infection. (novusbio.com)
  • Your complement levels will often shoot up dramatically just after an infection or injury. (rochester.edu)
  • Complement is also part of the innate immune defenses and provides a defense against pathogens that have not previously infected the host by recognizing repeating structures such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) found on the surface of bacteria. (asm.org)
  • Complement resistance is common among respiratory pathogens. (asm.org)
  • Yet it has become evident that complement not only acts as a sensor of pathogens but also recognizes diseased and damaged host cells, and it closely collaborates with other immune and defense systems to eliminate potential danger ( 1 , 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Kupffer cells and other macrophage cell types help clear complement-coated pathogens. (wikidoc.org)
  • The complement system is primarily activated by the recognition of pathogens (or non-self) by the pattern recognition molecules of this system. (frontiersin.org)
  • Non-immunoglobulin agglutinins (500kd) which are found in a variety of mucosal secretions have been isolated from parotid saliva and examined for their interaction with the first complement component . (musc.edu)
  • Under these conditions , peptides 98 and 102 caused complement-mediated hemo~sis , while none of the other peptides tested were capable o~ inducing such lysis . (musc.edu)
  • Once activated, several relevant complement functions are generated which include opsonization and phagocytosis of particles or microorganisms and cell lysis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Nevertheless, the parasite uses a sequence of events in order to escape from complement-mediated lysis. (frontiersin.org)
  • the sequence of reactions, each being the catalyst for the next, that leads to the terminal complement pathway and cell lysis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cinryze (complement C1 esterase inhibitor). (drugs.com)
  • These reactions could have biological importance on inflamed mucosal surfaces by providing an effective means for complement activation and deposition on SBA coated microorganisms which might otherwise be resistant to the complement system . (musc.edu)
  • They have led complementologists to revisit established biological systems, such as the complement system, from a global and integrative perspective. (springer.com)
  • In this review, we aim to present an overview on the strategies used by T. cruzi in order to circumvent the activation of complement and, consequently, its biological effects. (frontiersin.org)
  • Many of the biological consequences of complement activation also await elucidation. (indigo.ca)
  • Complement C1 esterase inhibitor is made from donated human plasma and may contain viruses or other infectious agents. (wellspan.org)
  • Classical enzyme kinetic analyses were applied to define the mechanism of the effect of the fourth component (C4) on cleavage of the second component (C2) by the first component (C1) of human complement. (jimmunol.org)
  • Objective- The classical complement pathway has been assigned both protective and pathological effects in cardiovascular disease (CVD), but human data are lacking. (ahajournals.org)
  • Molecular cloning of cDNA for human complement component C1s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human complement component C1s. (wikipedia.org)
  • A series of Cl consumption , C2 destruction and C3 conversion tests were used to determine the most effective sequence for complement activation and to gain information about the functional nature of the interactions between the peptides and the human complement system . (musc.edu)
  • Comprehensive and cutting-edge, Complement Methods and Protocols offers today's basic and clinical investigators powerful tools for the analysis of the role of complement in human pathophysiology and disease, as well as its therapeutic regulation. (springer.com)
  • Human complement receptor type 1/CD35 is an Epstein-Barr Virus receptor. (nih.gov)
  • This document contains side effect information about C1 esterase inhibitor (human). (drugs.com)
  • Along with its needed effects, C1 esterase inhibitor (human) may cause some unwanted effects. (drugs.com)
  • Some side effects of C1 esterase inhibitor (human) may occur that usually do not need medical attention. (drugs.com)
  • Complement Component 1Q (C1Q) Upregulation in Retina of Murine, Primate, and Human Glaucomatous Eyes. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Detects human Complement Component C1r in direct ELISAs and Western blots. (novusbio.com)
  • In direct ELISAs, less than 1% cross-reactivity with recombinant human Complement Component C1s is observed. (novusbio.com)
  • Binding of C4bp could help Y. enterocolitica to evade complement-mediated clearance in the human host. (labome.org)
  • Recombinant fragment corresponding to Human hnRNP C1 + C2/HNRNPC aa 1-152. (abcam.com)
  • In those with bradykinin-related disease a C1 esterase inhibitor, ecallantide, or icatibant may be used. (wikipedia.org)
  • 14 Ultimately, C1-INH deficiency or dysfunction leads to excessive bradykinin and neurokinin production. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Both the classical and alternative pathways of complement activation are represented, although details are given only for the classical pathway. (asm.org)
  • We demonstrate that recombinant as well as endogenous Vag8 enhanced contact system activity by binding C1-INH and attenuating its inhibitory function. (uu.nl)
  • Ligation of complement receptor 1 increases erythrocyte membrane deformability. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, T. cruzi promotes secretion of plasma membrane-derived vesicles from host cells, which prevent the activity of C3 convertase C4b2a and thereby may hinder complement. (frontiersin.org)
  • A decrease in deposition on the bacteria of C4, C3, and C9 corresponded with decreased complement sensitivity. (asm.org)
  • Deposition of C1, however, was not affected by the presence of BrkA. (asm.org)
  • Decades of basic science and clinical research indicate that complement factors are involved in septic shock. (hindawi.com)
  • In primates, CR1 serves as the main system for processing and clearance of complement opsonized immune complexes . (wikidoc.org)
  • It would appear then that the area of IgG required for complement-mediated hemolysis of sensitized cells could be the region with a primary sequence similar to these peptides . (musc.edu)
  • Both antigenic and functional C1 inhibitor levels will be determined. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Your health care provider will also measure the functional activity level of your C1 esterase inhibitor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In addition, our findings support the hypothesis that there are separate enzymatic sites on the C1 molecule for its natural substrates. (jimmunol.org)
  • For example, Streptococcus pyogenes ( 1 , 14 ) and Haemophilus influenzae ( 20 ) possess complement resistance mechanisms. (asm.org)
  • As might be expected, there are many regulatory mechanisms to prevent uncontrolled complement activation. (nih.gov)
  • Merle NS, Church SE, Fremeaux-Bacchi V, Roumenina LT. Complement system part I - molecular mechanisms of activation and regulation. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This paper also discusses additional complement-related pathogenic mechanisms and intervention strategies for septic shock. (hindawi.com)
  • Conflicting reports exist in the literature concerning the primary mechanism for heparin's inhibition or classical complement pathway activity . (musc.edu)
  • Because of its role in the innate immune system classical complement has been implicated in a number of pathogen related disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed, it now seems clear that complement first evolved as part of the innate immune system , where it still plays an important role. (nih.gov)
  • As part of the innate immune system, complement acts immediately to start the process of removal and resolution of the problem. (primaryimmune.org)