Complement Activation: The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.Complement C3: A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Complement C4: A glycoprotein that is important in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C4 is cleaved by the activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C4A and COMPLEMENT C4B.Complement C5: C5 plays a central role in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C5 is cleaved by C5 CONVERTASE into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. The smaller fragment C5a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of inflammatory process. The major fragment C5b binds to the membrane initiating the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components, C5-C9, into the MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Receptors, Complement: Molecules on the surface of some B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that recognize and combine with the C3b, C3d, C1q, and C4b components of complement.Complement C3b: The larger fragment generated from the cleavage of COMPLEMENT C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. It is a constituent of the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb), and COMPLEMENT C5 CONVERTASES in both the classical (C4b2a3b) and the alternative (C3bBb3b) pathway. C3b participates in IMMUNE ADHERENCE REACTION and enhances PHAGOCYTOSIS. It can be inactivated (iC3b) or cleaved by various proteases to yield fragments such as COMPLEMENT C3C; COMPLEMENT C3D; C3e; C3f; and C3g.Complement C1q: A subcomponent of complement C1, composed of six copies of three polypeptide chains (A, B, and C), each encoded by a separate gene (C1QA; C1QB; C1QC). This complex is arranged in nine subunits (six disulfide-linked dimers of A and B, and three disulfide-linked homodimers of C). C1q has binding sites for antibodies (the heavy chain of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M). The interaction of C1q and immunoglobulin activates the two proenzymes COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S, thus initiating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION via the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.Complement Pathway, Alternative: Complement activation initiated by the interaction of microbial ANTIGENS with COMPLEMENT C3B. When COMPLEMENT FACTOR B binds to the membrane-bound C3b, COMPLEMENT FACTOR D cleaves it to form alternative C3 CONVERTASE (C3BBB) which, stabilized by COMPLEMENT FACTOR P, is able to cleave multiple COMPLEMENT C3 to form alternative C5 CONVERTASE (C3BBB3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Complement C9: A 63-kDa serum glycoprotein encoded by gene C9. Monomeric C9 (mC9) binds the C5b-8 complex to form C5b-9 which catalyzes the polymerization of C9 forming C5b-p9 (MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX) and transmembrane channels leading to lysis of the target cell. Patients with C9 deficiency suffer from recurrent bacterial infections.Complement Pathway, Classical: Complement activation initiated by the binding of COMPLEMENT C1 to ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES at the COMPLEMENT C1Q subunit. This leads to the sequential activation of COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S subunits. Activated C1s cleaves COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 forming the membrane-bound classical C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Complement Membrane Attack Complex: A product of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION cascade, regardless of the pathways, that forms transmembrane channels causing disruption of the target CELL MEMBRANE and cell lysis. It is formed by the sequential assembly of terminal complement components (COMPLEMENT C5B; COMPLEMENT C6; COMPLEMENT C7; COMPLEMENT C8; and COMPLEMENT C9) into the target membrane. The resultant C5b-8-poly-C9 is the "membrane attack complex" or MAC.Complement Inactivator Proteins: Serum proteins that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host. The complement system is tightly regulated by inactivators that accelerate the decay of intermediates and certain cell surface receptors.Complement C2: A component of the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C2 is cleaved by activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C2B and COMPLEMENT C2A. C2a, the COOH-terminal fragment containing a SERINE PROTEASE, combines with COMPLEMENT C4B to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).Complement Factor B: A glycine-rich, heat-labile serum glycoprotein that contains a component of the C3 CONVERTASE ALTERNATE PATHWAY (C3bBb). Bb, a serine protease, is generated when factor B is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR D into Ba and Bb.Complement Factor H: An important soluble regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It is a 139-kDa glycoprotein expressed by the liver and secreted into the blood. It binds to COMPLEMENT C3B and makes iC3b (inactivated complement 3b) susceptible to cleavage by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I. Complement factor H also inhibits the association of C3b with COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form the C3bB proenzyme, and promotes the dissociation of Bb from the C3bBb complex (COMPLEMENT C3 CONVERTASE, ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY).Complement Inactivating Agents: Compounds that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host.Complement C3a: The smaller fragment generated from the cleavage of complement C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. C3a, a 77-amino acid peptide, is a mediator of local inflammatory process. It induces smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION, and HISTAMINE RELEASE from MAST CELLS and LEUKOCYTES. C3a is considered an anaphylatoxin along with COMPLEMENT C4A; COMPLEMENT C5A; and COMPLEMENT C5A, DES-ARGININE.Complement C5a: The minor fragment formed when C5 convertase cleaves C5 into C5a and COMPLEMENT C5B. C5a is a 74-amino-acid glycopeptide with a carboxy-terminal ARGININE that is crucial for its spasmogenic activity. Of all the complement-derived anaphylatoxins, C5a is the most potent in mediating immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE), smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION; HISTAMINE RELEASE; and migration of LEUKOCYTES to site of INFLAMMATION.Complement C6: A 105-kDa serum glycoprotein with significant homology to the other late complement components, C7-C9. It is a polypeptide chain cross-linked by 32 disulfide bonds. C6 is the next complement component to bind to the membrane-bound COMPLEMENT C5B in the assembly of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. It is encoded by gene C6.Receptors, Complement 3b: Molecular sites on or in some B-lymphocytes and macrophages that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3B. The primary structure of these receptors reveal that they contain transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, with their extracellular portion composed entirely of thirty short consensus repeats each having 60 to 70 amino acids.Complement C1: The first complement component to act in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. It is a calcium-dependent trimolecular complex made up of three subcomponents: COMPLEMENT C1Q; COMPLEMENT C1R; and COMPLEMENT C1S at 1:2:2 ratios. When the intact C1 binds to at least two antibodies (involving C1q), C1r and C1s are sequentially activated, leading to subsequent steps in the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Complement C4b: The large fragment formed when COMPLEMENT C4 is cleaved by COMPLEMENT C1S. The membrane-bound C4b binds COMPLEMENT C2A, a SERINE PROTEASE, to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).Complement Activating Enzymes: Enzymes that activate one or more COMPLEMENT PROTEINS in the complement system leading to the formation of the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX, an important response in host defense. They are enzymes in the various COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION pathways.Complement C3d: A 302-amino-acid fragment in the alpha chain (672-1663) of C3b. It is generated when C3b is inactivated (iC3b) and its alpha chain is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I into C3c, and C3dg (955-1303) in the presence COMPLEMENT FACTOR H. Serum proteases further degrade C3dg into C3d (1002-1303) and C3g (955-1001).Complement C3-C5 Convertases: Serine proteases that cleave COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, or cleave COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. These include the different forms of C3/C5 convertases in the classical and the alternative pathways of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Both cleavages take place at the C-terminal of an ARGININE residue.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Complement C7: A 93-kDa serum glycoprotein encoded by C7 gene. It is a polypeptide chain with 28 disulfide bridges. In the formation of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX; C7 is the next component to bind the C5b-6 complex forming a trimolecular complex C5b-7 which is lipophilic, resembles an integral membrane protein, and serves as an anchor for the late complement components, C8 and C9.Complement C8: A 150-kDa serum glycoprotein composed of three subunits with each encoded by a different gene (C8A; C8B; and C8G). This heterotrimer contains a disulfide-linked C8alpha-C8gamma heterodimer and a noncovalently associated C8beta chain. C8 is the next component to bind the C5-7 complex forming C5b-8 that binds COMPLEMENT C9 and acts as a catalyst in the polymerization of C9.Complement C3c: A 206-amino-acid fragment in the alpha chain (672-1663) of C3b. It is generated when C3b is inactivated (iC3b) and its alpha chain is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I into C3c (749-954), and C3dg (955-1303) in the presence COMPLEMENT FACTOR H.Receptors, Complement 3d: Molecular sites on or in B-lymphocytes, follicular dendritic cells, lymphoid cells, and epithelial cells that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3D. Human complement receptor 2 (CR2) serves as a receptor for both C3dg and the gp350/220 glycoprotein of HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN, and binds the monoclonal antibody OKB7, which blocks binding of both ligands to the receptor.Complement Hemolytic Activity Assay: A screening assay for circulating COMPLEMENT PROTEINS. Diluted SERUM samples are added to antibody-coated ERYTHROCYTES and the percentage of cell lysis is measured. The values are expressed by the so called CH50, in HEMOLYTIC COMPLEMENT units per milliliter, which is the dilution of serum required to lyse 50 percent of the erythrocytes in the assay.Complement C3b Inactivator Proteins: Endogenous proteins that inhibit or inactivate COMPLEMENT C3B. They include COMPLEMENT FACTOR H and COMPLEMENT FACTOR I (C3b/C4b inactivator). They cleave or promote the cleavage of C3b into inactive fragments, and thus are important in the down-regulation of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and its cytolytic sequence.Complement C4a: The smaller fragment formed when complement C4 is cleaved by COMPLEMENT C1S. It is an anaphylatoxin that causes symptoms of immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE) but its activity is weaker than that of COMPLEMENT C3A or COMPLEMENT C5A.Complement Factor D: A serum protein which is important in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. This enzyme cleaves the COMPLEMENT C3B-bound COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form C3bBb which is ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE.Complement Factor I: A plasma serine proteinase that cleaves the alpha-chains of C3b and C4b in the presence of the cofactors COMPLEMENT FACTOR H and C4-binding protein, respectively. It is a 66-kDa glycoprotein that converts C3b to inactivated C3b (iC3b) followed by the release of two fragments, C3c (150-kDa) and C3dg (41-kDa). It was formerly called KAF, C3bINF, or enzyme 3b inactivator.Complement C4b-Binding Protein: A serum protein that regulates the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. It binds as a cofactor to COMPLEMENT FACTOR I which then hydrolyzes the COMPLEMENT C4B in the CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C4bC2a).Complement C1s: A 77-kDa subcomponent of complement C1, encoded by gene C1S, is a SERINE PROTEASE existing as a proenzyme (homodimer) in the intact complement C1 complex. Upon the binding of COMPLEMENT C1Q to antibodies, the activated COMPLEMENT C1R cleaves C1s into two chains, A (heavy) and B (light, the serine protease), linked by disulfide bonds yielding the active C1s. The activated C1s, in turn, cleaves COMPLEMENT C2 and COMPLEMENT C4 to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL C3 CONVERTASE).Complement C1r: A 80-kDa subcomponent of complement C1, existing as a SERINE PROTEASE proenzyme in the intact complement C1 complex. When COMPLEMENT C1Q is bound to antibodies, the changed tertiary structure causes autolytic activation of complement C1r which is cleaved into two chains, A (heavy) and B (light, the serine protease), connected by disulfide bonds. The activated C1r serine protease, in turn, activates COMPLEMENT C1S proenzyme by cleaving the Arg426-Ile427 bond. No fragment is released when either C1r or C1s is cleaved.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Complement C1 Inactivator Proteins: Serum proteins that inhibit, antagonize, or inactivate COMPLEMENT C1 or its subunits.Complement C5b: The larger fragment generated from the cleavage of C5 by C5 CONVERTASE that yields COMPLEMENT C5A and C5b (beta chain + alpha' chain, the residual alpha chain, bound by disulfide bond). C5b remains bound to the membrane and initiates the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components to form C5b-8-poly-C9, the MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Complement Pathway, Mannose-Binding Lectin: Complement activation triggered by the interaction of microbial POLYSACCHARIDES with serum MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN resulting in the activation of MANNOSE-BINDING PROTEIN-ASSOCIATED SERINE PROTEASES. As in the classical pathway, MASPs cleave COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 to form C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Properdin: A 53-kDa protein that is a positive regulator of the alternate pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It stabilizes the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb) and protects it from rapid inactivation, thus facilitating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and the formation of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Individuals with mutation in the PFC gene exhibit properdin deficiency and have a high susceptibility to infections.Cobra Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein: An endogenous 105-kDa plasma glycoprotein produced primarily by the LIVER and MONOCYTES. It inhibits a broad spectrum of proteases, including the COMPLEMENT C1R and the COMPLEMENT C1S proteases of the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY, and the MANNOSE-BINDING PROTEIN-ASSOCIATED SERINE PROTEASES. C1-INH-deficient individuals suffer from HEREDITARY ANGIOEDEMA TYPES I AND II.Anaphylatoxins: Serum peptides derived from certain cleaved COMPLEMENT PROTEINS during COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. They induce smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION; mast cell HISTAMINE RELEASE; PLATELET AGGREGATION; and act as mediators of the local inflammatory process. The order of anaphylatoxin activity from the strongest to the weakest is C5a, C3a, C4a, and C5a des-arginine.Complement C3 Convertase, Alternative Pathway: A serine protease that is the complex of COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT FACTOR BB. It cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT C3B in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Receptor, Anaphylatoxin C5a: A G-protein-coupled receptor that signals an increase in intracellular calcium in response to the potent ANAPHYLATOXIN peptide COMPLEMENT C5A.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Opsonin Proteins: Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Blood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.Mannose-Binding Lectin: A specific mannose-binding member of the collectin family of lectins. It binds to carbohydrate groups on invading pathogens and plays a key role in the MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Macrophage-1 Antigen: An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Mannose-Binding Protein-Associated Serine Proteases: Serum serine proteases which participate in COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. They are activated when complexed with the MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN, therefore also known as Mannose-binding protein-Associated Serine Proteases (MASPs). They cleave COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 to form C4b2a, the CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE.ZymosanImmunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Complement C5a, des-Arginine: A derivative of complement C5a, generated when the carboxy-terminal ARGININE is removed by CARBOXYPEPTIDASE B present in normal human serum. C5a des-Arg shows complete loss of spasmogenic activity though it retains some chemotactic ability (CHEMOATTRACTANTS).Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Collectins: A class of C-type lectins that target the carbohydrate structures found on invading pathogens. Binding of collectins to microorganisms results in their agglutination and enhanced clearance. Collectins form trimers that may assemble into larger oligomers. Each collectin polypeptide chain consists of four regions: a relatively short N-terminal region, a collagen-like region, an alpha-helical coiled-coil region, and carbohydrate-binding region.Mice, Inbred C57BLMacular Degeneration: Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Immune Adherence Reaction: A method for the detection of very small quantities of antibody in which the antigen-antibody-complement complex adheres to indicator cells, usually primate erythrocytes or nonprimate blood platelets. The reaction is dependent on the number of bound C3 molecules on the C3b receptor sites of the indicator cell.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Glomerulonephritis: Inflammation of the renal glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) that can be classified by the type of glomerular injuries including antibody deposition, complement activation, cellular proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These structural and functional abnormalities usually lead to HEMATURIA; PROTEINURIA; HYPERTENSION; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal: A condition characterized by the recurrence of HEMOGLOBINURIA caused by intravascular HEMOLYSIS. In cases occurring upon cold exposure (paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria), usually after infections, there is a circulating antibody which is also a cold hemolysin. In cases occurring during or after sleep (paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria), the clonal hematopoietic stem cells exhibit a global deficiency of cell membrane proteins.Immune Complex Diseases: Group of diseases mediated by the deposition of large soluble complexes of antigen and antibody with resultant damage to tissue. Besides SERUM SICKNESS and the ARTHUS REACTION, evidence supports a pathogenic role for immune complexes in many other IMMUNE SYSTEM DISEASES including GLOMERULONEPHRITIS, systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC) and POLYARTERITIS NODOSA.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Complement C2b: The N-terminal fragment of COMPLEMENT 2, released by the action of activated COMPLEMENT C1S.Cryoglobulins: Abnormal immunoglobulins, especially IGG or IGM, that precipitate spontaneously when SERUM is cooled below 37 degrees Celsius. It is characteristic of CRYOGLOBULINEMIA.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Kidney Glomerulus: A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.Serum: The clear portion of BLOOD that is left after BLOOD COAGULATION to remove BLOOD CELLS and clotting proteins.Rosette Formation: The in vitro formation of clusters consisting of a cell (usually a lymphocyte) surrounded by antigenic cells or antigen-bearing particles (usually erythrocytes, which may or may not be coated with antibody or antibody and complement). The rosette-forming cell may be an antibody-forming cell, a memory cell, a T-cell, a cell bearing surface cytophilic antibodies, or a monocyte possessing Fc receptors. Rosette formation can be used to identify specific populations of these cells.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Glomerulonephritis, Membranoproliferative: Chronic glomerulonephritis characterized histologically by proliferation of MESANGIAL CELLS, increase in the MESANGIAL EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX, and a thickening of the glomerular capillary walls. This may appear as a primary disorder or secondary to other diseases including infections and autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Various subtypes are classified by their abnormal ultrastructures and immune deposits. Hypocomplementemia is a characteristic feature of all types of MPGN.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity: The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.Mice, Inbred BALB Cgamma-Globulins: Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.Complement C3 Convertase, Classical Pathway: A serine protease that cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT 3 into COMPLEMENT 3A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT 3B in the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. It is a complex of COMPLEMENT 4B and COMPLEMENT 2A (C4b2a).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Surface Plasmon Resonance: A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Immune Evasion: Methods used by pathogenic organisms to evade a host's immune system.Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments: Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Arthus Reaction: A dermal inflammatory reaction produced under conditions of antibody excess, when a second injection of antigen produces intravascular antigen-antibody complexes which bind complement, causing cell clumping, endothelial damage, and vascular necrosis.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Nephritis: Inflammation of any part of the KIDNEY.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Receptors, IgG: Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Angioedema: Swelling involving the deep DERMIS, subcutaneous, or submucosal tissues, representing localized EDEMA. Angioedema often occurs in the face, lips, tongue, and larynx.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Receptors, Fc: Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Snakes: Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Integrin alphaXbeta2: A major adhesion-associated heterodimer molecule expressed by MONOCYTES; GRANULOCYTES; NK CELLS; and some LYMPHOCYTES. The alpha subunit is the CD11C ANTIGEN, a surface antigen expressed on some myeloid cells. The beta subunit is the CD18 ANTIGEN.Mannans: Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.Clusterin: A highly conserved heterodimeric glycoprotein that is differentially expressed during many severe physiological disturbance states such as CANCER; APOPTOSIS; and various NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS. Clusterin is ubiquitously expressed and appears to function as a secreted MOLECULAR CHAPERONE.Serum Globulins: All blood proteins except albumin ( = SERUM ALBUMIN, which is not a globulin) and FIBRINOGEN (which is not in the serum). The serum globulins are subdivided into ALPHA-GLOBULINS; BETA-GLOBULINS; and GAMMA-GLOBULINS on the basis of their electrophoretic mobilities. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Neisseria meningitidis: A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Meningococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Chromium Isotopes: Stable chromium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element chromium, but differ in atomic weight. Cr-50, 53, and 54 are stable chromium isotopes.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Snake Venoms: Solutions or mixtures of toxic and nontoxic substances elaborated by snake (Ophidia) salivary glands for the purpose of killing prey or disabling predators and delivered by grooved or hollow fangs. They usually contain enzymes, toxins, and other factors.Rheumatoid Factor: Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.

Structural and functional evidence for microglial expression of C1qR(P), the C1q receptor that enhances phagocytosis. (1/299)

Microglial activation has been associated with several degenerative diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). One consequence of activation is the induction of a more efficient phagocytic response, and it is therefore important to determine what factors regulate microglial phagocytosis and whether this capacity influences the progression of neurodegenerative changes. Previous studies have demonstrated that complement component C1q enhances Fc receptor- and CR1-mediated phagocytosis in cells of the myeloid lineage via a cell surface receptor, C1qRp. Because C1q has been found in the area of lesions in several degenerative CNS diseases, the current investigations were carried out to characterize the effects of C1q on microglial phagocytosis. Neonatal rat microglia were shown to express C1qRp, as assessed by flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. Interaction of these cells with substrate-bound C1q was shown to enhance both FcR-and CR1-mediated phagocytosis two- to fourfold. In addition, introduction of an antibody raised against the carboxy-terminal, cytoplasmic domain of C1qRp into microglia by electroporation markedly diminished the ability of C1q to enhance uptake of IgG-coated targets, whereas nonspecific IgG had no such effect. These results suggest that C1q in areas of active degeneration may promote the phagocytic capacity of microglia via interaction with microglial C1qRp.  (+info)

The inflammatory response following treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms: a comparison between open surgery and endovascular repair. (2/299)

OBJECTIVES: to compare the inflammatory response following endovascular and conventional AAA repair. DESIGN: prospective study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: ten patients were selected for open surgery (OPEN) and ten for endovascular (ENDO) AAA repair. Leukocytes, platelets, myeloperoxidase, lactoferrin, beta-thromboglobulin, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and complement activation products were measured before, during and after surgery. RESULTS: in the OPEN group the median hospital stay was longer (6 vs. 12 days, p=0.001) and more patients required transfusion (p=0.02). IL-6 and CRP increased postoperatively, most in OPEN (p<0.01). Platelet counts decreased after the first angiography in ENDO (p<0.01) and before aortic cross-clamping in OPEN (p<0.05). The decrease was larger in OPEN (p=0.02). Leukocyte counts decreased after the first angiography in ENDO, and thereafter increased (p=0.001). An equivalent increase was observed in OPEN after declamping (p=0.001). Leukocyte and platelet degranulation products increased after the first angiography in ENDO and after declamping in OPEN. Changes in complement activation products were small. TNF-alpha did not change significantly. CONCLUSION: endovascular AAA repair caused significant leukocyte and platelet activation. Based on the timing of activation this could be caused by radiographic contrast media.  (+info)

Evolution of the initiating enzymes of the complement system. (3/299)

Analysis of the human MASP-1/3 gene, which encodes two proteases of the lectin-triggered complement cascade, has revealed alternatively used serine-protease-encoding regions for the gene's two protein products. Phylogenetic studies indicate that one arose by retrotransposition early in vertebrate evolution, supporting the idea that the lectin branch of the complement cascade arose earlier than the 'classical' pathway.  (+info)

Activation of the lectin complement pathway by H-ficolin (Hakata antigen). (4/299)

Ficolins are a group of proteins which consist of a collagen-like domain and a fibrinogen-like domain. In human serum, there are two types of ficolins named L-ficolin/P35 and H-ficolin (Hakata Ag), both of which have lectin activity. We recently demonstrated that L-ficolin/P35 is associated with mannose-binding lectin (MBL)-associated serine proteases (MASP) 1 and 2 and small MBL-associated protein (sMAP), and that the complex activates the lectin pathway. In this study, we report the characterization of H-ficolin in terms of its ability to activate complement. Western blotting analysis showed the presence of MASP-1, MASP-2, MASP-3, and sMAP in H-ficolin preparations isolated from Cohn Fraction III. The MASPs in the preparations had proteolytic activities against C4, C2, and C3 in the fluid phase. When H-ficolin preparations were bound to anti-H-ficolin Ab which had been coated on ELISA plates, they activated C4, although no C4 activation was noted when anti-MBL and anti-L-ficolin/P35 were used. H-ficolin binds to PSA, a polysaccharide produced by Aerococcus viridans. C4 was activated by H-ficolin preparations bound to PSA which had been coated on ELISA plates. These results indicate that H-ficolin is a second ficolin which is associated with MASPs and sMAP, and which activates the lectin pathway.  (+info)

Short amino acid sequences derived from C1q receptor (C1q-R) show homology with the alpha chains of fibronectin and vitronectin receptors and collagen type IV. (5/299)

The human C1q receptor (C1q-R) is a 65-70-kd, highly acidic, hydrophobic glycoprotein that is expressed on a wide variety of cell surfaces. Although the C1q-R itself appears to bind preferentially to C1q, the region of the ligand to which C1q-R binds is the primary binding site for several other molecules, including fibronectin, laminin, and C1q inhibitor (chondroitin 4-sulfate proteoglycan) as well as the complement C1r2C1s2 tetramer. In order to further characterize the C1q-R molecule with regard to its structure and function, highly purified C1q-R was obtained from Raji cells using DEAE-Sephacel and C1q-Sepharose CL-4B chromatography. Studies performed with 125I-labeled C1q-R demonstrated that whereas the C1q-R molecule binds poorly to a variety of human collagens including types II, III, and V, markedly enhanced binding is observed with type IV collagen and moderately enhanced binding with type I collagen. Amino acid composition studies show that the C1q-R molecule contains approximately 44% hydrophobic and 12.6% hydrophilic residues with a ratio of negatively charged to positively charged residues of about 2:1. Treatment of 125I-labeled C1q-R with endoglycosidase F lowers the apparent molecular size from 70 to 58 kd, whereas endoglycosidase H lowered the size to 64 kd. Treatment with neuraminidase, on the other hand, shifted the size of C1q-R to 60 kd. These results suggest the presence of several highly sialylated complex-type or high mannose-type N-linked oligosaccharide side chains. Because purified C1q-R has a blocked amino terminus, amino acid sequences representing internal fragments of the molecule were generated by electroblotting and in situ enzymatic digestion. When these short sequences were searched against the National Biomedical Research Foundation computer data base, a seven-amino-acid sequence, VSWQGQI, showed significant homology (100% and 80% in a five-amino-acid overlap, respectively) with the alpha chains of the human fibronectin (alpha 5 beta 1) and vitronectin (alpha v beta 3) receptors, and to a lesser degree with epidermal growth factor receptor and T cell receptor. A second sequence, ISEDNIR, showed homology with mouse collagen type IV (86% in a six-amino-acid overlap), calmodulin (60% in a seven-amino-acid overlap), and a Leishmania major surface antigen, gp63. These observations seem to predict that C1q-R has pockets of conserved sequences that are similar to those not only present in its ligand(s) but also in other cell surface receptors that may, in part, fulfill similar functions.  (+info)

Complement activation in the follicular light zone of human lymphoid tissues. (6/299)

A comparative immunohistochemical study of the distribution pattern of complement components and regulatory proteins within secondary lymphoid follicles was performed by the immunoperoxidase technique. Fifteen lymphoid tissues including appendices. Peyer's patches and tonsils were analysed. Sixty secondary lymphoid follicles with evident polarity, that is, the distinct coexistence of a light zone, dark zone and mantle zone in the same lymphoid follicle, were tested with single antibodies. The light zones were consistently immunostained in a dendritic meshwork pattern with all antibodies. The immunostaining patterns were classified into two major groups based on the immunoreactivity of the dark zone. One immunostaining pattern was characterized by no immunostaining of the dark zone to the majority of the antigens. The second group was characterized by a diffusely weak to moderate dendritic meshwork pattern of the dark zone to some of the immunostainings of C9 (monoclonal), S-protein, and DF-DRC1, and all immunostainings of CR1 (CD35), Ber-Mac-DRC (CD35), CR2 (CD21), and R4/23. All four complement regulatory proteins were localized by immunoelectron microscopy attached to the cell surface of the cells, including follicular dendritic cells, in the light zone. Our data indicate that there is an evident functional difference between the light zone and the dark zone, and that complete activation of the complement system occurs only in the light zone.  (+info)

Modulated interaction of the ERM protein, moesin, with CD93. (7/299)

CD93 is a cell-surface glycoprotein that has been shown to influence defence collagen-enhanced Fc-receptor or CR1-mediated phagocytosis of suboptimally opsonized targets in vitro, and CD93-deficient mice are defective in the clearance of apoptotic cells in vivo. To investigate the mechanism of CD93 modulation of phagocytic activity, GST fusion proteins containing the 47 amino acid intracellular domain (GST-Cyto), or various mutants of the intracellular domain of CD93, were constructed and used to identify intracellular CD93-binding molecules. The intracellular protein moesin, well characterized for its role in linking transmembrane proteins to the cytoskeleton and in cytoskeletal remodelling, bound to GST-Cyto when either cell lysates or recombinant moesin were used as a source of interacting molecules. An association of moesin with CD93 within intact cells was confirmed by co-capping moesin with CD93 in human monocytes. The moesin-binding site on CD93 mapped to the first four positively charged amino acids in the juxtamembrane region of the CD93 cytoplasmic tail. Interestingly, deletion of the last 11 amino acids from the C terminus of CD93 (GST-Cyto-C11) dramatically increased moesin binding to the cytoplasmic tail of CD93 in the cell lysate assay, but not when the binding of purified recombinant moesin was assessed. Furthermore, moesin binding to CD93 was enhanced by the addition of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)). Taken together, these data suggest that the interaction of moesin with the CD93 cytoplasmic domain is modulated by binding of other intracellular molecules to the C11 region and implies that a PIP(2) signalling pathway is involved in CD93 function.  (+info)

Structure and regulatory profile of the monkeypox inhibitor of complement: comparison to homologs in vaccinia and variola and evidence for dimer formation. (8/299)

The outbreak of monkeypox in the Unites States in the summer of 2003 was the first occurrence of this smallpox-like disease outside of Africa. This limited human epidemic resulted from cross-infection of prairie dogs by imported African rodents. Although there were no human fatalities, this outbreak illustrates that monkeypox is an emerging natural infection and a potential biological weapon. We characterized a virulence factor expressed by monkeypox (monkeypox inhibitor of complement enzymes or MOPICE). We also compared its structure and regulatory function to homologous complement regulatory proteins of variola (SPICE) and vaccinia (VCP). In multiple expression systems, 5-30% of MOPICE, SPICE, and VCP consisted of function-enhancing disulfide-linked homodimers. Mammalian cells infected with vaccinia virus also expressed VCP dimers. MOPICE bound human C3b/C4b intermediate to that of SPICE and VCP. Cofactor activity of MOPICE was similar to VCP, but both were approximately 100-fold less efficient than SPICE. SPICE and VCP, but not MOPICE, possessed decay-accelerating activity for the C3 and C5 convertases of the classical pathway. Additionally, all three regulators possessed heparin-binding capability. These studies demonstrate that MOPICE regulates human complement and suggest that dimerization is a prominent feature of these virulence factors. Thus, our data add novel information relative to the functional repertoire of these poxviral virulence factors. Furthermore, targeting and neutralizing these complement regulatory active sites via mAbs is a therapeutic approach that may enhance protection against smallpox.  (+info)

Combine phase A ingredients in order with mixing (~400 rpm) and heating to 75°C. Combine phase B ingredients in order with mixing (~400 rpm) and heating to 75°C. Remove from heat and add phase B to phase A while mixing at 700 rpm. Grind pigments from phase C until homogeneous. Add phase C to AB while mixing. When temperature is below 40°C, add ingredients of phase D. Mix at 2,000 rpm for 5 to 10 minutes. Pass through high sheer homogenizer for 30 seconds ...
Preheat phase A in a large glass beaker to 45-50°C and propeller mix until solution is dissolved and homogeneous. Add phase B to phase A; slowly mix until uniform. Heat phase C in a separate beaker to 45°C gradually adding xanthan gum under rapid mixing until completely dissolved and a clear gel is formed. Add phase C to A & B and homogenize to produce a thick cream. Remove from heat, stir in phases D and E until incorporated. Fill in desired tubes or pots ...
Combine Phase C in a support kettle and heat to 70°C until all solids are dissolved. Transfer support kettle into main kettle while mixing. ...
1. The a- and b-chains of reduced and alkylated human complement subcomponent C1r were separated by high-pressure gel-permeation chromatography and isolated in good yield and in pure form. 2. CNBr cleavage of C1r b-chain yielded eight major peptides, which were purified by gel filtration and high-pressure reversed-phase chromatography. As determined from the sum of their amino acid compositions, these peptides accounted for a minimum molecular weight of 28 000, close to the value 29 100 calculated from the whole b-chain. 3. N-Terminal sequence determinations of C1r b-chain and its CNBr-cleavage peptides allowed the identification of about two-thirds of the amino acids of C1r b-chain. From our results, and on the basis of homology with other serine proteinases, an alignment of the eight CNBr-cleavage peptides from C1r b-chain is proposed. 4. The residues forming the charge-relay system of the active site of serine proteinases (His-57, Asp-102 and Ser-195 in the chymotrypsinogen numbering) are ...
Complement component 1 Q subcomponent-binding protein, mitochondrial is a protein that in humans is encoded by the C1QBP gene.[5][6][7] The human complement subcomponent C1q associates with C1r and C1s in order to yield the first component of the serum complement system. The protein encoded by this gene is known to bind to the globular heads of C1q molecules and inhibit C1 activation. This protein has also been identified as the p32 subunit of pre-mRNA splicing factor SF2, as well as a hyaluronic acid-binding protein.[7] ...
Microglia, central nervous system (CNS) resident phagocytic cells, persistently police the integrity of CNS tissue and respond to any kind of damage or pathophysiological changes. These cells sense and rapidly respond to danger and inflammatory signals by changing their cell morphology; by release of cytokines, chemokines, or nitric oxide; and by changing their MHC expression profile. We have shown previously that microglial biosynthesis of the complement subcomponent C1q may serve as a reliable marker of microglial activation ranging from undetectable levels of C1q biosynthesis in resting microglia to abundant C1q expression in activated, nonramified microglia. In this study, we demonstrate that cultured microglial cells respond to extrinsic C1q with a marked intracellular Ca2+ increase. A shift toward proinflammatory microglial activation is indicated by the release of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and nitric oxide and the oxidative burst in rat primary microglial cells, an ...
Urea transporter 1 or UT-B1 (Solute carrier family 14 member 1; Urea transporter of the erythrocyte) (Bagnasco 2006). A phenylphthalazine compound, PU1424, is a potent UT-B inhibitor, inhibiting human and mouse UT-B-mediated urea transport with IC50 values of 0.02 and 0.69 mumol/L, respectively, and exerted 100% UT-B inhibition at high concentrations (Ran et al. 2016). UT-B catalyzes transmembrane water transport which can be ued as a reporter system (Schilling et al. 2016). Knocking out both UT1 and UT2 increases urine output 3.5-fold and lowers urine osmolarity (Jiang et al. 2016). The double knockout also lowered blood pressure and promoted maturation of the male reproductive system. Thus, functional deficiency of all UTs causes a urea-selective urine-concentrating defect with few physiological abnormalities in extrarenal organs (Jiang et al. 2016 ...
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Open column chromatography is an excellent and easy technique for large scale preparation and purification at low cost. Reversed phase C18 packing materials are used but restricted to about 30-50% water in the mobile phase. The COSMOSIL C18-OPN is a new "Water-Wet" C18 packing material developed for Reversed Phase Open Column Chromatography. The C18-OPN material can be used in 100% aqueous eluents.. C18 packing materials in 100% water Normal C18 materials float on water. ...
A cooling arrangement is disclosed for a vehicle having a first component, a first duct, and a cooling fan configured to deliver air through the first duct to the first component when the cooling fan
Factor D兔多克隆抗体(ab111204)可与人样本反应并经WB实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
Recombinant Complement Component 1, R Subcomponent A (C1RA) Protein (His tag). Species: Mouse (Murine). Source: Insect Cells. Order product ABIN3125986.
An apparatus and method for implanting a prosthesis includes implanting a first component into a recess in a bone. The first component defines a main body defining a receiving portion and a locating bore. A second component is located into engagement with the first component, the second component defining a passage therethrough. A rod is inserted through the passage defined on the second component and into the locating bore of the first component. A handle associated with the rod is slidably actuated into contact with the second component to matingly lock the first component to the second component.
A measuring device for determining the relative offset between two components in a z-direction includes two measuring members. A first measuring member is affixable on a first component, and the second measuring member is affixable on a second component. Furthermore, the measuring device includes a sensor device for determining the relative position of the two measuring members. The first measuring member and the second measuring member are affixable on the first components at a rigid angle. At least one of the measuring members is able to be brought into adhesive contact with the first component or the second component. The measuring device includes support members for at least one measuring member so that the measuring member is able to assume a parking or an operating position. The measuring members are precisely and reproducibly aligned in space relative to each other in the parking position.
Mouse Factor D ELISA Kit is a sensitive (0.03 ng/ml) immunoassay suitable for the quantification of Factor D in Cell culture supernatant, Urine, Serum, Plasma samples.
Add Phase C very slowly to the main kettle while homogenizing. At the end, increase to speed to 1500-2500 rpm to finish the batch. ...
Effect of blocking αvβ3 integrins on tenascin- C-dependent smooth muscle cell morphology, attachment efficiency, and survival. (A) Representative phase c
The subcomponents C1r and C1s and their activated forms C-1r and C-1s were each found to have mol.wts. in dissociating solvents of about 83000. The amino acid compositions of each were similar, but there were significant differences in the monosaccharide analyses of subcomponents C1r and C1s, whether activated or not. Subcomponents C1r and C1s have only one polypeptide chain, but subcomponents C-1r and C-1s each contain two peptide chains of approx. mol.wts. 56000 ("a" chain) and 27000 ("b" chain). The amino acid analyses of the "a" chains from each activated subcomponent are similar, as are those of the "b" chains. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of 29 residues of the C-1s "a" chain was determined, but the C-1r "a" chain has blocked N-terminal amino acid. The 20 N-terminal residues of both "b" chains are similar, but not identical, and both show obvious homology with other serine proteinases. The difference in polysaccharide content of the subcomponents C-1r and C-1s is most marked in the ...
HAE is an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by recurrent nonpruritic edema of the skin and submucosal tissues.1,2,4-6 The prevalence of HAE ranges from 1 in 10,000 to 1 in 50,000 persons in the United States.4,7 Prevalence is not affected by sex or ethnicity; however, women may have more severe disease.1,4,7 A family history is present in approximately 75% of cases, indicating genetic inheritance; however, 25% of cases are thought to be due to a spontaneous mutation (i.e, a family history is absent).7 Patients often experience disease onset and a swelling episode during childhood, with an increase in severity during puberty.4,5,7,8 The frequency of attacks, which varies between patients, may be weekly or yearly.8. HAE is a congenital quantitative or functional deficiency of C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH); it is not associated with a hypersensitivity to foods or other allergens.1,4,7 C1-INH regulates the activation of the complement and contact systems and is involved in the regulation of ...
C1QB - C1QB (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human complement component 1, q subcomponent, B chain (C1QB) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
0.1 According to Chomsky, a leading exponent of this approach: To summarize, we have now suggested that the form of grammar may be as fallows. A grammar cont- ains a syntactic component, a semantic component, and a phological component. The latter two are purely interpretive; they play no part in the recursive generation of sentencestructures. The syntactic component consists of a base and a transformational component. The base, in turn, consists of a categorial subcomponent and a lexicon. The base generates deep structures. A deep structure enters the semantic component and receives a semantic interpretation; it is mapped by the transformalrules into a surface structure which is then given a phonetic interpretation by the rules of the phonological component. Thus the grammar assigns semantic interpretations to signals, this association being mediated by the recursive rules of the syntactic component.. The categorial subcomponent of the base consists of a sequence of context-free rewriting ...
A method for preparing at least a first component of a comestible composition includes providing particles of an encapsulating ingredient having an average longest dimension of less than 1000 microns to a mixer. Particles of an active ingredient having an average longest dimension of less than 1000 microns are also provided to said mixer. A composition of said encapsulating ingredient and said active ingredient is formed.
However, a zithromax where to buy very careful elevation of the diverticulum. Clarify misconceptions. Name /bks_55466_sommers/55506_pr 8/6/2016 5:21pm plate # 0-composite pg 26 # 28 diverticular disease is an important site of infections, such as dryness or discuss vaginal estrogen replacement therapy, which may partly be due to inter- ventions following endovascular repair of the tongue. Similarly, management of patients who have functional deficiency in forming plasma proteins, and approximately 60% of these lesions in the high-risk population: Patients with severe burn injury. This patient will be taken 27 minutes of each new administration set. (1997). This maneuver provides exposure of the condition may be prolonged depolarization and repolarization. Medical management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: A guideline for the nurse should stand on the same time as tolerated because the goal of treatment 399chapter 9 larynx and trachea the needle at 90-degree angle, to 1 year. Structures ...
Urea transporters (UT) are a family of transmembrane urea-selective channel proteins expressed in multiple tissues and play an important role in the urine concentrating mechanism of the mammalian kidney. UT inhibitors have diuretic activity and could be developed as novel diuretics. To determine if functional deficiency of all UTs in all tissues causes physiological abnormality, we established a novel mouse model in which all UTs were knocked out by deleting an 87 kb of DNA fragment containing most parts of Slc14a1 and Slc14a2 genes. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence confirmed that there is no expression of urea transporter in these all-UT-knockout mice. Daily urine output was nearly 3.5-fold higher, with significantly lower urine osmolality in all-UT-knockout mice than that in wild-type mice. All-UT-knockout mice were not able to increase urinary urea concentration and osmolality after water deprivation, acute urea loading, or high protein intake. A computational model that simulated ...
Urea transporters (UT) are a family of transmembrane urea-selective channel proteins expressed in multiple tissues and play an important role in the urine concentrating mechanism of the mammalian kidney. UT inhibitors have diuretic activity and could be developed as novel diuretics. To determine if functional deficiency of all UTs in all tissues causes physiological abnormality, we established a novel mouse model in which all UTs were knocked out by deleting an 87 kb of DNA fragment containing most parts of Slc14a1 and Slc14a2 genes. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence confirmed that there is no expression of urea transporter in these all-UT-knockout mice. Daily urine output was nearly 3.5-fold higher, with significantly lower urine osmolality in all-UT-knockout mice than that in wild-type mice. All-UT-knockout mice were not able to increase urinary urea concentration and osmolality after water deprivation, acute urea loading, or high protein intake. A computational model that simulated ...
Dear Editor, We have read the letter by Bossuyt X. and Fieuws S. entitled "Detection of anti-nuclear antibodies, added-value of solid phase assay?" with great interest (1). In this letter the authors described a comparison between anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) performed by indirect immunofluorescent assay(IIFA) and by an automated method (fluoroenzymeimmunoassay; EliA CTD screen, Thermo Fisher) using samples obtained from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc),Sj?grens syndrome (SS) and healthy controls. The authors concluded that the favorable method for ANA detection is disease-dependent and that combining IIFA with solid phase assay can increase the diagnostic accuracy. These points, raised by Bossuyt X. and Fieuws S., may be regarded in the perspective of the international recommendations for ANA detection that we have recently published (2). Indeed, our recommendations support the use of IIFA as well as alternative methods (such as EliA) to determine ...
Recombinant Complement Component 1, Q Subcomponent Binding Protein (C1QBP) Protein. Species: Rat (Rattus). Source: Escherichia coli (E. coli). Order product ABIN6305337.
Classical enzyme kinetic analyses were applied to define the mechanism of the effect of the fourth component (C4) on cleavage of the second component (C2) by the first component (C1) of human complement. The data indicated that the increased rate of cleavage of C2 by C1 in the presence of C4 was due to availability of a site for product deposition; the effect of C4 was reversed by blocking the site on C4 for C2 deposition. C2 cleavage by C1 followed first order kinetics.. In addition, our findings support the hypothesis that there are separate enzymatic sites on the C1 molecule for its natural substrates.. ...
A method of percutaneously implanting a first component and a second component of an orthopaedic assembly into a body of a patient includes the steps of securing a first instrument to the first component, and advancing the first component into the body of the patient. The first instrument is advanced into the body of the patient such that a portion of the first instrument extends out of the body. A second instrument is secured to the second component, and the second component is advanced into the body of the patient. The second instrument is advanced into the body of the patient such that a portion of the second instrument extends out of the body. A third instrument is advanced into contact with both the first instrument and the second instrument so as to position the first component and the second component in a predetermined position relative to one another. An instrument assembly for percutaneously implanting an orthopaedic assembly is also disclosed.
A method for separating at least two discrete volumes of a composite liquid into at least a first component and a second component, comprising centrifuging at least two separation bags containing two discrete volumes of a composite liquid respectively, so as to separate therein the first and second components; transferring at least one fraction of a first separated component from the separation bags into satellite bags connected thereto respectively; detecting a characteristic of a component at determined location in each separation bag; and stopping transferring the at least one fraction of the first component from each separation bag into the first satellite bag connected thereto, upon detection of the characteristic of a component at the determined location.
A method and apparatus for separation, concentration, and/or applying a biological or bio-engineered fluid. Generally, the fluid application device includes a sprayer body to enable the application of the fluid and a container adaptable to enable the separation of the fluid into at least a first component and a second component. The container is releasably coupled to the nozzle. The nozzle is adapted to withdraw at least one of the first component or the second component from the container after the fluid has been separated to apply the fluid to a selected site.
NanoGUNE Ikerketa Zentro Kooperatiboa xede honekin sortu zen: nanozientzia eta nanoteknologiaren alorrean bikaintasun ikerketa egitea, Euskal Herriaren hazkuntza ekonomikoa eta lehiakortasuna areagotzeko.
A method mixes a first component, a second component, and a buffer material. The first component includes an electrophilic polymer material comprising poly(ethylene glycol) having a functionality of at least three. The second component includes a nucleophilic material comprising a natural or synthetic protein at a concentration of about 25% or less that, when mixed with the first component within a reaction pH range, cross-links with the first component to form a non-liquid, three-dimensional barrier. The buffer material includes tris-hydroxymethylaminomethane having a pH within the reaction pH range. The method applies the mixture to adhere to a tissue region.
With two holes open, the filtering effect of the downstream holes is clear at frequencies above about 1.5 kHz. Compare this spectrum with more regular impedance spectrum for D4 on the classical instrument with a D foot. The regular, harmonically spaced minima in the latter spectrum allow greater power in the higher harmonics, and thus a brighter tone for this note.. ...
However, the special function of this subcomponent, if configured, is to perform the work of locating an HTML template suitable for rendering the actual paged view contents, and responding to changes in the pagers model for the purpose of keeping the rendered view updated.. The work of rendering the paged body is split into two parts - firstly, the part of preparing the direct (JSON) representation of the data to be renderered. This is performed by the top-level component configured as ...
The military Operation Blue Star in the Golden Temple in Amritsar offended many Sikhs.[72] The separatists used Operation Bluestar and the riots following the assassination to claim that the interest of the Sikhs were not safe in India and fostered the spread of militancy among the Sikhs in Punjab. Some sections of the Sikh diaspora started to support the separatists with financial and diplomatic support.[27]. A section of Sikhs turned to militancy in Punjab and several Sikh militant outfits proliferated in the 1980s and 1990s.[19] some Sikh militant groups aimed to create an independent state Khalistan through acts of violence directed at members of the Indian government, army or forces. A large numbers of Sikhs condemned the actions of the militants.[73] Anthropological studies have identified fun, excitement and expressions of masculinity, as explanations for the young men to join militants and other religious nationalist groups. Puri et al. state that undereducated and illiterate young men, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Solid phase enzyme immunoassay or radioimmunoassay for the detection of immune complexes based on their recognition by conglutinin. T2 - conglutinin binding test. A comparative study with 125I labelled C1q binding and Raji cell RIA tests. AU - Casali, P.. AU - Bossus, A.. AU - Carpentier, N. A.. AU - Lambert, P. H.. PY - 1977/12/1. Y1 - 1977/12/1. N2 - Bovine conglutinin was used in a solid-phase assay for the detection of immune complexes. In a first step, the tested serum sample is incubated in polypropylene tubes coated with conglutinin to allow C3-coated immune complexes to bind to solid-phase conglutinin. In a second step, the conglutinin-bound complexes are detected using an enzyme-conjugated or radiolabelled antiimmunoglobulin antibody. The conglutinin-binding (KgB) test does not suffer from the interference of DNA, heparin or endotoxins. Its limit of sensitivity for aggregated IgG is 3 μg/ml undiluted human serum. Immune complexes prepared in vitro using tetanus toxoid, ...
Previous studies in this laboratory have allowed the formulation of a model for the molecular arrangement of C5, C6, C7, C8, and C9 on the surface of cells undergoing immune cytolysis with an assigned cumulative m.w. of 995,000. To verify directly the existence of a C5-C9 complex, serum samples containing radiolabeled terminal components were activated at 37°C with EA, antigen-antibody complexes, CVF, inulin or zymosan. Subsequent sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation showed that all treatments cited led to the formation, in varying degrees, of rapidly sedimenting material which incorporated C5, C6, C7, C8, and C9, but not C3. The reaction was inhibited by 0.01 M EDTA and 0°C. The complex had a sedimentation coefficient of 22.4S, a diffusion coefficient of 1.98 × 10-7 cm2 sec-1 and thus a calculated m.w. of 1.04 × 106.. ...
17. A method for assembling a bifurcated stent graft which is releasable from a collapsed state and releasably engaged to the distal end of a first catheter, for implantation into a blood vessel, comprising the steps of:providing first component having a first end and second end, and having a first aperture at said first end, and having an axial passage communicating therethrough;providing said first component with a first leg extending from said second end and having an axial cavity communicating therethrough with said axial passage,providing first component with a second leg extending from said second end, with second leg extending to a distal end and having an axial passageway therethrough between said axial passage and said distal end;employing means for engagement of said first component to engage it at a distal end of a first catheter;providing a second catheter having a distal end tranlatably positionable relative to said distal end of said first catheter;positioning a second guide wire ...
|strong|Mouse anti Human C3d antibody, clone 053A-514.3.1.4|/strong| recognizes human complement component 3d (C3d) neoantigen, a ~33 kDa polypeptide fragment generated over the course of complem…
A joint assembly incorporated into a reconditioned end surface established between upper and opposing lower bones. At least one first component is anchored into a first of the reconditioned bone end surfaces and exhibits a rotatably supported wheel. A second component is anchored into a second opposing reconditioned bone end surfaces and exhibits a second exposed support surface in contact with the rotatably supported wheel. The first component includes a supporting well anchored into the reconditioned bone end surface for supporting the wheel in rotatable fashion. A laterally inserting pin displaces relative to a side of the wheel well and into an interior thereof and includes a central axial through hole which receives the pin for supporting the shaft.
A device for intermixing a first component, such as a parenteral fluid with a second component, such as an immobilized drug carried by a scaffold to form a beneficial agent which, following the mixing step, can be dispensed directly from the device for infusion into a patient. The device includes novel mechanisms for mateably interconnecting a container, such as a glass vial containing the first component with a housing having a fluid outlet which houses a sealed container containing the second component, and then for controllably mixing the components under sterile conditions to form an injectable solution which is automatically dispensed through the fluid outlet of the device.
The complement cascade is responsible for more than just the lysis of the foreign cell; the different subcomponents released at each stage are responsible for a number of other biological functions.. Opsonisation. Opsonisation is the process of making a foreign cell more appealing to a phagocytic cell. This is useful as it helps to remove the foreign cell by phagocytosis. The complement component responsible for the opsonisation of cells is C3b. It increases the efficiency of phagocytes as they have specific receptors for the C3b component (C3bR). When the C3b binds to its receptor on the phagocyte, the process of phagocytosis begins and the foreign cell is engulfed.. Anaphylatoxin Formation. The peptide subcomponents C3a and C5a are anaphylatoxins meaning they have a number of inflammation properties. They are able to increase vascular permeability at the site of infection and they are also chemotactic. This means they are able to attract phagocytes into the site of infected tissue.. Both C3a ...
A casein kinase released from activated human platelets has been shown to phosphorylate a number of plasma proteins. When platelets are activated they release substantial amounts of ATP and divalent cations which are necessary for phosphorylation of proteins. The aim of this study was to elucidate the optimal conditions for phosphorylation of the human complement component C4, identify phosphorylation site in the molecule and to investigate possible impact on the functions of phosphorylated C4. For this purpose, C4 must be prepared from human plasma, which was done using a modification of a previously published method. The results showed a pure and 100 % active protein. C4 was incubated with [g-32P]ATP and cations. After SDS-PAGE and autoradiography it was shown that C4 was phosphorylated in the a-chain. Maximal phosphorylation was achieved when C4 was phosphorylated in the presence of 20 mM Ca2+. Incubation of phosphorylated and unphosphorylated C4 with trypsin showed that phosphorylated C4 was ...
Disclosed herein are multicomponent fibers wherein at least one component will permit bonding of the fibers to themselves and other types of fibers and wherein the same first component is also degrada
A solid phase fluorescent immunossay for the quantitation of the C4 component of human complement.: A non-competitive method for the determination of the C4 com
In the present study, we observed transcriptional and functional abnormalities in the hematopoietic niche of patients with JAK2V617F-positive ET, including functional deficiency in MSC, immune imbalance, and sympathetic neuropathy, relative to those in HD controls. BM-MSC from patients with JAK2V617F-positive ET showed an altered transcriptome, faster proliferation, attenuated apoptosis and senescence, decreased potential to differentiate into adipocytes and osteocytes, and insufficient support for normal hematopoiesis. These findings partially agree with those found in previous studies of the myelodysplastic syndrome, leukemia, and MPN by other groups, but differ from the conclusions obtained from an MPN mouse model and patients.7-9,19,34 NES-positive cells have been reported to be heterogeneous populations comprising mesenchymal cells and endothelial cells in the BM.4 We co-stained bone marrow samples with NES and CD34 (endothelial cell marker), and found that patients with JAK2V617F-positive ...
A medical device including a catheter having a first component having a first color and a wall thickness and a second component having a second color different from the first color and a wall thickness. The first component and the second component are joined by a lap weld having a wall thickness such that the wall thickness of the lap weld is greater than the first component wall thickness and also greater than the second component wall thickness. The first component wall thickness is spaced apart from the lap weld and the second component wall thickness is spaced apart from the lap weld. The first component is disposed over the second component and the first color is selected from the group consisting of blue, green, orange, yellow, or purple.
Eleven monoclonal antibodies directed against the subcomponent C1q of the first component of human complement, C1, were prepared and tested for binding to intact C1q and to the collagenous portion, the C1q stalks. All of the monoclonals bound well to the intact C1q. Eight out of the eleven exhibited strong binding to the collagenous stalks, while three bound very weakly, if at all, to the stalks and, thus, were presumed to bind to the pepsin-sensitive region which includes the C1q heads. For one of the latter monoclonals, this was confirmed by electron microscopy. Five of the monoclonals were purified by C1q affinity chromatography. When tested with C1 reassembled from its subunits, two of these purified monoclonal antibodies markedly enhanced the rate of spontaneous activation.
A separation assembly for initially keeping a first component separate from a second component includes a generally cylindrical body slidably supported within a container between the first and second components. The body includes a seal structure having an inner seal member that initially seals the first component from the second component. In response to a predetermined operating condition, the inner seal member allows the first component to flow through at least one flow path in the seal structure to mix with the second component. The body further includes a flow distributing member disposed adjacent the seal structure to evenly distribute the first component into the second component. The seal structure and the flow distributing member form a single unit.
Figure 16: CBB presence has no effect on bacteria. The bacterial concentration was measured regarding the presence or the absence of CBB for the observed OD (0.1) or estimated ODs (0.05, 0.025, 0.01). 2. Binding test using engineered B. subtilis. Purpose. Transformed Bacillus subtilis with the binding module is able to produce a protein composed of the bacterial peptidoglycan bonding of LycT and the GbpA 4th domain of Vibrio cholerae allowing the chitin bonding. The synthetic bacterium is put with special beads composed of the polymer miming the fungal pathogen wall. After several washes, bacteria specifically attached to the chitin are put on plates and counted.. Results. The first observation is that both bacterial solutions of wild type Bacillus subtilis and SubtiTree have the same concentration : 105 bacteria/mL (Figure 17). Even though there is no significant difference between both strains after the first wash, the second wash has a major effect since it allows 40 times more Wild Type ...
Figure 1: CBB presence has no effect on bacteria. The bacterial concentration was measured regarding the presence or the absence of CBB for the observed OD (0.1) or estimated ODs (0.05, 0.025, 0.01). 2. Binding test using engineered B. subtilis. Purpose. Transformed Bacillus subtilis with the binding module is able to produce a protein composed of the bacterial peptidoglycan bonding of LycT and the GbpA 4th domain of Vibrio cholerae allowing the chitin bonding. The synthetic bacterium is put with special beads composed of the polymer miming the fungal pathogen wall. After several washes, bacteria specifically attached to the chitin are put on plates and counted.. Results. The first observation is that both bacterial solutions of wild type Bacillus subtilis and SubtiTree have the same concentration : 105 bacteria/mL (Figure 2). Even though there is no significant difference between both strains after the first wash, the second wash has a major effect since it allows 40 times more Wild Type ...
With the exception of adiponectin and adipsin, all assays may be ordered as either customized Express assays or as singleplex sets (vial of beads coupled to capture antibodies and vial of detection antibodies). Requires standard and Bio-Plex Pro reagent kit to perform an assay. To learn more about Express assays, go to www.bio-rad.com/bio-plex/assaybuilder ...
Complete information for C1QBPP3 gene (Pseudogene), Complement C1q Binding Protein Pseudogene 3, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
The P wave is the first component of the electrocardiogram, and normally precedes the QRS complex and T wave. The period of time from the beginning of t...
Properdin factor d definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now!
Intelligent selections of enzyme substrates in microtiter plates for liquid phase assays (substrates for kinases, proteases and phosphatases).
Once activated, neutrophils then release preformed substances, including enzymes causing damage to vessel tissue. Evidence of ... C3a and C5a, proteins produced from the complement system, attract neutrophils to the vessels. ... immune complexes deposit in vessel walls leading to activation of the complement system. ...
C1q is a subunit of the C1 enzyme complex that activates the serum complement system. C1q comprises 6 A, 6 B and 6 C chains. ... The complement component 1q (C1q) is a protein complex involved in the complement system, which is part of the innate immune ... Activation of the C1 complex intitiates the classical complement pathway of the complement system. The antibodies IgM and all ... "Entrez Gene: C1QA complement component 1, q subcomponent, A chain". Sellar GC, Blake DJ, Reid KB (March 1991). " ...
C1r is an enzyme that activates C1s to its active form, by proteolytic cleavage. C1r has been shown to interact with C1s: C1r ... Complement C1r subcomponent (EC 3.4.21.41, activated complement C1r, C overbar 1r esterase, C1r) is a protein involved in the ... Linkage analysis and population genetics of the C1S subcomponent of the first complement component". Complement and ... "Complete amino acid sequence of the A chain of human complement-classical-pathway enzyme C1r". The Biochemical Journal. 241 (3 ...
... can be activated by components of the immune system, such as the complement system; bacterial toxins; activated ... In the pancreas it leads to acute pancreatitis, a condition where the pancreatic enzymes leak out into the peritoneal cavity, ... Fat necrosis is specialized necrosis of fat tissue,[8] resulting from the action of activated lipases on fatty tissues such as ... Pancreatic enzymes (lipases) are the major cause of fat necrosis.[11]. ...
... can be activated by components of the immune system, such as the complement system; bacterial toxins; activated ... In the pancreas it leads to acute pancreatitis, a condition where the pancreatic enzymes leak out into the peritoneal cavity, ... Fat necrosis is specialized necrosis of fat tissue, resulting from the action of activated lipases on fatty tissues such as the ... Toxins and pathogens may cause necrosis; toxins such as snake venoms may inhibit enzymes and cause cell death. Necrotic wounds ...
... including enzymes, complement proteins, and regulatory factors such as interleukin-1. At the same time, they carry receptors ... There are several activated forms of macrophages.[11] In spite of a spectrum of ways to activate macrophages, there are two ... According to this grouping there are classically activated macrophages, wound-healing macrophages (alternatively activated ... b. The fusion of lysosomes with the phagosome creates a phagolysosome; the pathogen is broken down by enzymes. c. Waste ...
... including enzymes, complement proteins, and regulatory factors such as interleukin-1. At the same time, they carry receptors ... There are several activated forms of macrophages. In spite of a spectrum of ways to activate macrophages, there are two main ... According to this grouping there are classically activated macrophages, wound-healing macrophages (alternatively activated ... Once a T cell has recognized its particular antigen on the surface of an aberrant cell, the T cell becomes an activated ...
After complement proteins initially bind to the microbe, they activate their protease activity, which in turn activates other ... Macrophages are versatile cells that reside within tissues and produce a wide array of chemicals including enzymes, complement ... In humans, this response is activated by complement binding to antibodies that have attached to these microbes or the binding ... Complement is the major humoral component of the innate immune response. Many species have complement systems, including non- ...
This covalent acyl-enzyme intermediate is then hydrolysed by activated water to complete catalysis by releasing the second half ... the complement system, apoptosis pathways, and the invertebrate prophenoloxidase-activating cascade). Proteases can either ... These enzymes are involved in a multitude of physiological reactions from simple digestion of food proteins to highly regulated ... This is the case for digestive enzymes such as trypsin which have to be able to cleave the array of proteins ingested into ...
Ras GTPase-activating protein nGAP is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the RASAL2 gene. This gene encodes a protein that ... The protein encoded by this gene is able to complement the defective RasGAP function in a yeast system. Two alternatively ... "Purification of a novel ras GTPase-activating protein from rat brain". J. Biol. Chem. 268 (30): 22948-52. PMID 8226805. Bonaldo ... contains the GAP-related domain (GRD), a characteristic domain of GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs). GAPs function as ...
Both purine and pyrimidine are self-inhibiting and activating. When purines are formed, they inhibit the enzymes required for ... In RNA, the complement of adenine is uracil instead of thymine. Other notable purines are hypoxanthine (4), xanthine (5), ... This self-inhibition occurs as they also activate the enzymes needed for pyrimidine formation. Pyrimidine simultaneously self- ... Adenosine activates adenosine receptors. The word purine (pure urine) was coined by the German chemist Emil Fischer in 1884. He ...
Three biochemical pathways activate the complement system: the classical complement pathway, the alternative complement pathway ... This enzyme then cleaves C5 to C5a, a potent anaphylatoxin, and C5b. The C5b then recruits and assembles C6, C7, C8 and ... complement factor B, and complement factor I, as well as deletion of complement factor H-related 3 and complement factor H- ... When complement is activated on a cell surface, the activation is limited by endogenous complement regulatory proteins, which ...
This covalent acyl-enzyme intermediate is then hydrolysed by activated water to complete catalysis by releasing the second half ... the complement system, apoptosis pathways, and the invertebrate prophenoloxidase-activating cascade). Proteases can either ... The bottom panel shows 2-step hydrolysis where a residue within the enzyme is activated to act as a nucleophile (Nu) and attack ... Enzyme is shown in black, substrate protein in red and water in blue.The top panel shows 1-step hydrolysis where the enzyme ...
In parallel, these enzymes activate proapoptotic procaspase-8, which does directly activate the mitochondrial events of ... MAC (not to be confused with the Membrane Attack Complex formed by complement activation, also commonly denoted as MAC), also ... or enzymes that degrade proteins. The two pathways both activate initiator caspases, which then activate executioner caspases, ... HIV enzymes deactivate anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. This does not directly cause cell death but primes the cell for apoptosis should ...
In contrast to silencing genes, dCas9 can also be used to activate genes when fused to transcription activating factors. These ... Due to the unique ability of Cas9 to bind to essentially any complement sequence in any genome, researchers wanted to use this ... Furthermore, because Cas9 can react to heterochromatin, it is theorized that this enzyme can be further applied to studying the ... This approach is made possible by hybridizing ssDNA with a PAM complement sequence to ssRNA allowing for a dsDNA-RNA PAM site ...
It activates plasminogen to form plasmin, which digest fibrin clots. This disrupts the fibrin meshwork which can often form to ... Staphylokinase (SAK) is an amino acid enzyme from Staphylococcus aureus. It contains 136 amino acid residues and is a 15kDa ... Staphylokinase also cleaves IgG and complement component C3b, inhibiting phagocytosis. It is classified under EC 3.4.24.29, ( ...
Cleavage of complement C3 by a free floating convertase, thrombin, plasmin or even a bacterial enzyme leads to formation of C3a ... "C3b deposition during activation of the alternative complement pathway and the effect of deposition on the activating surface ... C3 convertase (EC 3.4.21.43, C42 , C4bC2b, C3bBb, complement C.hivin.4.hivin2, complement C3 convertase) belongs to family of ... DAF protects host cells from damage by autologous complement. DAF acts on C2b and Bb and dissociates them rapidly from C4b and ...
... and the enzyme activated by allostery. The LDL-receptor domains contain one Calcium-binding site each. The fI light chain is ... Complement factor I, also known as C3b/C4b inactivator, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CFI gene. Complement ... complement factor I". Goldberger G, Bruns GA, Rits M, Edge MD, Kwiatkowski DJ (Jul 1987). "Human complement factor I: analysis ... Factor I deficiency in turn leads to low levels of complement component 3 (C3), factor B, factor H and properdin. in plasma, ...
The key enzymes involved are recombination activating genes 1 and 2 (RAG), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT), and ... X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 4 (XRCC4), DNA ligase IV, non-homologous end-joining factor 1 (NHEJ1; also known as ... Some enzymes involved are specific to lymphocytes (e.g., RAG, TdT), while others are found in other cell types and even ... Several other enzymes are known to be involved in the process and include DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), ...
... complement c8 MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.850 -- complement c9 MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.860 -- complement activating enzymes MeSH ... complement c4a MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.024.270 -- complement c5a MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.024.270.255 -- complement c5a, des- ... complement c1r MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.050.290 -- complement c1s MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.150 -- complement c2 MeSH D12.776. ... complement c2b MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.250 -- complement c3 MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.250.250 -- complement c3a MeSH D12.776. ...
The integration of the viral DNA into the host cell's genome is carried out by another viral enzyme called integrase.[67] ... β7 activating LFA-1, the central integrin involved in the establishment of virological synapses, which facilitate efficient ... the cDNA and its complement form a double-stranded viral DNA that is then transported into the cell nucleus. ... The resulting viral DNA is then imported into the cell nucleus and integrated into the cellular DNA by a virally encoded enzyme ...
Another way that enzymes can exist in inactive forms and later be converted to active forms is by activating only when a ... Some of the proteins of the complement system Procaspases Pacifastin Proelastase Prolipase Procarboxypolypeptidases Webster ... Enzymes like pepsin are created in the form of pepsinogen, an inactive zymogen. Pepsinogen is activated when chief cells ... Although they limit the enzyme's ability, these n-terminal extensions of the enzyme or a "prosegment" often aid in the ...
Current challenges include selective C-C and C-H activating oxidations of simple and complex organic compounds as well as ... Since 1999, the group concentrates on enantioselective organocatalysis as a fundamental approach complementing biocatalysis and ... of molecular biology into synthetic organic chemistry in the quest to exploit directed evolution of stereoselective enzymes as ... and also investigating the mechanism by which organocatalysts activate their substrates. Furthermore, in 2005 the department ...
... activates other proteins of the complement system. Additionally, it inhibits various proteins of the coagulation cascade, ... Brown NJ, Ray WA, Snowden M, Griffin MR (July 1996). "Black Americans have an increased rate of angiotensin converting enzyme ... All forms of HAE lead to abnormal activation of the complement system, and all forms can cause swelling elsewhere in the body, ... In this analysis, it is usually a reduced complement factor C4, rather than the C1-INH deficiency itself, that is detected. The ...
... is expressed as a zymogen, a pre-form of the enzyme, which is activated through autocatalytic degradation of a ... Aureolysin can inactivate certain targets within the complement system, inhibiting all three pathways of complement activation ... Aureolysin proteolytically activate pro-thrombin into thrombin, but somewhat contradictory also activates urokinase, and ... Handbook of Proteolytic Enzymes. Academic Press. pp. 563-569. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-382219-2.00114-9. ISBN 9780123822192. Sabat ...
Not every ligand that binds to a receptor also activates that receptor. The following classes of ligands exist: *(Full) ... However, sometimes in pharmacology, the term is also used to include other proteins that are drug targets, such as enzymes, ... complement receptors, Fc receptors, B cell receptors and T cell receptors.[12] ... The main receptors in the immune system are pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), toll-like receptors (TLRs), killer activated ...
... which in turn activates other proteins of the complement system. ... ACE is one of the enzymes that degrades bradykinin and is ... In this analysis, it is usually a reduced complement factor C4, rather than the C1-INH deficiency itself, that is detected. The ... Routine blood tests (complete blood count, electrolytes, renal function, liver enzymes) are typically performed. Mast cell ... A hereditary deficiency of C1-esterase inhibitor (C1INH) results in continuous activation of complement system resulting in ...
Investigation of Complement-activating Pattern Recognition Molecules and Associated Enzymes as Possible Inflammatory Markers in ... Investigation of Complement-activating Pattern Recognition Molecules and Associated Enzymes as Possible Inflammatory Markers in ... Investigation of Complement-activating Pattern Recognition Molecules and Associated Enzymes as Possible Inflammatory Markers in ... Investigation of Complement-activating Pattern Recognition Molecules and Associated Enzymes as Possible Inflammatory Markers in ...
... complement can also be activated early in infection in the absence of antibodies. Indeed, it now seems clear that complement ... This activity was said to complement the antibacterial activity of antibody, hence the name. Although first discovered as an ... Complement was discovered many years ago as a heat-labile component of normal plasma that augments the opsonization of bacteria ... The complement system activates through a triggered-enzyme cascade. In such a cascade, an active complement enzyme generated by ...
Serine proteases that cleave COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, or cleave COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A ... These include the different forms of C3/C5 convertases in the classical and the alternative pathways of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. ... Complement System Proteins: 21537*Complement Activating Enzymes*Complement C3-C5 Convertases: 66*Mannose-Binding Protein- ... Serine proteases that cleave COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, or cleave COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A ...
... ,biological,biology dictionary,biology terminology,biology terms,biology abbreviations ... Once activated, complement proteins become protease enzymes. .... Full article >>>. "/> ... complement synonyms. complement usage examples and complement quotes. ... to make complete; be a complement to ... Present ... Be careful to distinguish between a direct object and an object complement: ... Complements ... A complement (notice the ...
The complement system thus is activated through a triggered enzyme cascade.. The classical pathway is activated by the binding ... C1q is the initiating protein of the classical complement cascade. Activated C1q undergoes a conformational change to activate ... including specific complement proteins, e.g. C1q, and complement activating signals, e.g. β-amyloid, APP, etc. are tested in an ... Is C3 activated and localized to synapses in the postnatal brain? Complement activation has been shown to occur in the brain ...
E1 activates NEDD8 by first adenylating its C-terminal glycine residue with ATP, thereafter linking this residue to the side ... Regulatory subunit of the dimeric UBA3-NAE1 E1 enzyme. ... complements,/strong> the information provided at the sequence ... NEDD8-activating enzyme E1 regulatory subunitAdd BLAST. 533. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). Description ... NEDD8 activating enzyme activity Source: GO_Central. *protein heterodimerization activity Source: RGDInferred from sequence ...
E1 activates NEDD8 by first adenylating its C-terminal glycine residue with ATP, thereafter linking this residue to the side ... Regulatory subunit of the dimeric UBA3-NAE1 E1 enzyme. ... complements,/strong> the information provided at the sequence ... NEDD8-activating enzyme E1 regulatory subunitAdd BLAST. 533. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). Description ... NEDD8-activating enzyme E1 regulatory subunit. Alternative name(s):. Amyloid beta precursor protein-binding protein 1, 59 kDa. ...
The resultant antigen-antibody complex activates the complement system, a series of potent enzymes that destroy the target cell ... The complex then triggers the complement system, which produces inflammation and vascular damage. Unlike type I reactions, type ...
Schorlemmer, H. U. and Allison, A. C. (1976). Effects of activated complement components on enzyme secretion by macrophages. ... Schorlemmer, H. U., Davies, P. and Allison, A. C. (1976). Ability of activated complement components to induce lysosomal enzyme ... Collagen Type Alternative Pathway Lysosomal Enzyme Mouse Peritoneal Macrophage Acid Hydrolase These keywords were added by ... Schorlemmer, H. U., Hadding, U., Bitter-Suemann, D. and Allison, A. C. (1977). The role of complement cleavage products in ...
... and IX-activating enzyme. The enzyme activates coagulation factor X (F10) by cleaving the Arg-Ile bond and is also able to ... May serve as an exosite by which the enzyme recognizes and binds to the Gla domain of factor X (F10) and factor IX (F9) in a ... activate coagulation factor IX (F9) and protein S (PROS1) by specific cleavage of Arg-Ile and Arg-Val bonds. ... complements,/strong> the information provided at the sequence level or describes modifications for which ,strong>position- ...
C1q is a subunit of the C1 enzyme complex that activates the serum complement system. C1q comprises 6 A, 6 B and 6 C chains. ... The complement component 1q (C1q) is a protein complex involved in the complement system, which is part of the innate immune ... Activation of the C1 complex intitiates the classical complement pathway of the complement system. The antibodies IgM and all ... "Entrez Gene: C1QA complement component 1, q subcomponent, A chain". Sellar GC, Blake DJ, Reid KB (March 1991). " ...
Lectin pathway effector enzyme mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease-2 can activate native complement C3 in absence ... 2 is critical for the development of renal ischemia reperfusion injury and mediates tissue injury in the absence of complement ...
Investigation of complement-activating pattern recognition molecules and associated enzymes as possible inflammatory markers in ... We next investigated the ability of these transplanted mice to activate complement via the AP (Fig. 3). Normally, MASP-1/3−/− ... Complement activating soluble pattern recognition molecules with collagen-like regions, mannan-binding lectin, ficolins and ... MASP-3 is the main converting enzyme for complement factor D. Mol. Immunol. 61: 280-281. ...
A subunit of the C1 enzyme complex that activates the serum complement system. Low C1q could indicate a diagnosis of acquired ... Enzyme. An enzyme is a protein that speeds up and controls biochemical reactions in the body. C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) is ... Complement System. The complement system is an important part of the immune system. It consists of more than 22 proteins, which ... A fibrinolytic enzyme inactivated by C1 inhibitor.. Prevalence. Prevalence indicates how many people in the population or in a ...
Schorlemmer, H. U. Davies, P., and Allison, A. C., 1976, Ability of activated complement components to induce lysosomal enzyme ... Schorlemmer, H. U., and Allison, A. C., 1976, Effects of activated complement components on enzyme secretion by macrophages, ... Whaley, K., 1980, Biosynthesis of the complement components and the regulatory proteins of the alternative complement pathway ... Induction of lysosomal enzyme secretion by alveolar macrophages in response to purified complement fragments C5a and CSades arg ...
Anti-Complement component C1s (human, pro- and activated enzyme). Cat.No. ABS 002-09 ... Anti-Complement component C1s (human, pro- and activated enzyme). Cat.No. ABS 002-49 ...
Once activated, neutrophils then release preformed substances, including enzymes causing damage to vessel tissue. Evidence of ... C3a and C5a, proteins produced from the complement system, attract neutrophils to the vessels. ... immune complexes deposit in vessel walls leading to activation of the complement system. ...
A1S9T and BN75 temperature sensitivity complementing,OTTHUMP00000023197,OTTHUMP00000023198,UBA1, ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 ... This gene complements an X-linked mouse temperature-sensitive defect in DNA synthesis, and thus may function in DNA repair. It ...
Rabbit recombinant monoclonal E1 Ubiquitin Activating Enzyme 1/UBA1 antibody [EPR14203(B)]. Validated in WB, IHC, Flow Cyt, ICC ... Anti-E1 Ubiquitin Activating Enzyme 1/UBA1 antibody [EPR14203(B)]. See all E1 Ubiquitin Activating Enzyme 1/UBA1 primary ... A1S9T and BN75 temperature sensitivity complementing antibody. *A1S9T antibody. *A1ST antibody. *AMCX1 antibody ... All lanes : Anti-E1 Ubiquitin Activating Enzyme 1/UBA1 antibody [EPR14203(B)] (ab180125) at 1/5000 dilution. Lane 1 : Fetal ...
These activate complement, which results in PMN chemotaxis and activation. PMNs then release tissue damaging enzymes. Tissue ... Histamine, serotonin, bradykinin, and lipid mediators (e.g., platelet activating factor, prostaglandins, and leukotrienes) are ... the antibody reacts directly with the antigen that is bound to the cell membrane to induce cell lysis through complement ...
Complexes are trapped in vessel walls, activate complement, and attract inflammatory cells that release proteolytic enzymes, ... If components of complement represent the other humoral factors that they suggest are involved in inflammatory demyelination, ...
In addition to depositing in the tissues, immune complexes typically activate complement, a series of corrosive enzymes that ... Proteins are fundamental components of all living cells and include many substances, such as enzymes, hormones, and antibodies ...
... does not activate the complement system and, therefore, probably has a very low potential for inducing anaphylactoid ... The substance does not display any particular protein binding or inhibitory interaction with enzymes. ...
Acanthamoeba activates the alternative complement pathway, which stimulates neutrophils to release lysosomal enzymes and ... The N. fowleri trophozoite also appears to have surface proteins that resist complement-mediated lysis of the ameba and can ... Additionally, Acanthamoeba secretes several enzymes that digest extracellular matrix proteins in connective tissue, which in ... Other potentially destructive secreted enzymes include elastase and cysteine proteases that can degrade a variety of connective ...
  • E1 activates NEDD8 by first adenylating its C-terminal glycine residue with ATP, thereafter linking this residue to the side chain of the catalytic cysteine, yielding a NEDD8-UBA3 thioester and free AMP. (uniprot.org)
  • The AID gene encodes a protein that has low homology (31%) with apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide 1, a type of cytidine deaminase ( 18 ). (rupress.org)
  • One way to make a nucleophile is by a catalytic triad, where a histidine residue is used to activate serine, cysteine, or threonine as a nucleophile. (wikipedia.org)
  • A seventh catalytic type of proteolytic enzymes, asparagine peptide lyase, was described in 2011. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the most conserved areas includes an Arg residue, whose modification inactivates the enzyme, together with an Asp that resides in the catalytic cleft of the enzyme and participates in a salt bridge. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been shown that the mutation R88G results in 99% loss of catalytic activity of this enzyme, suggesting that this residue is intimately involved in the phosphoryl transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • PKA is also commonly known as cAMP-dependent protein kinase, because it has traditionally been thought to be activated through release of the catalytic subunits when levels of the second messenger cAMP rise in response to a variety of signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is done by two cAMP molecules binding to each of the two cAMP binding sites (CNB-B and CNB-A) which induces a conformational change in the regulatory subunits of PKA causing the subunits to detach and unleash the two (now activated) catalytic subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein kinases are also found in bacteria and plants, and include the pseudokinase sub-family, which exhibit unusual features including atypical nucleotide binding and weak, or no, catalytic activity and are part of a much larger pseudoenzyme group of 'degraded' enzyme relatives that are found throughout life, where they take an active participation in mechanistic cellular signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the central part of the catalytic domain, there is a conserved aspartic acid, which is important for the catalytic activity of the enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, complement is not entirely efficacious, as several bacterial pathogens, including some obligate intracellular pathogens, have evolved mechanisms for resistance. (asm.org)
  • Here, we demonstrate that the complement system is activated during infection with the obligate intracellular bacterium Rickettsia australis and that genetic ablation of complement increases susceptibility to infection. (asm.org)
  • Intracellular signal transduction is primarily mediated by the reversible phosphorylation of various signalling molecules by enzymes dubbed kinases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dead cells are also removed by these complement molecules. (mastattack.org)
  • The conversion of prophenoloxidase to the active form of the enzyme can be brought about by minuscule amounts of molecules such as lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan and beta-1,3-glucans from microorganisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • In biochemistry, a kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of phosphate groups from high-energy, phosphate-donating molecules to specific substrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • It appears that binding of two or more IgE molecules (cross-linking) is required to activate the mast cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM, also termed specialized proresolving mediators) are a large and growing class of cell signaling molecules formed in cells by the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) by one or a combination of lipoxygenase, cyclooxygenase, and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • PMNs then release tissue damaging enzymes. (dentalcare.com)
  • Hypoxic infarcts in the brain presents as this type of necrosis, because the brain contains little connective tissue but high amounts of digestive enzymes and lipids, and cells therefore can be readily digested by their own enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fat necrosis is specialized necrosis of fat tissue, resulting from the action of activated lipases on fatty tissues such as the pancreas . (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon binding to clots, or to the cell surface, plasminogen adopts an open form that can be converted into active plasmin by a variety of enzymes, including tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), kallikrein, and factor XII (Hageman factor). (wikipedia.org)
  • PMCA types 2 and 3 are activated more quickly and are, therefore, better suited to excitable cell types such as those in nervous and muscle tissue, which experiences large influxes of Ca2+ when excited. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Hurler syndrome (alpha-L-iduronidase deficiency disease) is a severe lysosomal storage disorder that is potentially amenable to enzyme-replacement therapy. (pnas.org)
  • The appropriate peptide sequence of the complement fixing site might become exposed following complexing of the immunoglobulin, or the sites might always be available, but might require multiple attachment by C1q with critical geometry in order to achieve the necessary avidity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synthetic peptide within Human E1 Ubiquitin Activating Enzyme 1/UBA1 aa 200-300. (abcam.com)
  • Another partially activated pepsinogen completes the activation by removing the peptide, turning the pepsinogen into pepsin. (wikipedia.org)
  • p>This subsection of the 'Function' section describes an enzyme regulatory mechanism and reports the components which regulate (by activation or inhibition) the reaction. (uniprot.org)
  • The complement system is an important mechanism for the destruction and removal of foreign materials. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Identifying enzymes with a common mechanism of activation is an initial step in understanding structural and functional properties. (asm.org)
  • They have a profound interest in developing "new reactions", designing and identifying new principles for the development of organocatalysts, expanding the scope of already developed catalysts such as proline, using organocatalysis in the synthesis of natural products and pharmaceuticals, and also investigating the mechanism by which organocatalysts activate their substrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The position of the residues that activate the water nucleophile and protonate the uracil leaving group are widely debated, though the most commonly followed mechanism employs the water activating loop detailed in the enzyme structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Four different MLCK isoforms exist: MYLK - smooth muscle MYLK2 - skeletal MYLK3 - cardiac MYLK4 - novel These enzymes are important in the mechanism of contraction in muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though some data on the mechanism has been obtained by the use of suicide inhibitors, mutagenesis studies, and homology modeling, it is still not fully understood how the enzyme catalyzes the formation of lanosterol. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, SCID mice have an impaired ability to make T or B lymphocytes, may not activate some components of the complement system, and cannot efficiently fight infections, nor reject tumors and transplants. (wikipedia.org)