Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Brain Abscess: A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Brain Infarction: Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Deep Brain Stimulation: Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.Nerve Tissue ProteinsHippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Brain Waves: Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Mice, Inbred C57BLCerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Brain Injury, Chronic: Conditions characterized by persistent brain damage or dysfunction as sequelae of cranial trauma. This disorder may result from DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; BRAIN EDEMA; and other conditions. Clinical features may include DEMENTIA; focal neurologic deficits; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; AKINETIC MUTISM; or COMA.Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Brain Concussion: A nonspecific term used to describe transient alterations or loss of consciousness following closed head injuries. The duration of UNCONSCIOUSNESS generally lasts a few seconds, but may persist for several hours. Concussions may be classified as mild, intermediate, and severe. Prolonged periods of unconsciousness (often defined as greater than 6 hours in duration) may be referred to as post-traumatic coma (COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY). (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p418)Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Encephalitis: Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Neuroimaging: Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Natriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Amyloid beta-Peptides: Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Stereotaxic Techniques: Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Brain Diseases, Metabolic: Acquired or inborn metabolic diseases that produce brain dysfunction or damage. These include primary (i.e., disorders intrinsic to the brain) and secondary (i.e., extracranial) metabolic conditions that adversely affect cerebral function.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Astrocytoma: Neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors. Fibrillary astrocytomas are the most common type and may be classified in order of increasing malignancy (grades I through IV). In the first two decades of life, astrocytomas tend to originate in the cerebellar hemispheres; in adults, they most frequently arise in the cerebrum and frequently undergo malignant transformation. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2013-7; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1082)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Prosencephalon: The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Brain Tissue Transplantation: Transference of brain tissue, either from a fetus or from a born individual, between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.Glioblastoma: A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.Septum of Brain: GRAY MATTER structures of the telencephalon and LIMBIC SYSTEM in the brain, but containing widely varying definitions among authors. Included here is the cortical septal area, subcortical SEPTAL NUCLEI, and the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Caudate Nucleus: Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Telencephalon: The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Postmortem Changes: Physiological changes that occur in bodies after death.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cerebrum: Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Neurodegenerative Diseases: Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.Nerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Diffusion Tensor Imaging: The use of diffusion ANISOTROPY data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging results to construct images based on the direction of the faster diffusing molecules.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Anatomy, Artistic: The study of the structures of organisms for applications in art: drawing, painting, sculpture, illustration, etc.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.
"Start-up compares well for ex-Admiral worker". Western Mail. 21 February 2007. Retrieved 2 February 2010. Sion Barry (11 ... "Best business brains receive their awards at celebration of local talent". Western Mail. 12 September 2009. Retrieved 2 ... The advertisements feature 'Gio' singing the 'Go Compare' tune (inspired by Over There) in various locations, and was voted as ... In direct response to this reaction, Go Compare deliberately subverted the campaign in July 2012 by running a series of adverts ...
Origin of language
Evidence from aphasia". Brain. 107 (2): 463-85. doi:10.1093/brain/107.2.463. PMID 6722512. McCarthy, RA.; Warrington, EK. (2001 ... This study compared the skull of A. ramidus with twenty nine chimpanzee skulls of different ages and found that in numerous ... In monkeys, this center is located in the depths of the brain related to emotions. In the human system, it is located in an ... Since the human brain proficiently extracts information about objects and events from the sounds they produce, TUS, and mimicry ...
Brain volume data and other craniometric data are used in mainstream science to compare modern-day animal species, and to ... Adult brain size varies from 974.9 cm3 (59.49 cu in) to 1,498.1 cm3 (91.42 cu in) in females and 1,052.9 cm3 (64.25 cu in) to ... Allen, JS; Damasio H; Grabowski TJ (2002). "Normal neuroanatomical variation in the human brain: An MRI-volumetric study". Am J ... Direct measurements involve examinations of brains from corpses, or more recently, imaging techniques such as MRI, which can be ...
"How does the benzamide antipsychotic amisulpride get into the brain?--An in vitro approach comparing amisulpride with clozapine ... Compared to these drugs, tiapride has a relatively moderate affinity for its target receptors, displacing 50 percent of 3H- ... Tiapride is a drug that selectively blocks D2 and D3 dopamine receptors in the brain. It is used to treat a variety of ... Benzamide and its derivatives are highly water-soluble, and because of their polarity are believed to cross the blood-brain ...
Contrasting and categorization of emotions
... the relative brain weight when compared to other species with the same body weight) among the dinosaurs. Russell had discovered ... Stenonychosaurus had one of the largest known brains of any dinosaur, relative to its body mass (comparable to modern birds).[5 ... Russell suggested that if the trend in Stenonychosaurus evolution had continued to the present, its brain case could by now ... Russell speculated that it would have required a navel, as a placenta aids the development of a large brain case. However, it ...
Jill Bolte Taylor
Taylor had a stroke, a blood vessel had erupted on the left side of her brain. She had been able to witness her own brain begin ... Taylor compares her stroke to being like an infant again. Her personal experience with a massive stroke, experienced in 1996 at ... Taylor began working in a lab in Boston where they were mapping out the brain to figure out which cells communicate with which ... It is the subject of her 2006 book My Stroke of Insight, A Brain Scientist's Personal Journey. She gave the first TED talk that ...
The human brain automatically changes speech made in noise through a process called the Lombard effect. Such speech has ... increased consonant intensity compared to adjacent vowels, and a number of phonological changes (including fewer reduced vowels ... increased intelligibility compared to normal speech. It is not only louder but the frequencies of its phonetic fundamental are ... baby talk-uses a simplified syntax and a small and easier-to-understand vocabulary than speech directed to adults Compared to ...
Radial arm maze
... the radial-arm and water maze compared". Cognitive Brain Research. 3 (3-4): 167-181. doi:10.1016/0926-6410(96)00004-3. PMID ... Behavioral and Brain Functions. 1 (1): 3. doi:10.1186/1744-9081-1-3. PMC 1143776 . PMID 15916698. Levin, ED (1988). " ... it was shown that subjects with Williams syndrome performed significantly worse compared to control subjects in multiple ...
Morris water navigation task
ISBN 0-444-50239-4. Hodges, H (June 1996). "Maze procedures: the radial-arm and water maze compared". Brain Research. Cognitive ... Brain Research Brain Research Reviews. 36 (1): 60-90. doi:10.1016/S0165-0173(01)00067-4. PMID 11516773. Saab, BJ; Saab AMP; ... Brain Research. Brain Research Reviews. 36 (1): 60-90. doi:10.1016/S0165-0173(01)00067-4. PMID 11516773. O'Keefe, RG; Garrud, P ... The task is also used as a tool to study drug-abuse, neural systems, neurotransmitters, and brain development. The basic ...
Edwards & Bohlen 1996, p. 6. "Brain - Invertebrate Brain - Ganglia, Nervous, System, and Head". HSBE. Retrieved April 3, 2015. ... "Experiment: Comparing speeds of two nerve fiber sizes". BackyardBrains. Retrieved April 4, 2015. Drewes, C.D., Landa, K.B. and ... Earthworms' brains consist of a pair of pear-shaped cerebral ganglia. These are located in the dorsal side of the alimentary ... A pair of circum-pharyngeal connectives from the brain encircle the pharynx and then connect with a pair of sub-pharyngeal ...
Assimilation was analyzed by comparing the cc group to the ce group while accommodation was analyzed by comparing the (ee group ... "Writing Affects the Brain Network of Reading in Chinese: A functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study". Human Brain Mapping. ... Results also revealed brain activation patterns for the passive viewing and lexical decision tasks. For passive viewing, there ... His goal is to develop a richer understanding of how language is processed in the brain. Charles Perfetti focuses on ...
Cerebral cortex Jenett A.; Schindelin J. E.; Heisenberg M. (2006). "The Virtual Insect Brain protocol: creating and comparing ... In the insect brain, the peduncles of the mushroom bodies extend through the midbrain. They are mainly composed of the long, ... They get their name from their roughly hemispherical calyx, a protuberance that is joining to the rest of the brain by a ... The mushroom bodies or corpora pedunculata are a pair of structures in the brain of insects, other arthropods, and some ...
Synaptic Self: How Our Brains Become Who We Are. New York: Penguin Books, 2002. 1-324. Print. Overview Finnerty lab, MRC Centre ... Prati, Enrico (2016). "Atomic scale nanoelectronics for quantum neuromorphic devices: comparing different materials". Int. J. ... Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd ed. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins Soderling TR, Derkach VA (2000). "Postsynaptic ... Debanne, D.; Daoudal G.; Sourdet V.; Russier M. (2003). "Brain plasticity and ion channels". Journal of Physiology, Paris. 97 ( ...
He has identified 90 nuclei (areas) in the rat and human brains. Comparing rats and humans, he has identified 61 homologous ... use Paxinos's maps and concepts of brain organisation. His human brain atlases are the most accurate available ... He was the first to produce a reliable stereotaxic space for the brain of rats, mice, and primates - a factor fueling the ... "Brain Structure and Function - incl. option to publish open access (Editorial Board)". Springer.com. Retrieved 20 March 2015. " ...
asserts that: "...machines fall short on two counts as compared to brains. Firstly, unlike brains, machines do not self- ... He sees the brain as a machine that reduces the infinite possibilities of a "quantum-like universal consciousness", which is a ... with W.A. Porter and J.L. Aravena). Consciousness and the universe : quantum physics, evolution, brain & mind, Cosmology ... Kak, S. The three languages of the brain: quantum, reorganizational, and associative. In Learning as Self-Organization, Karl ...
Mechanisms of schizophrenia
... schizophrenic brains have widened sulci as compared to normal brains, also with increased CSF volumes and reduced brain volume ... The brain ventricles are enlarged as compared to normal brains. The ventricles hold cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and enlarged ... also found reduced fractional anisotropy in patient brains compared to control brains. As with earlier findings, abnormalities ... Early studies have identified decreases in GAD67 mRNA and protein in post-mortem brains from schizophrenia patients compared to ...
The under-replication of rDNA occurs resulting in only 20% of DNA compared to the brain. Compare to the 47%, less rDNA in ... In comparing Adh-F homozygotes (wild-type) and Adh- nulls (homozygous null), research has shown that Adh- nulls have a lower ... "Entire Fruit Fly Brain Imaged with Electron Microscopy". The Scientist Magazine®. Retrieved 2018-07-15.. ... "FlyCircuit - A Database of Drosophila Brain Neurons". Retrieved 30 Aug 2013.. *^ Meinertzhagen, IA; O'Neil, SD (1991). " ...
... signal to the brain, whereas different rods on the outside of the stimulus will send a "dark" signal to the brain due to ... Compare unsharp masking in digital processing). This mechanism also creates the Mach band visual effect. Visual Lateral ... by Gordon L.; Gunther Palm (1988). Brain theory: Reprint Volume (Reprinted. ed.). Singapore [u.a.]: World Scientific. ISBN ... in tonotopic channels can be found in the inferior colliculus and at higher levels of auditory processing in the brain. However ...
This compares with 73% for affected males. The difference may be due to much smaller breast tissue in males as well as ... a first or second degree relative with a typical LFS malignancy (sarcoma, leukaemia, or cancers of the breast, brain or adrenal ... The classical LFS malignancies - sarcoma, cancers of the breast, brain and adrenal glands - comprise about 80% of all cancers ... This is followed by soft tissue sarcomas (20%), bone sarcoma (15%) and brain tumors - especially glioblastomas - (13%). Other ...
However, its brain was small, compared to other lemurs, shown by its mass to brain size ratio. An endocast of the skull was ... Compared to the size of the skull, the diameter of the orbits protrudes in a tabular form outwards and forwards, suggesting ... Species with a larger brain, later initiation of molar crowns, and longer formation of crown are considered to have more of an ... In contrast, Megaladapis is on a folivorous diet, despite having a smaller brain, early initiation of molar crowns, and fast ...
"D3 dopamine receptor mRNA is widely expressed in the human brain". Brain Res. 779 (1-2): 58-74. doi:10.1016/S0006-8993(97)01078 ... ADHD patients with the 4.7 allele also tend to have better cognitive performance and long-term outcomes compared to ADHD ... Paul Park (2007-08-09). "Food Addiction: From Drugs to Donuts, Brain Activity May be the Key". Paul M Johnson; Paul J Kenny ( ... Staley JK, Mash DC (1996). "Adaptive increase in D3 dopamine receptors in the brain reward circuits of human cocaine fatalities ...
Nervous system: The brain is the anteriormost part of the central nervous system. It is relatively small compared to the rest ... Emanating from the brain several nerves run to the sensory organs (eyes, antennulae, antennae). A pair of circumesophageal (" ... "surrounding the esophagus") connectives connect the brain with the cephalothoracic ganglion. The latter is a compaction of ...
The highest level of brain CYP2D activity was found in the substantia nigra ... The in vitro and in vivo studies have shown the ... Specifically, the urinary output of PEA was lower in a population of children suffering from ADHD, as compared to the healthy ... Wang X, Li J, Dong G, Yue J (February 2014). "The endogenous substrates of brain CYP2D". Eur. J. Pharmacol. 724: 211-218. doi: ... Compared to the classical monoamines, they are present in trace concentrations. They are distributed heterogeneously throughout ...
Finally, the image volume is compared across brains at every voxel. However, VBM can be sensitive to various artifacts, which ... VBM registers every brain to a template, which gets rid of most of the large differences in brain anatomy among people. Then ... One of the first VBM studies and one that came to attention in mainstream media was a study on the hippocampus brain structure ... The VBM analysis showed the back part of the posterior hippocampus was on average larger in the taxi drivers compared to ...
Differences were seen compared with the brain structures of normal children. The question now is whether these differences are ... It has been found that corrective surgery of the cranial vault alters the morphology of the brain compared with the situation ... The growth of the brain and the patency of the sutures depend on each other. Brain growth pushes the two sides of the patent ... This is shown when the brain expands in the fixed skull, which gives a faster rise in intracranial pressure than would be ...
1.6 Homeothermy compared with poikilothermy. *2 Vertebrates *2.1 Brain control. *2.2 In birds and mammals ... Brain controlEdit. Thermoregulation in both ectotherms and endotherms is controlled mainly by the preoptic area of the anterior ... Homeothermy compared with poikilothermyEdit. Homeothermy and poikilothermy refer to how stable an organism's deep-body ... Most body heat is generated in the deep organs, especially the liver, brain, and heart, and in contraction of skeletal muscles. ...
Comparing the electrical activity of the brain while singing awake and while dreaming. ... Solms, M. (2000). Dreaming and REM sleep are controlled by different brain mechanisms (23(6) ed.). Behavioral and Brain ... Brain activity. One of the central questions of sleep research is what part of the brain is driving dreams' video-auditory ... An H2(15)O PET study". Brain. 120 (7): 1173-1197. doi:10.1093/brain/120.7.1173.. ...
人類基因組 - 维基百科，自由的百科全
Differences were seen compared with the brain structures of normal children. The question now is whether these differences ... It has been found that corrective surgery of the cranial vault alters the morphology of the brain compared with the situation ... The growth of the brain and the patency of the sutures depend on each other. Brain growth pushes the two sides of the ... The primary failure is the absence of growth of the brain, rendering the sutures of the cranial vault useless. As a ...
Role of the brain. The brain stem can control food intake, because it contains neural circuits that detect hunger and ... The naturalistic study by Lowe and Fisher compared the emotional reactivity and emotional eating of normal and overweight ... The brain checks for glucoprivation on its side of the blood-brain barrier (since glucose is its fuel), while the liver ... Insulin also serves as a satiety signal to the brain. The brain detects insulin in the blood, which indicates that nutrients ...
Progress in Brain Research. Volume 122. pp. 393-412. doi:10.1016/S0079-6123(08)62153-6. ISBN 9780444500496. . PMID 10737073.. ... Hróbjartsson A, Gøtzsche PC (May 2001). "Is the placebo powerless? An analysis of clinical trials comparing placebo with no ... Friendly and colorful images of herbal treatments may look less threatening or dangerous when compared to conventional medicine ... while alternative medicines that have been tested nearly always have no measurable positive effect compared to a placebo.[35 ...
Emery, N.J.; Clayton, N.S. (2004). "Comparing the complex cognition of birds and primates". In Rogers, L.J.; Kaplan, G.T. ... their total brain-to-body mass ratio is equal to most great apes and cetaceans. A 2004 review suggests that the ... The expansion of its nidopallium is approximately the same in its relative size as the brain of chimpanzees, orangutans and ...
Positron emission tomography
Example: In practice, since the brain is normally a rapid user of glucose, and since brain pathologies such as Alzheimer's ... Studies have been performed examining the state of these receptors in patients compared to healthy controls in schizophrenia, ... Khan, FR; Henderson, JM (2013). "Deep Brain Stimulation Surgical Techniques". In Lozano, AM; Hallet, M (eds.). Brain ... For brain imaging, registration of CT, MRI and PET scans may be accomplished without the need for an integrated PET-CT or PET- ...
Each of these devices represented software which was capable of comparing a subject's EEG data to a normative database; the ... This computer analysis makes it possible to detect and quantify abnormal brain organization, to give a quantitative definition ... Neurometrics is the science of measuring the underlying organization of the brain's electrical activity. Certain brainwave ... of the severity of brain disease, and to identify subgroups of pathophysiological abnormalitites within groups of patients with ...
The predation-avoidance behavior of sleeping with one eye open, allowing one brain hemisphere to remain aware while the other ... but it is deeper and quieter compared to that of the female. When incubating a nest, or when offspring are present, females ... eggs and clutches are larger and nest survival is generally greater compared with mallards in their native range.  ...
Such research compares the brain activity associated with enumeration processes inside (i.e., 1-4 items) for subitizing, and ... Brain structures involved in subitizing and countingEdit. The work on the enumeration of afterimages supports the view ... "Experimental Brain Research. 204 (4): 525-537. doi:10.1007/s00221-010-2319-y. PMC 2903696. PMID 20549196.. ... A further source of research upon the neural processes of subitizing compared to counting comes from positron emission ...
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
More than 60% of RNA transcripts for coleoid brains are recoded by editing, compared to less than 1% for a human or fruit fly. ... The head includes the mouth and brain. The foot has evolved into a set of flexible, prehensile appendages, known as arms, that ... The octopus (along with cuttlefish) has the highest brain-to-body mass ratios of all invertebrates, and is also greater than ... which show a variety of complex reflex actions that persist even when they have no input from the brain. Unlike vertebrates ...
Their brains could also associate vision with light of this frequency. In humans the retinal ganglion cell photoreceptor ... To determine color, the visual system compares responses across a population of photoreceptors (specifically, the three ... "Scientists document light-sensitive birds eye within bird brain". birdsnews.com. Birds News. Retrieved 20 July 2017.. ... Finally, closest to the brain (and farthest from the field of view) is the outer segment, the part of the photoreceptor that ...
Passerine - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Passerines have significantly large brains compared to body size, and many passerines are comparatively intelligent. ... The advantage of this is that their brains grow larger during the fledgling stage. In birds which leave the nest early, their ... brains depend mainly on material in the egg. ...
Finally, the image volume is compared across brains at every voxel. However, VBM can be sensitive to various artifacts, which ... VBM registers every brain to a template, which gets rid of most of the large differences in brain anatomy among people. Then ... whole-brain tool that could detect the focal microstructural differences in brain anatomy in vivo between groups of individuals ... Compared to the region of interest approachEdit. Before the advent of VBM, the manual delineation of region of interest was the ...
Evolution of biological complexity
Brain. Circulating levels of androgens can influence human behavior because some neurons are sensitive to steroid ... In preadolescent male rats, neonatal rats treated with flutamide developed more depression-like symptoms compared to control ... Numerous reports have shown androgens alone are capable of altering the structure of the brain, but identification of which ... Evidence from neurogenesis (formation of new neurons) studies on male rats has shown that the hippocampus is a useful brain ...
Nonsteroidal antiandrogens have relatively low affinity for the AR compared to steroidal AR ligands. For example, ... Rebecca M. Jordan-Young (7 January 2011). Brain Storm. Harvard University Press. pp. 82-. ISBN 978-0-674-05879-8.. ... antiandrogens can interfere with the androgen-mediated sexual differentiation of the genitalia and brain of male fetuses. ... topical AR antagonists have been found much less effective compared to established treatments like benzoyl peroxide and ...
Neo-Piagetian theories of cognitive development
Brain and cognitive developmentEdit. Brain research shows that some general aspects of the brain, such as myelination, ... Compare, for instance, arithmetic operations in the quantitative system with mental rotation in the spatial system. The first ... temporal lobe of the brain), spatial (occipital lobe of the brain) or quantitative information (parietal lobe of the brain). ... Changes in the efficiency of the brain to represent information and allocate mental functions to brain networks (such as ...
Occupational health psychology
Compared to men, women were more exposed to incivility; incivility was associated with psychological distress and reduced job ... found that reactions to psychological stressors include increased activity in the brain axes which play an important role in ... Grandey, A.A., Kern, J.H., & Frone, M.R. (2007). Verbal abuse from outsiders versus insiders: Comparing frequency, impact on ... In a case-control study, Link, Dohrenwend, and Skodol found that, compared to depressed and well control subjects, ...
On May 17, 2017, Hayden was hit by a driver while riding his bicycle in Italy. He suffered a traumatic brain injury and died ... Hayden would, compared to previous years, start off the season well by finishing fourth three consecutive times at the Qatar, ... After Motegi, Hayden would continuously underperform compared to teammate Casey Stoner. He would finish 15th in Spain, 12th in ... The extent of Hayden's injuries was described as polytrauma including a traumatic brain injury that resulted in severe cerebral ...
Compared to mammalian skin, that of reptiles is rather thin and lacks the thick dermal layer that produces leather in mammals.[ ... Reptiles are generally considered less intelligent than mammals and birds. The size of their brain relative to their body ... The reptilian nervous system contains the same basic part of the amphibian brain, but the reptile cerebrum and cerebellum are ... It is often also distinctly discolored compared to the rest of the body and may lack some of the external sculpting features ...
Individual frames of a video sequence are compared from one frame to the next, and the video compression codec sends only the ... Models of the human ear-brain combination incorporating such effects are often called psychoacoustic models. ... It can achieve superior compression compared to other techniques such as the better-known Huffman algorithm. It uses an ... Inter-frame coding works by comparing each frame in the video with the previous one. ...
2003). "A low-carbohydrate as compared with a low-fat diet in severe obesity". N. Engl. J. Med. 348 (21): 2074-81. doi:10.1056/ ... During prolonged fasting or very low calorie diets the reduction of blood glucose, the preferred energy source of the brain, ... Once glycogen is depleted the body begins to fuel the brain using ketones, while also metabolizing body protein (including but ... In a randomized controlled trial that compared four diets that varied in carbohydrate amount and glycemic index found ...
... one influential hypothesis is that there is a breakdown in brain systems that compare motor commands with the feedback received ... Brain. 106 (3): 623-42. doi:10.1093/brain/106.3.623. PMID 6640273. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-05-26.. ... It has become possible to study the living brain, and researchers can now watch the brain's decision-making process at work. A ... Brain research. Brain research reviews. 31 (2-3): 357-63. doi:10.1016/S0165-0173(99)00052-1. PMID 10719163.. ...
NOVA | Alien From Earth | Compare the Brains image 1 | PBS
Image 1) In this interactive feature, see how the hobbit-like creature of Flores brain measures up to that of a modern human, ... Louis and several others, created a virtual endocast, or computer model, of the hobbits brain (above). They used CT scans made ... They then compared the hobbits virtual endocast with those of a modern woman, a Homo erectus, a chimpanzee, and a modern ...
NAD+ Nicotinamide Riboside Ribovail Brain Booster Compare to Life Extension | eBay
NAD+ can help generate energy in mitochondrial-dense tissues, like muscle, brain, and liver. ... Regenerate Aging Brain and Body cells. COMPARE: Compare to Life Extension NAD+ and SAVE BIG Bucks. Main Purpose: Boost cellular ... Details about NAD+ Nicotinamide Riboside Ribovail Brain Booster Compare to Life Extension. ... General / Brain / And Whole Body Health. Activity: ... NAD+ Nicotinamide Riboside Ribovail Brain Booster Compare to ...
Relaxed genetic control of cortical organization in human brains compared with chimpanzees | PNAS
2007) Genetic influences on human brain structure: A review of brain imaging studies in twins. Hum Brain Mapp 28(6):464-473. ... Heritability for brain size and lobe and sulcal dimensions. (A) Heritability for brain size (brain volume including white and ... 2013) Brain reorganization, not relative brain size, primarily characterizes anthropoid brain evolution. Proc R Soc B Biol Sci ... we still have a very incomplete understanding of what is special about the human brain compared with the brains of our closest ...
Campden Hill Conservatives stroke poster: Sick Twitter account compares Ed Miliband to brain damage victim - Mirror Online
Campden Hill Conservatives stroke poster: Sick Twitter account compares Ed Miliband to brain damage victim. The offensive image ... Disgusting: The mocked-up poster which compared Ed Miliband to a stroke victim. Get the biggest politics stories by email. ... A Tory Twitter account has sparked outrage by comparing Ed Miliband to a stroke victim. ...
Dehydration enhances pain-evoked activation in the human brain compared with rehydration. - PubMed - NCBI
Dehydration enhances pain-evoked activation in the human brain compared with rehydration.. Ogino Y1, Kakeda T, Nakamura K, ... Negative effects of dehydration on the human brain and cognitive function have been reported. In this study, we examined the ... Our findings suggest that dehydration brings about increased brain activity related to painful stimuli together with enhanced ... effects of dehydration on pain thresholds and cortical activations in response to pain, compared with rehydration with an oral ...
Marijuana brain studies: Comparing pot with alcohol and cigarettes on health and cancer risks.
The Journal of Neuroscience recently published a study linking recreational marijuana use to subtle changes in brain structure ... Thats low compared with dependence rates for other drugs: More than 15 percent of people who drink become alcoholics, and 32 ... Comparing alcohol with marijuana-aside from differences in acute toxicity and driving competence-is also impractical. ... As a letter writer to the Journal of Neuroscience noted, its possible that pre-existing brain differences cause some people to ...
Diagnostic accuracy of MRI compared to CCT in patients with brain metastases. - PubMed - NCBI
Comparing Head Impacts in Youth Tackle and Flag Football | Concussion | Traumatic Brain Injury | CDC Injury Center
CDCs Traumatic Brain Injury website featuring data, reports, and fact sheets.. *CDCs Pediatric Mild TBI Guideline to help ... Comparing Head Impacts in Youth Tackle and Flag Football. ... Brain Trauma Guidelines. *TBI in the US: Assessing Outcomes in ... CDCs HEADS UP initiative to improve prevention, recognition, and response to concussion and other serious brain injuries among ...
Compare Current Impaired+Brain+Function+Due+To+Liver+Disease Drugs and Medications with Ratings & Reviews
... brain+function+due+to+liver+disease? Find a list of current medications, their possible side effects, dosage, and efficacy when ... used to treat or reduce the symptoms of impaired+brain+function+due+to+liver+disease ... Considering taking medication to treat impaired+brain+function+due+to+liver+disease? Below is a list of common medications used ... to treat or reduce the symptoms of impaired+brain+function+due+to+liver+disease. Follow the links to read common uses, side ...
Compare Current Prevention for a Blood Clot Going to the Brain Drugs and Medications with Ratings & Reviews
... and efficacy when used to treat or reduce the symptoms of prevention for a blood clot going to the brain ... Looking for medication to treat prevention for a blood clot going to the brain? Find a list of current medications, their ... Considering taking medication to treat prevention for a blood clot going to the brain? Below is a list of common medications ... 180 medications found for prevention for a blood clot going to the brain ...
MRI technique lets researchers directly compare similarities, differences between monkey and human brain
Researchers have developed a new way to use a decade-old imaging method to directly compare the brains of monkeys with those of ... The researchers used the same fMRI technique on humans and on monkeys to compare activity in an area of the brain called the ... MRI technique lets researchers directly compare similarities, differences between monkey and human brain. 22.10.2002 ... Blood carries both substances, and both can cross the blood-brain barrier. When a particular region of the brain is activated, ...
ChillFactor, 1868[^]807 Chill Factor Brain Freeze Green - review, compare prices, buy online
... price comparison and where to buy online at Compare Store Prices UK for cheap deals ... ChillFactor, 1868[^]807 Chill Factor Brain Freeze Green. The ChillFactor Frozen Brain slushy maker allows you to make delicious ... The ChillFactor Frozen Brain slushy maker allows you to make delicious slushies in seconds! No ice, no blenders, no mess! Its ... watch the slushy swirl around the monsters brain for super cool effect! Once you have made your slushy you can use the spoon ...
Brain Aneurysm Travel Insurance | Compare Quotes | AllClear Travel
Discover everything you need to know about brain aneurysm travel insurance & compare multiple quotes online for free. ... Unruptured brain aneurysm travel insurance. A brain aneurysm is a blood vessel in the brain, which is weak and bulging. The ... Brain aneurysm travel insurance. Read on to find out about brain aneurysm travel insurance or click the Quote Now button if ... If youve been diagnosed with a brain aneurysm, you will need specialist brain aneurysm travel insurance. ...
Connection and Deformation of Pathological Images via a Macro Image for Comparing Different Modality Images of Brain Tumor
Comparing Brain Injuries of Combat Soldiers to Those of Athletes - Brain and Spinal Cord
Brain Injury *Basic Facts About TBI *How the Brain Works *Brain Function *Left Hand Brain Function ... Compare these findings to retired NFL players. People have agreed that their behavioral problems stem from brain injuries, but ... Car Crash Traumatic Brain Injury Yes, a car crash can cause a traumatic brain injury (TBI) in many ways. In fact, according to ... TBI Traumatic Brain Injury A traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs when there is a "bump, blow, or jolt to the head" that causes ...
A Prospective Phase III Trial to Compare Stereotactic Radiosurgery Versus Whole Brain Radiation Therapy - Full Text View -...
Brain Neoplasms. Non-melanoma brain metastases. Stereotactic radiosurgery. SRS. Whole brain radiation therapy. WBRT. ... A Prospective Phase III Trial to Compare Stereotactic Radiosurgery Versus Whole Brain Radiation Therapy. The safety and ... The goal of this clinical research study is to compare stereotactic radiosurgery to whole brain radiation therapy in patients ... Brain Neoplasms. Central Nervous System Neoplasms. Nervous System Neoplasms. Neoplasms by Site. Neoplasms. Brain Diseases. ...
A randomized double-blind crossover trial comparing subthalamic and pallidal deep brain stimulation for dystonia.
... as a stimulation target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) for medically refractory dystonia. In a prospective double-blind ... aim was to compare the subthalamic nucleus (STN) with the globus pallidus internus (GPi) ... Deep Brain Stimulation / instrumentation, methods*. Double-Blind Method. Dystonia / physiopathology, surgery, therapy*. ... OBJECT: The authors aim was to compare the subthalamic nucleus (STN) with the globus pallidus internus (GPi) as a stimulation ...
Phase I Compare OS in Post-CyberKnife Radiosurgery Tx in 1-3 VS 4 or More Brain Metastases - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Phase I Compare OS in Post-CyberKnife Radiosurgery Tx in 1-3 VS 4 or More Brain Metastases. The safety and scientific validity ... The exclusion criteria are the converse of the above, i.e. patients without a brain tumor metastasis or brain tumor metastases ... The importance of this new knowledge will be to determine the treatment efficacy of CK RS with 1-3 versus 4 or more brain ... The primary aim of this study is to estimate the effect of the number of brain tumor metastases on survival after adjusting for ...
Comparing two randomized deep brain stimulation trials for Parkinson's disease in: Journal of Neurosurgery - Ahead of print
Weaver FMFollett KStern MHur KHarris CMarks WJ Jr: Bilateral deep brain stimulation vs best medical therapy for patients with ... Weaver FMFollett KStern MHur KHarris CMarks WJ Jr: Bilateral deep brain stimulation vs best medical therapy for patients with ... Follett KAWeaver FMStern MHur KHarris CLLuo P: Pallidal versus subthalamic deep-brain stimulation for Parkinsons disease. N ... Follett KAWeaver FMStern MHur KHarris CLLuo P: Pallidal versus subthalamic deep-brain stimulation for Parkinsons disease. N ...
Adrenomedullin, endothelin, neuropeptide Y, atrial, brain, and C-natriuretic prohormone peptides compared as early heart...
Adrenomedullin, endothelin, neuropeptide Y, atrial, brain, and C-natriuretic prohormone peptides compared as early heart ... Natriuretic Peptide, Brain. Nerve Tissue Proteins / blood. Neuropeptide Y / blood. Peptide Fragments / blood*. Peptides / blood ... brain (BNP) and C-natriuretic peptides; N-terminal BNP prohormone; adrenomedullin; neuropeptide Y and endothelin. RESULTS: ...
BestBets: Novel GCS-P compared to Traditional GCS in predicting survival with traumatic brain injury
PRIME PubMed | A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials Comparing Hypertonic Sodium Solutions and Mannitol for...
A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials Comparing Hypertonic Sodium Solutions and Mannitol for Traumatic Brain ... An equiosmolar study on early intracranial physiology and long term outcome in severe traumatic brain injury comparing mannitol ... A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials Comparing Hypertonic Sodium Solutions and Mannitol for Traumatic Brain ... "A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials Comparing Hypertonic Sodium Solutions and Mannitol for Traumatic Brain ...
When you are content to be simply yourself and don't compare or compete, everyone will respect you. | Pick the Brain |...
A Study of Brain Chemistry in Depressed Patients Compared to Healthy Patients Who are not Depressed - Mayo Clinic
A Study of Brain Chemistry in Depressed Patients Compared to Healthy Patients Who are not Depressed. * Print details ... The purpose of this study is to study brain chemistry in depressed patients compared to healthy patients who are not depressed. ... Prior brain surgery, risk for increased intracranial pressure such as a brain tumor ...
Study Shows Dramatic Difference In Brain Activity With EHS Cases As Compared To Controls (Non EHS)
... ... Study Shows Dramatic Difference In Brain Activity With EHS Cases As Compared To Controls (Non EHS). vrijdag, 08 december 2017 ... Pilot Study Shows Dramatic Difference In Brain Activity With EHS (Electrohypersensitive) Cases As Compared To Controls (Non EHS ... news-releases/pilot-study-shows-dramatic-difference-in-brain-activity-with-ehs-electrohypersensitive-cases-as-compared-to- ...
Use of stent, compared to medications, increases risk of stroke in patients with narrowed artery within the brain - Healthcanal...
Use of stent, compared to medications, increases risk of stroke in patients with narrowed artery within the brain. ... Brain model offers new insights into damage caused by stroke and other injuries ... Researchers use cell therapy to recover damaged brain areas in mice that suffered a stroke ... Zika infection after birth shown to have long term brain and behavior issues in animals ...
Traumatic Brain Injury Resource Guide - Research Reports - Motor proficiency in children with mild traumatic brain injury...
mild traumatic brain injury did not differ from the norm in terms of fine- or. gross-motor proficiency compared with a control ... mild traumatic brain injury compared with an uninjured control group. Inclusion. criteria were based on the definitions issued ... Research Reports - Motor proficiency in children with mild traumatic brain injury compared with a control group. J Rehabil Med ... brain injury (age range 4-17 years) and a control group of 79 healthy children.. Methods: Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor ...
Relationships between brain metabolite levels, functional connectivity, and negative mood in urologic chronic pelvic pain...
These results are the first to uncover abnormal GABA and choline levels in the brain of UCPPS patients compared to controls. ... ACC choline levels were therefore compared with the regions resting functional connectivity to the rest of the brain. Higher ... Compared to a group of age-matched healthy subjects, there were significantly higher levels of choline (p = 0.006, uncorrected ... Relationships between brain metabolite levels, functional connectivity, and negative mood in urologic chronic pelvic pain ...
Comparing GPi vs STN deep brain stimulation for advanced Parkinson disease | Congress of Neurological Surgeons
Is GPi or the STN is the optimal target for Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson Disease (PD)? 3-year follow-up results ... Home , News & Advocacy , Neurosurgery Watch , Comparing GPi vs STN deep brain stimulation for advanced Parkinson disease ... Is GPi or the STN is the optimal target for Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson Disease (PD)? 3-year follow-up results ... However, it is difficult to compare the results of the two studies due to methodological differences. The reasons for the lack ...
Click evoked otoacoustic emissions compared with brain stem electric response. | Archives of Disease in Childhood
... emission test has been found to be practical with a mean test time of 12.1 minutes compared with 21.0 minutes for brain stem ... It is concluded that the otoacoustic emission test would make a good first screen to be followed by the brain stem electric ... The hearing of 346 babies taken largely from a neonatal intensive care unit has been tested by otoacoustic emissions and brain ... Twenty of the 21 surviving infants who failed brain stem electric response in the neonatal period did not produce an emission. ...
TraumaticNeuronsHumansAmyloidCognitionResearchersTreat brain aneurysmsBehavioralNeural activityFunctionalCorticalSignalsFMRI brainBlood vesselAdultsTomographySignificantlyCochlear implantsWhole brain radiation therapyStrokeStereotactic radiosurgeryHuman brainMedicationsCross the blood-brain bAbilitiesActivityChimpanzeesRapidlyWBRTCognitive functionFrontalAnatomyRegionsDamageParticipantsMagneticRevealFunctionMethodsPhase
- CDC's Traumatic Brain Injury website featuring data, reports, and fact sheets. (cdc.gov)
- The scientists call the damage to the brain by explosions chronic traumatic encephalopathy, or CTE. (brainandspinalcord.org)
- Researchers at the Center for the Study of Traumatic Encephalopathy at Boston University believe this is the case and that many of these veterans are experiencing some kind of organic brain injury. (brainandspinalcord.org)
- More than 220,000 of the 2.3 million troops who have been deployed in Afghanistan and Iraq since 2001 have been diagnosed with some kind of traumatic brain injury. (brainandspinalcord.org)
- Yes, a car crash can cause a traumatic brain injury (TBI) in many ways. (brainandspinalcord.org)
- A traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs when there is a "bump, blow, or jolt to the head" that causes issues with the functions of the. (brainandspinalcord.org)
- Can a Fall Cause Traumatic Brain Injury? (brainandspinalcord.org)
- To comparatively evaluate hypertonic sodium (HTS) and mannitol in patients following acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) on the outcomes of all-cause mortality, neurological disability, intracranial pressure (ICP) change from baseline, ICP treatment failure, and serious adverse events. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Objective: To assess motor proficiency and movement disorders in children with mild traumatic brain injury compared with an uninjured control group. (neuroskills.com)
- Subjects: A group of 27 children with mild traumatic brain injury (age range 4-17 years) and a control group of 79 healthy children. (neuroskills.com)
- For balance, the mild traumatic brain injury group had a significantly poorer performance than controls (p = 0.03). (neuroskills.com)
- Tremor was significantly more frequent in the mild traumatic brain injury group (p = 0.004), and mixed-handedness was significantly over-represented in the mild traumatic brain injury group (p = 0.02). (neuroskills.com)
- Conclusion: In this study, children with mild traumatic brain injury did not differ from the norm in terms of fine- or gross-motor proficiency compared with a control group of uninjured children, but a difference in balance skill (p = 0.03), mixed-handedness (p = 0.02) and tremor (p = 0.004) was detected, to the injured children's detriment. (neuroskills.com)
- Multivariate analysis of structural and diffusion imaging in traumatic brain injury. (springer.com)
- Serum glial fibrillary acidic protein is a highly specific biomarker for traumatic brain injury in humans compared with S-100B and neuron-specific enolase. (semanticscholar.org)
- BACKGROUND Serum glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is a specific predictor of brain damage and neurologic outcome in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). (semanticscholar.org)
- Blood-derived biochemical markers and early clinical trends after severe traumatic brain injury: utility or futility? (semanticscholar.org)
- Prognostic value of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) for prediction of post-concussion symptoms following a mild traumatic brain injury: a systematic review. (semanticscholar.org)
- Role of Caspase-3-Mediated Apoptosis in Chronic Caspase-3-Cleaved Tau Accumulation and Blood-Brain Barrier Damage in the Corpus Callosum after Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats. (semanticscholar.org)
- This might be a traumatic brain injury (TBI), caused in a road traffic or workplace accident, or as a result of clinical negligence - for example failure to treat a stroke, or anaesthetic error. (lexology.com)
- The first priority for a person with a traumatic brain injury is of course to find excellent medical care and rehabilitation. (lexology.com)
- Trends in Emergency Department Visits due to Contact Sports-Related Traumatic Brain Injuries Among Children-United States, 2001-2018. (cdc.gov)
- Traumatic Brain Injury-Related Deaths by Race/Ethnicity, Sex, Intent, and Mechanism of Injury - United States, 2000-2017. (cdc.gov)
- In the study of 54,763 women, investigators found a nearly three-fold elevated risk of lupus among women with probable PTSD and more than two-fold higher risk of lupus among women who had experienced any traumatic event compared with women not exposed to trauma. (sciencecodex.com)
- On January 13, 2020, Juan was involved in a bicycle accident that-despite wearing a helmet and protective gear-left him with a serious type of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) known as Diffuse Axonal Injury (DAI). (metalinjection.net)
- When a particular region of the brain is activated, the blood flow to that area temporarily increases in order to supply the neurons with fresh oxygen and glucose. (innovations-report.com)
- Contrary to the belief that adult neural stem cells can manufacture all types of neurons, Alvarez-Buylla and his team has discovered that a stem cell's particular location in the brain determines what type of neuron it produces. (ucsf.edu)
- According to Bach, seeing stars results from a mechanical stimulation and activation of the neurons in the eye, which your brain misinterprets as light. (go.com)
- The brain parenchyma consists of neurons and glial cells . (wisegeek.com)
- The neurons fulfill three main functions: afferent neurons are used to transmit messages from sensory organs to the brain and Central Nervous System (CNS), while efferent neurons send information and commands from the CNS to the muscles and glands. (wisegeek.com)
- Brain parenchyma is partially made up of neurons that communicate with organs or muscles of the body. (wisegeek.com)
- Neurons transplanted into Parkinson's-affected brains appear healthy after 14 years, according to research done at Harvard University and McLean Hospital and published June 5th 2014 in the journal Cell Reports . (thirdage.com)
- The study of hominin brain evolution has focused largely on the neocortical expansion and reorganization undergone by humans as inferred from the endocranial fossil record. (pnas.org)
- In an attempt to identify fundamental developmental differences, we have estimated the genetic bases of brain size and cortical organization in chimpanzees and humans by studying phenotypic similarities between individuals with known kinship relationships. (pnas.org)
- We show that, although heritability for brain size and cortical organization is high in chimpanzees, cerebral cortical anatomy is substantially less genetically heritable than brain size in humans, indicating greater plasticity and increased environmental influence on neurodevelopment in our species. (pnas.org)
- Although some of these changes have been linked to certain genetic variants in the human lineage [either shared with other late hominin species or exclusive to modern humans ( 14 , 15 )], exploring brain evolution in hominins is challenging because of the limitations of the endocranial fossil record ( 4 , 5 ). (pnas.org)
- Researchers have developed a new way to use a decade-old imaging method to directly compare the brains of monkeys with those of humans. (innovations-report.com)
- The researchers used the same fMRI technique on humans and on monkeys to compare activity in an area of the brain called the visual cortex, the region that processes vision and motion. (innovations-report.com)
- The results suggest that, as humans evolved, some portions of their brains adapted to produce specific abilities, such as controlling fine motor skills," Orban said. (innovations-report.com)
- Many of the diseases of keen interest to neural stem cell biologists - from Alzheimer's to autism to stroke - affect the neocortex, the region of the brain that differs most between humans and rodents, he noted. (ucsf.edu)
- This functional lateralization and associated brain asymmetry are well documented in humans, but little is known about brain asymmetry in our closest living relatives, the great apes. (mpg.de)
- Most humans have a combination of a more projecting left occipital lobe (located in the back of the brain) with a more projecting right frontal lobe. (mpg.de)
- Humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans (from left to right) have differently shaped endocasts and brains (see top row). (mpg.de)
- The researchers concluded that fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET, which measures the brain's glucose consumption as a marker of neural activity, is a stronger approach for assessing the progression and severity of Alzheimer's and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) as compared to florbetapir-PET scans, which reveal amyloid protein deposits in the brain. (j-alz.com)
- Our results support the notion that amyloid imaging does not reflect levels of brain function, and therefore it may be of limited value for assessing patients with cognitive decline. (j-alz.com)
- Two of the most significant biomarkers found in Alzheimer's are decreased glucose uptake and the accumulation of amyloid plaques in the brain. (j-alz.com)
- While the presence of amyloid plaques in the brain is considered as being characteristic of Alzheimer's, some studies have shown that large amounts of amyloid plaques were present in healthy, non-demented individuals. (j-alz.com)
- Conversely, recent clinical trials have shown that the intended removal of amyloid from the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease led to no change in, or even worsened, cognitive performance. (j-alz.com)
- β-Amyloid precursor protein and tau protein levels are differently regulated in human cerebellum compared to brain regions vulnerable to Alzheimer's type neurodegeneration. (ox.ac.uk)
- This multi-faceted product delivers powerful brain-boosting nutrients to keep Neurotransmitter Support: Acetyl-L-Carnitine, Choline and DMAE are key precursors to acetylcholine (a brain chemical involved in memory and cognition). (vitadigest.com)
- Brain asymmetry is commonly interpreted as crucial for human brain function and cognition because it reflects functional lateralization. (mpg.de)
- Functional brain tissue has different cells that control cognition and body functions. (wisegeek.com)
- The researchers used a novel "global quantification approach" to generate data from five different regions of the brain, which were correlated with the results from the MMSE scores. (j-alz.com)
- And now, for the first time, researchers find similar changes in the brains of non-alcoholic students who binge drink. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Researchers uncover changes in brain activity associated with binge drinking. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- To date, however, researchers have not investigated whether or not there are measurable changes in a binge drinker's brain at rest. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Researchers from the University of Minho in Portugal - led by Eduardo López-Caneda - set out to investigate measurable differences in the brains of binge drinkers when not carrying out tests. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The other BU researchers on the project are Michelle Porche , a Wheelock College of Education & Human Development clinical associate professor of applied human development, and Jonathan Comer , a CAS adjunct associate professor of psychological and brain sciences. (bu.edu)
- UC Davis researchers are measuring activity in different brain areas as deaf children with cochlear implants process speech. (ucdavis.edu)
Treat brain aneurysms1
- Comparisons of modern human brains with those of chimpanzees provide an additional line of evidence to define key neural traits that have emerged in human evolution and that underlie our unique behavioral specializations. (pnas.org)
- Comparisons of chimpanzee and human brains therefore are essential to reveal the neural traits that differ between the two species, that underlie their behavioral specializations, and that must have evolved after they split from their last common ancestor. (pnas.org)
- People have agreed that their behavioral problems stem from brain injuries, but people have not reached that agreement yet regarding service men. (brainandspinalcord.org)
- To directly test this prediction, we studied both behavioral and brain signal variability during cognitive flexibility (i.e., task switching) and cognitive stability (i.e., distractor inhibition) in a sample of healthy human subjects and developed an efficient and easy-to-implement analysis approach to assess BOLD-signal variability in event-related fMRI task paradigms. (jneurosci.org)
- Many young people with ASD were thought to have a childhood version of schizophrenia, said Dr Noah Sasson, assistant professor in the UT Dallas School of Behavioral and Brain Sciences. (health24.com)
- The method uses functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) - a technique that measures blood volume and flow and blood-oxygen levels in the brain. (innovations-report.com)
- The advantage of functional MRI is that scientists can see which regions of the brain are active," Orban said. (innovations-report.com)
- ACC choline levels were therefore compared with the region's resting functional connectivity to the rest of the brain. (urotoday.com)
- The functional lateralization is reflected by morphological asymmetry of the brain. (mpg.de)
- The brain parenchyma is the functional tissue in the brain. (wisegeek.com)
- While his subjects listened to excerpts of 30 different tunes through headphones, Janata recorded their brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging, or fMRI. (ucdavis.edu)
- Prior to surgery, we conducted functional imaging tests of the brain to determine exactly where to put the two grids," says UPMC neurosurgeon Elizabeth Tyler-Kabara. (tgdaily.com)
- While some view consciousness as an epiphenomenon of brains, Dehaene sees it as playing functional roles, such as Collapsing many lower-level probability assessments into one conscious perception sampled from the Bayesian posterior distribution, allowing us to make a single decision, in a similar way as the FBI summarizes lots of low-level data into a single brief for the president of the United States. (wikipedia.org)
- The implant bypasses most of our normal hearing process, electronically connecting a microphone directly to the cochlear, the structure in the inner ear that collects nerve signals from the ear and sends them to the brain. (ucdavis.edu)
- This technology, which interprets brain signals to guide a robot arm, has enormous potential that we are continuing to explore. (tgdaily.com)
- Prospective, randomized trials comparing HTS and mannitol in adults (≥16 years) with severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤8) and elevated ICP were included. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Along with collaborators at Southern Methodist University, Sasson is conducting new research at the UT Dallas Callier Center for Communication Disorders that compares the basis for social interaction impairments between adults with ASD and adults with schizophrenia. (health24.com)
- This of course ruled out positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) brain scanning. (stopumts.nl)
- Another scanning method that is commonly used for mapping brain activity is positron emission tomography or PET, which uses radiation. (medicalnewstoday.com)
Whole brain radiation therapy1
- A Tory Twitter account has sparked outrage by comparing Ed Miliband to a stroke victim. (mirror.co.uk)
- A stroke is a "brain attack" and occurs when blood supply to the brain is cut off. (news-medical.net)
- According to Kenneth A. Levin, M.D., Medical Director, The Valley Hospital Stroke Center, "Most strokes are caused by a blood clot that has built up on the wall of a brain artery or one that has traveled there from another part of the body (an embolic stroke or ischemic stroke). (news-medical.net)
- Despite decades of research, we still have a very incomplete understanding of what is special about the human brain compared with the brains of our closest fossil and living relatives. (pnas.org)
- Dehydration enhances pain-evoked activation in the human brain compared with rehydration. (nih.gov)
- Negative effects of dehydration on the human brain and cognitive function have been reported. (nih.gov)
- The observations demonstrate that both mature APP as well as total APP and tau protein levels are greatly reduced in human cerebellum, a region of the human brain most resistant to AD pathology. (ox.ac.uk)
- Identification of human brain tumour initiating cells. (nature.com)
- SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Recent neuroscientific research showed that the human brain signal is intrinsically variable and suggested that this variability improves performance. (jneurosci.org)
Cross the blood-brain b2
- The left and right side of our brain are specialized for some cognitive abilities. (mpg.de)
- Often when people gain what seems like amazing abilities from brain damage, what they've actually gained is an intense focus on a particular skill, sometimes to the detriment of other things, and that leads them to become extraordinary at that skill. (wisegeek.com)
- Here we identify brain circuits that are selectively engaged in children by their mother's voice and show that this brain activity predicts social communication abilities. (pnas.org)
- Comparing the effects of congenital and late visual impairments on visuospatial mental abilities. (thefreelibrary.com)
- It also provides an indirect measure of neuronal activity in different regions of the brain. (innovations-report.com)
- A unique aspect of this pathway is that its function depends on the state of consciousness of the brain and is associated with norepinephrine activity. (asahq.org)
- Earlier studies showed that alcoholic people have measurable changes in their resting brain activity. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Electrodes were attached to the participants' heads to assess electrical activity across a number of brain regions. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- They use electroencephalography, or EEG, to measure brain activity during visual and auditory processing. (ucdavis.edu)
- By mapping the brain activity of a group of subjects while they listened to music, a researcher at the University of California, Davis, now thinks he has the answer: The region of the brain where memories of our past are supported and retrieved also serves as a hub that links familiar music, memories and emotion. (ucdavis.edu)
- When he took a look at his fMRI images and compared them to these self-reported reactions, Janata discovered that the degree of salience of the memory corresponded to the amount of activity in the upper (dorsal) part of the medial pre-frontal cortex. (ucdavis.edu)
- In addition, the children's brain activity while performing one such test was measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a brain imaging technique that is safe for use in children. (mpg.de)
- Neuroscientists have found four "signatures of consciousness": Greatly amplified brain activity in many regions, including parietal and prefrontal circuits. (wikipedia.org)
- It has been unclear whether adding WBRT to SRS improves survival or neurologic function compared with SRS alone. (newswise.com)
- Salvage (treatment after other measures have been unsuccessful) brain treatment was less frequently required in the WBRT + SRS group (n = 10) than with SRS alone (n = 29). (newswise.com)
- Omega Brain Performance 60 Softgels Rainbow Light Balanced Omega Formula supports brain function and healthy aging with full spectrum omega fatty acids, including the researched level of 400 mg DHA for cognitive function, memory, focus and vision. (vitadigest.com)
- Studies show that Ginkgo extracts can enhance blood flow to the brain, improve cognitive function and enhance memory. (vitadigest.com)
- Taking the literature as a whole, there is evidence suggesting that marijuana use causes structural changes in three parts of the brain: the frontal lobes, temporal lobes, and the cerebellum. (slate.com)
- Dehaene compares conscious perception to breaking "through the dike of the frontal and parietal networks, suddenly flooding into a much larger expanse of cortex" (p. 124). (wikipedia.org)
- We have already shown that the promoter and surrounding regions of Rbp3 and Rho are differentially methylated in photoreceptors, which express both genes, compared to other retina cells (and other tissues), which do not express them. (arvojournals.org)
- Enrichment was confirmed using QPCR of the transcription start site regions of Rbp3 and Rho (which are relatively unmethylated in retina and methylated in brain). (arvojournals.org)
- But within that one centimeter lie some of the most important and interesting parts of the brain, including regions that deal with memory, language, and self-awareness. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- This pattern includes a more backwards projecting left hemisphere and a more forward projecting right hemisphere with localized larger surface areas (orange) in one hemisphere as compared to corresponding smaller regions (blue) in the other hemisphere. (mpg.de)
- Binge drinking could be curbed by switching off a circuit between two brain regions. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- On February 10 this year, two quarter-inch square electrode grids with 96 tiny contact points each in the regions of Scheuermann's brain that would normally control right arm and hand movement. (tgdaily.com)
- Considering taking medication to treat impaired+brain+function+due+to+liver+disease? (webmd.com)
- Rainbow Light Omega Brain Performance supports healthy aging and brain function with research-based Omega potencies PLUS science-backed ingredients. (vitadigest.com)
- 50 mg Phosphatidylserine, a phospholipid structurally identical to that in brain cell membranes, supports brain function in the elderly. (vitadigest.com)
- After that period both groups will receive memory and other tests of brain function, and then the groups will switch. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Changes in age can affect the way tissues function in the brain, also known as brain parenchyma. (wisegeek.com)
- Though it doesn't perform the cognitive and management functions that the brain parenchyma does, it's still essential for the brain to function, since it provides it with nutrients and oxygen from the rest of the body. (wisegeek.com)
- This should be seen as important as the acute life-saving phase, but all too often it is not, as financial resources within the NHS are limited and often cannot be utilised to provide the type of support brain injured people and their families require in the long term. (lexology.com)
- We were interested in finding out whether this is only related to general maturation of the brain or also to school entrance, which often occurs in this phase of life," says lead author Garvin Brod, formerly at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development, now at the German Institute for International Educational Research (DIPF). (mpg.de)