Comovirus: A genus of plant viruses of the family COMOVIRIDAE in which the bipartite genome is encapsidated in separate icosahedral particles. Mosaic and mottle symptoms are characteristic, and transmission is exclusively by leaf-feeding beetles. Cowpea mosaic virus is the type species.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.GermanyRed Cross: International collective of humanitarian organizations led by volunteers and guided by its Congressional Charter and the Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross Movement, to provide relief to victims of disaster and help people prevent, prepare for, and respond to emergencies.Classification: The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Indigo Carmine: Indolesulfonic acid used as a dye in renal function testing for the detection of nitrates and chlorates, and in the testing of milk.BooksVanilla: A plant genus of the family ORCHIDACEAE that is the source of the familiar flavoring used in foods and medicines (FLAVORING AGENTS).Paeonia: A plant genus of the family Paeoniaceae, order Dilleniales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. These perennial herbs are up to 2 m (6') tall. Leaves are alternate and are divided into three lobes, each lobe being further divided into three smaller lobes. The large flowers are symmetrical, bisexual, have 5 sepals, 5 petals (sometimes 10), and many stamens.Comoviridae: A family of non-enveloped RNA plant viruses, transmitted by biological vectors and experimentally by mechanical inoculation. There are three genera: COMOVIRUS; FABAVIRUS; and NEPOVIRUS.Fabavirus: A genus of the family COMOVIRIDAE with a wide host range among dicotyledons and some monocotyledons. They are transmitted nonpersistently by aphids. The type species is broad bean wilt virus 1.Mosaic Viruses: Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.Nepovirus: A genus of polyhedral plant viruses of the family COMOVIRIDAE causing ringspots and spotting on leaves or sometimes symptomless infection. Transmission occurs by seeds, soil nematodes, or experimentally by mechanical inoculation. Tobacco ringspot virus is the type species.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Waikavirus: A genus of plant viruses in the family SEQUIVIRIDAE. Transmission is by leafhoppers or APHIDS and depends on a self-encoded helper protein. The type species is Rice tungro spherical virus.Tungrovirus: A genus of DNA plant viruses of the family CAULIMOVIRIDAE. The sole species, Rice tungro bacilliform virus, shows 25% identity with BADNAVIRUS. It is transmitted by leafhoppers with the assistance of RICE TUNGRO SPHERICAL VIRUS.Hemiptera: A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.Badnavirus: A genus of DNA plant viruses with bacilliform morphology. Transmission in clonally-propagated plants is by vegetative propagation of infected plant materials. Transmission in nature is by mealybugs, seeds, and pollen. The type species is Commelina yellow mottle virus.Spiroplasma citri: The type species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus SPIROPLASMA, family SPIROPLASMATACEAE, causing citrus stubborn disease.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Vinca: A plant genus of the family APOCYNACEAE. Vinca rosea has been changed to CATHARANTHUS roseus.Tobacco Mosaic Virus: The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.Caulimovirus: A genus of PLANT VIRUSES, in the family CAULIMOVIRIDAE, that are transmitted by APHIDS in a semipersistent manner. Aphid-borne transmission of some caulimoviruses requires certain virus-coded proteins termed transmission factors.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.Crop, Avian: A thin-walled distention of the alimentary tract protruding just outside the body cavity in the distal end of the neck (esophagus), used for the temporary storage of food and water.Phytolacca americana: A plant species of the family PHYTOLACCACEAE. The root has been used in traditional medicine and contains POKEWEED MITOGENS, triterpene glycosides, and antiviral protein.Plant Viral Movement Proteins: Viral proteins that facilitate the movement of viruses between plant cells by means of PLASMODESMATA, channels that traverse the plant cell walls.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal: An opportunistic viral infection of the central nervous system associated with conditions that impair cell-mediated immunity (e.g., ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES; HEMATOLOGIC NEOPLASMS; IMMUNOSUPPRESSION; and COLLAGEN DISEASES). The causative organism is JC Polyomavirus (JC VIRUS) which primarily affects oligodendrocytes, resulting in multiple areas of demyelination. Clinical manifestations include DEMENTIA; ATAXIA; visual disturbances; and other focal neurologic deficits, generally progressing to a vegetative state within 6 months. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp36-7)JC Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Academic Medical Centers: Medical complexes consisting of medical school, hospitals, clinics, libraries, administrative facilities, etc.Electroretinography: Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.Cycas: A plant genus of the family Cycadaceae, order Cycadales, class Cycadopsida, division CYCADOPHYTA of palm-like trees. It is a source of CYCASIN, the beta-D-glucoside of methylazoxymethanol.Blueberry Plant: Several plant species of the genus VACCINIUM known for the edible blueberry fruit.Ribes: A plant genus of the family GROSSULARIACEAE. GAMMA-LINOLENIC ACID is obtained from the black currant oil of the seeds.Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.

The cleavable carboxyl-terminus of the small coat protein of cowpea mosaic virus is involved in RNA encapsidation. (1/108)

The site of cleavage of the small coat protein of cowpea mosaic virus has been precisely mapped and the proteolysis has been shown to result in the loss of 24 amino acids from the carboxyl-terminus of the protein. A series of premature termination and deletion mutants was constructed to investigate the role or roles of these carboxyl-terminal amino acids in the viral replication cycle. Mutants containing premature termination codons at or downstream of the cleavage site were viable but reverted to wild-type after a single passage through cowpea plants, indicating that the carboxyl-terminal amino acids are important. Mutants with the equivalent deletions were genetically stable and shown to be debilitated with respect to virus accumulation. The specific infectivity of preparations of a deletion mutant (DM4) lacking all 24 amino acids was 6-fold less than that of a wild-type preparation. This was shown to be a result of DM4 preparations containing a much increased percentage (73%) of empty (RNA-free) particles, a finding that implicates the cleavable carboxyl-terminal residues in the packaging of the virion RNAs.  (+info)

Pseudomonas aeruginosa outer-membrane protein F epitopes are highly immunogenic in mice when expressed on a plant virus. (2/108)

A synthetic peptide (peptide 10) representing a surface-exposed, linear B cell epitope from outer-membrane (OM) protein F of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was shown previously to afford protection in mice from P. aeruginosa infection. This peptide was expressed in tandem with the protein F peptide 18 on each of the two coat proteins of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV). The chimaeric virus particles (CVPs) expressing the peptides on the S (small) coat protein (CPMV-PAE4) and L (large) coat protein (CPMV-PAE5) were used to immunize mice. Following subcutaneous immunization in Freund's and QuilA adjuvants, CPMV-PAE4 induced antibodies predominantly against peptide 18, whereas CPMV-PAE5 produced antibodies exclusively against peptide 10, indicating that the site of peptide expression on CPMV influences its immune recognition. The anti-peptide antibodies elicited by CPMV-PAE5 were predominantly of the IgG2a isotype, indicating a highly polarized TH1-type response. The peptide-specific IgG2a strongly recognized the whole F protein, but more importantly, recognized protein F in all seven Fisher-Devlin immunotypes of P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, the peptide-specific IgG2a in CVP/QS-21 adjuvant-immunized mice was shown to bind complement and to augment phagocytosis of P. aeruginosa by human neutrophils in vitro. The ability of CPMV-PAE5 to induce P. aeruginosa-specific opsonic IgG2a gives it potential for further development as a protective vaccine against P. aeruginosa.  (+info)

A chimaeric plant virus vaccine protects mice against a bacterial infection. (3/108)

The plant virus cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) is an efficient carrier of foreign peptides for the generation of strong humoral immune responses. Peptides derived from both viruses and bacteria are strongly immunogenic when displayed on the surface of CPMV and elicit high titres of peptide-specific antibody. However, the protective effects of antibodies generated using bacterial epitopes in this system have yet to be demonstrated. In this study the ability of chimaeric virus particles (CVPs) to afford protection against bacterial infection was assessed. Immunization of outbred mice with CPMV expressing a peptide derived from outer-membrane protein F of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CPMV-PAE5) generated high titres of P. aeruginosa-specific IgG that opsonized the bacteria for phagocytosis by human neutrophils and afforded protection upon challenge with two different immunotypes of P. aeruginosa in a model of chronic pulmonary infection. When examined 8 d after challenge, CVP-immunized mice had fewer severe lung lesions and fewer bacteria in their lungs compared to mice immunized with wild-type virus. Different levels of protection were seen with CPMV-PAE5 when Freund's or alum adjuvants were used. These studies highlight the ability of CVPs to generate protective immunity against infectious disease agents.  (+info)

Studies on hybrid comoviruses reveal the importance of three-dimensional structure for processing of the viral coat proteins and show that the specificity of cleavage is greater in trans than in cis. (4/108)

A series of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV)-based hybrid comoviral RNA-2 molecules have been constructed. In these, the region encoding both the large (L) and small (S) viral coat proteins was replaced by the equivalent region from bean pod mottle virus (BPMV). The hybrid RNA-2 molecules were able to replicate in cowpea protoplasts in the presence of CPMV RNA-1. Though processing of the hybrid polyproteins by the CPMV-specific 24K proteinase at the site between the 58/48K and L proteins could readily be achieved, no processing at the site between the L and S coat proteins could be obtained even when the sequence of amino acids between the two coat proteins was made CPMV-like. As a result, none of the hybrids was able to form functional virus particles, and they could not infect cowpea plants. Comparison with the processing of the L-S site in cis in reticulocyte lysates demonstrated that the requirements for processing are more stringent in trans than in cis. The results suggest that the L-S cleavage site is defined by more than just a linear sequence of amino acids and probably involves interactions between the L-S loop and the beta barrels of the viral coat proteins.  (+info)

Structural fingerprinting: subgrouping of comoviruses by structural studies of red clover mottle virus to 2.4-A resolution and comparisons with other comoviruses. (5/108)

Red clover mottle virus (RCMV) is a member of the comoviruses, a group of picornavirus-like plant viruses. The X-ray structure of RCMV strain S has been determined and refined to 2.4 A. The overall structure of RCMV is similar to that of two other comoviruses, Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) and Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV). The sequence of the coat proteins of RCMV strain O were modeled into the capsid structure of strain S without causing any distortion, confirming the close resemblance between the two strains. By comparing the RCMV structure with that of other comoviruses, a structural fingerprint at the N terminus of the small subunit was identified which allowed subgrouping of comoviruses into CPMV-like and BPMV-like viruses.  (+info)

The refined crystal structure of cowpea mosaic virus at 2.8 A resolution. (6/108)

Comoviruses are a group of plant viruses in the picornavirus superfamily. The type member of comoviruses, cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV), was crystallized in the cubic space group I23, a = 317 A and the hexagonal space group P6(1)22, a = 451 A, c = 1038 A. Structures of three closely similar nucleoprotein particles were determined in the cubic form. The roughly 300-A capsid was similar to the picornavirus capsid displaying a pseudo T = 3 (P = 3) surface lattice. The three beta-sandwich domains adopt two orientations, one with the long axis radial and the other two with the long axes tangential in reference to the capsid sphere. T = 3 viruses display one or the other of these two orientations. The CPMV capsid was permeable to cesium ions, leading to a disturbance of the beta-annulus inside a channel-like structure, suggesting an ion channel. The hexagonal crystal form diffracted X rays to 3 A resolution, despite the large unit cell. The large ( approximately 200 A) solvent channels in the lattice allow exchange of CPMV cognate Fab fragments. As an initial step in the structure determination of the CPMV/Fab complex, the P6(1)22 crystal structure was solved by molecular replacement with the CPMV model determined in the cubic cell.  (+info)

Immunogenic and antigenic dominance of a nonneutralizing epitope over a highly conserved neutralizing epitope in the gp41 envelope glycoprotein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: its deletion leads to a strong neutralizing response. (7/108)

The Kennedy peptide, (731)PRGPDRPEGIEEEGGERDRDRS(752), from the cytoplasmic domain of the gp41 transmembrane envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1 contains a conformationally dependent neutralizing epitope (ERDRD) and a linear nonneutralizing epitope (IEEE). No recognized murine T cell epitope is present. The peptide usually stimulates virus-specific antibody, but this is not always neutralizing. Here we show that IEEE (or possibly IEEE plus adjacent sequence) is immunogenically and antigenically dominant over the ERDRD neutralizing epitope. Thus rabbits immunized in a variety of routes, doses, and adjuvants with a chimeric cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) expressing the Kennedy peptide on its surface (CPMV-HIV/1) synthesized IEEE-specific serum antibody but no ERDRD-specific or HIV-1-neutralizing antibody. To test if this resulted from immunodominance or from a hole in the antibody repertoire, we immunized rabbits with chimera CPMV-HIV/29, which expresses the GERDRDR part of the Kennedy sequence. This chimera readily stimulated ERDRD-specific, neutralizing antibody. In mice the situation was less extreme, but individual animals with low neutralizing titers had a high ratio of IEEE-specific:ERDRD-specific antibody. Data are consistent with immunodominance of IEEE over ERDRD in the Kennedy peptide. IEEE-specific antibody was also antigenically dominant and prevented ERDRD-specific antibody from binding to its epitope and from neutralizing HIV-1. It may be that HIV-1 has evolved a nonneutralizing immunodominant epitope that allows it to possess a neutralizing epitope without suffering the consequences, and this idea is supported by the covariance of both epitope sequences. To our knowledge this is the first example of a defined sequence that controls the activity of an adjacent epitope.  (+info)

Complementation of the host range restriction of southern cowpea mosaic virus in bean by southern bean mosaic virus. (8/108)

Vigna unguiculata (cowpea) and Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) are permissive hosts for southern cowpea mosaic virus (SCPMV) and southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV), respectively. Neither of these two sobemoviruses systemically infects the permissive host of the other. Although bean cells are permissive for SCPMV RNA synthesis, they do not support the assembly of this virus. Thus, the host range restriction of SCPMV in bean may occur at the level of movement and may involve the inability of SCPMV to assemble in this host. In this study, it was demonstrated that SCPMV accumulates in an encapsidated form in the inoculated and systemic leaves of bean plants following coinoculation with SBMV. No evidence was observed that the SCPMV that accumulated in coinoculated bean plants had an altered host range relative to wild-type SCPMV. These results suggested that SBMV complemented the host range restriction of SCPMV in bean. Additional experiments demonstrated that cowpea protoplasts are permissive for SBMV RNA synthesis and assembly. It was concluded from these results that the host range restriction of SBMV in cowpea occurs at the level of movement. In mixed infections of cowpea with SCPMV and SBMV, the latter was recovered from the inoculated but not the systemic leaves. Its recovery from the inoculated leaves, however, was not dependent on the presence of SCPMV in the inoculum. From these results, it was concluded that SCPMV did not complement the host range restriction of SBMV in cowpea.  (+info)

Bean pod mottle virus causes green to yellow mottling of young leaves. In severe infections, leaves may become distorted. Seeds from infected plants may be mottled or discolored, but other factors can also cause mottled seed. Symptoms may not be apparent at high temperatures or after pod set. Pod formation may be reduced when infected plants are under moisture stress. BPMV can interact with the soybean mosaic virus to create severe symptoms in plants infected by both viruses. BPMV may also be related to the development of green stem syndrome, in which plants retain green stems and leaves after pods and most nearby plants have matured.. ...
Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) is a virus disease spread primarily by the bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata. Seed transmission is al
Summary:Delayed planting has been suggested to reduce density of the bean leaf beetle Cerotoma trifurcata (Förster), the principal vector of Bean pod mottle virus. Therefore, planting date was explored to determine if it might impact damage caused by the virus. Four planting dates, ranging from mid-March to mid-June, and two soybean Glycine max (L.) cultivars were examined for their effect on the relative damage caused by the virus in central Iowa for the years 2000-2002. Damage was assessed in terms of ...
Comovirinae is a subfamily of viruses in the order Picornavirales, in the family Secoviridae; its genera were formerly classified in the family Comoviridae. Plants serve as natural hosts. There are currently 56 species in this subfamily, divided among 3 genera. The genera Comovirus, Nepovirus and Fabavirus were classified into the family Comoviridae in 1993. This family was classified as part of the order Picornavirales when this order was created (2008), and its genera were reclassified as the subfamily Comovirinae of the family Secoviridae in 2009. Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Picornavirales Family: Secoviridae Sub-Family: Comovirinae Genus: Comovirus Andean potato mottle virus Bean pod mottle virus Bean rugose mosaic virus Broad bean stain virus Broad bean true mosaic virus Cowpea mosaic virus Cowpea severe mosaic virus Glycine mosaic virus Pea green mottle virus Pea mild mosaic virus Quail pea mosaic virus Radish mosaic virus Red clover mottle virus Squash mosaic virus Ullucus virus C Genus: ...
3] mottling. The main vector of BPMV is the bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata (Forster). An experiment was conducted in 2000 and 2001 at two locations in northwestern and central Iowa to test three insecticide treatments for suppression of bean leaf beetles, and subsequently, BPMV. Treatments of insecticide applications with lambda-cyhalothrin were 1) a single early-season application (23 g [AI] /ha) (2.5 oz/acre) at the VE-VC soybean developmental stage; 2) two early-season applications, the first the same as treatment I and a second at the same rate 9-13 d later; 3) a single early-season application the same as treatment 1. followed by a mid-season application (28 g [AI] /ha (3.2 oz/acre) at approximately R2 (flowering, near 15 July); and 4) an unsprayed control. Application of lambda-cyhalothrin after soybean emergence and again as first-generation bean leaf beetles emerged in northwestern Iowa in 2000 (treatment 3) significantly reduced beetle densities through mid-season, BPMV field ...
Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) is a non-enveloped plant virus of the comovirus group. Infection of a susceptible cowpea leaf causes a "mosaic" pattern in the leaf, and results in high virus yields (1-2 g/kg). Its genome consists of 2 molecules of positive-sense RNA (RNA-1 and RNA-2) which are separately encapsidated. Both RNA1 and RNA2 have a VPg (virus genome-linked protein) at the 5end, and polyadenylation at the 3 end. Genomic RNA1 and RNA2 are expressed by a polyprotein processing strategy. RNA1 encodes helicase, VPg, protease and RdRp. RNA2 encodes movement protein and coat protein. The virus particles are 28 nm in diameter and contain 60 copies each of a Large (L) and Small (S) coat protein. The structure is well characterised to atomic resolution, and the viral particles are thermostable. CPMV displays a number of features that can be exploited for nanoscale biomaterial fabrication. Its genetic, biological and physical properties are well characterised, and it can be isolated readily from ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ultrasensitive immuno-detection using viral nanoparticles with modular assembly using genetically-directed biotinylation. AU - Litvinov, Julia. AU - Hagström, Anna E V. AU - Lopez, Yubitza. AU - Adhikari, Meenu. AU - Kourentzi, Katerina. AU - Strych, Ulrich. AU - Monzon, Federico A.. AU - Foster, William. AU - Cagle, Philip T.. AU - Willson, Richard C.. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - We report a novel, modular approach to immuno-detection based on antibody recognition and PCR read-out that employs antibody-conjugated bacteriophage and easily-manipulated non-pathogenic viruses as affinity agents. Our platform employs phage genetically tagged for in vivo biotinylation during phage maturation that can easily be linked, through avidin, to any biotinylated affinity agent, including full-length antibodies, peptides, lectins or aptamers. The presence of analyte is reported with high sensitivity through real-time PCR. This approach avoids the need to clone antibody-encoding DNA fragments, ...
The comovirus Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) causes a disease in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) but, despite its importance, there are no studies on the genetic diversity of viral populations. We have determined the nucleotide sequences of part of the coat protein (CP) gene of six Brazilian isolates of CPSMV. Genomic fragments (521 nucleotides) were RT-PCR amplified, cloned, and their sequences were compared with each other and with other comoviruses. Sequence comparisons indicated a high degree of conservation for the CP gene, with 92-100% nucleotide and 97-100% amino acid sequence identity among the isolates. There was no correlation between geographical origin and sequence identity or phylogeny among the isolates ...
Beck, M.A.; Tracy, S.; Coller, B.A.; Chapman, N.M.; Hufnagel, G.; Johnson, J.E.; Lomonossoff, G., 1992: Comoviruses and enteroviruses share a T cell epitope
Viruses spread through a plant in two steps. The first step is from cell to cell within the inoculated leaf. However, as soon as the virus has reached a cell bordering the vascular system of the plant, it can also spread via the vascular system throughout the entire plant. To spread from cell to cell, the virus needs to enlarge existing channels connecting neighbouring cells by building up a tunnel to transport the virus from one cell into the other. This is because the natural channels connecting the cells are too narrow for the virus to pass through ...
During research carried out in the Netherlands, Marilia Santos Silva discovered that some tobacco plants die if a virus infects them, whereas others survive.
Effect of Film-Forming Compounds on the Development of Leaf Rust on Wheat Seedlings. Judith Zekaria-Oren. Pages: 231-234 VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. Characterization of Rhizoctonia Species Isolated from Ornamentals in Florida. A. R. Chase. Pages: 234-238 VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. Fungi Similar to Gaeumannomyces Associated with Root Rot of Turfgrasses in Florida. M. L. Elliott. Pages: 238-241 VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. Occurrence of Satsuma Dwarf Virus in Zhejiang Province, China. P. F. Cui. Pages: 242-244 VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. Effects of Fungicides Applied During Bloom on Yield, Yield Components, and Storage Rots of Cranberry. S. N. Jeffers. Pages: 244-250 VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. Host Range, Cytology, and Transmission of an Alyce-clover Isolate of Blackeye Cowpea Mosaic Virus. G. S. Zhao. Pages: 251-253 VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. Purification, Serology, and In Vitro Translation of an Alyce-clover Isolate of Blackeye Cowpea Mosaic Virus. G. S. Zhao. Pages: 254-257 VIEW ...
Angiogenesis is a dynamic process fundamental to the development of solid tumors. Epidermal growth factor-like domain 7 (EGFL7) is a protein whose expression is restricted to endothelial cells undergoing active remodeling that has emerged as a key mediator of this process. EGFL7 expression is associated with
Background Cancer is responsible for millions of immature deaths every year and is an economical burden on developing countries. One of the major challenges in the present era is to design drugs that can specifically target tumor cells not normal cells. In this context, tumor homing peptides have drawn much attention. These peptides are playing a vital role in delivering drugs in tumor tissues with high specificity. In order to provide service to scientific community, we have developed a database of tumor homing peptides called TumorHoPe. Description TumorHoPe is a manually curated database of experimentally validated tumor homing peptides that specifically recognize tumor cells and tumor associated microenvironment, i.e., angiogenesis. These peptides were collected and compiled from published papers, patents and databases. Current release of TumorHoPe contains 744 peptides. Each entry provides comprehensive information of a peptide that includes its sequence, target tumor, target cell, techniques of
In the latest issue, McCarthy et al. review regulated intramembrane proteolysis. The cover image taken from this review, shows a cryo-electron microscopy density map of a Cowpea Mosaic virus (CPMV) empty virus-like particle (eVLP); for full details see the article on pages 1263-1269. ...
From: kuiken at amc.uva.nl , Subject: Q about recombination , Does anyone know of a paper describing genes from a viral genome , behaving more independently (e.g. moving to different locations , in a phylogenetic tree) the further apart they are in the , genome, due to recombination? Ive been told that this has been , described by Temin, but I cannot find the paper. Any other ref , showing this would also be very welcome. Thanks a lot. It is not necessarily so that genes will be more independent the further they are apart on the genome - many of the simple RNA viruses manage to shuffle their genomes quite successfully, so that potyviruses (for example) have what looks like almost an entire picornavirus-like genome with bits tacked on to either end (CP at 3, movement factors at 5 end); comoviruses have a picorna-like genome which is split after the capsid genes, with movement factors added at 5. It may well be true in a genus/family, but higher than that it would be obscured by cassette ...
Aim: To evaluate the effects of orally administered gadolinium orthovanadate GdVO4:Eu3+ nanoparticles (VNPs) on the course of chronic carrageenan-induced intestinal inflammation. Methods: Samples of small intestinal tissue were collected from four groups of rats (intact, after administration of VNPs, with carrageenaninduced intestinal inflammation, with carrageenan-induced intestinal inflammation orally exposed to VNPs) to assess the intestinal morphology and HSP90α expression. Levels of seromucoid, C-reactive protein, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10 were determined in blood serum. Results: Oral exposure to VNPs was associated with neither elevation of inflammation markers in blood serum nor HSP90α overexpression in the small intestine, i.e. no toxic effects of VNPs were observed. Carrageenan-induced intestinal inflammation was accompanied by higher levels of TNF-α and IL-1β, as well as HSP90α upregulation in the intestinal mucosa, compared with controls. Administration of VNPs to rats with ...
Bowie features an excellent dark green pod color and an upright plant habit that lends to an easy harvest. The bean pods are set mid-high in the plant and measure 5-1/2 in length. The pods have great eye-appeal with their dark green color and uniform straightness. Primarily a 4 sieve bean, Bowie carries resistance to
Why do beans curl? You thought you had them all sorted, before the fruits started curling. Read here to find out why bean pods curl while growing and what you can do about snap bean problems.
Distribution of Bean Pod Mottle Virus in Soybeans in North Carolina. J. P. Ross, A. K. Butler. Pages: 101-103 VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. Reproduction of Root-Knot, Lesion, Spiral, and Soybean Cyst Nematodes on Sunflower. E. C. Bernard, M. L. Keyserling. Pages: 103-105 VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. Nematodes in Strawberries on Prince Edward Island, Canada. J. Kimpinski. Pages: 105-107 VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. Serological Detection of Corn Stunt Spiroplasma and Maize Rayado Fino Virus in Field-Collected Dalbulus spp. from Mexico. D. T. Gordon, L. R. Nault, N. H. Gordon, and S. E. Heady. Pages: 108-111 VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. Screening Lycopersicon spp. for New Genes Imparting Resistance to Root-Knot Nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). M. Ammati, I. J. Thomason, and P. A. Roberts. Pages: 112-115 VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. Incidence of Phellinus robineae in Black Locust Plantings in Oklahoma. Jerry W. Riffle, Alan K. Myatt, and Roger L. Davis. Pages: 116-118 VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ...
Increased activity of bean leaf beetles and soybean aphids in Iowa soybean fields has challenged many of us over the last five years. Not just because of the sap feeding and leaf defoliation that can cause significant yield loss but also because we are dealing with another yield robber that we often cant see. Iowa soybean fields can be infected with bean pod mottle and soybean {m}osaic viruses that are transmitted by bean leaf beetles and soybean aphids, respectively.
The bean pod weevil (Apion godmani Wagner) is a serious insect pest of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in Mexico and Central America that is best controlled by host-plant resistance available in Durango or Jalisco genotypes such as J-117. Given unreliable infestation by the insect, the use of marker-assisted selection is desirable. In the present study, we developed a set of nine molecular markers for Apion resistance and mapped them to loci on chromosomes 2, 3, 4 and 6 (linkage groups b01, b08, b07and b11, respectively) based on genetic analysis of an F 5:10 susceptible × resistant recombinant inbred line population (Jamapa × J-117) and two reference mapping populations (DOR364 × G19833 and BAT93 × JaloEEP558) for which chromosome and linkage group designations are known. All the markers were derived from randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) bands that were identified through bulked segregant analysis and cloned for conversion to sequence tagged site (STS) markers. One of ...
Nanoparticles are a novel class of agents that take advantage of innovative advances in nanotechnology for the development of therapeutics, vaccines and imaging tools. In 2006, we were the first to describe nanoparticles based on the plant virus Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) as tools for intravital vascular imaging, and we have since developed a complementary platform for screening nanoparticle formulations in human tumour xenografts. We and others have described the attachment of a variety of functional groups to viruses and other nanoparticles, and have been working in recent years to adapt this platform for prostate cancer imaging and drug delivery. Several nanoparticle platforms under development are promising candidates for the development of prostate cancer imaging and therapeutic agents.. Cancer metastasis: strategies to detect and block the spread of cancer ...
Cheraviruses have three CPs of similar sizes. In some cases, these proteins are not fully or reproducibly resolved from each other by electrophoresis. The genome of cheraviruses is bipartite and the genomic organization is similar to that of comoviruses, although RNA-2 is thought to encode a single polyprotein (Figure 3.Secoviridae). The RNA-2-encoded movement protein of apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) is 42 kDa, suggesting that translation initiation occurs at the second AUG, which is in a better context. Tubular structures containing virus-like particles are observed in infected cells and are likely involved in cell-to-cell movement of the virus. The movement protein and all three CPs are necessary for cell-to-cell movement of the virus [{Yoshikawa et al., 2006:16362640RJOHTXYoshikawa et al., 2006, A movement protein and three capsid proteins are all necessary for the cell-to-cell movement of apple latent spherical cheravirus, Arch Virol, 151, 5, 837-48}]. The MP binds to VP25, one of the ...
High molecular weight biomolecules are becoming important in the development of new therapeutics. However, their size and nature creates a major limitation for their application - poor penetration through biological membranes. A new class of peptides, cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), has shown the capability to transport various macromolecules inside the cells. However, there are at least two limiting factors for successful application of CPPs: the lack of cell-type specificity and restricted bioavailability resulting from endocytic uptake of CPPs and entrapment in endosomal compartments.. This thesis aims at designing delivery vehicles for therapeutic substances. In papers I-III, the CPPs have been rationally modified in order to achieve in vivo selectivity towards cancer cells. The first two papers employ tumor homing peptides as targeting moieties coupled to the N-termini of CPPs. In the third paper, a CPP is C-terminally prolonged with a matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) specific cleavage ...
Soya comes from the soya bean pods that are located in the soya plant. The scientific name is Glycin Max and it is from the Pea family (Fabaceae). Soya bean pods were first cultivated in China over 4000 years ago. Nowadays, they are mostly grown in North and South America in addition to China.
1. Halve the passion fruit and scoop the flesh and seeds into a small sieve or tea strainer. Press with the back of a spoon to extract the juice then place in the fridge along with 2 Champagne saucers or flutes and leave to chill.. 2. Pour the sparkling wine (or Champagne) into the glasses then add the liqueur and 1 tsp of the passion fruit juice into each glass - the wine will foam rapidly as the passion fruit is added.. ...
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Cowpea mottle virus ATCC ® PVAS-518™ Designation: Mokwa [Cowpea Mottle Carmovirus Antiserum] Application: Test animal used: rabbit Plant research
... - BellaOnline Nutrition Database - BellaOnline is committed to helping our visitors become healthy and happy. Our BellaOnline Nutrition Database will help you choose the healthiest foods for your chosen lifestyle.
Place the dried fruits in a large bowl and cover with 2 cups of boiling water. Let the fruit sit for about 1 hour, then drain. Place the fruit in a medium saucepan with the remaining ingredients, making sure the vanilla bean pod is scraped and the pod and seeds are added to the mixture. Bring to a boil, then reduce the heat and allow mixture to simmer gently for 50 minutes to 1 hour. The fruit should be tender but not falling apart. Add more sugar or orange juice, to taste, if needed. Remove and discard the cinnamon stick and vanilla bean pod ...
Bring cream, granulated sugar and corn starch, to a boil, in a large saucepan, over medium heat, whisking frequently; remove pan from heat and whisk in milk, vanilla bean seeds and vanilla bean pod. Infuse for ten minutes, before removing vanilla bean pod and placing cream in a large mixing bowl. Cover and chill in the refrigerator until cold, about 3-4 hours, but preferably overnight ...
Passion fruit is always a confusing one, grown mostly in South America, they are in season during the UKs winter months, but tend to be more readily available across supermarkets and farmers markets as we enter June, due to their summer association. Passion fruit pulp has an intense, tropical taste, encased in a brittle outer shell, making it a delicious summer treat. Its also rich in vitamins A and C, and the seeds are also rich in fibre making it a great colon cleanser. Choose larger fruit with a higher weight to get the most amount of pulp and for ripe, sweeter passion fruit choose the fruits with a dark purple, wrinkled outer shell. Although our favourite way to enjoy passion fruit is fresh from the shell, they also work well in various desserts and even some savoury dishes. Grab out favourite tips and tricks below as well as a delicious passion fruit curd recipe! RECIPE IDEAS. - Passion fruit has a tart, zingy flavour making it perfect with creamy contrasts. Try fresh passion fruit with ...
On a fluke I picked up a passion fruit plant at my local farmers market. A few of my Master Gardener friends had been successful growing it and had raved about the fruit. I, however, really knew nothing about growing it and very little about how to use it.. I planted it in a spot on the side of our home near the driveway where I had had a hard time getting anything to grow and really take off. Let me tell you, I hit passion-pay-dirt with this little one gallon plant! Not only has it taken off, it is trying to take over the side of my small, built-in porch.. Passiflora, or passion flower, is a genus of more than 500 species of flowering plants. Most are vines that have prolific tendrils for climbing, but some grow as hearty shrubs or even trees. Ninety five percent of Passiflora edulis, or passion fruit, (often known as granadillas) come from South America. The rest come from Asia, Australia and North America. They are edible, vining varieties that are coveted for their fruit as well as their ...
1. Preheat oven to 170 degrees Celsius. Grease a 20cm loose bottom tart tin (or four small tartlet tins if making individual tartlets).. 2. To make the pastry by hand, sieve together the flour, cocoa powder, sugar and salt into a bowl. Add the diced butter and rub into the flour with your fingertips until the mixture resembles fine breadcrumbs. With a dinner knife, work in the egg yolks then bring together to a firm dough (add a little water if the pastry feels dry, to help the mixture come together). Wrap in clingfilm and chill for 20 minutes.. 3. Roll the pastry out on a lightly floured work surface and use to line the tin (or small tins). To bake the pastry blind, line with parchment paper and fill with baking beans. Place in the preheated oven for 20-25 minutes, without the pastry colouring. Remove the beans and paper and set aside.. 4. For the passion fruit filling: Set a sieve over a bowl. Cut each passion fruit in half and use a spoon to scrape out the contents (fully ripe fruits will ...
The passion fruit is used around the world in juices, salads, syrups and even ice cream. A team of researchers from the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil have discovered that the passion fruit seed oils, which are typically ...
Passion fruit also called Granadillas is a tropical fruit that is primarily used for juicing. Apart from its refreshing taste, passion fruit juice contains various health benefits mainly due to its high content of vitamin A and C.
Why mesquite in apple cake? Well, its not adding smokey flavor if thats what youre thinking. Mesquite smoke flavor comes from burning wood chips from Mesquite trees. Mesquite chips used in grilling add a distinct smoke flavor to foods. My recipe uses Mesquite Flour. Mesquite flour comes from Mesquite bean pods that grow on drought tolerant trees in places like Arizona,Texas and Mexico. The pods can be dried and ground. Mesquite flour is fat free and a source of dietary fiber, calcium, iron, vitamin C and other nutrients. It doesnt change the flavor of baked goods. The cake tastes like apple cake. ...
good looking gray green foliage that will add that different leaf shape thats needed in this garden. Expect the best bloom production in full sun, but light shade is fine. I have never had any problems with any of the baptisias I grow...except, they really DO NOT like to be transplanted! False Indigos develop a huge taproot that resents being moved. Ixnay on the dividing them for more plants! Do yourself a favor, let them go to seed...The black bean pods are beautifully ornamental and you will get a few volunteer seedlings. Transplant the seedlings while they are young! All baptisias prefer neutral to slightly sweet soil. Ive amended the soil, but for the most part, its just decent garden dirt on the neutral side. Zones 3-8 ...
Deb, I just wanted to pop in and thank you so much for your constant ability to provide recipes that are simple and accessible to everyone. Even me-a college student!. My cafeteria sells fruit sometimes, but it tends to be fairly hard and underripe; its not the ideal place for produce. I remembered seeing pears there a few days ago but was not motivated to buy them. Of course, as soon as I saw this recipe, I thought-"underripe pears? I can get underripe pears!". These were simple enough to do with my limited ingredients in a dorm kitchen. For anybody who wants to substitute vanilla extract, my method was to eyeball a little bit into the sugar just to flavour it (Id say about 1/4 teaspoon). Then I sprinkled a little bit more into the water in the bottom of the pan in lieu of the vanilla bean pods. I basted them twice on each side, at ten-minute intervals, and when I flipped them I sprinkled them with a tiny bit of cinnamon, just for fun. They are HEAVENLY. I am now eating them instead of having ...
Passion Fruit cooking information, facts and recipes. An oval-shaped, purplish-brown fruit that grows on a woddy vine, which climbs and clings to other forest plants in order to grow upward.
Shop for ARO-Vitacost 3X Clean Series Pre-Workout Concentrate Natural Pomegranate Passion Fruit at Fred Meyer. Find quality health products to add to your Shopping List or order online for Delivery or Pickup.
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Lockout Supplements NutraBio: Reload Post Recovery, Passion Fruit, 30 servings [60394] - POST WORKOUT RECOVERY and MUSCLE-BUILDING FORMULA HOW DOES POST WORK? Optimizes post-workout gains Accelerates muscle repair and recovery† Promotes muscle mass and strength† Reduce exercise-induced muscle damage† Decreases in muscle soreness† Support electrolyte levels† 18G Aminos 8G BCAAs 5G Glutamine 1.5G Betaine 1.5G Beta Alanine NutraBio Post Recovery is THE PREMIER all-in-one, scientifically-formulated recovery matrix. Using the latest advances in supplement research, Post
Dont be deceived by the appearance of passion fruit. When ripe, theyre downright homely. The purple, pink, or yellow skins (depending on variety) wrinkle and shrivel. Still, the meat inside is gloriously sweet and aromatic.
Martha Collisons mango & passion fruit energy bars at waitrose.com. Visit the Waitrose website for more baking recipes and ideas
Comprehensive nutrition resource for Cowpea, Canned W/pork. Learn about the number of calories and nutritional and diet information for Cowpea, Canned W/pork. This is part of our comprehensive database of 40,000 foods including foods from hundreds of popular restaurants and thousands of brands.
Glimmer is a collection made of transparent glass mosaic tesserae with iridescent finishing and mother pearl effect. Through Glimmer, Sicis gives the opportunity to overcome the bi-dimension of the surface and to perceive the architecture and interior des
The minute I got these ingredients it was down the hatch! Adjust the amount of lime and mint to your personal taste. These are amazing and refreshing!
The Best Mousse Sweetened Condensed Milk Recipes on Yummly | Easy Passion Fruit Mousse, Nyc Deli Salmon Mousse Bagels, Brazilian Passion Fruit Mousse (maracuja)
table style=border:1px solid;padding:2px; width:310px; ,,tr,,td,,a href=http://scienceimage.csiro.au/image/489/,,img src=http://scienceimage.csiro.au/images/embed/300_0_BP3615.jpg width=300 alt=Cowpea bean varieties infested with weevils style=margin: 0 0 5px 0; border: 0px;,,/a,,br/,,a href=http://scienceimage.csiro.au/image/489/,Cowpea bean varieties infested with weevils,/a,,br /,by CSIRO,/td,,/tr,,/table ...
... - Get a bar chart of the top 10 nutrients, and click to see an expanded list of over 151 nutrients, including amino acids.
... - BellaOnline Nutrition Database - BellaOnline is committed to helping our visitors become healthy and happy. Our BellaOnline Nutrition Database will help you choose the healthiest foods for your chosen lifestyle.
Oliveira, Diêgo Sávio Vasconcelos de; Franco, Luis José Duarte; Menezes-Júnior, José Ângelo Nogueira de; Damasceno-Silva, Kaesel Jackson; Rocha, Maurisrael de Moura; Cabral das Neves, Adão; and Sousa, Francisco Mauro de. 2017. Adaptability and stability of the zinc density in cowpea genotypes through GGE-Biplot method. Revista Ciência Agronômica 48(5): 783-791. https://doi.org/10.5935/1806-6690.20170091 ...
The CONSTANS (CO) and CO-like gene family from cowpea. GSRs encoding the conserved DNA binding domains of CONSTANS (CO) and CO-like TFs were identified and asse
This is a very good question. Certainly life would have remained at a very primitive level without the ability of genetic material to mutate. The balance is primarily mantained by the accuracy of polymerases that copy DNA and by the efficiency of error correcting mechanisms. The environment also plays a role in creating errors in non-replicating DNA that can be copied later, though this is pretty much a non-changing parameter ...
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In Vitro Culture of the Passion Fruit. Passiflora edulis Sims In this study, a tissue culture method, which can be used for multiplication of the yellow passion fruit is described. Callus was Initiated from different explants of the yellow and purple passion fruit. Immature seeds of var. edulis formed callus when Inoculated on MS ( Murashlge and Skoog) medium containing 1 - 3 mg/1 a-napthaleneacetic acid ( NAA) and 0.5 mg/l 6-benzyiamlnopurlne (BAP). Stem explants of var. edulis and var. flavicaroa formed callus when Inoculated on MS media supplemented with 2 mg/1 NAA, with or without 0.5 mg/1 BAP. Stem segments with nodes formed shoots when Inoculated on MS medium with 2 mg/1 BAP or 2 mg/1 BAP and 0.2 mg/1 NAA. Leaf discs of var. flavlcarpa formed callus when inoculated on MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/1 NAA, 2 mg/1 indole-3-aceticacid ( IAA) and 0.4 mg/1 kinetin (K IN ). Those inoculated on medium with 2 mg/1 NAA or 2 mg/1 NAA and 0.5 mg/1 KIN formed callus and roots within 4 weeks. Shoots ...
The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) is an annual herbaceous legume cultivated for its edible seeds or for fodder. It may be climbing and erect, as well as prostrate and creeping depending on the cultivar. Prostrate varieties grow to about 80 cm and climbing cultivars up to 2 m. It has a well developed root system. The leaves are trifoliate with oval leaflets, 6-15 cm long and 4-11 cm broad. The papillonaceous flowers can be white, yellowish, pale blue or violet and are distributed along axillary clusters. Pods occur in pairs forming a V, mostly pendulous but they can be erect. They are cylindrical, 6 to 20 cm long and 3-12 mm broad, and contain 8 to 20 seeds. Seeds can be white, pink, brown or black.. The cowpea is one of the most popular legume grains in Africa and is also cultivated in some parts of America and Asia. Cowpea is called the "hungry-season crop" because it is the first harvested crop, before the cereal crops. Its seeds, pods and leaves are commonly used as human food. Cowpea ...
This study was designed to compare snap and dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) for pod Ca concentration, and to identify genetic resources that might be useful in breeding programs directed to increase Ca concentration in bean pods. Pods from eight snap bean and eight dry bean cultivars were evaluated for Ca concentration during 1995 and 1996 at Hancock, Wis. A randomized complete-block design was utilized with three replications in 1995 and six in 1996. Beans were planted in June and hand-harvested in August for both experiments. Soil Ca at planting time was 580 mg·kg-1 in 1995 and 500 mg·kg-1 in 1996. No additional Ca was added. Plots consisted of 10 plants each. At harvest, a pooled sample of 10 to 15 size no. 4 pods was collected from each plot. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to determine Ca content. Significant differences (P ≤ 0.01) were detected among and within bean types (dry and snap). Although bean type × year interaction was nonsignificant, a strong year effect was ...
Also known as privet wild sensitive plant, privet senna is an evergreen, perennial shrub that produces many 5-petaled, butter-yellow blooms. Its long, pinnately compound leaves are alternately arranged and comprised of numerous dark green, linear- to lanceolate-shaped leaflets. Its fruit is a thin bean pod, about 5 inches long, that turns a deep brown when ripe. ...
Passion Fruit is native to South America but grown widely in lush climates around the world, resulting in its use in tiki-style and other tropical drinks. It is called for in a Hurricane, a drink native to the Caribbean-influenced port of New Orleans. Try it in a Sidewinders Fang or a Zombie for a true tiki experience! DESCRIPTION TAKEN FROM PRODUCERS WEBSITE PLEASE NOTE: WE SHIP ORDERS TWICE PER WEEK, AND IT CAN TAKE UP TO A WEEK BEFORE YOUR ORDER SHIPS. THIS IS IN ADDITION TO THE SHIPPING TIME VIA UPS/USPS. WE AIM TO SHIP TO YOU AS SOON AS POSSIBLE, BUT WE ARE A SMALL COMPANY THAT CAN EXPERIENCE DELAYS. WE THANK YOU FOR YOUR UNDERSTANDING AND FOR YOUR SUPPORT! HOLIDAY ORDERS MUST BE PLACED BY DECEMBER 14 TO ENSURE THEY ARRIVE BY CHRISTMAS.
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... is a warm-season, annual, herbaceous legume. Plant types are often categorized as erect, semi-erect, prostrate (trailing), or climbing. There is much variability within the species. Growth habit ranges from indeterminate to fairly determinate with the non-vining types tending to be more determinate. Cowpea generally is strongly taprooted. Root depth has been measured at 95 in. 8 weeks after seeding.. Cowpea seed ranges in size from the very small wild types up to nearly 2 in. long and the number of seeds per pounds range from 1600 to 4300. Seed shape is a major characteristic correlated with seed development in the pod. Seeds develop a kidney shape if not restricted within the pod. When seed growth is restricted by the pod the seed becomes progressively more globular.. The seed coat can be either smooth or wrinkled and of various colors including white, cream, green, buff, red, brown, and black. Seed may also be speckled, mottled, or blotchy. Many are also referred to as eyed (blackeye, ...
With such a unique flower, you would think it would be a pain to keep alive, but its not! The Passion Flower is a vine that yields edible Passion Fruit.
Detailed nutritional values of Cowpeas (Black-eyed pea, blackeyes), immature seeds harvested, boiled, cooked, drained, without salt. Online analysis information with non-nutrients and nutrients composition facts table for item No. 11192 found in category Vegetables and Vegetable Products. Data contents chart for nutritionists. Food details for COWPEAS (BLACKEYES),IMMAT SEEDS,CKD,BLD,DRND,WO/ SALT in different kinds of quantities, amounts or measurements.
Probiotics are good for your gut! New Tropicana Essentials Probiotics® is a delicious and convenient way to add more probiotics into your daily routine. Probiotics boost your bodys natural microbiome and may aid in the breakdown of non-digestible components of your diet to produce beneficial compounds that can be converted into energy, out-compete the "bad" bacteria, and interact with the cells in your intestine. To supplement your established microbiome, probiotics should be consumed regularly ...
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Southern bean mosaic virus ATCC ® PVAS-298™ Designation: Cowpea [southern bean mosaic virus antiserum] Application: Test animal used: rabbit Host plant from which virus was purified: Vigna unguiculata cv. Plant research
Title: Running, my second job and passion..., Description: Except for a very few Kenyans working extremely hard, its impossible to make a living out of running. So better be a second job, and a passion! Sharing a few personal notes on my journey in endurance, By: Feedage Forager, ID: 1288420, Grade: 92, Type: ATOM
Live With Passion (2 BR). Live With Passion cabin located 5 minutes from downtown Pigeon Forge. Come be passionate with a Supreme Pillow top king bed in lof...
Mountain biking is my passion. I compete in local downhill racing and have been riding several years. I had my first real injury a year ago which now requires surgery. Its nothing major, a small procedure to remove some swelling and to repair a deformed bone from the impact in a crash. It got me thinking what could have happened if it was worse or what could happen in the future. Have you quit your passion because if an injury and what your story?
I know, the title of this article does seem confusing. How do you live with life passion if you havent found it yet? If you no idea what your passion might be or how to find it, this post is specifically directed at you. | early childhood education and more
Louanne Roark marshalls partners, advisors, staff, volunteers and a lot of passion in the name of the personal care industry to help cancer patients cope with the side effects of treatment.
Planted Passion Horticultural Services are Perth-based landscapers specialising in organic and sustainable garden design, construction and maintenance services.
GAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAH. I have been tired....although the zoloft is helping me a lot, I feel like I am losing some passion that I used to have. Passion for dreaming, dreaming of the...
I feel blessed to have spent my life in an industry full of passionate people. It allowed me to pursue my goals with unbridled passion, while countless enthusiastic people came to my aid and cheered me on. If you are like me, you immerse yourself into your passions. Year by year, I resolved to navigate ...
Eventbrite brings people together through live experiences. Discover events that match your passions, or create your own with online ticketing tools.
Projects highlighted by our staff, and whats popular right now. Start exploring! Passion, ideas, and ambition abound on Kickstarter.
Genus Comovirus. *Genus Fabavirus. *Genus Nepovirus, mit Species Chicory yellow mottle virus, Grapevine bulgarian latent virus ...
The genera Comovirus, Nepovirus and Fabavirus were classified into the family Comoviridae in 1993. This family was classified ... Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Picornavirales Family: Secoviridae Sub-Family: Comovirinae Genus: Comovirus Andean potato mottle virus ...
... (CPMV) is a non-enveloped plant virus of the comovirus group. Infection of a susceptible cowpea leaf causes ...
... es, unlike the other two genera (Comovirus and Fabavirus) in the subfamily Comovirinae, are transmitted by nematodes. ...
"Similarity in gene organization and homology between proteins of animal picornaviruses and a plant comovirus suggest common ...
They have been classified into the family Secoviridae containing the subfamily Comovirinae (genera Comovirus, Fabavirus and ...
BPMV is a species in the plant pathogenic virus family Comoviridae, and genus Comovirus characterized by icosahedral symmetry, ...
... as in the Comovirus). Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Picornavirales Family: Dicistroviridae Genus: Aparavirus Acute bee paralysis virus ...
Comovirus Andean potato mottle virus Bean pod mottle virus Bean rugose mosaic virus Broad bean stain virus Broad bean true ...
... comovirus MeSH B04.715.464.180 --- cucumovirus MeSH B04.715.464.600 --- potyvirus MeSH B04.715.464.600.600 --- plum pox virus ... comovirus MeSH B04.820.464.180 --- cucumovirus MeSH B04.820.464.600 --- potyvirus MeSH B04.820.464.600.600 --- plum pox virus ... comovirus MeSH B04.715.150.250 --- fabavirus MeSH B04.715.150.500 --- nepovirus MeSH B04.715.270.500 --- maize streak virus ... comovirus MeSH B04.820.150.250 --- fabavirus MeSH B04.820.150.500 --- nepovirus MeSH B04.820.180.070 --- bacteriophage phi 6 ...
Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Picornavirales Family: Secoviridae Sub-Family: Comovirinae Genus: Comovirus Andean potato mottle virus ...
Circovirus Citrivirus Cjwunalikevirus Clavavirus Closterovirus Cocadviroid Coccolithovirus Coleviroid Coltivirus Comovirus ...
... is a genus of viruses in the order Picornavirales, in the family Secoviridae, in the subfamily Comovirinae. Plants ... Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Picornavirales Family: Secoviridae Sub-Family: Comovirinae Genus: Comovirus Andean potato mottle virus ... Viruses in Comovirus are non-enveloped, with icosahedral geometries, and T=pseudo3 symmetry. The diameter is around 28-30 nm. ...
A interferencia de ARN ten un importante papel na defensa das células contra xenes parasitos, como virus e transposóns, pero ...
... como virus ou mutacións. Máis recentemente, descubríronse outros tipos de necrose regulada, que comparten varios eventos de ...
I. O grupo de tipo picorna ou Picornavirata, formado por: bymovirus, comovirus, nepovirus, nodavirus, picornavirus, potyvirus, ...
Os lentivirus transmítense como virus de ARN con envoltura monocatenarios de fibra de sentido positivo. Despois da entrada na ...
Illo es cognoscite como virus del influenza porcin o SIV, pro le acronymos in anglese de Swine Influenza Viruses, ben que iste ...
Comovirus is a genus of viruses in the order Picornavirales, in the family Secoviridae, in the subfamily Comovirinae. Plants ... Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Picornavirales Family: Secoviridae Sub-Family: Comovirinae Genus: Comovirus Andean potato mottle virus ... Viruses in Comovirus are non-enveloped, with icosahedral geometries, and T=pseudo3 symmetry. The diameter is around 28-30 nm. ...
Genus Comovirus. *Genus Fabavirus. *Genus Nepovirus, mit Species Chicory yellow mottle virus, Grapevine bulgarian latent virus ...
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Comovirus Agent Radish mosaic virus Strain antiserum to Radish mosaic virus Applications The antiserum was made against the neo ...
Comovirus. cowpea mosaic virus. Plants. Fabavirus. broad bean wilt virus 1. Plants. ...
Genus Comovirus; Pea green mottle virus (PGMV). Pea mild mottle. Genus Comovirus; Pea mild mottle virus (PMMV). Peanut mottle. ... Genus Comovirus; Broad bean true mosaic virus (BBTMV). Cotton leaf curl. Genus Begomovirus; Cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus ( ... Genus Comovirus; Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV). Bean yellow mosaic. Genus Potyvirus; Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV). Beet ... Genus Comovirus; Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV). Cucumber mosaic (Soybean stunt). Genus Cucumovirus; Cucumber mosaic virus ...
Genus Comovirus; Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) Bean rugose mosaic Genus Comovirus; Bean rugose mosaic virus (BRMV) Bean severe ... Genus Comovirus; Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV), Quail pea mosaic virus (QPMV) Bean southern mosaic Genus Sobemovirus; ...
The genera Comovirus, Nepovirus and Fabavirus were classified into the family Comoviridae in 1993. This family was classified ... Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Picornavirales Family: Secoviridae Sub-Family: Comovirinae Genus: Comovirus Andean potato mottle virus ...
The Cowpea mosaic virus is a plant mosaic virus of the comovirus group. Infection of a cowpea leaf results in high virus yields ...
Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) (genus Comovirus; family Comoviridae) is a reemerging disease of soybeans. Vectored by the Bean ...
Comovirus, Fabavirus, Nepovirus, Cheravirus, Sadwavirus, Torradovirus, Sequivirus, and Waikavirus (70). ...
Squash mosaic comovirus. *Tomato mosaic tobamovirus. *Tomato yellow leaf curl geminivirus. *Watermelon mosaic virus II ...
Alignment of the amino acid sequences of RCMV-Eg with most Comovirus genus of Comoviridae family viruses. Regions with ... The synthesis and structure of comovirus capsids. Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol., 55: 107-137.. PubMed , Nair, R.M., N. Habili and J ... Phylogenetic tree constructed with deduced amino acid sequences of RCMV-Eg with most Comovirus genus of Comoviridae family. ... RT-PCR assays performed with two Comovirus-specific primers for amplification of 181 bp long segment of the RNA polymerase gene ...
... including the bipartite comovirus Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV; Sainsbury et al., 2007). These systems take advantage of the ...
2000). Resistance to squash mosaic comovirus in transgenic squash plants expressing its coat protein genes. Mol. Breed. 6, 87- ...
Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) is a non-enveloped plant virus of the comovirus group. Infection of a susceptible cowpea leaf causes ...
El dolor abdominal puede ser causado por un problema de salud, como virus estomacal o apendicitis (inflamación del apéndice). ...
... comovirus endopeptidase, nepovirus endopeptidase; tobacco etch virus NIa endopeptidase, hepatitis C virus endopeptidase 2, ...
Symptoms of cowpea severe mosaic virus (Cowpea severe mosaic virus, CpSMV), from the genus Comovirus. This disease is ...
Nepoviruses, unlike the other two genera (Comovirus and Fabavirus) in the subfamily Comovirinae, are transmitted by nematodes. ...
La LMP es causada por un papovavirus conocido como virus JC. En la mayoría de las personas, esta infección se adquiere durante ...
comovirus. (Siglum of cowpea mosaic virus). Member of a group of multicomponent plant viruses with small, isometric particles ...
PLYV is readily distinguishable serologically from PRSV and other viruses from the Potyvirus, Comovirus and Bromovirus genera. ...
Muy poco se sabe sobre cómo el sistema inmune primero reconoce virus, tales como virus de dengue, en la piel, ella explica. La ...
"Similarity in gene organization and homology between proteins of animal picornaviruses and a plant comovirus suggest common ...
  • I. O grupo de tipo picorna ou Picornavirata, formado por: bymovirus, comovirus, nepovirus, nodavirus, picornavirus, potyvirus, sobemovirus e un subconxunto de luteovirus (virus do amarelado da remolacha occidental e virus do enrolamento da folla da pataca). (wikipedia.org)
  • Splenocytes isolated from C3H/HeJ mice infected with coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) proliferated in vitro not only against a variety of enterovirus (CVB2, CVB3, CVB6, CVA16, PV1) antigens, but against comovirus (CPMV, BPMV) antigens as well. (eurekamag.com)
  • Last but not least wil ik jullie bedanken, alhoewel jullie geheel buiten het CPMV-gebeuren stonden, toch de ups en downs die aan het promotieonderzoek verbonden waren, met mij hebben gedeeld. (exploredoc.com)
  • The comovirus Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) causes a disease in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) but, despite its importance, there are no studies on the genetic diversity of viral populations. (embrapa.br)
  • Incidence of Southern Bean Mosaic Virus (SBMV) on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Aragua State, Venezuela, and partial molecular characterization of a viral isolate/Incidencia del virus Southern Bean Mosaic Virus (SBMV) en caraotas (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) en el estado Aragua, Venezuela, y caracterizacion molecular parcial de un aislamiento viral. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cada siRNA sepárase en dúas cadeas de ARN monocatenarias (ssRNA, single stranded RNA ), que se denominan a fibra pasaxeira e a fibra guía. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Dicistroviridae can be distinguished from the members of the taxa by the location of their structural protein genes at the 3' end rather than the 5' end (as found in Iflavirus, Picornaviridae and Secoviridae) and by having two genomic segments rather than a single one (as in the Comovirus). (wikipedia.org)
  • Amplification of total RNA extracted from infected broad bean yielded 200-550 bp using Comovirus -specific primers. (scialert.net)
  • X2 contains a sequence motif in common with the comovirus Co-Pro protein but does not seem to modulate the activity of the proteinase. (ictvonline.org)