Comoviridae: A family of non-enveloped RNA plant viruses, transmitted by biological vectors and experimentally by mechanical inoculation. There are three genera: COMOVIRUS; FABAVIRUS; and NEPOVIRUS.Endogenous Retroviruses: Retroviruses that have integrated into the germline (PROVIRUSES) that have lost infectious capability but retained the capability to transpose.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Retroviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the RETROVIRIDAE.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Terminal Repeat Sequences: Nucleotide sequences repeated on both the 5' and 3' ends of a sequence under consideration. For example, the hallmarks of a transposon are that it is flanked by inverted repeats on each end and the inverted repeats are flanked by direct repeats. The Delta element of Ty retrotransposons and LTRs (long terminal repeats) are examples of this concept.Multiple Sclerosis: An autoimmune disorder mainly affecting young adults and characterized by destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. Pathologic findings include multiple sharply demarcated areas of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia, and bladder dysfunction. The usual pattern is one of recurrent attacks followed by partial recovery (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, RELAPSING-REMITTING), but acute fulminating and chronic progressive forms (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE) also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p903)Nodaviridae: A family of RNA viruses infecting insects and fish. There are two genera: Alphanodavirus and Betanodavirus.RNA Virus InfectionsFish Diseases: Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).Perciformes: The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.Bass: Common name for FISHES belonging to the order Perciformes and occurring in three different families.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Polydnaviridae: A family of insect viruses isolated from endoparasitic hymenopteran insects belonging to the families Ichneumonidae and Braconidae. The two genera are Ichnovirus and Bracovirus.Wasps: Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.Hymenoptera: An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.Methomyl: A carbamate insecticide with anticholinesterase activity.Lepidoptera: A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.Hemocytes: Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.Tobacco Mosaic Virus: The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.Germ Theory of Disease: The fundamental tenet of modern medicine that certain diseases are caused by microorganisms. It was confirmed by the work of Pasteur, Lister, and Koch.Microbiology: The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Rabies: Acute VIRAL CNS INFECTION affecting mammals, including humans. It is caused by RABIES VIRUS and usually spread by contamination with virus-laden saliva of bites inflicted by rabid animals. Important animal vectors include the dog, cat, bat, fox, raccoon, skunk, and wolf.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Betaherpesvirinae: A subfamily of HERPESVIRIDAE characterized by a relatively long replication cycle. Genera include: CYTOMEGALOVIRUS; MUROMEGALOVIRUS; and ROSEOLOVIRUS.Alphaherpesvirinae: A subfamily of HERPESVIRIDAE characterized by a short replication cycle. The genera include: SIMPLEXVIRUS; VARICELLOVIRUS; MAREK'S DISEASE-LIKE VIRUSES; and ILTOVIRUS.Gammaherpesvirinae: A subfamily of HERPESVIRIDAE characterized by variable reproductive cycles. The genera include: LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS and RHADINOVIRUS.Herpesviridae: A family of enveloped, linear, double-stranded DNA viruses infecting a wide variety of animals. Subfamilies, based on biological characteristics, include: ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE; BETAHERPESVIRINAE; and GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE.Herpesvirus 1, Ranid: A species of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, whose genus is so far unassigned. It is probably the causative agent of ADENOMA or ADENOCARCINOMA in the kidneys of certain frogs.Herpesviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the HERPESVIRIDAE.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Mosaic Viruses: Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.Birnaviridae: A family of bisegmented, double-stranded RNA viruses causing infection in fish, mollusks, fowl, and Drosophila. There are three genera: AQUABIRNAVIRUS; AVIBIRNAVIRUS; and ENTOMOBIRNAVIRUS. Horizontal and vertical transmission occurs for all viruses.Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus: The type species of AQUABIRNAVIRUS, causing infectious pancreatic necrosis in salmonid fish and other freshwater and marine animals including mollusks.Birnaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the BIRNAVIRIDAE.Aquabirnavirus: A genus of RNA viruses in the family BIRNAVIRIDAE infecting fish, mollusks, and crustaceans. It is transmitted both vertically and horizontally with no known vectors. The natural hosts are salmonids and the type species is INFECTIOUS PANCREATIC NECROSIS VIRUS.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Infectious bursal disease virus: A species of AVIBIRNAVIRUS causing severe inflammation of the bursa of Fabricius in chickens and other fowl. Transmission is thought to be through contaminated feed or water. Vaccines have been used with varying degrees of success.Comovirus: A genus of plant viruses of the family COMOVIRIDAE in which the bipartite genome is encapsidated in separate icosahedral particles. Mosaic and mottle symptoms are characteristic, and transmission is exclusively by leaf-feeding beetles. Cowpea mosaic virus is the type species.Fabavirus: A genus of the family COMOVIRIDAE with a wide host range among dicotyledons and some monocotyledons. They are transmitted nonpersistently by aphids. The type species is broad bean wilt virus 1.Nepovirus: A genus of polyhedral plant viruses of the family COMOVIRIDAE causing ringspots and spotting on leaves or sometimes symptomless infection. Transmission occurs by seeds, soil nematodes, or experimentally by mechanical inoculation. Tobacco ringspot virus is the type species.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Indigo Carmine: Indolesulfonic acid used as a dye in renal function testing for the detection of nitrates and chlorates, and in the testing of milk.Plant Pathology: The study of infectious diseases associated with plants.BooksNobel PrizeBook SelectionHistory, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Thiamine: 3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-5-(2- hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium chloride.

Nucleotide sequences and taxonomy of satsuma dwarf virus. (1/2)

The nucleotide sequences of genomic RNA1 (6795 nt) and RNA2 (5345 nt) of satsuma dwarf virus (SDV), a tentative member of the genus Nepovirus, were determined. The deduced genome organization of SDV showed similarities to the organization in como-, faba- and nepoviruses. There is extensive amino acid sequence similarity in the N-terminal regions of the proteins encoded by RNA1 and RNA2, as reported previously only for tomato ringspot nepovirus. However, unlike definitive nepoviruses, which have a single coat protein, SDV has two coat proteins. SDV RNA2 does not contain the long (> 1300 nt) 3' non-coding region characteristic of some nepoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of SDV RNA polymerase placed SDV apart from como-, faba- and nepoviruses. These unique features suggest that SDV is distinct from the Comovirus, Fabavirus and Nepovirus genera, and needs to be separated into a new genus, probably within the family Comoviridae.  (+info)

Evidence for participation of RNA 1-encoded elicitor in Cowpea mosaic virus-mediated concurrent protection. (2/2)

The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) line Arlington, inoculated with Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV), showed no symptoms, and no infectivity or accumulation of capsid antigen was detected at several days after inoculation. Coinoculation, but not sequential inoculation, of CPMV with similar concentrations of another Comovirus; Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV), resulted in reduced numbers of CPSMV-induced lesions. This apparent, CPMV-mediated reduction in number of CPSMV-induced infection centers was termed concurrent protection. We report results obtained by inoculating two nearly isogenic cowpea lines derived from a CPMV-susceptible cowpea crossed to Arlington, one line CPMV-susceptible and the other resistant. The CPMV virions B and M, encapsidating genomic RNAs 1 and 2, respectively, were extensively purified by gradient centrifugation. In the CPMV-resistant cowpea, either CPMV or CPMV B affected concurrent protection against CPSMV and against two distinct non-Comoviruses: Cherry leafroll virus and Southern bean mosaic virus. Adding CPMV M to the inoculum did not enhance CPMV-B-mediated protection. CPMV B was ineffective in protecting CPMV-susceptible cowpea. We postulate that CPMV-mediated concurrent protection is elicited in CPMV-resistant cowpea by a CPMV RNA-1-encoded factor and acts to reduce accumulation or spread of CPMV and certain coinoculated challenging viruses in or from the inoculated cell. Coinoculated CPMV did not protect CPMV-resistant cowpea against Tomato bushy stunt virus or Cucumber mosaic virus.  (+info)

accupuncture (5) adoption (7) affection (4) announcements (7) antics (13) awards (6) bad girls (5) be the change for animals (1) Birthdays (20) blog hops (2) blogroll (1) boyfriends (1) Brigitte (42) Camp Sunflower (6) camping (3) celebrations (10) chiropractic (2) chug (3) comfort (5) company (4) contests (6) costumes (4) doctor visits (16) escapades (4) family (16) family relations (6) fashion (1) fire (2) Flash Fridays (3) Flashback (2) flat pugllet (1) friends (91) fun (66) fur (2) garden (2) get to know me (5) giveaways (16) good times (6) Grammy (2) Grampy (2) guest bloggers (3) guilty pleasures (3) Halloween (4) harvest (1) healthcare (8) heat (4) holidays (16) idiosyncrasies (5) introductions (3) issues (6) ivitations (2) jokes (1) lambies (7) living right (4) love (17) luxating patella (2) Meet ups (2) meetups (4) mind control (2) mugs (2) my devilish side (3) Nicknames (1) organic farming (4) parade (5) parks (2) parties (15) pedigree blog hop (1) pigmenting keratitis (3) poop (7) ...
Comovirinae is a subfamily of viruses in the order Picornavirales, in the family Secoviridae; its genera were formerly classified in the family Comoviridae. Plants serve as natural hosts. There are currently 56 species in this subfamily, divided among 3 genera. The genera Comovirus, Nepovirus and Fabavirus were classified into the family Comoviridae in 1993. This family was classified as part of the order Picornavirales when this order was created (2008), and its genera were reclassified as the subfamily Comovirinae of the family Secoviridae in 2009. Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Picornavirales Family: Secoviridae Sub-Family: Comovirinae Genus: Comovirus Andean potato mottle virus Bean pod mottle virus Bean rugose mosaic virus Broad bean stain virus Broad bean true mosaic virus Cowpea mosaic virus Cowpea severe mosaic virus Glycine mosaic virus Pea green mottle virus Pea mild mosaic virus Quail pea mosaic virus Radish mosaic virus Red clover mottle virus Squash mosaic virus Ullucus virus C Genus: ...
Effect of Film-Forming Compounds on the Development of Leaf Rust on Wheat Seedlings. Judith Zekaria-Oren. Pages: 231-234 VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. Characterization of Rhizoctonia Species Isolated from Ornamentals in Florida. A. R. Chase. Pages: 234-238 VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. Fungi Similar to Gaeumannomyces Associated with Root Rot of Turfgrasses in Florida. M. L. Elliott. Pages: 238-241 VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. Occurrence of Satsuma Dwarf Virus in Zhejiang Province, China. P. F. Cui. Pages: 242-244 VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. Effects of Fungicides Applied During Bloom on Yield, Yield Components, and Storage Rots of Cranberry. S. N. Jeffers. Pages: 244-250 VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. Host Range, Cytology, and Transmission of an Alyce-clover Isolate of Blackeye Cowpea Mosaic Virus. G. S. Zhao. Pages: 251-253 VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. Purification, Serology, and In Vitro Translation of an Alyce-clover Isolate of Blackeye Cowpea Mosaic Virus. G. S. Zhao. Pages: 254-257 VIEW ...
Looking for Nepovirus? Find out information about Nepovirus. A genus of plant viruses in the family Comoviridae; tobacco ring spot virus is the type species. Also known as tobacco ring spot virus group Explanation of Nepovirus
Satsuma Pharmacy: [sig max] seamless supporter wrist / elbow / shin | Satsuma drugstore | 10P03Dec16 - Purchase now to accumulate reedemable points! | Rakuten Global Market
Jack Wolfskin Helium Sky Men dark satsuma Down Jackets buy now in the official Jack Wolfskin Online Shop - Best Offers, Best Ratings & Expert Advise - en
These fresh, vibrant fruits are bursting with vitamin C. The zesty, juicy, nourishing effects of our Satsuma range will give you healthy-looking, radiant, glowing skin. Our Argentinian satsumas lend us their seeds, which are cold-pressed to release the fullest, freshest satsuma oil. This orangasmic oil is blended beautifully into every Satsuma product. Wake up your senses with one of our freshest scented ranges.. ...
Provident Financial has launched 'Satsuma Loans', that will allow people to borrow up to £300 over a period of 13 or 26 weeks, paying back bit-by-bit as they go. But how good are they?
MOTIVATION: Comparative genomics heavily relies on alignments of large and often complex DNA sequences. From an engineering perspective, the problem here is to provide maximum sensitivity (to find all there is to find), specificity (to only find real homology) and speed (to accommodate the billions of base pairs of vertebrate genomes). RESULTS: Satsuma addresses all three issues through novel strategies: (i) cross-correlation, implemented via fast Fourier transform; (ii) a match scoring scheme that eliminates almost all false hits; and (iii) an asynchronous battleship-like search that allows for aligning two entire fish genomes (470 and 217 Mb) in 120 CPU hours using 15 processors on a single machine. AVAILABILITY: Satsuma is part of the Spines software package, implemented in C++ on Linux. The latest version of Spines can be freely downloaded under the LGPL license from http://www.broadinstitute.org/science/programs/genome-biology/spines/.. ...
Meiji Satsuma earthenware literally reflects Japanese artistry, history and culture, themes reflect how creators believed Westerners perceived their country.
15 December 2009 │ Kabul - A new vaccine against polio will be used for the first time today in polio immunization campaigns in Afghanistan. The bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV), recommended by the Advisory Committee on Poliomyelitis Eradication, the global technical advisory body of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative as a critical tool to eradicate polio, can provide the optimal concurrent protection needed by young children against both surviving serotypes (types 1 and 3) of the paralysing virus. This will vastly simplify the logistics of vaccination in the conflict-affected parts of this country. This sub-national immunization campaign, from 15-17 December, will deliver bOPV to 2.8 million children under five in the Southern, South-Eastern and Eastern Regions of Afghanistan.. Of the three wild polioviruses (known as types 1, 2 and 3), type 2 has not been seen anywhere in the world since 1999. This achievement led to the development of monovalent vaccines, which provide protection ...
Satsuma Pharmacy: [Satsuma pharmacy in Chinese medicine] glossy skin that absorbs 50 g-Fullerene EGF, placenta, lithospermi radix formulations, Allin Wenger - Purchase now to accumulate reedemable points! | Rakuten Global Market
Find the best pest control service professionals in Satsuma, AL. See reviews, portfolios & more for the best pest control contractors in Satsuma, AL.
Lornas Laces Black Sheep Yarn - Satsuma - This lovely thick and thin yarn is composed of one strand of black yarn that is plyed with a colored strand. The colored ply is dyed with the same Lornas Laces colors that we all know and love and it is going to be available for a limited time only! Lornas Laces Black Sheep Yarn - Satsuma is available now at Jimmy Beans Wool with Free U.S. Flat Rate shipping for orders over $75, $4 U.S. Flat Rate shipping on all other orders!
Look for manufacturer import marks on Japanese china. Read the marks from top to bottom and from right to left. Look for the Japanese words for "made": "tsukuru," "Sei" and "saku." Look for the Japanese words for "drawn" or "painted" including "Dzu," "Fude" and "Ga". Learn the names of Japanese porcelain and pottery makers such as Seto, Kutani, Satsuma, Kyoto, Bizen, Banko, Awaji, Soma and Arita. Know the differences in the china. Satsuma china is ivory colored with artisan pictures. Kutani porcelains have elaborate pictures lavishly decorated in gold, red and blue. Unglazed china may be made by Banko and Bizen ware is characterized by funny images of nature. Soma pottery feature horses and Awaji is known for the use of bright green and yellow glaze.. ...
Item - My ovary is a twat-weasel. She actually went and pretended to ovulate last Sunday. And I was so sure it was ovulation, even though it was on day 10 of the cycle (which led to a WTF spiral-of-doom anxiety attack all of its own). Actually, Satsuma had merely filled herself to bursting with…
I have a very large plum tree that I have grafted 21 plum varieties onto. I also have a combination plum tree about 200 away. It has 3 European plums and Satsuma and Santa Rosa. My problem is that every year the Santa Rosa foliage is full of holes and growth is very weak. The foliage of all the other plums is great. Online Santa Rosa is recommended 9 out of 10 times as a pollinator. What would be a good pollinator that I could graft onto the combination plum tree that would work for the Satsuma ...
It looks like Ill be waiting until next year to really find out. The unknown plum tree produced 2 plums, but both dropped off before fully ripening. This is just their first year in the ground though. I also wanted to know how tall a dwarf satsuma and dwarf santa rosa get and most websites have different answers. It seems like theyll both get anywhere from 8-15 ft tall from what most sites say, (8-15 ft leaves a wide margin for error in my opinion) do you know if that is correct? And unfortunately I dont live in Oregon. Im in Ohio, which is good for planting most things, but Id much prefer the climate, precipitation and soil quality of the Willamette Valley ...
Haleigh Cummings has been missing since Monday. Now, authorities believe shes been abducted.. Deputies R. Nelson and Bridges responded to Haleighs home at 202 Green Drive in reference to the report of a missing five year old child.. The deputies arrived to find Ronald Cummings, Haleighs father, visibly upset in the driveway.. Cummings told the arriving deputies his girlfriend told him his daughter disappeared. Mr. Cummings said he didnt know what kind of clothing Haleigh had on, and all he knew was "the back door was standing open.". Ronald Cummings repeatedly said someone took his daughter, and according to the police report. he said, "when I find him, Ill kill him." Investigators said Cummings mentioned he had a 9 mm Beretta inside his home, and he said whomever had his child, he would "shoot them through the back window of the patrol car.". Investigators said due to his emotional state, Ronald Cummings was unable to provide any useful information at that moment.. Investigators then spoke ...
A quick and easy brûlée-style dish which uses some of the best fruits of the season. Use the grapefruit and orange as a base, but add whatever fruits you have available. Clementines and satsumas also make a good choice.
When retroviruses have integrated their own genome into the germ line, their genome is passed on to a following generation. These endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), contrasted with exogenous ones, now make up 5-8% of the human genome.[7] Most insertions have no known function and are often referred to as "junk DNA". However, many endogenous retroviruses play important roles in host biology, such as control of gene transcription, cell fusion during placental development in the course of the germination of an embryo, and resistance to exogenous retroviral infection. Endogenous retroviruses have also received special attention in the research of immunology-related pathologies, such as autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis, although endogenous retroviruses have not yet been proven to play any causal role in this class of disease.[8] While transcription was classically thought to occur only from DNA to RNA, reverse transcriptase transcribes RNA into DNA. The term "retro" in retrovirus refers to ...
The hepatitis envelope proteins are composed of subunits made from the viral preS1, preS2, and S genes. The L (for "large") envelope protein contains all three subunits. The M (for "medium") protein contains only preS2 and S. The S (for "small") protein contains only S. The genome portions encoding these envelope protein subuntis share both the same frame and the same stop codon (generating nested transcripts on a single open reading frame. The pre-S1 is encoded first (closest to the 5' end), followed directly by the pre-S2 and the S. When a transcript is made from the beginning of the pre-S1 region, all three genes are included in the transcript and the L protein is produced. When the transcript starts after the pro-S1 at the beginning of the pre-S2 the final protein contains the pre-S2 and S subunits only and therefore is an M protein. The smallest envelope protein containing just the S subunit is made most because it is encoded closest to the 3' end and comes from the shortest transcript. ...
Viruses in Betanodavirus are non-enveloped, with icosahedral geometries, and T=3 symmetry. The diameter is around 30 nm. Genomes are linear and segmented, bipartite, around 21.4kb in length.[8]. The crystal structure of a betanodavirus- T=3 Grouper nervous necrosis virus (GNNV)-like particle has been determined by X-ray crystallography. The virus-like particle contains 180 subunits of the capsid protein, and each capsid protein (CP) shows three major domains: (i) the N-terminal arm, an inter-subunit extension at the inner surface; (ii) the shell domain (S-domain), a jelly-roll structure; and (iii) the protrusion domain (P-domain) formed by three-fold trimeric protrusions. [10]. ...
Nucleic acid analysis suggests a very long association of the viruses with the wasps (greater than 70 million years).. Two proposals have been advanced for how the wasp/virus association developed. The first suggests that the virus is derived from wasp genes. Many parasitoids that do not use PDVs inject proteins that provide many of the same functions, that is, a suppression of the immune response to the parasite egg. In this model, the braconid and ichneumonid wasps packaged genes for these functions into the viruses-essentially creating a gene-transfer system that results in the caterpillar producing the immune-suppressing factors. In this scenario, the PDV structural proteins (capsids) were probably "borrowed" from existing viruses.. The alternative proposal suggests that ancestral wasps developed a beneficial association with an existing virus that eventually led to the integration of the virus into the wasp's genome. Following integration, the genes responsible for virus replication and the ...
Louis Pasteur was unable to find a causative agent for rabies and speculated about a pathogen too small to be detected using a microscope.[21] In 1884, the French microbiologist Charles Chamberland invented a filter (known today as the Chamberland filter or the Pasteur-Chamberland filter) with pores smaller than bacteria. Thus, he could pass a solution containing bacteria through the filter and completely remove them from the solution.[22] In 1892, the Russian biologist Dmitri Ivanovsky used this filter to study what is now known as the tobacco mosaic virus. His experiments showed that crushed leaf extracts from infected tobacco plants remain infectious after filtration. Ivanovsky suggested the infection might be caused by a toxin produced by bacteria, but did not pursue the idea.[23] At the time it was thought that all infectious agents could be retained by filters and grown on a nutrient medium - this was part of the germ theory of disease.[2] In 1898, the Dutch microbiologist Martinus ...
The Herpesvirales naming system originated in 1973 and has been elaborated considerably since. All herpesviruses described since this system was adopted have been named in accordance with it. The recommended naming system specifies that each species name consists of three parts: a first word, a second word, and finally a number. The first word should be derived from the taxon (family or subfamily) to which its primary natural host belongs. The subfamily name is used for viruses from members of the family Bovidae or from primates (the virus name ending in -ine, e.g. bovine), and the host family name for other viruses (ending in -id, e.g. equid). Human herpesviruses have been treated as an exception (human rather than hominid). Following the host-derived term, species in the family Herpesviridae, which are divided into subfamilies Alphaherpesvirinae, Betaherpesvirinae, and Gammaherpesvirinae, will have the word alphaherpesvirus, betaherpesvirus, or gammaherpesvirus added, respectively. Species in ...
Despite his other successes, Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) was unable to find a causative agent for rabies and speculated about a pathogen too small to be detected using a microscope.[1] In 1884, the French microbiologist Charles Chamberland (1851-1931) invented a filter - known today as the Chamberland filter - that had pores smaller than bacteria. Thus, he could pass a solution containing bacteria through the filter and completely remove them from the solution.[2] In 1876, Adolf Mayer, who directed the Agricultural Experimental Station in Wageningen was the first to show that what he called "Tobacco Mosaic Disease" was infectious, he thought that it was caused by either a toxin or a very small bacterium. Later, in 1892, the Russian biologist Dmitry Ivanovsky (1864-1920) used a Chamberland filter to study what is now known as the tobacco mosaic virus. His experiments showed that crushed leaf extracts from infected tobacco plants remain infectious after filtration. Ivanovsky suggested the infection ...
The Birnaviridae genome encodes several proteins: Birnaviridae RNA-directed RNA polymerase (VP1), which lacks the highly conserved Gly-Asp-Asp (GDD) sequence, a component of the proposed catalytic site of this enzyme family that exists in the conserved motif VI of the palm domain of other RNA-directed RNA polymerases.[3] The large RNA segment, segment A, of birnaviruses codes for a polyprotein (N-VP2-VP4-VP3-C) [4] that is processed into the major structural proteins of the virion: VP2, VP3 (a minor structural component of the virus), and into the putative protease VP4.[4] VP4 protein is involved in generating VP2 and VP3.[4] recombinant VP3 is more immunogenic than recombinant VP2.[5] Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), a birnavirus, is an important pathogen in fish farms. Analyses of viral proteins showed that VP2 is the major structural and immunogenic polypeptide of the virus.[6][7] All neutralizing monoclonal antibodies are specific to VP2 and bind to continuous or discontinuous ...
ICTV Taxonomy History for Comoviridae, accessed on line Nov. 20, 2015. ICTV Taxonomy History for Comovirinae, accessed on line ... The genera Comovirus, Nepovirus and Fabavirus were classified into the family Comoviridae in 1993. This family was classified ... its genera were formerly classified in the family Comoviridae. Plants serve as natural hosts. There are currently 56 species in ...
豇豆镶嵌病毒科 Comoviridae. *黄病毒科 Flaviviridae ...
豇豆镶嵌病毒科 Comoviridae. *黄病毒科 Flaviviridae ...
... is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Comoviridae. ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: Peach enation ...
Families within the Picornavirales order include Picornaviridae, Comoviridae, Dicistroviridae, Marnaviridae, and Sequiviridae. ...
... (RaMV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Comoviridae. ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: Radish ...
... (PBRSV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Comoviridae. ICTVdB - The Universal Virus ...
... (PmiMV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Comoviridae. ICTVdB-The Universal Virus Database: Pea ...
... (LASV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Comoviridae. ICTVdB - The Universal Virus ...
... (BBSV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Comoviridae. ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: ...
... (APMoV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Comoviridae. ICTVdB-The Universal Virus Database: ...
... (BBWV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Comoviridae, infecting spinach and grape. List of ...
BPMV is a species in the plant pathogenic virus family Comoviridae, and genus Comovirus characterized by icosahedral symmetry, ...
... which joined together the families Sequiviridae and Comoviridae and also included the genera Sadwavirus, Cheravirus and ...
... plant pathogenic virus of the family Comoviridae Tobacco ringspot virus, plant pathogenic virus in the plant virus family ... Comoviridae Tomato ringspot virus, plant pathogenic virus of the family Comoviridae. ... plant pathogenic virus of the family Comoviridae Prunus necrotic ringspot virus, plant pathogenic virus of the family ... Bromoviridae Raspberry ringspot virus, plant pathogenic virus of the family Comoviridae Strawberry latent ringspot virus, ...
... may refer to : Peach rosette mosaic virus, a plant pathogenic virus of the family Comoviridae PrMV may refer to : Primula ...
... it was originally unassigned but given genus status in 1993 as a member of the Comoviridae, of the Picornavirales in 2008, and ...
When retroviruses have integrated their own genome into the germ line, their genome is passed on to a following generation. These endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), contrasted with exogenous ones, now make up 5-8% of the human genome.[7] Most insertions have no known function and are often referred to as "junk DNA". However, many endogenous retroviruses play important roles in host biology, such as control of gene transcription, cell fusion during placental development in the course of the germination of an embryo, and resistance to exogenous retroviral infection. Endogenous retroviruses have also received special attention in the research of immunology-related pathologies, such as autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis, although endogenous retroviruses have not yet been proven to play any causal role in this class of disease.[8] While transcription was classically thought to occur only from DNA to RNA, reverse transcriptase transcribes RNA into DNA. The term "retro" in retrovirus refers to ...
The hepatitis envelope proteins are composed of subunits made from the viral preS1, preS2, and S genes. The L (for "large") envelope protein contains all three subunits. The M (for "medium") protein contains only preS2 and S. The S (for "small") protein contains only S. The genome portions encoding these envelope protein subuntis share both the same frame and the same stop codon (generating nested transcripts on a single open reading frame. The pre-S1 is encoded first (closest to the 5 end), followed directly by the pre-S2 and the S. When a transcript is made from the beginning of the pre-S1 region, all three genes are included in the transcript and the L protein is produced. When the transcript starts after the pro-S1 at the beginning of the pre-S2 the final protein contains the pre-S2 and S subunits only and therefore is an M protein. The smallest envelope protein containing just the S subunit is made most because it is encoded closest to the 3 end and comes from the shortest transcript. ...
Viruses in Betanodavirus are non-enveloped, with icosahedral geometries, and T=3 symmetry. The diameter is around 30 nm. Genomes are linear and segmented, bipartite, around 21.4kb in length.[8]. The crystal structure of a betanodavirus- T=3 Grouper nervous necrosis virus (GNNV)-like particle has been determined by X-ray crystallography. The virus-like particle contains 180 subunits of the capsid protein, and each capsid protein (CP) shows three major domains: (i) the N-terminal arm, an inter-subunit extension at the inner surface; (ii) the shell domain (S-domain), a jelly-roll structure; and (iii) the protrusion domain (P-domain) formed by three-fold trimeric protrusions. [10]. ...
Nucleic acid analysis suggests a very long association of the viruses with the wasps (greater than 70 million years).. Two proposals have been advanced for how the wasp/virus association developed. The first suggests that the virus is derived from wasp genes. Many parasitoids that do not use PDVs inject proteins that provide many of the same functions, that is, a suppression of the immune response to the parasite egg. In this model, the braconid and ichneumonid wasps packaged genes for these functions into the viruses-essentially creating a gene-transfer system that results in the caterpillar producing the immune-suppressing factors. In this scenario, the PDV structural proteins (capsids) were probably "borrowed" from existing viruses.. The alternative proposal suggests that ancestral wasps developed a beneficial association with an existing virus that eventually led to the integration of the virus into the wasps genome. Following integration, the genes responsible for virus replication and the ...
Louis Pasteur was unable to find a causative agent for rabies and speculated about a pathogen too small to be detected using a microscope.[21] In 1884, the French microbiologist Charles Chamberland invented a filter (known today as the Chamberland filter or the Pasteur-Chamberland filter) with pores smaller than bacteria. Thus, he could pass a solution containing bacteria through the filter and completely remove them from the solution.[22] In 1892, the Russian biologist Dmitri Ivanovsky used this filter to study what is now known as the tobacco mosaic virus. His experiments showed that crushed leaf extracts from infected tobacco plants remain infectious after filtration. Ivanovsky suggested the infection might be caused by a toxin produced by bacteria, but did not pursue the idea.[23] At the time it was thought that all infectious agents could be retained by filters and grown on a nutrient medium - this was part of the germ theory of disease.[2] In 1898, the Dutch microbiologist Martinus ...
The Herpesvirales naming system originated in 1973 and has been elaborated considerably since. All herpesviruses described since this system was adopted have been named in accordance with it. The recommended naming system specifies that each species name consists of three parts: a first word, a second word, and finally a number. The first word should be derived from the taxon (family or subfamily) to which its primary natural host belongs. The subfamily name is used for viruses from members of the family Bovidae or from primates (the virus name ending in -ine, e.g. bovine), and the host family name for other viruses (ending in -id, e.g. equid). Human herpesviruses have been treated as an exception (human rather than hominid). Following the host-derived term, species in the family Herpesviridae, which are divided into subfamilies Alphaherpesvirinae, Betaherpesvirinae, and Gammaherpesvirinae, will have the word alphaherpesvirus, betaherpesvirus, or gammaherpesvirus added, respectively. Species in ...
Despite his other successes, Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) was unable to find a causative agent for rabies and speculated about a pathogen too small to be detected using a microscope.[1] In 1884, the French microbiologist Charles Chamberland (1851-1931) invented a filter - known today as the Chamberland filter - that had pores smaller than bacteria. Thus, he could pass a solution containing bacteria through the filter and completely remove them from the solution.[2] In 1876, Adolf Mayer, who directed the Agricultural Experimental Station in Wageningen was the first to show that what he called "Tobacco Mosaic Disease" was infectious, he thought that it was caused by either a toxin or a very small bacterium. Later, in 1892, the Russian biologist Dmitry Ivanovsky (1864-1920) used a Chamberland filter to study what is now known as the tobacco mosaic virus. His experiments showed that crushed leaf extracts from infected tobacco plants remain infectious after filtration. Ivanovsky suggested the infection ...
The Birnaviridae genome encodes several proteins: Birnaviridae RNA-directed RNA polymerase (VP1), which lacks the highly conserved Gly-Asp-Asp (GDD) sequence, a component of the proposed catalytic site of this enzyme family that exists in the conserved motif VI of the palm domain of other RNA-directed RNA polymerases.[3] The large RNA segment, segment A, of birnaviruses codes for a polyprotein (N-VP2-VP4-VP3-C) [4] that is processed into the major structural proteins of the virion: VP2, VP3 (a minor structural component of the virus), and into the putative protease VP4.[4] VP4 protein is involved in generating VP2 and VP3.[4] recombinant VP3 is more immunogenic than recombinant VP2.[5] Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), a birnavirus, is an important pathogen in fish farms. Analyses of viral proteins showed that VP2 is the major structural and immunogenic polypeptide of the virus.[6][7] All neutralizing monoclonal antibodies are specific to VP2 and bind to continuous or discontinuous ...
23 March 2018: Comoviridae. 23 March 2018: Schlumbergera. 22 March 2018: Tragulina. 22 March 2018: Vitrina. 22 March 2018: ...
J. Replication of Comoviridae. K. Replication of Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus. L. Replication of Other (+)-Strand RNA Viruses. M ... K. Family Comoviridae. L. Family Potyviridae. M. Family Tombusviridae. N. Family Sequiviridae. O. Family Closteroviridae. P. ... B. Family Comoviridae. C. Family Potyviridae. D. Family Tombusviridae. E. Family Sequiviridae. F. Family Closteroviridae. G. ...
Comoviridae:. Comovirus. cowpea mosaic virus. Plants. Fabavirus. broad bean wilt virus 1. Plants. ...
ICTV Taxonomy History for Comoviridae, accessed on line Nov. 20, 2015. ICTV Taxonomy History for Comovirinae, accessed on line ... The genera Comovirus, Nepovirus and Fabavirus were classified into the family Comoviridae in 1993. This family was classified ... its genera were formerly classified in the family Comoviridae. Plants serve as natural hosts. There are currently 56 species in ...
豇豆镶嵌病毒科 Comoviridae. *黄病毒科 Flaviviridae ...
豇豆镶嵌病毒科 Comoviridae. *黄病毒科 Flaviviridae ...
The Cowpea mosaic virus is a plant mosaic virus of the comovirus group. Infection of a cowpea leaf results in high virus yields (1-2 g/kg). Genomes consists of 2 molecules of positive-strand RNA (RNA-1 and RNA-2) which are separately encapsidated. Each is expressed by a polyprotein processing strategy. Particles are 28nm in diameter and contain 60 copies each of a Large (L) and Small (S) coat protein arranged pseudo T=3 (P=3) symmetry. The structure is well characterised to atomic resolution and the viral particles are thermostable. It can infect the Black-eyed pea, as it displays a number of features that can be exploited for nanoscale biomaterial fabrication and because its genetic, biological and physical properties are well characterised. CPMV can be isolated readily from plants. It is possible to attach a number of different chemicals to the virus surface and to construct multilayer arrays of such nanoparticles on solid surfaces. This gives the natural nanoparticles a range of properties ...
Family Comoviridae. *Family Dicistroviridae. *Family Flaviviridae - includes Yellow fever virus, West Nile virus, Hepatitis C ...
Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) (genus Comovirus; family Comoviridae) is a reemerging disease of soybeans. Vectored by the Bean ...
Peach enation virus is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Comoviridae. ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: Peach enation ...
Families within the Picornavirales order include Picornaviridae, Comoviridae, Dicistroviridae, Marnaviridae, and Sequiviridae. ...
Radish mosaic virus (RaMV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Comoviridae. ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: Radish ...
Potato black ringspot virus (PBRSV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Comoviridae. ICTVdB - The Universal Virus ...
Pea mild mosaic virus (PmiMV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Comoviridae. ICTVdB-The Universal Virus Database: Pea ...
Lucerne Australian symptomless virus (LASV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Comoviridae. ICTVdB - The Universal Virus ...
Broad bean stain virus (BBSV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Comoviridae. ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: ...
Andean potato mottle virus (APMoV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Comoviridae. ICTVdB-The Universal Virus Database: ...