A family of non-enveloped RNA plant viruses, transmitted by biological vectors and experimentally by mechanical inoculation. There are three genera: COMOVIRUS; FABAVIRUS; and NEPOVIRUS.
Retroviruses that have integrated into the germline (PROVIRUSES) that have lost infectious capability but retained the capability to transpose.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
Virus diseases caused by the RETROVIRIDAE.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Nucleotide sequences repeated on both the 5' and 3' ends of a sequence under consideration. For example, the hallmarks of a transposon are that it is flanked by inverted repeats on each end and the inverted repeats are flanked by direct repeats. The Delta element of Ty retrotransposons and LTRs (long terminal repeats) are examples of this concept.
An autoimmune disorder mainly affecting young adults and characterized by destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. Pathologic findings include multiple sharply demarcated areas of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia, and bladder dysfunction. The usual pattern is one of recurrent attacks followed by partial recovery (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, RELAPSING-REMITTING), but acute fulminating and chronic progressive forms (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE) also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p903)
Indolesulfonic acid used as a dye in renal function testing for the detection of nitrates and chlorates, and in the testing of milk.
The study of infectious diseases associated with plants.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-5-(2- hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium chloride.
The nine cartilages of the larynx, including the cricoid, thyroid and epiglottic, and two each of arytenoid, corniculate and cuneiform.
A species of the Chenopodium genus which is the source of edible seed called quinoa. It contains makisterone A and other STEROIDS, some having ECDYSTEROID activity on insects.
A genus of plant viruses in the family SEQUIVIRIDAE. Transmission is by leafhoppers or APHIDS and depends on a self-encoded helper protein. The type species is Rice tungro spherical virus.
A genus of plant viruses in the family SEQUIVIRIDAE. Transmission is by APHIDS but depends on the presence of a helper protein encoded by the Anthriscus yellow virus, a WAIKAVIRUS. The type species is Parsnip yellow fleck virus (parsnip serotype).
A genus of DNA plant viruses of the family CAULIMOVIRIDAE. The sole species, Rice tungro bacilliform virus, shows 25% identity with BADNAVIRUS. It is transmitted by leafhoppers with the assistance of RICE TUNGRO SPHERICAL VIRUS.
A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of the edible fruit (apple) and is cultivated in temperate climates worldwide.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 36 serotypes. It is comprised of all the echoviruses and a few coxsackieviruses, including all of those previously named coxsackievirus B.
A heterogeneous group of infections produced by coxsackieviruses, including HERPANGINA, aseptic meningitis (MENINGITIS, ASEPTIC), a common-cold-like syndrome, a non-paralytic poliomyelitis-like syndrome, epidemic pleurodynia (PLEURODYNIA, EPIDEMIC) and a serious MYOCARDITIS.
Infectious disease processes, including meningitis, diarrhea, and respiratory disorders, caused by echoviruses.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 10 serotypes, mostly coxsackieviruses.
A genus of the family CORONAVIRIDAE which causes respiratory or gastrointestinal disease in a variety of vertebrates.
Hoofed mammals with four legs, a big-lipped snout, and a humped back belonging to the family Camelidae.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Virus diseases caused by the CORONAVIRUS genus. Some specifics include transmissible enteritis of turkeys (ENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF TURKEYS); FELINE INFECTIOUS PERITONITIS; and transmissible gastroenteritis of swine (GASTROENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF SWINE).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
A genus of plant viruses of the family COMOVIRIDAE in which the bipartite genome is encapsidated in separate icosahedral particles. Mosaic and mottle symptoms are characteristic, and transmission is exclusively by leaf-feeding beetles. Cowpea mosaic virus is the type species.
A genus of the family COMOVIRIDAE with a wide host range among dicotyledons and some monocotyledons. They are transmitted nonpersistently by aphids. The type species is broad bean wilt virus 1.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
A genus of polyhedral plant viruses of the family COMOVIRIDAE causing ringspots and spotting on leaves or sometimes symptomless infection. Transmission occurs by seeds, soil nematodes, or experimentally by mechanical inoculation. Tobacco ringspot virus is the type species.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing atypical respiratory disease (SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME) in humans. The organism is believed to have first emerged in Guangdong Province, China, in 2002. The natural host is the Chinese horseshoe bat, RHINOLOPHUS sinicus.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The number of mutations that occur in a specific sequence, GENE, or GENOME over a specified period of time such as years, CELL DIVISIONS, or generations.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.

Nucleotide sequences and taxonomy of satsuma dwarf virus. (1/2)

The nucleotide sequences of genomic RNA1 (6795 nt) and RNA2 (5345 nt) of satsuma dwarf virus (SDV), a tentative member of the genus Nepovirus, were determined. The deduced genome organization of SDV showed similarities to the organization in como-, faba- and nepoviruses. There is extensive amino acid sequence similarity in the N-terminal regions of the proteins encoded by RNA1 and RNA2, as reported previously only for tomato ringspot nepovirus. However, unlike definitive nepoviruses, which have a single coat protein, SDV has two coat proteins. SDV RNA2 does not contain the long (> 1300 nt) 3' non-coding region characteristic of some nepoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of SDV RNA polymerase placed SDV apart from como-, faba- and nepoviruses. These unique features suggest that SDV is distinct from the Comovirus, Fabavirus and Nepovirus genera, and needs to be separated into a new genus, probably within the family Comoviridae.  (+info)

Evidence for participation of RNA 1-encoded elicitor in Cowpea mosaic virus-mediated concurrent protection. (2/2)

The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) line Arlington, inoculated with Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV), showed no symptoms, and no infectivity or accumulation of capsid antigen was detected at several days after inoculation. Coinoculation, but not sequential inoculation, of CPMV with similar concentrations of another Comovirus; Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV), resulted in reduced numbers of CPSMV-induced lesions. This apparent, CPMV-mediated reduction in number of CPSMV-induced infection centers was termed concurrent protection. We report results obtained by inoculating two nearly isogenic cowpea lines derived from a CPMV-susceptible cowpea crossed to Arlington, one line CPMV-susceptible and the other resistant. The CPMV virions B and M, encapsidating genomic RNAs 1 and 2, respectively, were extensively purified by gradient centrifugation. In the CPMV-resistant cowpea, either CPMV or CPMV B affected concurrent protection against CPSMV and against two distinct non-Comoviruses: Cherry leafroll virus and Southern bean mosaic virus. Adding CPMV M to the inoculum did not enhance CPMV-B-mediated protection. CPMV B was ineffective in protecting CPMV-susceptible cowpea. We postulate that CPMV-mediated concurrent protection is elicited in CPMV-resistant cowpea by a CPMV RNA-1-encoded factor and acts to reduce accumulation or spread of CPMV and certain coinoculated challenging viruses in or from the inoculated cell. Coinoculated CPMV did not protect CPMV-resistant cowpea against Tomato bushy stunt virus or Cucumber mosaic virus.  (+info)

A virus with isometric virus particles (ca. 25 nm) was isolated from an apple tree and named Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV). Virus particles purified from infected Chenopodium quinoa formed two bands with densities of 1·41 and 1·43 g/cm3 in CsCl equilibrium density-gradient centrifugation, indicating that the virus is composed of two components. The virus had two ssRNA species (RNA1 and RNA2) and three capsid proteins (Vp25, Vp24 and Vp20). The complete nucleotide sequences of RNA1 and RNA2 were determined to be 6815 nt and 3384 nt excluding the 3′ poly(A) tail, respectively. RNA1 contains two partially overlapping ORFs encoding polypeptides of molecular mass 23 kDa (23K; ORF1) and 235 kDa (235K; ORF2); RNA2 has a single ORF encoding a polypeptide of 108 kDa (108K). The 235K protein has, in order, consensus motifs of the protease cofactor, the NTP-binding helicase, the cysteine protease and the RNA polymerase, in good agreement with the gene arrangement of viruses in the Comoviridae. The
Satsuma dwarf virus (SDV) severely damages citrus manufacturing by decreasing the standard and yield of fruit. To keep away from contamination with SDV, mom timber are checked to be SDV-free … Continue Reading →. ...
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Comovirinae is a subfamily of viruses in the order Picornavirales, in the family Secoviridae; its genera were formerly classified in the family Comoviridae. Plants serve as natural hosts. There are currently 56 species in this subfamily, divided among 3 genera. The genera Comovirus, Nepovirus and Fabavirus were classified into the family Comoviridae in 1993. This family was classified as part of the order Picornavirales when this order was created (2008), and its genera were reclassified as the subfamily Comovirinae of the family Secoviridae in 2009. Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Picornavirales Family: Secoviridae Sub-Family: Comovirinae Genus: Comovirus Andean potato mottle virus Bean pod mottle virus Bean rugose mosaic virus Broad bean stain virus Broad bean true mosaic virus Cowpea mosaic virus Cowpea severe mosaic virus Glycine mosaic virus Pea green mottle virus Pea mild mosaic virus Quail pea mosaic virus Radish mosaic virus Red clover mottle virus Squash mosaic virus Ullucus virus C Genus: ...
Effect of Film-Forming Compounds on the Development of Leaf Rust on Wheat Seedlings. Judith Zekaria-Oren. Pages: 231-234 VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. Characterization of Rhizoctonia Species Isolated from Ornamentals in Florida. A. R. Chase. Pages: 234-238 VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. Fungi Similar to Gaeumannomyces Associated with Root Rot of Turfgrasses in Florida. M. L. Elliott. Pages: 238-241 VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. Occurrence of Satsuma Dwarf Virus in Zhejiang Province, China. P. F. Cui. Pages: 242-244 VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. Effects of Fungicides Applied During Bloom on Yield, Yield Components, and Storage Rots of Cranberry. S. N. Jeffers. Pages: 244-250 VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. Host Range, Cytology, and Transmission of an Alyce-clover Isolate of Blackeye Cowpea Mosaic Virus. G. S. Zhao. Pages: 251-253 VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. Purification, Serology, and In Vitro Translation of an Alyce-clover Isolate of Blackeye Cowpea Mosaic Virus. G. S. Zhao. Pages: 254-257 VIEW ...
Looking for Nepovirus? Find out information about Nepovirus. A genus of plant viruses in the family Comoviridae; tobacco ring spot virus is the type species. Also known as tobacco ring spot virus group Explanation of Nepovirus
Satsuma Pharmacy: [sig max] seamless supporter wrist / elbow / shin | Satsuma drugstore | 10P03Dec16 - Purchase now to accumulate reedemable points! | Rakuten Global Market
Jack Wolfskin Helium Sky Men dark satsuma Down Jackets buy now in the official Jack Wolfskin Online Shop - Best Offers, Best Ratings & Expert Advise - en
These fresh, vibrant fruits are bursting with vitamin C. The zesty, juicy, nourishing effects of our Satsuma range will give you healthy-looking, radiant, glowing skin. Our Argentinian satsumas lend us their seeds, which are cold-pressed to release the fullest, freshest satsuma oil. This orangasmic oil is blended beautifully into every Satsuma product. Wake up your senses with one of our freshest scented ranges.. ...
Provident Financial has launched 'Satsuma Loans', that will allow people to borrow up to £300 over a period of 13 or 26 weeks, paying back bit-by-bit as they go. But how good are they?
MOTIVATION: Comparative genomics heavily relies on alignments of large and often complex DNA sequences. From an engineering perspective, the problem here is to provide maximum sensitivity (to find all there is to find), specificity (to only find real homology) and speed (to accommodate the billions of base pairs of vertebrate genomes). RESULTS: Satsuma addresses all three issues through novel strategies: (i) cross-correlation, implemented via fast Fourier transform; (ii) a match scoring scheme that eliminates almost all false hits; and (iii) an asynchronous battleship-like search that allows for aligning two entire fish genomes (470 and 217 Mb) in 120 CPU hours using 15 processors on a single machine. AVAILABILITY: Satsuma is part of the Spines software package, implemented in C++ on Linux. The latest version of Spines can be freely downloaded under the LGPL license from http://www.broadinstitute.org/science/programs/genome-biology/spines/.. ...
Meiji Satsuma earthenware literally reflects Japanese artistry, history and culture, themes reflect how creators believed Westerners perceived their country.
15 December 2009 │ Kabul - A new vaccine against polio will be used for the first time today in polio immunization campaigns in Afghanistan. The bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV), recommended by the Advisory Committee on Poliomyelitis Eradication, the global technical advisory body of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative as a critical tool to eradicate polio, can provide the optimal concurrent protection needed by young children against both surviving serotypes (types 1 and 3) of the paralysing virus. This will vastly simplify the logistics of vaccination in the conflict-affected parts of this country. This sub-national immunization campaign, from 15-17 December, will deliver bOPV to 2.8 million children under five in the Southern, South-Eastern and Eastern Regions of Afghanistan.. Of the three wild polioviruses (known as types 1, 2 and 3), type 2 has not been seen anywhere in the world since 1999. This achievement led to the development of monovalent vaccines, which provide protection ...
Satsuma Pharmacy: [Satsuma pharmacy in Chinese medicine] glossy skin that absorbs 50 g-Fullerene EGF, placenta, lithospermi radix formulations, Allin Wenger - Purchase now to accumulate reedemable points! | Rakuten Global Market
Find the best pest control service professionals in Satsuma, AL. See reviews, portfolios & more for the best pest control contractors in Satsuma, AL.
Lornas Laces Black Sheep Yarn - Satsuma - This lovely thick and thin yarn is composed of one strand of black yarn that is plyed with a colored strand. The colored ply is dyed with the same Lornas Laces colors that we all know and love and it is going to be available for a limited time only! Lornas Laces Black Sheep Yarn - Satsuma is available now at Jimmy Beans Wool with Free U.S. Flat Rate shipping for orders over $75, $4 U.S. Flat Rate shipping on all other orders!
SATSUMA ORANGE BUTTER SAUCE: In a saucepan combine Satsuma juice, zest, shallots, bay leaf, peppercorns, garlic, thyme, wine and honey and bring to a boil. Reduce heat to a simmer and allow to cook until liquid has reduced by 75%. Add heavy cream and continue to cook until liquid has reduced by half. Whisk in cold butter little by little, until sauce is smooth and thick and all butter is incorporated. Do not allow sauce to boil. (Keep warm in a bain marie until ready to serve ...
Look for manufacturer import marks on Japanese china. Read the marks from top to bottom and from right to left. Look for the Japanese words for made: tsukuru, Sei and saku. Look for the Japanese words for drawn or painted including Dzu, Fude and Ga. Learn the names of Japanese porcelain and pottery makers such as Seto, Kutani, Satsuma, Kyoto, Bizen, Banko, Awaji, Soma and Arita. Know the differences in the china. Satsuma china is ivory colored with artisan pictures. Kutani porcelains have elaborate pictures lavishly decorated in gold, red and blue. Unglazed china may be made by Banko and Bizen ware is characterized by funny images of nature. Soma pottery feature horses and Awaji is known for the use of bright green and yellow glaze.. ...
Item - My ovary is a twat-weasel. She actually went and pretended to ovulate last Sunday. And I was so sure it was ovulation, even though it was on day 10 of the cycle (which led to a WTF spiral-of-doom anxiety attack all of its own). Actually, Satsuma had merely filled herself to bursting with…
I have a very large plum tree that I have grafted 21 plum varieties onto. I also have a combination plum tree about 200 away. It has 3 European plums and Satsuma and Santa Rosa. My problem is that every year the Santa Rosa foliage is full of holes and growth is very weak. The foliage of all the other plums is great. Online Santa Rosa is recommended 9 out of 10 times as a pollinator. What would be a good pollinator that I could graft onto the combination plum tree that would work for the Satsuma ...
It looks like Ill be waiting until next year to really find out. The unknown plum tree produced 2 plums, but both dropped off before fully ripening. This is just their first year in the ground though. I also wanted to know how tall a dwarf satsuma and dwarf santa rosa get and most websites have different answers. It seems like theyll both get anywhere from 8-15 ft tall from what most sites say, (8-15 ft leaves a wide margin for error in my opinion) do you know if that is correct? And unfortunately I dont live in Oregon. Im in Ohio, which is good for planting most things, but Id much prefer the climate, precipitation and soil quality of the Willamette Valley ...
ASDA is my local store, 1kg of bananas is 87p, you get around 6.. 2 bags of red and green apples around ?2.20. 5 a day packs 3 for a ?1. Satsumas sometimes 2 for ?2 or ?1.37. I eat 6 apples per day, 4 bananas, nuts and berries and a bag of satsumas and melon lots of when it was a ?1 for 1.. I got some left.. So each day I spend ?3 on fruit, they probably spend it on fags.. Fruit is not expensive, in the 70s compared to prices now, an apple would cost you ?1 and a banana ?2.. Again, more whining scum that sit at home smoking eating pies and watching Jeremy Kyle.. Edited ...
Despite consistent long-term opposition from some U.S. citrus leaders, the U.S. Department of Agriculture has approved U.S. imports of Chinese pummelo, nanfeng honey mandarin, ponkan, sweet orange, and satsuma mandarins ...
Haleigh Cummings has been missing since Monday. Now, authorities believe shes been abducted.. Deputies R. Nelson and Bridges responded to Haleighs home at 202 Green Drive in reference to the report of a missing five year old child.. The deputies arrived to find Ronald Cummings, Haleighs father, visibly upset in the driveway.. Cummings told the arriving deputies his girlfriend told him his daughter disappeared. Mr. Cummings said he didnt know what kind of clothing Haleigh had on, and all he knew was the back door was standing open.. Ronald Cummings repeatedly said someone took his daughter, and according to the police report. he said, when I find him, Ill kill him. Investigators said Cummings mentioned he had a 9 mm Beretta inside his home, and he said whomever had his child, he would shoot them through the back window of the patrol car.. Investigators said due to his emotional state, Ronald Cummings was unable to provide any useful information at that moment.. Investigators then spoke ...
A quick and easy brûlée-style dish which uses some of the best fruits of the season. Use the grapefruit and orange as a base, but add whatever fruits you have available. Clementines and satsumas also make a good choice.
Tooth Fairy Glitter Money Super easy to make tooth fairy glitter coins to delight your kids. Let the tooth fairy spread her magic when kids lose their teeth.
When retroviruses have integrated their own genome into the germ line, their genome is passed on to a following generation. These endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), contrasted with exogenous ones, now make up 5-8% of the human genome.[7] Most insertions have no known function and are often referred to as "junk DNA". However, many endogenous retroviruses play important roles in host biology, such as control of gene transcription, cell fusion during placental development in the course of the germination of an embryo, and resistance to exogenous retroviral infection. Endogenous retroviruses have also received special attention in the research of immunology-related pathologies, such as autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis, although endogenous retroviruses have not yet been proven to play any causal role in this class of disease.[8] While transcription was classically thought to occur only from DNA to RNA, reverse transcriptase transcribes RNA into DNA. The term "retro" in retrovirus refers to ...
The hepatitis envelope proteins are composed of subunits made from the viral preS1, preS2, and S genes. The L (for "large") envelope protein contains all three subunits. The M (for "medium") protein contains only preS2 and S. The S (for "small") protein contains only S. The genome portions encoding these envelope protein subuntis share both the same frame and the same stop codon (generating nested transcripts on a single open reading frame. The pre-S1 is encoded first (closest to the 5' end), followed directly by the pre-S2 and the S. When a transcript is made from the beginning of the pre-S1 region, all three genes are included in the transcript and the L protein is produced. When the transcript starts after the pro-S1 at the beginning of the pre-S2 the final protein contains the pre-S2 and S subunits only and therefore is an M protein. The smallest envelope protein containing just the S subunit is made most because it is encoded closest to the 3' end and comes from the shortest transcript. ...
Viruses in Betanodavirus are non-enveloped, with icosahedral geometries, and T=3 symmetry. The diameter is around 30 nm. Genomes are linear and segmented, bipartite, around 21.4kb in length.[8]. The crystal structure of a betanodavirus- T=3 Grouper nervous necrosis virus (GNNV)-like particle has been determined by X-ray crystallography. The virus-like particle contains 180 subunits of the capsid protein, and each capsid protein (CP) shows three major domains: (i) the N-terminal arm, an inter-subunit extension at the inner surface; (ii) the shell domain (S-domain), a jelly-roll structure; and (iii) the protrusion domain (P-domain) formed by three-fold trimeric protrusions. [10]. ...
Nucleic acid analysis suggests a very long association of the viruses with the wasps (greater than 70 million years).. Two proposals have been advanced for how the wasp/virus association developed. The first suggests that the virus is derived from wasp genes. Many parasitoids that do not use PDVs inject proteins that provide many of the same functions, that is, a suppression of the immune response to the parasite egg. In this model, the braconid and ichneumonid wasps packaged genes for these functions into the viruses-essentially creating a gene-transfer system that results in the caterpillar producing the immune-suppressing factors. In this scenario, the PDV structural proteins (capsids) were probably "borrowed" from existing viruses.. The alternative proposal suggests that ancestral wasps developed a beneficial association with an existing virus that eventually led to the integration of the virus into the wasp's genome. Following integration, the genes responsible for virus replication and the ...
Louis Pasteur was unable to find a causative agent for rabies and speculated about a pathogen too small to be detected using a microscope.[21] In 1884, the French microbiologist Charles Chamberland invented a filter (known today as the Chamberland filter or the Pasteur-Chamberland filter) with pores smaller than bacteria. Thus, he could pass a solution containing bacteria through the filter and completely remove them from the solution.[22] In 1892, the Russian biologist Dmitri Ivanovsky used this filter to study what is now known as the tobacco mosaic virus. His experiments showed that crushed leaf extracts from infected tobacco plants remain infectious after filtration. Ivanovsky suggested the infection might be caused by a toxin produced by bacteria, but did not pursue the idea.[23] At the time it was thought that all infectious agents could be retained by filters and grown on a nutrient medium - this was part of the germ theory of disease.[2] In 1898, the Dutch microbiologist Martinus ...
The Herpesvirales naming system originated in 1973 and has been elaborated considerably since. All herpesviruses described since this system was adopted have been named in accordance with it. The recommended naming system specifies that each species name consists of three parts: a first word, a second word, and finally a number. The first word should be derived from the taxon (family or subfamily) to which its primary natural host belongs. The subfamily name is used for viruses from members of the family Bovidae or from primates (the virus name ending in -ine, e.g. bovine), and the host family name for other viruses (ending in -id, e.g. equid). Human herpesviruses have been treated as an exception (human rather than hominid). Following the host-derived term, species in the family Herpesviridae, which are divided into subfamilies Alphaherpesvirinae, Betaherpesvirinae, and Gammaherpesvirinae, will have the word alphaherpesvirus, betaherpesvirus, or gammaherpesvirus added, respectively. Species in ...
Despite his other successes, Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) was unable to find a causative agent for rabies and speculated about a pathogen too small to be detected using a microscope.[1] In 1884, the French microbiologist Charles Chamberland (1851-1931) invented a filter - known today as the Chamberland filter - that had pores smaller than bacteria. Thus, he could pass a solution containing bacteria through the filter and completely remove them from the solution.[2] In 1876, Adolf Mayer, who directed the Agricultural Experimental Station in Wageningen was the first to show that what he called "Tobacco Mosaic Disease" was infectious, he thought that it was caused by either a toxin or a very small bacterium. Later, in 1892, the Russian biologist Dmitry Ivanovsky (1864-1920) used a Chamberland filter to study what is now known as the tobacco mosaic virus. His experiments showed that crushed leaf extracts from infected tobacco plants remain infectious after filtration. Ivanovsky suggested the infection ...
The Birnaviridae genome encodes several proteins: Birnaviridae RNA-directed RNA polymerase (VP1), which lacks the highly conserved Gly-Asp-Asp (GDD) sequence, a component of the proposed catalytic site of this enzyme family that exists in the conserved motif VI of the palm domain of other RNA-directed RNA polymerases.[3] The large RNA segment, segment A, of birnaviruses codes for a polyprotein (N-VP2-VP4-VP3-C) [4] that is processed into the major structural proteins of the virion: VP2, VP3 (a minor structural component of the virus), and into the putative protease VP4.[4] VP4 protein is involved in generating VP2 and VP3.[4] recombinant VP3 is more immunogenic than recombinant VP2.[5] Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), a birnavirus, is an important pathogen in fish farms. Analyses of viral proteins showed that VP2 is the major structural and immunogenic polypeptide of the virus.[6][7] All neutralizing monoclonal antibodies are specific to VP2 and bind to continuous or discontinuous ...
The genera Comovirus, Nepovirus and Fabavirus were classified into the family Comoviridae in 1993. This family was classified ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) ICTV Taxonomy History for Comoviridae, accessed on line Nov. 20, 2015. ICTV Taxonomy ... its genera were formerly classified in the family Comoviridae. Plants serve as natural hosts. There are currently 62 species in ...
... is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Comoviridae. ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: Peach enation ...
Families within the Picornavirales order include Picornaviridae, Comoviridae, Dicistroviridae, Marnaviridae, and Sequiviridae. ...
... (RaMV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Comoviridae. ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: Radish ...
豇豆镶嵌病毒科 Comoviridae. *黄病毒科 Flaviviridae ...
豇豆镶嵌病毒科 Comoviridae. *黄病毒科 Flaviviridae ...
... (PBRSV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Comoviridae. ICTVdB - The Universal Virus ...
... (LASV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Comoviridae. ICTVdB - The Universal Virus ...
... (BBSV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Comoviridae. ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: ...
... (APMoV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Comoviridae. ICTVdB-The Universal Virus Database: ...
... (BBWV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Comoviridae, infecting spinach and grape. List of ...
The family was created in 2009 with the grouping of families Sequiviridae, now dissolved, and Comoviridae, now subfamily ...
BPMV is a species in the plant pathogenic virus family Comoviridae, and genus Comovirus characterized by icosahedral symmetry, ...
... plant pathogenic virus of the family Comoviridae Tobacco ringspot virus, plant pathogenic virus in the plant virus family ... Comoviridae Tomato ringspot virus, plant pathogenic virus of the family Comoviridae This disambiguation page lists articles ... plant pathogenic virus of the family Comoviridae Prunus necrotic ringspot virus, plant pathogenic virus of the family ... Bromoviridae Raspberry ringspot virus, plant pathogenic virus of the family Comoviridae Strawberry latent ringspot virus, ...
... may refer to : Peach rosette mosaic virus, a plant pathogenic virus of the family Comoviridae PrMV may refer to : Primula ...
... it was originally unassigned but given genus status in 1993 as a member of the Comoviridae, of the Picornavirales in 2008, and ...
Astroviridae · Barnaviridae · Bromoviridae · Caliciviridae · Closteroviridae · Comoviridae · Dicistroviridae · Flaviviridae · ...
When retroviruses have integrated their own genome into the germ line, their genome is passed on to a following generation. These endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), contrasted with exogenous ones, now make up 5-8% of the human genome.[7] Most insertions have no known function and are often referred to as "junk DNA". However, many endogenous retroviruses play important roles in host biology, such as control of gene transcription, cell fusion during placental development in the course of the germination of an embryo, and resistance to exogenous retroviral infection. Endogenous retroviruses have also received special attention in the research of immunology-related pathologies, such as autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis, although endogenous retroviruses have not yet been proven to play any causal role in this class of disease.[8] While transcription was classically thought to occur only from DNA to RNA, reverse transcriptase transcribes RNA into DNA. The term "retro" in retrovirus refers to ...
The hepatitis envelope proteins are composed of subunits made from the viral preS1, preS2, and S genes. The L (for "large") envelope protein contains all three subunits. The M (for "medium") protein contains only preS2 and S. The S (for "small") protein contains only S. The genome portions encoding these envelope protein subuntis share both the same frame and the same stop codon (generating nested transcripts on a single open reading frame. The pre-S1 is encoded first (closest to the 5 end), followed directly by the pre-S2 and the S. When a transcript is made from the beginning of the pre-S1 region, all three genes are included in the transcript and the L protein is produced. When the transcript starts after the pro-S1 at the beginning of the pre-S2 the final protein contains the pre-S2 and S subunits only and therefore is an M protein. The smallest envelope protein containing just the S subunit is made most because it is encoded closest to the 3 end and comes from the shortest transcript. ...
23 March 2018: Comoviridae. 23 March 2018: Schlumbergera. 22 March 2018: Tragulina. 22 March 2018: Vitrina. 22 March 2018: ...
The genera Comovirus, Nepovirus and Fabavirus were classified into the family Comoviridae in 1993. This family was classified ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) ICTV Taxonomy History for Comoviridae, accessed on line Nov. 20, 2015. ICTV Taxonomy ... its genera were formerly classified in the family Comoviridae. Plants serve as natural hosts. There are currently 62 species in ...
J. Replication of Comoviridae. K. Replication of Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus. L. Replication of Other (+)-Strand RNA Viruses. M ... K. Family Comoviridae. L. Family Potyviridae. M. Family Tombusviridae. N. Family Sequiviridae. O. Family Closteroviridae. P. ... B. Family Comoviridae. C. Family Potyviridae. D. Family Tombusviridae. E. Family Sequiviridae. F. Family Closteroviridae. G. ...
Comoviridae:. Comovirus. cowpea mosaic virus. Plants. Fabavirus. broad bean wilt virus 1. Plants. ...
... in good agreement with the gene arrangement of viruses in the Comoviridae. The 108K protein contains an LPL movement protein ( ... Mayo, M. A. & Fritsch, C. ( 1994; ). A possible consensus sequence for VPg of viruses in the family Comoviridae. FEBS Letters ... Nucleotide sequence and genome organization of Apple latent spherical virus: a new virus classified into the family Comoviridae ... Nucleotide sequence and genome organization of Apple latent spherical virus: a new virus classified into the family Comoviridae ...
Peach enation virus is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Comoviridae. ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: Peach enation ...
豇豆镶嵌病毒科 Comoviridae. *黄病毒科 Flaviviridae ...
豇豆镶嵌病毒科 Comoviridae. *黄病毒科 Flaviviridae ...
The Cowpea mosaic virus is a plant mosaic virus of the comovirus group. Infection of a cowpea leaf results in high virus yields (1-2 g/kg). Genomes consists of 2 molecules of positive-strand RNA (RNA-1 and RNA-2) which are separately encapsidated. Each is expressed by a polyprotein processing strategy. Particles are 28nm in diameter and contain 60 copies each of a Large (L) and Small (S) coat protein arranged pseudo T=3 (P=3) symmetry. The structure is well characterised to atomic resolution and the viral particles are thermostable. It can infect the Black-eyed pea, as it displays a number of features that can be exploited for nanoscale biomaterial fabrication and because its genetic, biological and physical properties are well characterised. CPMV can be isolated readily from plants. It is possible to attach a number of different chemicals to the virus surface and to construct multilayer arrays of such nanoparticles on solid surfaces. This gives the natural nanoparticles a range of properties ...
Family Comoviridae. *Family Dicistroviridae. *Family Flaviviridae - includes Yellow fever virus, West Nile virus, Hepatitis C ...
Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) (genus Comovirus; family Comoviridae) is a reemerging disease of soybeans. Vectored by the Bean ...
Mayo, M.A.; Fritsch, C. A possible consensus sequence for VPg of viruses in the family Comoviridae. Febs Lett. 1994, 354, 129- ...
The two genomic RNAs (gRNA) of Blackcurrant reversion virus (BRV; genus Nepovirus, subfamily Comoviridae), have translation ... family Comoviridae) (Karetnikov and Lehto, 2007; Sharma et al., 2015), suggesting that these translation elements could recruit ...
... a proposed family of plant viruses within the order Picornavirales that combines the families Sequiviridae and Comoviridae, the ...
Alignment of the amino acid sequences of RCMV-Eg with most Comovirus genus of Comoviridae family viruses. Regions with ... Phylogenetic tree constructed with deduced amino acid sequences of RCMV-Eg with most Comovirus genus of Comoviridae family. ...
Nucleotide sequence and genome organization of Apple latent spherical virus: a new virus classified into the family Comoviridae ...
Comoviridae, Coronaviridae, Corticoviridae, Cystoviridae, Deltavirus, Dianthovirus, Enamovirus, Filoviridae, Flaviviridae, ...
Detection and differentiation of Comoviridae species using a semi-nested RT-PCR and a phylogenetic analysis based on the ...
Nepoviruses are in the Comoviridae family while Tobraviruses are not yet assigned to a family. On the basis of considerable ...
More recently, they have been reclassified to combine the former families Sequiviridae and Comoviridae with the formerly ... A proposed family of plant viruses within the order Picornavirales that combines the families Sequiviridae and Comoviridae, the ...
A genus of plant viruses in the family Comoviridae; tobacco ring spot virus is the type species. Also known as tobacco ring ... A genus of plant viruses in the family Comoviridae; tobacco ring spot virus is the type species. Also known as tobacco ring ...
... a proposed family of plant viruses within the order Picornavirales that combines the families Sequiviridae and Comoviridae, the ...
Evaluation of Management Strategies for Bean Leaf Beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and Bean Pod Mottle Virus (Comoviridae) ... Comoviridae) in Iowa, Jeffrey Bradshaw, Marlin E. Rice, and John H. Hill ...
... family Comoviridae, genus Nepovirus. The disease was called soybean bud blight by Costa et al. (1955). Since then, several ...
... a new virus classified into the family Comoviridae. J Gen Virol. 2000;81:541-7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar. ... family Comoviridae). Arch Virol. 2007;152:1767-74.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar. ...
A variety of plant virus families may be used, such as Bromoviridae, Bunyaviridae, Comoviridae, Geminiviridae, Potyviridae, and ...
Comoviridae. Secoviridae. C - Diseases Changed terms Replaced-by C06 - Digestive System Diseases Drug-Induced Liver Injury, ...
Family Comoviridae (organism) {424963000 , SNOMED-CT } Parent/Child (Relationship Type) Genus Comovirus (organism) {424810007 ...
  • 2009) Secoviridae: a proposed family of plant viruses within the order Picornavirales that combines the families Sequiviridae and Comoviridae, the unassigned genera Cheravirus and Sadwavirus, and the proposed genus Torradovirus. (els.net)
  • 1955). At that time, the authors mentioned that similar symptoms were described in soybean in the USA, but these symptoms were caused by Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), family Comoviridae , genus Nepovirus . (scielo.br)
  • SqMV (genus Comovirus , family Comoviridae ) has been detected in South Carolina and Texas (8,12). (sare.org)
  • Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV) and Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV), in the genus Nepovirus of the family Comoviridae , have been reported in cucurbits in South Carolina, Texas, and Wisconsin (8,12,13), and in the northeastern US (17), respectively. (sare.org)
  • The genera Comovirus, Nepovirus and Fabavirus were classified into the family Comoviridae in 1993. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aunque las especies de NF con un mayor impacto económico son las especies endoparásitas pertenecientes a los géneros Meloidogyne, Heterodera y Globodera, la importancia fitopatológica de los NF de la familia Longidoridae no solo subyace de su amplia gama de huéspedes y su distribución, sino porque algunas especies son vectores de virus fitopatógenos (género Nepovirus, familia Comoviridae), causando daños significativos y pérdidas de producción en multitud de cultivos. (uco.es)
  • its genera were formerly classified in the family Comoviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • family Comoviridae ) is a reemerging disease of soybeans. (apsnet.org)
  • Peach enation virus is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Comoviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virus 2 questions Petits agents infectieux aux génomes constitués, soit d'ADN, soit d'ARN (jamais des deux), sans métabolisme propre et dans l'incapacité de se multiplier en dehors des cellules vivantes. (lookformedical.com)