The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)
Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.
Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The use of severity-of-illness measures, such as age, to estimate the risk (measurable or predictable chance of loss, injury or death) to which a patient is subject before receiving some health care intervention. This adjustment allows comparison of performance and quality across organizations, practitioners, and communities. (from JCAHO, Lexikon, 1994)
Disorders related to substance abuse.
Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.
An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.
Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.
A major deviation from normal patterns of behavior.
Disorders whose essential features are the failure to resist an impulse, drive, or temptation to perform an act that is harmful to the individual or to others. Individuals experience an increased sense of tension prior to the act and pleasure, gratification or release of tension at the time of committing the act.
A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.
A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.
Former members of the armed services.
A type of anxiety disorder characterized by unexpected panic attacks that last minutes or, rarely, hours. Panic attacks begin with intense apprehension, fear or terror and, often, a feeling of impending doom. Symptoms experienced during a panic attack include dyspnea or sensations of being smothered; dizziness, loss of balance or faintness; choking sensations; palpitations or accelerated heart rate; shakiness; sweating; nausea or other form of abdominal distress; depersonalization or derealization; paresthesias; hot flashes or chills; chest discomfort or pain; fear of dying and fear of not being in control of oneself or going crazy. Agoraphobia may also develop. Similar to other anxiety disorders, it may be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait.
A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.
An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XVIII-Health Insurance for the Aged, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, that provides health insurance benefits to persons over the age of 65 and others eligible for Social Security benefits. It consists of two separate but coordinated programs: hospital insurance (MEDICARE PART A) and supplementary medical insurance (MEDICARE PART B). (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed and A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, US House of Representatives, 1976)
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Denmark" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. It is a country located in northern Europe. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer them.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.
A system of categories to which morbid entries are assigned according to established criteria. Included is the entire range of conditions in a manageable number of categories, grouped to facilitate mortality reporting. It is produced by the World Health Organization (From ICD-10, p1). The Clinical Modifications, produced by the UNITED STATES DEPT. OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, are larger extensions used for morbidity and general epidemiological purposes, primarily in the U.S.
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Disorders affecting TWINS, one or both, at any age.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.
Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.
The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.
Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
Persistent difficulty discarding or parting with possessions, regardless of the value of these possessions. Epidemiological studies suggest that hoarding occurs in 2-5% of the population and can lead to substantial distress and disability, as well as serious public health consequences.
A group of disorders characterized by physiological and psychological disturbances in appetite or food intake.
Obsessive, persistent, intense fear of open places.
Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.
Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.
Disorders having the presence of physical symptoms that suggest a general medical condition but that are not fully explained by a another medical condition, by the direct effects of a substance, or by another mental disorder. The symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. In contrast to FACTITIOUS DISORDERS and MALINGERING, the physical symptoms are not under voluntary control. (APA, DSM-V)
Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.
Dialysis fluid being introduced into and removed from the peritoneal cavity as either a continuous or an intermittent procedure.
A class of disabling primary headache disorders, characterized by recurrent unilateral pulsatile headaches. The two major subtypes are common migraine (without aura) and classic migraine (with aura or neurological symptoms). (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Preoccupation with the fear of having, or the idea that one has, a serious disease based on the person's misinterpretation of bodily symptoms. (APA, DSM-IV)
A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)
A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to VETERANS. It was established March 15, 1989 as a Cabinet-level position.
Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.
A legal concept that an accused is not criminally responsible if, at the time of committing the act, the person was laboring under such a defect of reason from disease of the mind as not to know the nature and quality of the act done or if the act was known, to not have known that what was done was wrong. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 6th ed)
The unsuccessful attempt to kill oneself.
The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.
Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
Used for excision of the urinary bladder.
## I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Alabama" is not a medical term or concept. It is a geographical location, referring to the 22nd state admitted to the United States of America, located in the southeastern region. If you have any questions related to healthcare, medicine, or health conditions, I'd be happy to help with those!
Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.
The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.
A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).
The study of significant causes and processes in the development of mental illness.
Hospitals providing medical care to veterans of wars.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
Review of claims by insurance companies to determine liability and amount of payment for various services. The review may also include determination of eligibility of the claimant or beneficiary or of the provider of the benefit; determination that the benefit is covered or not payable under another policy; or determination that the service was necessary and of reasonable cost and quality.
Persons admitted to health facilities which provide board and room, for the purpose of observation, care, diagnosis or treatment.
Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
An activity distinguished primarily by an element of risk in trying to obtain a desired goal, e.g., playing a game of chance for money.
Procedures which temporarily or permanently remedy insufficient cleansing of body fluids by the kidneys.
Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.
A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.
Older adults or aged individuals who are lacking in general strength and are unusually susceptible to disease or to other infirmity.
A personality disorder marked by a pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (DSM-IV)
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.
Chronically depressed mood that occurs for most of the day more days than not for at least 2 years. The required minimum duration in children to make this diagnosis is 1 year. During periods of depressed mood, at least 2 of the following additional symptoms are present: poor appetite or overeating, insomnia or hypersomnia, low energy or fatigue, low self esteem, poor concentration or difficulty making decisions, and feelings of hopelessness. (DSM-IV)
Various conditions with the symptom of HEADACHE. Headache disorders are classified into major groups, such as PRIMARY HEADACHE DISORDERS (based on characteristics of their headache symptoms) and SECONDARY HEADACHE DISORDERS (based on their etiologies). (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)
A system for classifying patient care by relating common characteristics such as diagnosis, treatment, and age to an expected consumption of hospital resources and length of stay. Its purpose is to provide a framework for specifying case mix and to reduce hospital costs and reimbursements and it forms the cornerstone of the prospective payment system.
Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Subsequent admissions of a patient to a hospital or other health care institution for treatment.
Impaired ability in numerical concepts. These inabilities arise as a result of primary neurological lesion, are syndromic (e.g., GERSTMANN SYNDROME ) or acquired due to brain damage.
Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.
The experimental study of the relationship between the genotype of an organism and its behavior. The scope includes the effects of genes on simple sensory processes to complex organization of the nervous system.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Persons who receive ambulatory care at an outpatient department or clinic without room and board being provided.
Organized services to provide mental health care.
Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.
Deaths that occur before LIFE EXPECTANCY is reached within a given population.
Refusal of the health professional to initiate or continue treatment of a patient or group of patients. The refusal can be based on any reason. The concept is differentiated from PATIENT REFUSAL OF TREATMENT see TREATMENT REFUSAL which originates with the patient and not the health professional.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Germany" is a country and not a medical term or concept. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition. It is located in Central Europe and is known for its advanced medical research and facilities.
The use of multiple drugs administered to the same patient, most commonly seen in elderly patients. It includes also the administration of excessive medication. Since in the United States most drugs are dispensed as single-agent formulations, polypharmacy, though using many drugs administered to the same patient, must be differentiated from DRUG COMBINATIONS, single preparations containing two or more drugs as a fixed dose, and from DRUG THERAPY, COMBINATION, two or more drugs administered separately for a combined effect. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Fractures of the FEMUR HEAD; the FEMUR NECK; (FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES); the trochanters; or the inter- or subtrochanteric region. Excludes fractures of the acetabulum and fractures of the femoral shaft below the subtrochanteric region (FEMORAL FRACTURES).
A performance measure for rating the ability of a person to perform usual activities, evaluating a patient's progress after a therapeutic procedure, and determining a patient's suitability for therapy. It is used most commonly in the prognosis of cancer therapy, usually after chemotherapy and customarily administered before and after therapy. It was named for Dr. David A. Karnofsky, an American specialist in cancer chemotherapy.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.
A group of disorders characterized by physical symptoms that are affected by emotional factors and involve a single organ system, usually under AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM control. (American Psychiatric Glossary, 1988)
Excretory-related psychiatric disorders usually diagnosed in infancy or childhood.
Those occurrences, including social, psychological, and environmental, which require an adjustment or effect a change in an individual's pattern of living.
Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.
The administrative process of discharging the patient, alive or dead, from hospitals or other health facilities.
Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.
The act of killing oneself.
Persons with physical or mental disabilities that affect or limit their activities of daily living and that may require special accommodations.
Disorder characterized by an emotionally constricted manner that is unduly conventional, serious, formal, and stingy, by preoccupation with trivial details, rules, order, organization, schedules, and lists, by stubborn insistence on having things one's own way without regard for the effects on others, by poor interpersonal relationships, and by indecisiveness due to fear of making mistakes.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)
Inorganic compounds that contain lithium as an integral part of the molecule.
Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
The portion of the upper rounded extremity fitting into the glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA. (from Stedman, 27th ed)
The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.
Disorders characterized by recurrent TICS that may interfere with speech and other activities. Tics are sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic, stereotyped motor movements or vocalizations which may be exacerbated by stress and are generally attenuated during absorbing activities. Tic disorders are distinguished from conditions which feature other types of abnormal movements that may accompany another another condition. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Eating an excess amount of food in a short period of time, as seen in the disorder of BULIMIA NERVOSA. It is caused by an abnormal craving for food, or insatiable hunger also known as "ox hunger".
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
Mood or emotional responses dissonant with or inappropriate to the behavior and/or stimulus.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.
Tobacco used to the detriment of a person's health or social functioning. Tobacco dependence is included.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Minnesota" is a state located in the Midwestern United States and not a term with a medical definition. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!
The behavior of performing an act persistently and repetitively without it leading to reward or pleasure. The act is usually a small, circumscribed behavior, almost ritualistic, yet not pathologically disturbing. Examples of compulsive behavior include twirling of hair, checking something constantly, not wanting pennies in change, straightening tilted pictures, etc.
(Note: I believe there might be some confusion in your question as "Pennsylvania" is a place, specifically a state in the United States, and not a medical term. However, if you're asking for a medical condition or concept that shares a name with the state of Pennsylvania, I couldn't find any specific medical conditions or concepts associated with the name "Pennsylvania." If you have more context or clarification regarding your question, please provide it so I can give a more accurate response.)
A province of Canada, lying between the provinces of Alberta and Manitoba. Its capital is Regina. It is entirely a plains region with prairie in the south and wooded country with many lakes and swamps in the north. The name was taken from the Saskatchewan River from the Cree name Kisiskatchewani Sipi, meaning rapid-flowing river. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1083 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p486)
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.
The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A province of Canada, lying between the provinces of Saskatchewan and Ontario. Its capital is Winnipeg. Taking its name from Lake Manitoba, itself named for one of its islands, the name derived from Algonquian Manitou, great spirit. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p724 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p332)
The compulsory portion of Medicare that is known as the Hospital Insurance Program. All persons 65 years and older who are entitled to benefits under the Old Age, Survivors, Disability and Health Insurance Program or railroad retirement, persons under the age of 65 who have been eligible for disability for more than two years, and insured workers (and their dependents) requiring renal dialysis or kidney transplantation are automatically enrolled in Medicare Part A.
An organized procedure carried out through committees to review admissions, duration of stay, professional services furnished, and to evaluate the medical necessity of those services and promote their most efficient use.
The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.
Disorders in which the symptoms are distressing to the individual and recognized by him or her as being unacceptable. Social relationships may be greatly affected but usually remain within acceptable limits. The disturbance is relatively enduring or recurrent without treatment.
Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.
The field concerned with the interrelationship between the brain, behavior and the immune system. Neuropsychologic, neuroanatomic and psychosocial studies have demonstrated their role in accentuating or diminishing immune/allergic responses.
Replacement of the hip joint.
Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
(I'm assuming you are asking for a play on words related to the state of New Jersey, as "New Jersey" is not a medical term.)
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
A disorder beginning in childhood whose essential features are persistent impairment in reciprocal social communication and social interaction, and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. These symptoms may limit or impair everyday functioning. (From DSM-5)
Hospital units in which care is provided the hemodialysis patient. This includes hemodialysis centers in hospitals.
The branch of medicine concerned with the physiological and pathological aspects of the aged, including the clinical problems of senescence and senility.
Expressing unconscious emotional conflicts or feelings, often of hostility or love, through overt behavior.
Anxiety experienced by an individual upon separation from a person or object of particular significance to the individual.
Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.
Process of substituting a symbol or code for a term such as a diagnosis or procedure. (from Slee's Health Care Terms, 3d ed.)
The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
The creation and maintenance of medical and vital records in multiple institutions in a manner that will facilitate the combined use of the records of identified individuals.
Diseases in any part of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or the accessory organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).

Correlates of sexually transmitted bacterial infections among U.S. women in 1995. (1/12384)

CONTEXT: Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) of bacterial origin such as gonorrhea and chlamydial infection can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and infertility. Identifying behaviors and characteristics associated with infection may assist in preventing these often asymptomatic diseases and their sequelae. METHODS: Data from 9,882 sexually active women who participated in the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth describe the characteristics of women who report a history of infection with a bacterial STD or of treatment for PID. Multivariate analysis is used to determine which demographic characteristics and sexual and health-related behaviors affect the likelihood of infection or the occurrence of complications. RESULTS: Overall, 6% of sexually active women reported a history of a bacterial STD, and 8% reported a history of PID. Women who first had sexual intercourse before age 15 were nearly four times as likely to report a bacterial STD, and more than twice as likely to report PID, as were women who first had sex after age 18. Having more than five lifetime sexual partners also was associated with both having an STD and having PID. PID was more common among women reporting a history of a bacterial STD (23%) than among women who reported no such history (7%). In multivariate analyses, age, race, age at first intercourse and lifetime number of sexual partners had a significant effect on the risk of a bacterial STD. Education, age, a history of IUD use, douching and a history of a bacterial STD had a significant impact on the risk of PID, but early onset of intercourse did not, and lifetime number of partners had only a marginal effect. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of characteristics and behaviors that place women at risk of infection with bacterial STDs is not uniform among groups of women. Further, the level of self-reported PID would suggest higher rates of gonorrhea and chlamydial infection than reported.  (+info)

Prevalence and clinical outcome associated with preexisting malnutrition in acute renal failure: a prospective cohort study. (2/12384)

Malnutrition is a frequent finding in hospitalized patients and is associated with an increased risk of subsequent in-hospital morbidity and mortality. Both prevalence and prognostic relevance of preexisting malnutrition in patients referred to nephrology wards for acute renal failure (ARF) are still unknown. This study tests the hypothesis that malnutrition is frequent in such clinical setting, and is associated with excess in-hospital morbidity and mortality. A prospective cohort of 309 patients admitted to a renal intermediate care unit during a 42-mo period with ARF diagnosis was studied. Patients with malnutrition were identified at admission by the Subjective Global Assessment of nutritional status method (SGA); nutritional status was also evaluated by anthropometric, biochemical, and immunologic parameters. Outcome measures included in-hospital mortality and morbidity, and use of health care resources. In-hospital mortality was 39% (120 of 309); renal replacement therapies (hemodialysis or continuous hemofiltration) were performed in 67% of patients (206 of 309); APACHE II score was 23.1+/-8.2 (range, 10 to 52). Severe malnutrition by SGA was found in 42% of patients with ARF; anthropometric, biochemical, and immunologic nutritional indexes were significantly reduced in this group compared with patients with normal nutritional status. Severely malnourished patients, as compared to patients with normal nutritional status, had significantly increased morbidity for sepsis (odds ratio [OR] 2.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.53 to 5.42, P < 0.001), septic shock (OR 4.05; 95% CI, 1.46 to 11.28, P < 0.01), hemorrhage (OR 2.98; 95% CI, 1.45 to 6.13, P < 0.01), intestinal occlusion (OR 5.57; 95% CI, 1.57 to 19.74, P < 0.01), cardiac dysrhythmia (OR 2.29; 95% CI, 1.36 to 3.85, P < 0.01), cardiogenic shock (OR 4.39; 95% CI, 1.83 to 10.55, P < .001), and acute respiratory failure with mechanical ventilation need (OR 3.35; 95% CI, 3.35 to 8.74, P < 0.05). Hospital length of stay was significantly increased (P < 0.01), and the presence of severe malnutrition was associated with a significant increase of in-hospital mortality (OR 7.21; 95% CI, 4.08 to 12.73, P < 0.001). Preexisting malnutrition was a statistically significant, independent predictor of in-hospital mortality at multivariable logistic regression analysis both with comorbidities (OR 2.02; 95% CI, 1.50 to 2.71, P < 0.001), and with comorbidities and complications (OR 2.12; 95% CI, 1.61 to 2.89, P < 0.001). Malnutrition is highly prevalent among ARF patients and increases the likelihood of in-hospital death, complications, and use of health care resources.  (+info)

Hematocrit level and associated mortality in hemodialysis patients. (3/12384)

Although a number of clinical studies have shown that increased hematocrits are associated with improved outcomes in terms of cognitive function, reduced left ventricular hypertrophy, increased exercise tolerance, and improved quality of life, the optimal hematocrit level associated with survival has yet to be determined. The association between hematocrit levels and patient mortality was retrospectively studied in a prevalent Medicare hemodialysis cohort on a national scale. All patients survived a 6-mo entry period during which their hematocrit levels were assessed, from July 1 through December 31, 1993, with follow-up from January 1 through December 31, 1994. Patient comorbid conditions relative to clinical events and severity of disease were determined from Medicare claims data and correlated with the entry period hematocrit level. After adjusting for medical diseases, our results showed that patients with hematocrit levels less than 30% had significantly higher risk of all-cause (12 to 33%) and cause-specific death, compared to patients with hematocrits in the 30% to less than 33% range. Without severity of disease adjustment, patients with hematocrit levels of 33% to less than 36% appear to have the lowest risk for all-cause and cardiac mortality. After adjusting for severity of disease, the impact of hematocrit levels of 33% to less than 36% is vulnerable to the patient sample size but also demonstrates a further 4% reduced risk of death. Overall, these findings suggest that sustained increases in hematocrit levels are associated with improved patient survival.  (+info)

A comparison of the use, effectiveness and safety of bezafibrate, gemfibrozil and simvastatin in normal clinical practice using the New Zealand Intensive Medicines Monitoring Programme (IMMP). (4/12384)

AIMS: Because of the importance of treating dyslipidaemia in the prevention of ischaemic heart disease and because patient selection criteria and outcomes in clinical trials do not necessarily reflect what happens in normal clinical practice, we compared outcomes from bezafibrate, gemfibrozil and simvastatin therapy under conditions of normal use. METHODS: A random sample of 200 patients was selected from the New Zealand Intensive Medicines Monitoring Programme's (IMMP) patient cohorts for each drug. Questionnaires sent to prescribers requested information on indications, risk factors for ischaemic heart disease, lipid profiles with changes during treatment and reasons for stopping therapy. RESULTS: 80% of prescribers replied and 83% of these contained useful information. The three groups were similar for age, sex and geographical region, but significantly more patients on bezafibrate had diabetes and/or hypertension than those on gemfibrozil or simvastatin. After treatment and taking the initial measure into account, the changes in serum lipid values were consistent with those generally observed, but with gemfibrozil being significantly less effective than expected. More patients (15.8%S) stopped gemfibrozil because of an inadequate response compared with bezafibrate (5.4%) and simvastatin (1.6%). Gemfibrozil treatment was also withdrawn significantly more frequently due to a possible adverse reaction compared with the other two drugs. CONCLUSIONS: In normal clinical practice in New Zealand gemfibrozil appears less effective and more frequently causes adverse effects leading to withdrawal of treatment than either bezafibrate or simvastatin.  (+info)

Pulmonary embolism: one-year follow-up with echocardiography doppler and five-year survival analysis. (5/12384)

BACKGROUND: The long-term prognosis for patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) is dependent on the underlying disease, degree of pulmonary hypertension (PH), and degree of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction. A precise description of the time course of pulmonary artery pressure (PAsP)/RV function is therefore of importance for the early identification of persistent PH/RV dysfunction in patients treated for acute PE. Other objectives were to identify variables associated with persistent PH/RV dysfunction and to analyze the 5-year survival rate for patients alive 1 month after inclusion. METHODS AND RESULTS: Echocardiography Doppler was performed in 78 patients with acute PE at the time of diagnosis and repeatedly during the next year. A 5-year survival analysis was made. The PAsP decreased exponentially until the beginning of a stable phase, which was 50 mm Hg at the time of diagnosis of acute PE was associated with persistent PH after 1 year. The 5-year mortality rate was associated with underlying disease. Only patients with persistent PH in the stable phase required pulmonary thromboendarterectomy within 5 years. CONCLUSIONS: An echocardiography Doppler investigation performed 6 weeks after diagnosis of acute PE can identify patients with persistent PH/RV dysfunction and may be of value in planning the follow-up and care of these patients.  (+info)

Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and apoptosis in benign prostatic hyperplasia before and after the Chernobyl accident in Ukraine. (6/12384)

The prevalence of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) in men who underwent surgery for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) before and after the Chernobyl nuclear accident was studied. BPH samples were obtained by adenomectomy from 45 patients operated in 1984 before the accident (Group I), and 47 patients from the low contaminated Kiev City (Group II) and 76 from high contaminated area (Group III) operated between 1996 and 1998. Their BPH samples were examined histologically and immunohistochemically. The incidences of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and high grade PIN (HGPIN) were 15.5 and 11.1% in Group I, 29.8 and 14.9% in Grpoup II, and 35. 5 and 19.7% in Group III. The difference between the incidences of PIN in Group I and III is significant (p<0.02). There was increased apoptosis in areas of PIN in Group II and III as compared to Group I (p<0.001). Since apoptosis has been shown to be associated with ionizing radiation and it is now found to be associated with PIN in patients diagnosed after the Chernobyl nuclear accident, this suggests that long-term low dose internal ionizing radiation potentially may cause prostate cancer.  (+info)

The cost of obesity in Canada. (7/12384)

BACKGROUND: Almost one-third of adult Canadians are at increased risk of disability, disease and premature death because of being obese. In order to allocate limited health care resources rationally, it is necessary to elucidate the economic burden of obesity. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the direct costs related to the treatment of and research into obesity in Canada in 1997. METHODS: The prevalence of obesity (body mass index of 27 or greater) in Canada was determined using data from the National Population Health Survey, 1994-1995. Ten comorbidities of obesity were identified from the medical literature. A population attributable fraction (PAF) was calculated for each comorbidity with data from large cohort studies to determine the extent to which each comorbidity and its management costs were attributable to obesity. The direct cost of each comorbidity was determined using data from the Canadian Institute of Health Information (for direct expenditure categories) and from Health Canada (for the proportion of expenditure category attributable to the comorbidity). This prevalence-based approach identified the direct costs of hospital care, physician services, services of other health professionals, drugs, other health care and health research. For each comorbidity, the cost attributable to obesity was determined by multiplying the PAF by the total direct cost of the comorbidity. The overall impact of obesity was estimated as the sum of the PAF-weighted costs of treating the comorbidities. A sensitivity analysis was completed on both the estimated costs and the PAFs. RESULTS: The total direct cost of obesity in Canada in 1997 was estimated to be over $1.8 billion. This corresponded to 2.4% of the total health care expenditures for all diseases in Canada in 1997. The sensitivity analysis revealed that the total cost could be as high as $3.5 billion or as low as $829.4 million; this corresponded to 4.6% and 1.1% respectively of the total health care expenditures in 1997. When the contributions of the comorbidities to the total cost were considered, the 3 largest contributors were hypertension ($656.6 million), type 2 diabetes mellitus ($423.2 million) and coronary artery disease ($346.0 million). INTERPRETATION: A considerable proportion of health care dollars is devoted to the treatment and management of obesity-related comorbidities in Canada. Further research into the therapeutic benefits and cost-effectiveness of management strategies for obesity is required. It is anticipated that the prevention and treatment of obesity will have major positive effects on the overall cost of health care.  (+info)

Synergistic effects of prothrombotic polymorphisms and atherogenic factors on the risk of myocardial infarction in young males. (8/12384)

Several recent studies evaluated a possible effect of the prothrombotic polymorphisms such as 5,10 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) nt 677C --> T, factor V (F V) nt 1691G --> A (F V Leiden), and factor II (F II) nt 20210 G --> A on the risk of myocardial infarction. In the present study, we analyzed the effect of these prothrombotic polymorphisms, as well as apolipoprotein (Apo) E4, smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia, on the risk of myocardial infarction in young males. We conducted a case-control study of 112 young males with first acute myocardial infarction (AMI) before the age of 52 and 187 healthy controls of similar age. The prevalences of heterozygotes for F V G1691A and F II G20210A were not significantly different between cases and controls (6.3% v 6.4% and 5.9% v 3.4% among cases and controls, respectively). In contrast, the prevalence of MTHFR 677T homozygosity and the allele frequency of Apo E4 were significantly higher among patients (24.1% v 10.7% and 9.4% v 5.3% among cases and controls, respectively). Concomitant presence of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, or diabetes and one or more of the four examined polymorphisms increased the risk by almost ninefold (odds ratio [OR] = 8.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.49 to 21.5) and concomitant smoking by almost 18-fold (OR = 17.6; 95% CI, 6.30 to 48.9). When all atherogenic risk factors were analyzed simultaneously by a logistic model, the combination of prothrombotic and Apo E4 polymorphisms with current smoking increased the risk 25-fold (OR = 24.7; 95% CI, 7.17 to 84.9). The presented data suggest a synergistic effect between atherogenic and thrombogenic risk factors in the pathogenesis of AMI, as was recently found in a similar cohort of women.  (+info)

Comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional health conditions or diseases alongside a primary illness or condition. These co-occurring health issues can have an impact on the treatment plan, prognosis, and overall healthcare management of an individual. Comorbidities often interact with each other and the primary condition, leading to more complex clinical situations and increased healthcare needs. It is essential for healthcare professionals to consider and address comorbidities to provide comprehensive care and improve patient outcomes.

A mental disorder is a syndrome characterized by clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior. It's associated with distress and/or impaired functioning in social, occupational, or other important areas of life, often leading to a decrease in quality of life. These disorders are typically persistent and can be severe and disabling. They may be related to factors such as genetics, early childhood experiences, or trauma. Examples include depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and personality disorders. It's important to note that a diagnosis should be made by a qualified mental health professional.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is a publication of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) that provides diagnostic criteria for mental disorders. It is widely used by mental health professionals in the United States and around the world to diagnose and classify mental health conditions.

The DSM includes detailed descriptions of symptoms, clinical examples, and specific criteria for each disorder, which are intended to facilitate accurate diagnosis and improve communication among mental health professionals. The manual is regularly updated to reflect current research and clinical practice, with the most recent edition being the DSM-5, published in 2013.

It's important to note that while the DSM is a valuable tool for mental health professionals, it is not without controversy. Some critics argue that the manual medicalizes normal human experiences and that its categories may be too broad or overlapping. Nonetheless, it remains an essential resource for clinicians, researchers, and policymakers in the field of mental health.

Anxiety disorders are a category of mental health disorders characterized by feelings of excessive and persistent worry, fear, or anxiety that interfere with daily activities. They include several different types of disorders, such as:

1. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): This is characterized by chronic and exaggerated worry and tension, even when there is little or nothing to provoke it.
2. Panic Disorder: This is characterized by recurring unexpected panic attacks and fear of experiencing more panic attacks.
3. Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD): Also known as social phobia, this is characterized by excessive fear, anxiety, or avoidance of social situations due to feelings of embarrassment, self-consciousness, and concern about being judged or viewed negatively by others.
4. Phobias: These are intense, irrational fears of certain objects, places, or situations. When a person with a phobia encounters the object or situation they fear, they may experience panic attacks or other severe anxiety responses.
5. Agoraphobia: This is a fear of being in places where it may be difficult to escape or get help if one has a panic attack or other embarrassing or incapacitating symptoms.
6. Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD): This is characterized by excessive anxiety about separation from home or from people to whom the individual has a strong emotional attachment (such as a parent, sibling, or partner).
7. Selective Mutism: This is a disorder where a child becomes mute in certain situations, such as at school, but can speak normally at home or with close family members.

These disorders are treatable with a combination of medication and psychotherapy (cognitive-behavioral therapy, exposure therapy). It's important to seek professional help if you suspect that you or someone you know may have an anxiety disorder.

Mood disorders are a category of mental health disorders characterized by significant and persistent changes in mood, affect, and emotional state. These disorders can cause disturbances in normal functioning and significantly impair an individual's ability to carry out their daily activities. The two primary types of mood disorders are depressive disorders (such as major depressive disorder or persistent depressive disorder) and bipolar disorders (which include bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, and cyclothymic disorder).

Depressive disorders involve prolonged periods of low mood, sadness, hopelessness, and a lack of interest in activities. Individuals with these disorders may also experience changes in sleep patterns, appetite, energy levels, concentration, and self-esteem. In severe cases, they might have thoughts of death or suicide.

Bipolar disorders involve alternating episodes of mania (or hypomania) and depression. During a manic episode, individuals may feel extremely elated, energetic, or irritable, with racing thoughts, rapid speech, and impulsive behavior. They might engage in risky activities, have decreased sleep needs, and display poor judgment. In contrast, depressive episodes involve the same symptoms as depressive disorders.

Mood disorders can be caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Proper diagnosis and treatment, which may include psychotherapy, medication, or a combination of both, are essential for managing these conditions and improving quality of life.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Risk adjustment is a statistical method used in healthcare financing and delivery to account for differences in the health status and expected healthcare costs among groups of enrollees. It is a process that modifies payment rates or capitation amounts based on the relative risk of each enrollee, as measured by demographic factors such as age, sex, and chronic medical conditions. The goal of risk adjustment is to create a more level playing field for healthcare providers and insurers by reducing the financial impact of serving patients who are sicker or have greater healthcare needs. This allows for a more fair comparison of performance and payment across different populations and helps to ensure that resources are distributed equitably.

Substance-related disorders, as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), refer to a group of conditions caused by the use of substances such as alcohol, drugs, or medicines. These disorders are characterized by a problematic pattern of using a substance that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. They can be divided into two main categories: substance use disorders and substance-induced disorders. Substance use disorders involve a pattern of compulsive use despite negative consequences, while substance-induced disorders include conditions such as intoxication, withdrawal, and substance/medication-induced mental disorders. The specific diagnosis depends on the type of substance involved, the patterns of use, and the presence or absence of physiological dependence.

Psychiatric Status Rating Scales are standardized assessment tools used by mental health professionals to evaluate and rate the severity of a person's psychiatric symptoms and functioning. These scales provide a systematic and structured approach to measuring various aspects of an individual's mental health, such as mood, anxiety, psychosis, behavior, and cognitive abilities.

The purpose of using Psychiatric Status Rating Scales is to:

1. Assess the severity and improvement of psychiatric symptoms over time.
2. Aid in diagnostic decision-making and treatment planning.
3. Monitor treatment response and adjust interventions accordingly.
4. Facilitate communication among mental health professionals about a patient's status.
5. Provide an objective basis for research and epidemiological studies.

Examples of Psychiatric Status Rating Scales include:

1. Clinical Global Impression (CGI): A brief, subjective rating scale that measures overall illness severity, treatment response, and improvement.
2. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS): A comprehensive scale used to assess the symptoms of psychosis, including positive, negative, and general psychopathology domains.
3. Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) or Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS): Scales used to evaluate the severity of depressive symptoms.
4. Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS): A scale used to assess the severity of manic or hypomanic symptoms.
5. Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) or Symptom Checklist-90 Revised (SCL-90-R): Scales that measure a broad range of psychiatric symptoms and psychopathology.
6. Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF): A scale used to rate an individual's overall psychological, social, and occupational functioning on a hypothetical continuum of mental health-illness.

It is important to note that Psychiatric Status Rating Scales should be administered by trained mental health professionals to ensure accurate and reliable results.

A depressive disorder is a mental health condition characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest or pleasure in activities. It can also include changes in sleep, appetite, energy levels, concentration, and self-esteem, as well as thoughts of death or suicide. Depressive disorders can vary in severity and duration, with some people experiencing mild and occasional symptoms, while others may have severe and chronic symptoms that interfere with their ability to function in daily life.

There are several types of depressive disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), persistent depressive disorder (PDD), and postpartum depression. MDD is characterized by symptoms that interfere significantly with a person's ability to function and last for at least two weeks, while PDD involves chronic low-grade depression that lasts for two years or more. Postpartum depression occurs in women after childbirth and can range from mild to severe.

Depressive disorders are thought to be caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, psychotherapy (talk therapy), and lifestyle changes.

A phobic disorder is a type of anxiety disorder characterized by an excessive and irrational fear or avoidance of specific objects, situations, or activities. This fear can cause significant distress and interfere with a person's daily life. Phobic disorders are typically classified into three main categories: specific phobias (such as fear of heights, spiders, or needles), social phobia (or social anxiety disorder), and agoraphobia (fear of open spaces or situations where escape might be difficult).

People with phobic disorders often recognize that their fear is excessive or unreasonable, but they are unable to control it. When exposed to the feared object or situation, they may experience symptoms such as rapid heartbeat, sweating, trembling, and difficulty breathing. These symptoms can be so distressing that individuals with phobic disorders go to great lengths to avoid the feared situation, which can have a significant impact on their quality of life.

Treatment for phobic disorders typically involves cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), which helps individuals identify and challenge their irrational thoughts and fears, as well as exposure therapy, which gradually exposes them to the feared object or situation in a safe and controlled environment. In some cases, medication may also be recommended to help manage symptoms of anxiety.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

A chronic disease is a long-term medical condition that often progresses slowly over a period of years and requires ongoing management and care. These diseases are typically not fully curable, but symptoms can be managed to improve quality of life. Common chronic diseases include heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). They are often associated with advanced age, although they can also affect children and younger adults. Chronic diseases can have significant impacts on individuals' physical, emotional, and social well-being, as well as on healthcare systems and society at large.

Health surveys are research studies that collect data from a sample population to describe the current health status, health behaviors, and healthcare utilization of a particular group or community. These surveys may include questions about various aspects of health such as physical health, mental health, chronic conditions, lifestyle habits, access to healthcare services, and demographic information. The data collected from health surveys can be used to monitor trends in health over time, identify disparities in health outcomes, develop and evaluate public health programs and policies, and inform resource allocation decisions. Examples of national health surveys include the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS).

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Logistic models, specifically logistic regression models, are a type of statistical analysis used in medical and epidemiological research to identify the relationship between the risk of a certain health outcome or disease (dependent variable) and one or more independent variables, such as demographic factors, exposure variables, or other clinical measurements.

In contrast to linear regression models, logistic regression models are used when the dependent variable is binary or dichotomous in nature, meaning it can only take on two values, such as "disease present" or "disease absent." The model uses a logistic function to estimate the probability of the outcome based on the independent variables.

Logistic regression models are useful for identifying risk factors and estimating the strength of associations between exposures and health outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders, and predicting the probability of an outcome given certain values of the independent variables. They can also be used to develop clinical prediction rules or scores that can aid in decision-making and patient care.

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), also simply referred to as depression, is a serious mental health condition characterized by the presence of one or more major depressive episodes. A major depressive episode is a period of at least two weeks during which an individual experiences a severely depressed mood and/or loss of interest or pleasure in nearly all activities, accompanied by at least four additional symptoms such as significant changes in appetite or weight, sleep disturbances, psychomotor agitation or retardation, fatigue or loss of energy, feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt, difficulty thinking, concentrating, or making decisions, and recurrent thoughts of death or suicide.

MDD can significantly impair an individual's ability to function in daily life, and it is associated with increased risks of suicide, substance abuse, and other mental health disorders. The exact cause of MDD is not fully understood, but it is believed to result from a complex interplay of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of psychotherapy (such as cognitive-behavioral therapy) and medication (such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or tricyclic antidepressants).

Personality disorders are a class of mental health conditions characterized by deeply ingrained, inflexible patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving that deviate significantly from the norms of their culture. These patterns often lead to distress for the individual and/or impairments in personal relationships, work, or social functioning.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), identifies ten specific personality disorders, which are grouped into three clusters based on descriptive similarities:

1. Cluster A (Odd or Eccentric) - characterized by odd, eccentric, or unusual behaviors:
* Paranoid Personality Disorder
* Schizoid Personality Disorder
* Schizotypal Personality Disorder
2. Cluster B (Dramatic, Emotional, or Erratic) - marked by dramatic, emotional, or erratic behaviors:
* Antisocial Personality Disorder
* Borderline Personality Disorder
* Histrionic Personality Disorder
* Narcissistic Personality Disorder
3. Cluster C (Anxious or Fearful) - featuring anxious, fearful behaviors:
* Avoidant Personality Disorder
* Dependent Personality Disorder
* Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

It is important to note that personality disorders can be challenging to diagnose and treat. They often require comprehensive assessments by mental health professionals, such as psychologists or psychiatrists, who specialize in personality disorders. Effective treatments typically involve long-term, specialized psychotherapies, with some cases potentially benefiting from medication management for co-occurring symptoms like anxiety or depression.

Impulse Control Disorders (ICDs) are a group of psychiatric conditions characterized by the failure to resist an impulse, drive, or temptation to perform an act that is harmful to oneself or others. This leads to negative consequences such as distress, anxiety, or disruption in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) recognizes several specific ICDs, including:

1. Kleptomania - the recurrent failure to resist impulses to steal items, even though they are not needed for personal use or financial gain.
2. Pyromania - the deliberate and purposeful fire-setting on more than one occasion.
3. Intermittent Explosive Disorder - recurrent behavioral outbursts representing a failure to control aggressive impulses, resulting in serious assaultive acts or destruction of property.
4. Pathological Gambling - persistent and recurrent maladaptive gambling behavior that disrupts personal, family, or vocational pursuits.
5. Internet Gaming Disorder - the excessive and prolonged use of the internet for gaming, which leads to clinically significant impairment or distress.

These disorders are typically associated with a range of emotional, cognitive, and behavioral symptoms that can vary depending on the specific disorder and individual presentation. Treatment often involves a combination of psychotherapy, medication, and self-help strategies to manage symptoms and improve overall functioning.

A psychological interview is a clinical assessment tool used by mental health professionals to gather information about a person's cognitive, emotional, and behavioral status. It is a structured or unstructured conversation between the clinician and the client aimed at understanding the client's symptoms, concerns, personal history, current life situation, and any other relevant factors that contribute to their psychological state.

The interview may cover various topics such as the individual's mental health history, family background, social relationships, education, occupation, coping mechanisms, and substance use. The clinician will also assess the person's cognitive abilities, emotional expression, thought processes, and behavior during the interview to help form a diagnosis or treatment plan.

The psychological interview is an essential component of a comprehensive mental health evaluation, as it provides valuable insights into the individual's subjective experiences and helps establish a therapeutic relationship between the clinician and the client. It can be conducted in various settings, including hospitals, clinics, private practices, or community centers.

Alcoholism is a chronic and often relapsing brain disorder characterized by the excessive and compulsive consumption of alcohol despite negative consequences to one's health, relationships, and daily life. It is also commonly referred to as alcohol use disorder (AUD) or alcohol dependence.

The diagnostic criteria for AUD include a pattern of alcohol use that includes problems controlling intake, continued use despite problems resulting from drinking, development of a tolerance, drinking that leads to risky behaviors or situations, and withdrawal symptoms when not drinking.

Alcoholism can cause a wide range of physical and psychological health problems, including liver disease, heart disease, neurological damage, mental health disorders, and increased risk of accidents and injuries. Treatment for alcoholism typically involves a combination of behavioral therapies, medications, and support groups to help individuals achieve and maintain sobriety.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

Depression is a mood disorder that is characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest in activities. It can also cause significant changes in sleep, appetite, energy level, concentration, and behavior. Depression can interfere with daily life and normal functioning, and it can increase the risk of suicide and other mental health disorders. The exact cause of depression is not known, but it is believed to be related to a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. There are several types of depression, including major depressive disorder, persistent depressive disorder, postpartum depression, and seasonal affective disorder. Treatment for depression typically involves a combination of medication and psychotherapy.

Hospitalization is the process of admitting a patient to a hospital for the purpose of receiving medical treatment, surgery, or other health care services. It involves staying in the hospital as an inpatient, typically under the care of doctors, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. The length of stay can vary depending on the individual's medical condition and the type of treatment required. Hospitalization may be necessary for a variety of reasons, such as to receive intensive care, to undergo diagnostic tests or procedures, to recover from surgery, or to manage chronic illnesses or injuries.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric condition that can occur in people who have experienced or witnessed a traumatic event such as a natural disaster, serious accident, war combat, rape, or violent personal assault. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5), PTSD is characterized by the following symptoms, which must last for more than one month:

1. Intrusion symptoms: These include distressing memories, nightmares, flashbacks, or intense psychological distress or reactivity to internal or external cues that symbolize or resemble an aspect of the traumatic event.
2. Avoidance symptoms: Persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the traumatic event, including thoughts, feelings, conversations, activities, places, or people.
3. Negative alterations in cognitions and mood: This includes negative beliefs about oneself, others, or the world; distorted blame of self or others for causing the trauma; persistent negative emotional state; decreased interest in significant activities; and feelings of detachment or estrangement from others.
4. Alterations in arousal and reactivity: This includes irritable behavior and angry outbursts, reckless or self-destructive behavior, hypervigilance, exaggerated startle response, problems with concentration, and sleep disturbance.
5. Duration of symptoms: The symptoms must last for more than one month.
6. Functional significance: The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

It is essential to note that PTSD can occur at any age and can be accompanied by various physical and mental health problems, such as depression, substance abuse, memory problems, and other difficulties in cognition. Appropriate treatment, which may include psychotherapy, medication, or a combination of both, can significantly improve the symptoms and overall quality of life for individuals with PTSD.

A "Veteran" is not a medical term per se, but rather a term used to describe individuals who have served in the military. Specifically, in the United States, a veteran is defined as a person who has served in the armed forces of the country and was discharged or released under conditions other than dishonorable. This definition can include those who served in war time or peace time. The term "veteran" does not imply any specific medical condition or diagnosis. However, veterans may have unique health needs and challenges related to their military service, such as exposure to hazardous materials, traumatic brain injury, post-traumatic stress disorder, and other physical and mental health conditions.

Panic Disorder is a type of anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, unexpected panic attacks and significant worry about the implications of these attacks or fear of their occurrence. A panic attack is a sudden surge of intense fear or discomfort that reaches a peak within minutes, and includes physical symptoms such as accelerated heart rate, sweating, trembling, shortness of breath, and feelings of impending doom or danger. In Panic Disorder, these attacks are not triggered by specific situations or stimuli, but can occur spontaneously and without warning. The individual may also develop avoidance behaviors to prevent future panic attacks, which can interfere with daily functioning and quality of life.

Conduct Disorder is a mental health disorder that typically begins in childhood or adolescence and is characterized by a repetitive pattern of behavior that violates the rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms and rules. The behaviors fall into four main categories: aggression to people and animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violation of rules.

The specific symptoms of Conduct Disorder can vary widely among individuals, but they generally include:

1. Aggression to people and animals: This may include physical fights, bullying, threatening others, cruelty to animals, and use of weapons.
2. Destruction of property: This may include deliberate destruction of others' property, arson, and vandalism.
3. Deceitfulness or theft: This may include lying, shoplifting, stealing, and breaking into homes, buildings, or cars.
4. Serious violation of rules: This may include running away from home, truancy, staying out late without permission, and frequent violations of school rules.

Conduct Disorder can have serious consequences for individuals who suffer from it, including academic failure, substance abuse, depression, anxiety, and difficulties in interpersonal relationships. It is important to note that Conduct Disorder should be diagnosed by a qualified mental health professional based on a comprehensive evaluation.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a mental health condition that causes extreme mood swings that include emotional highs (mania or hypomania) and lows (depression). When you become depressed, you may feel sad or hopeless and lose interest or pleasure in most activities. When your mood shifts to mania or hypomania (a less severe form of mania), you may feel euphoric, full of energy, or unusually irritable. These mood swings can significantly affect your job, school, relationships, and overall quality of life.

Bipolar disorder is typically characterized by the presence of one or more manic or hypomanic episodes, often accompanied by depressive episodes. The episodes may be separated by periods of normal mood, but in some cases, a person may experience rapid cycling between mania and depression.

There are several types of bipolar disorder, including:

* Bipolar I Disorder: This type is characterized by the occurrence of at least one manic episode, which may be preceded or followed by hypomanic or major depressive episodes.
* Bipolar II Disorder: This type involves the presence of at least one major depressive episode and at least one hypomanic episode, but no manic episodes.
* Cyclothymic Disorder: This type is characterized by numerous periods of hypomania and depression that are not severe enough to meet the criteria for a full manic or depressive episode.
* Other Specified and Unspecified Bipolar and Related Disorders: These categories include bipolar disorders that do not fit the criteria for any of the other types.

The exact cause of bipolar disorder is unknown, but it appears to be related to a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurochemical factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, psychotherapy, and lifestyle changes to help manage symptoms and prevent relapses.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a mental health disorder characterized by the presence of obsessions and compulsions. Obsessions are recurrent and persistent thoughts, urges, or images that are intrusive, unwanted, and often distressing. Compulsions are repetitive behaviors or mental acts that an individual feels driven to perform in response to an obsession or according to rigid rules, and which are aimed at preventing or reducing anxiety or distress, or preventing some dreaded event or situation. These obsessions and/or compulsions cause significant distress, take up a lot of time (an hour or more a day), and interfere with the individual's daily life, including social activities, relationships, and work or school performance. OCD is considered a type of anxiety disorder and can also co-occur with other mental health conditions.

Proportional hazards models are a type of statistical analysis used in medical research to investigate the relationship between covariates (predictor variables) and survival times. The most common application of proportional hazards models is in the Cox regression model, which is named after its developer, Sir David Cox.

In a proportional hazards model, the hazard rate or risk of an event occurring at a given time is assumed to be proportional to the hazard rate of a reference group, after adjusting for the covariates. This means that the ratio of the hazard rates between any two individuals remains constant over time, regardless of their survival times.

Mathematically, the hazard function h(t) at time t for an individual with a set of covariates X can be expressed as:

h(t|X) = h0(t) \* exp(β1X1 + β2X2 + ... + βpXp)

where h0(t) is the baseline hazard function, X1, X2, ..., Xp are the covariates, and β1, β2, ..., βp are the regression coefficients that represent the effect of each covariate on the hazard rate.

The assumption of proportionality is crucial in the interpretation of the results from a Cox regression model. If the assumption is violated, then the estimated regression coefficients may be biased and misleading. Therefore, it is important to test for the proportional hazards assumption before interpreting the results of a Cox regression analysis.

Medicare is a social insurance program in the United States, administered by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), that provides health insurance coverage to people who are aged 65 and over; or who have certain disabilities; or who have End-Stage Renal Disease (permanent kidney failure requiring dialysis or a transplant).

The program consists of four parts:

1. Hospital Insurance (Part A), which helps pay for inpatient care in hospitals, skilled nursing facilities, hospices, and home health care.
2. Medical Insurance (Part B), which helps pay for doctors' services, outpatient care, medical supplies, and preventive services.
3. Medicare Advantage Plans (Part C), which are private insurance plans that provide all of your Part A and Part B benefits, and may include additional benefits like dental, vision, and hearing coverage.
4. Prescription Drug Coverage (Part D), which helps pay for medications doctors prescribe for treatment.

Medicare is funded by payroll taxes, premiums paid by beneficiaries, and general revenue. Beneficiaries typically pay a monthly premium for Part B and Part D coverage, while Part A is generally free for those who have worked and paid Medicare taxes for at least 40 quarters.

Medical survival rate is a statistical measure used to determine the percentage of patients who are still alive for a specific period of time after their diagnosis or treatment for a certain condition or disease. It is often expressed as a five-year survival rate, which refers to the proportion of people who are alive five years after their diagnosis. Survival rates can be affected by many factors, including the stage of the disease at diagnosis, the patient's age and overall health, the effectiveness of treatment, and other health conditions that the patient may have. It is important to note that survival rates are statistical estimates and do not necessarily predict an individual patient's prognosis.

Prognosis is a medical term that refers to the prediction of the likely outcome or course of a disease, including the chances of recovery or recurrence, based on the patient's symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. It is an important aspect of clinical decision-making and patient communication, as it helps doctors and patients make informed decisions about treatment options, set realistic expectations, and plan for future care.

Prognosis can be expressed in various ways, such as percentages, categories (e.g., good, fair, poor), or survival rates, depending on the nature of the disease and the available evidence. However, it is important to note that prognosis is not an exact science and may vary depending on individual factors, such as age, overall health status, and response to treatment. Therefore, it should be used as a guide rather than a definitive forecast.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with hyperactivity is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects both children and adults. The condition is characterized by symptoms including:

1. Difficulty paying attention or staying focused on a single task
2. Impulsivity, or acting without thinking
3. Hyperactivity, or excessive fidgeting, restlessness, or talking

In order to be diagnosed with ADHD with hyperactivity, an individual must exhibit these symptoms to a degree that is developmentally inappropriate and interferes with their daily functioning. Additionally, the symptoms must have been present for at least six months and be present in multiple settings (e.g., at home, school, work).

It's important to note that ADHD can manifest differently in different people, and some individuals may experience predominantly inattentive or impulsive symptoms rather than hyperactive ones. However, when the hyperactive component is prominent, it is referred to as ADHD with hyperactivity.

Effective treatments for ADHD with hyperactivity include a combination of medication (such as stimulants) and behavioral therapy. With appropriate treatment, individuals with ADHD can learn to manage their symptoms and lead successful, fulfilling lives.

Multivariate analysis is a statistical method used to examine the relationship between multiple independent variables and a dependent variable. It allows for the simultaneous examination of the effects of two or more independent variables on an outcome, while controlling for the effects of other variables in the model. This technique can be used to identify patterns, associations, and interactions among multiple variables, and is commonly used in medical research to understand complex health outcomes and disease processes. Examples of multivariate analysis methods include multiple regression, factor analysis, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis.

A registry in the context of medicine is a collection or database of standardized information about individuals who share a certain condition or attribute, such as a disease, treatment, exposure, or demographic group. These registries are used for various purposes, including:

* Monitoring and tracking the natural history of diseases and conditions
* Evaluating the safety and effectiveness of medical treatments and interventions
* Conducting research and generating hypotheses for further study
* Providing information to patients, clinicians, and researchers
* Informing public health policy and decision-making

Registries can be established for a wide range of purposes, including disease-specific registries (such as cancer or diabetes registries), procedure-specific registries (such as joint replacement or cardiac surgery registries), and population-based registries (such as birth defects or cancer registries). Data collected in registries may include demographic information, clinical data, laboratory results, treatment details, and outcomes.

Registries can be maintained by a variety of organizations, including hospitals, clinics, academic medical centers, professional societies, government agencies, and industry. Participation in registries is often voluntary, although some registries may require informed consent from participants. Data collected in registries are typically de-identified to protect the privacy of individuals.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

"Sex factors" is a term used in medicine and epidemiology to refer to the differences in disease incidence, prevalence, or response to treatment that are observed between males and females. These differences can be attributed to biological differences such as genetics, hormones, and anatomy, as well as social and cultural factors related to gender.

For example, some conditions such as autoimmune diseases, depression, and osteoporosis are more common in women, while others such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are more prevalent in men. Additionally, sex differences have been observed in the effectiveness and side effects of various medications and treatments.

It is important to consider sex factors in medical research and clinical practice to ensure that patients receive appropriate and effective care.

Risk assessment in the medical context refers to the process of identifying, evaluating, and prioritizing risks to patients, healthcare workers, or the community related to healthcare delivery. It involves determining the likelihood and potential impact of adverse events or hazards, such as infectious diseases, medication errors, or medical devices failures, and implementing measures to mitigate or manage those risks. The goal of risk assessment is to promote safe and high-quality care by identifying areas for improvement and taking action to minimize harm.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Survival analysis is a branch of statistics that deals with the analysis of time to event data. It is used to estimate the time it takes for a certain event of interest to occur, such as death, disease recurrence, or treatment failure. The event of interest is called the "failure" event, and survival analysis estimates the probability of not experiencing the failure event until a certain point in time, also known as the "survival" probability.

Survival analysis can provide important information about the effectiveness of treatments, the prognosis of patients, and the identification of risk factors associated with the event of interest. It can handle censored data, which is common in medical research where some participants may drop out or be lost to follow-up before the event of interest occurs.

Survival analysis typically involves estimating the survival function, which describes the probability of surviving beyond a certain time point, as well as hazard functions, which describe the instantaneous rate of failure at a given time point. Other important concepts in survival analysis include median survival times, restricted mean survival times, and various statistical tests to compare survival curves between groups.

Quality of Life (QOL) is a broad, multidimensional concept that usually includes an individual's physical health, psychological state, level of independence, social relationships, personal beliefs, and their relationship to salient features of their environment. It reflects the impact of disease and treatment on a patient's overall well-being and ability to function in daily life.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines QOL as "an individual's perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns." It is a subjective concept, meaning it can vary greatly from person to person.

In healthcare, QOL is often used as an outcome measure in clinical trials and other research studies to assess the impact of interventions or treatments on overall patient well-being.

The "age of onset" is a medical term that refers to the age at which an individual first develops or displays symptoms of a particular disease, disorder, or condition. It can be used to describe various medical conditions, including both physical and mental health disorders. The age of onset can have implications for prognosis, treatment approaches, and potential causes of the condition. In some cases, early onset may indicate a more severe or progressive course of the disease, while late-onset symptoms might be associated with different underlying factors or etiologies. It is essential to provide accurate and precise information regarding the age of onset when discussing a patient's medical history and treatment plan.

Chronic kidney failure, also known as chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 5 or end-stage renal disease (ESRD), is a permanent loss of kidney function that occurs gradually over a period of months to years. It is defined as a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of less than 15 ml/min, which means the kidneys are filtering waste and excess fluids at less than 15% of their normal capacity.

CKD can be caused by various underlying conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, glomerulonephritis, polycystic kidney disease, and recurrent kidney infections. Over time, the damage to the kidneys can lead to a buildup of waste products and fluids in the body, which can cause a range of symptoms including fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, and confusion.

Treatment for chronic kidney failure typically involves managing the underlying condition, making lifestyle changes such as following a healthy diet, and receiving supportive care such as dialysis or a kidney transplant to replace lost kidney function.

Renal dialysis is a medical procedure that is used to artificially remove waste products, toxins, and excess fluids from the blood when the kidneys are no longer able to perform these functions effectively. This process is also known as hemodialysis.

During renal dialysis, the patient's blood is circulated through a special machine called a dialyzer or an artificial kidney, which contains a semi-permeable membrane that filters out waste products and excess fluids from the blood. The cleaned blood is then returned to the patient's body.

Renal dialysis is typically recommended for patients with advanced kidney disease or kidney failure, such as those with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). It is a life-sustaining treatment that helps to maintain the balance of fluids and electrolytes in the body, prevent the buildup of waste products and toxins, and control blood pressure.

There are two main types of renal dialysis: hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. Hemodialysis is the most common type and involves using a dialyzer to filter the blood outside the body. Peritoneal dialysis, on the other hand, involves placing a catheter in the abdomen and using the lining of the abdomen (peritoneum) as a natural filter to remove waste products and excess fluids from the body.

Overall, renal dialysis is an essential treatment option for patients with kidney failure, helping them to maintain their quality of life and prolong their survival.

I'm not sure I understand your question. "Denmark" is a country located in Northern Europe, and it is not a medical term or concept. It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, and it consists of the Jutland peninsula and several islands in the Baltic Sea. The capital city of Denmark is Copenhagen.

If you are looking for information about a medical condition that may be associated with Denmark, could you please provide more context or clarify your question? I would be happy to help you with more specific information if I can.

Longitudinal studies are a type of research design where data is collected from the same subjects repeatedly over a period of time, often years or even decades. These studies are used to establish patterns of changes and events over time, and can help researchers identify causal relationships between variables. They are particularly useful in fields such as epidemiology, psychology, and sociology, where the focus is on understanding developmental trends and the long-term effects of various factors on health and behavior.

In medical research, longitudinal studies can be used to track the progression of diseases over time, identify risk factors for certain conditions, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. For example, a longitudinal study might follow a group of individuals over several decades to assess their exposure to certain environmental factors and their subsequent development of chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease. By comparing data collected at multiple time points, researchers can identify trends and correlations that may not be apparent in shorter-term studies.

Longitudinal studies have several advantages over other research designs, including their ability to establish temporal relationships between variables, track changes over time, and reduce the impact of confounding factors. However, they also have some limitations, such as the potential for attrition (loss of participants over time), which can introduce bias and affect the validity of the results. Additionally, longitudinal studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, requiring significant resources and a long-term commitment from both researchers and study participants.

Hospital mortality is a term used to describe the number or rate of deaths that occur in a hospital setting during a specific period. It is often used as a measure of the quality of healthcare provided by a hospital, as a higher hospital mortality rate may indicate poorer care or more complex cases being treated. However, it's important to note that hospital mortality rates can be influenced by many factors, including the severity of illness of the patients being treated, patient demographics, and the availability of resources and specialized care. Therefore, hospital mortality rates should be interpreted with caution and in the context of other quality metrics.

The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is a standardized system for classifying and coding mortality and morbidity data, established by the World Health Organization (WHO). It provides a common language and framework for health professionals, researchers, and policymakers to share and compare health-related information across countries and regions.

The ICD codes are used to identify diseases, injuries, causes of death, and other health conditions. The classification includes categories for various body systems, mental disorders, external causes of injury and poisoning, and factors influencing health status. It also includes a section for symptoms, signs, and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings.

The ICD is regularly updated to incorporate new scientific knowledge and changing health needs. The most recent version, ICD-11, was adopted by the World Health Assembly in May 2019 and will come into effect on January 1, 2022. It includes significant revisions and expansions in several areas, such as mental, behavioral, neurological disorders, and conditions related to sexual health.

In summary, the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is a globally recognized system for classifying and coding diseases, injuries, causes of death, and other health-related information, enabling standardized data collection, comparison, and analysis across countries and regions.

Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by elevated levels of glucose in the blood (hyperglycemia) due to absolute or relative deficiency in insulin secretion and/or insulin action. There are two main types: Type 1 diabetes, which results from the autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells leading to insulin deficiency, and Type 2 diabetes, which is associated with insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency.

Type 1 diabetes typically presents in childhood or young adulthood, while Type 2 diabetes tends to occur later in life, often in association with obesity and physical inactivity. Both types of diabetes can lead to long-term complications such as damage to the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and cardiovascular system if left untreated or not well controlled.

The diagnosis of diabetes is usually made based on fasting plasma glucose levels, oral glucose tolerance tests, or hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels. Treatment typically involves lifestyle modifications such as diet and exercise, along with medications to lower blood glucose levels and manage associated conditions.

The Predictive Value of Tests, specifically the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV), are measures used in diagnostic tests to determine the probability that a positive or negative test result is correct.

Positive Predictive Value (PPV) is the proportion of patients with a positive test result who actually have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true positives divided by the total number of positive results (true positives + false positives). A higher PPV indicates that a positive test result is more likely to be a true positive, and therefore the disease is more likely to be present.

Negative Predictive Value (NPV) is the proportion of patients with a negative test result who do not have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true negatives divided by the total number of negative results (true negatives + false negatives). A higher NPV indicates that a negative test result is more likely to be a true negative, and therefore the disease is less likely to be present.

The predictive value of tests depends on the prevalence of the disease in the population being tested, as well as the sensitivity and specificity of the test. A test with high sensitivity and specificity will generally have higher predictive values than a test with low sensitivity and specificity. However, even a highly sensitive and specific test can have low predictive values if the prevalence of the disease is low in the population being tested.

The odds ratio (OR) is a statistical measure used in epidemiology and research to estimate the association between an exposure and an outcome. It represents the odds that an event will occur in one group versus the odds that it will occur in another group, assuming that all other factors are held constant.

In medical research, the odds ratio is often used to quantify the strength of the relationship between a risk factor (exposure) and a disease outcome. An OR of 1 indicates no association between the exposure and the outcome, while an OR greater than 1 suggests that there is a positive association between the two. Conversely, an OR less than 1 implies a negative association.

It's important to note that the odds ratio is not the same as the relative risk (RR), which compares the incidence rates of an outcome in two groups. While the OR can approximate the RR when the outcome is rare, they are not interchangeable and can lead to different conclusions about the association between an exposure and an outcome.

Socioeconomic factors are a range of interconnected conditions and influences that affect the opportunities and resources a person or group has to maintain and improve their health and well-being. These factors include:

1. Economic stability: This includes employment status, job security, income level, and poverty status. Lower income and lack of employment are associated with poorer health outcomes.
2. Education: Higher levels of education are generally associated with better health outcomes. Education can affect a person's ability to access and understand health information, as well as their ability to navigate the healthcare system.
3. Social and community context: This includes factors such as social support networks, discrimination, and community safety. Strong social supports and positive community connections are associated with better health outcomes, while discrimination and lack of safety can negatively impact health.
4. Healthcare access and quality: Access to affordable, high-quality healthcare is an important socioeconomic factor that can significantly impact a person's health. Factors such as insurance status, availability of providers, and cultural competency of healthcare systems can all affect healthcare access and quality.
5. Neighborhood and built environment: The physical conditions in which people live, work, and play can also impact their health. Factors such as housing quality, transportation options, availability of healthy foods, and exposure to environmental hazards can all influence health outcomes.

Socioeconomic factors are often interrelated and can have a cumulative effect on health outcomes. For example, someone who lives in a low-income neighborhood with limited access to healthy foods and safe parks may also face challenges related to employment, education, and healthcare access that further impact their health. Addressing socioeconomic factors is an important part of promoting health equity and reducing health disparities.

Regression analysis is a statistical technique used in medicine, as well as in other fields, to examine the relationship between one or more independent variables (predictors) and a dependent variable (outcome). It allows for the estimation of the average change in the outcome variable associated with a one-unit change in an independent variable, while controlling for the effects of other independent variables. This technique is often used to identify risk factors for diseases or to evaluate the effectiveness of medical interventions. In medical research, regression analysis can be used to adjust for potential confounding variables and to quantify the relationship between exposures and health outcomes. It can also be used in predictive modeling to estimate the probability of a particular outcome based on multiple predictors.

'Diseases in Twins' is a field of study that focuses on the similarities and differences in the occurrence, development, and outcomes of diseases among twins. This research can provide valuable insights into the genetic and environmental factors that contribute to various medical conditions.

Twins can be classified into two types: monozygotic (identical) and dizygotic (fraternal). Monozygotic twins share 100% of their genes, while dizygotic twins share about 50%, similar to non-twin siblings. By comparing the concordance rates (the likelihood of both twins having the same disease) between monozygotic and dizygotic twins, researchers can estimate the heritability of a particular disease.

Studying diseases in twins also helps understand the role of environmental factors. When both twins develop the same disease, but they are discordant for certain risk factors (e.g., one twin smokes and the other does not), it suggests that the disease may have a stronger genetic component. On the other hand, when both twins share similar risk factors and develop the disease, it implies that environmental factors play a significant role.

Diseases in Twins research has contributed to our understanding of various medical conditions, including infectious diseases, cancer, mental health disorders, and developmental disorders. This knowledge can lead to better prevention strategies, early detection methods, and more targeted treatments for these diseases.

Health status is a term used to describe the overall condition of an individual's health, including physical, mental, and social well-being. It is often assessed through various measures such as medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and self-reported health assessments. Health status can be used to identify health disparities, track changes in population health over time, and evaluate the effectiveness of healthcare interventions.

Anxiety: A feeling of worry, nervousness, or unease, typically about an imminent event or something with an uncertain outcome. In a medical context, anxiety refers to a mental health disorder characterized by feelings of excessive and persistent worry, fear, or panic that interfere with daily activities. It can also be a symptom of other medical conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, or substance abuse disorders. Anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and phobias.

"Length of Stay" (LOS) is a term commonly used in healthcare to refer to the amount of time a patient spends receiving care in a hospital, clinic, or other healthcare facility. It is typically measured in hours, days, or weeks and can be used as a metric for various purposes such as resource planning, quality assessment, and reimbursement. The length of stay can vary depending on the type of illness or injury, the severity of the condition, the patient's response to treatment, and other factors. It is an important consideration in healthcare management and can have significant implications for both patients and providers.

Health status indicators are measures used to assess and monitor the health and well-being of a population. They provide information about various aspects of health, such as mortality rates, morbidity rates, prevalence of chronic diseases, lifestyle factors, environmental exposures, and access to healthcare services. These indicators can be used to identify trends and disparities in health outcomes, inform policy decisions, allocate resources, and evaluate the effectiveness of public health interventions. Examples of health status indicators include life expectancy, infant mortality rate, prevalence of diabetes, smoking rates, and access to primary care.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Netherlands" is not a medical term. It is a country located in Western Europe, known for its artistic heritage, elaborate canal system, and legalized marijuana and prostitution. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

Activities of Daily Living (ADL) are routine self-care activities that individuals usually do every day without assistance. These activities are widely used as a measure to determine the functional status and independence of a person, particularly in the elderly or those with disabilities or chronic illnesses. The basic ADLs include:

1. Personal hygiene: Bathing, washing hands and face, brushing teeth, grooming, and using the toilet.
2. Dressing: Selecting appropriate clothes and dressing oneself.
3. Eating: Preparing and consuming food, either independently or with assistive devices.
4. Mobility: Moving in and out of bed, chairs, or wheelchairs, walking independently or using mobility aids.
5. Transferring: Moving from one place to another, such as getting in and out of a car, bath, or bed.

There are also more complex Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs) that assess an individual's ability to manage their own life and live independently. These include managing finances, shopping for groceries, using the telephone, taking medications as prescribed, preparing meals, and housekeeping tasks.

Disability Evaluation is the process of determining the nature and extent of a person's functional limitations or impairments, and assessing their ability to perform various tasks and activities in order to determine eligibility for disability benefits or accommodations. This process typically involves a medical examination and assessment by a licensed healthcare professional, such as a physician or psychologist, who evaluates the individual's symptoms, medical history, laboratory test results, and functional abilities. The evaluation may also involve input from other professionals, such as vocational experts, occupational therapists, or speech-language pathologists, who can provide additional information about the person's ability to perform specific tasks and activities in a work or daily living context. Based on this information, a determination is made about whether the individual meets the criteria for disability as defined by the relevant governing authority, such as the Social Security Administration or the Americans with Disabilities Act.

The Chi-square distribution is a continuous probability distribution that is often used in statistical hypothesis testing. It is the distribution of a sum of squares of k independent standard normal random variables. The resulting quantity follows a chi-square distribution with k degrees of freedom, denoted as χ²(k).

The probability density function (pdf) of the Chi-square distribution with k degrees of freedom is given by:

f(x; k) = (1/ (2^(k/2) * Γ(k/2))) \* x^((k/2)-1) \* e^(-x/2), for x > 0 and 0, otherwise.

Where Γ(k/2) is the gamma function evaluated at k/2. The mean and variance of a Chi-square distribution with k degrees of freedom are k and 2k, respectively.

The Chi-square distribution has various applications in statistical inference, including testing goodness-of-fit, homogeneity of variances, and independence in contingency tables.

Obsessive Hoarding, also known as Hoarding Disorder, is defined in the medical field as a persistent difficulty in discarding or parting with possessions, regardless of their actual value. This results in an accumulation of items that fill up and clutter living areas to the point where they become difficult to use. The hoarding behavior causes significant distress and impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. It is also often associated with symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, and anxiety.

Eating disorders are mental health conditions characterized by significant disturbances in eating behaviors and associated distressing thoughts and emotions. They include several types of disorders, such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and other specified feeding or eating disorders (OSFED). These disorders can have serious medical and psychological consequences if left untreated.

Anorexia nervosa is characterized by restrictive eating, low body weight, and an intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat. Individuals with anorexia may also have a distorted body image and deny the severity of their low body weight.

Bulimia nervosa involves recurrent episodes of binge eating followed by compensatory behaviors such as purging (e.g., self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives or diuretics), fasting, or excessive exercise to prevent weight gain.

Binge eating disorder is characterized by recurrent episodes of eating large amounts of food in a short period of time, often to the point of discomfort, accompanied by feelings of loss of control and distress. Unlike bulimia nervosa, individuals with binge eating disorder do not engage in compensatory behaviors to prevent weight gain.

Other specified feeding or eating disorders (OSFED) include atypical anorexia nervosa, subthreshold bulimia nervosa, and subthreshold binge eating disorder, which may have similar symptoms to the above disorders but do not meet all the diagnostic criteria.

Eating disorders can affect people of any age, gender, race, or ethnicity, and they are often associated with other mental health conditions such as depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Treatment typically involves a combination of psychological therapy, nutrition counseling, and medical management to address both the physical and psychological aspects of the disorder.

Agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder characterized by fear and avoidance of places, situations, or events that may trigger feelings of panic, fear, or embarrassment. People with agoraphobia may feel anxious about being in crowded places, standing in line, using public transportation, or being outside their home alone. They may also have a fear of leaving their "safe" place or experience severe anxiety when they are in a situation where escape might be difficult or help unavailable. In severe cases, agoraphobia can lead to avoidance of many activities and significant impairment in social, occupational, and other areas of functioning.

A geriatric assessment is a comprehensive, multidimensional evaluation of an older adult's functional ability, mental health, social support, and overall health status. It is used to identify any medical, psychological, or social problems that could affect the person's ability to live independently and safely, and to develop an individualized plan of care to address those issues.

The assessment typically includes a review of the person's medical history, medications, cognitive function, mobility, sensory function, nutrition, continence, and mood. It may also include assessments of the person's social support network, living situation, and financial resources. The goal of the geriatric assessment is to help older adults maintain their independence and quality of life for as long as possible by addressing any issues that could put them at risk for disability or institutionalization.

The "cause of death" is a medical determination of the disease, injury, or event that directly results in a person's death. This information is typically documented on a death certificate and may be used for public health surveillance, research, and legal purposes. The cause of death is usually determined by a physician based on their clinical judgment and any available medical evidence, such as laboratory test results, autopsy findings, or eyewitness accounts. In some cases, the cause of death may be uncertain or unknown, and the death may be classified as "natural," "accidental," "homicide," or "suicide" based on the available information.

Somatoform disorders are a group of psychological disorders characterized by the presence of physical symptoms that cannot be fully explained by a medical condition or substance abuse. These symptoms cause significant distress and impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. The individual's belief about the symptoms is not consistent with the medical evaluation and often leads to excessive or repeated medical evaluations.

Examples of somatoform disorders include:

1. Somatization disorder: characterized by multiple physical symptoms that cannot be explained medically, affecting several parts of the body.
2. Conversion disorder: characterized by the presence of one or more neurological symptoms (such as blindness, paralysis, or difficulty swallowing) that cannot be explained medically and appear to have a psychological origin.
3. Pain disorder: characterized by chronic pain that is not fully explained by a medical condition.
4. Hypochondriasis: characterized by an excessive preoccupation with having a serious illness, despite reassurance from medical professionals.
5. Body dysmorphic disorder: characterized by the obsessive idea that some aspect of one's own body part or appearance is severely flawed and warrants exceptional measures to hide or fix it.

It's important to note that these disorders are not caused by intentional deceit or malingering, but rather reflect a genuine belief in the presence of physical symptoms and distress related to them.

Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders (ADDBDs) are a group of childhood-onset disorders characterized by persistent patterns of behavior that are difficult for the individual to control. These disorders include Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), and Conduct Disorder (CD).

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that interfere with daily functioning. These symptoms must be present for at least six months and occur in multiple settings, such as school, home, and social situations.

Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) is characterized by a pattern of negative, hostile, and defiant behavior towards authority figures, which includes arguing with adults, losing temper, actively defying rules, and deliberately annoying others. These symptoms must be present for at least six months and occur more frequently than in other children of the same age and developmental level.

Conduct Disorder (CD) is characterized by a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior that violates the rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms and rules. These behaviors include aggression towards people and animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violation of rules.

It's important to note that these disorders can co-occur with other mental health conditions, such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and learning disabilities. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential for managing the symptoms and improving the individual's quality of life.

Peritoneal dialysis is a type of renal replacement therapy used to treat patients with severe kidney dysfunction or end-stage renal disease. It is a process that utilizes the peritoneum, a membranous sac lining the abdominal cavity, as a natural semipermeable membrane for filtering waste products, excess fluids, and electrolytes from the bloodstream.

In peritoneal dialysis, a sterile dialysate solution is infused into the peritoneal cavity via a permanently implanted catheter. The dialysate contains various substances such as glucose or other osmotic agents, electrolytes, and buffer solutions that facilitate the diffusion of waste products and fluids from the blood vessels surrounding the peritoneum into the dialysate.

There are two primary types of peritoneal dialysis: continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and automated peritoneal dialysis (APD). CAPD is performed manually, several times a day, while APD is carried out using a cycler machine overnight.

Peritoneal dialysis offers certain advantages over hemodialysis, such as better preservation of residual renal function, fewer dietary restrictions, and greater flexibility in scheduling treatments. However, it also has potential complications, including peritonitis (inflammation of the peritoneum), catheter-related infections, fluid imbalances, and membrane failure over time.

A migraine disorder is a neurological condition characterized by recurrent headaches that often involve one side of the head and are accompanied by various symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, sensitivity to light and sound, and visual disturbances. Migraines can last from several hours to days and can be severely debilitating. The exact cause of migraines is not fully understood, but they are believed to result from a combination of genetic and environmental factors that affect the brain and blood vessels. There are different types of migraines, including migraine without aura, migraine with aura, chronic migraine, and others, each with its own specific set of symptoms and diagnostic criteria. Treatment typically involves a combination of lifestyle changes, medications, and behavioral therapies to manage symptoms and prevent future attacks.

In epidemiology, the incidence of a disease is defined as the number of new cases of that disease within a specific population over a certain period of time. It is typically expressed as a rate, with the number of new cases in the numerator and the size of the population at risk in the denominator. Incidence provides information about the risk of developing a disease during a given time period and can be used to compare disease rates between different populations or to monitor trends in disease occurrence over time.

Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) is a mental health condition characterized by a pervasive pattern of disregard for the rights of others, lack of empathy, and manipulative behaviors. It is defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), as follows:

A. A consistent pattern of behavior that violates the basic rights of others and major age-appropriate societal norms and rules, as indicated by the presence of at least three of the following:

1. Failure to conform to social norms and laws, indicated by repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest.
2. Deceitfulness, as indicated by repeated lying, use of aliases, or conning others for personal profit or pleasure.
3. Impulsivity or failure to plan ahead; indication of this symptom may include promiscuity.
4. Irritability and aggressiveness, as indicated by repeated physical fights or assaults.
5. Reckless disregard for safety of self or others.
6. Consistent irresponsibility, as indicated by repeated failure to sustain consistent work behavior or honor financial obligations.
7. Lack of remorse, as indicated by being indifferent to or rationalizing having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another.

B. The individual is at least 18 years of age.

C. There is evidence of conduct disorder with onset before the age of 15 years.

D. The occurrence of antisocial behavior is not exclusively during the course of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.

E. The individual's criminal behavior has not been better explained by a conduct disorder diagnosis or antisocial behavior that began before the age of 15 years.

It's important to note that ASPD can be challenging to diagnose, and it often requires a comprehensive evaluation from a mental health professional with experience in personality disorders.

Hypochondriasis is a psychological disorder where an individual has an unrealistic and persistent fear or belief that they have one or more serious medical conditions, based on the interpretation of bodily symptoms. These fears or beliefs are not alleviated by appropriate medical evaluation and reassurance. The person may be extremely anxious about their health, repeatedly check their body for signs of illness, and seek medical help frequently. However, it's important to note that this term is no longer used in the current diagnostic manuals like DSM-5 or ICD-10. Instead, similar symptoms are often encompassed under Illness Anxiety Disorder.

The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is not a medical condition or diagnosis, but rather a research program run by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), which is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The SEER Program collects and publishes cancer incidence and survival data from population-based cancer registries covering approximately 34.6% of the U.S. population.

The primary goal of the SEER Program is to provide reliable, up-to-date, and accessible information about cancer incidence and survival in the United States. This information is used by researchers, clinicians, policymakers, and the public to monitor cancer trends, identify factors that influence cancer risk, inform cancer prevention and control efforts, and improve cancer care.

The SEER Program collects data on patient demographics, primary tumor site, morphology, stage at diagnosis, first course of treatment, and survival. The program also supports research on the causes and effects of cancer, as well as the development of new methods for cancer surveillance and data analysis.

The United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is not a medical term per se, but it is a government agency that provides medical care and benefits to veterans of the US armed forces. Here's the official definition from the VA's website:

"The US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is an independent federal establishment charged with providing federal benefits, services, and healthcare to eligible United States veterans, their dependents, and certain other specified individuals."

The VA operates a vast network of medical centers, clinics, and benefits offices throughout the country, providing a range of services including medical treatment, long-term care, disability compensation, vocational rehabilitation, education assistance, home loan guarantees, and life insurance.

Health services refer to the delivery of healthcare services, including preventive, curative, and rehabilitative services. These services are typically provided by health professionals such as doctors, nurses, and allied health personnel in various settings, including hospitals, clinics, community health centers, and long-term care facilities. Health services may also include public health activities such as health education, surveillance, and health promotion programs aimed at improving the health of populations. The goal of health services is to promote and restore health, prevent disease and injury, and improve the quality of life for individuals and communities.

The Insanity Defense is a legal concept, rather than a medical one, but it is based on psychological and psychiatric assessments of the defendant's state of mind at the time of the crime. It is used as a criminal defense in which the defendant claims that they should not be held criminally responsible for their actions due to mental illness or disorder that prevented them from understanding the nature and wrongfulness of their behavior.

The specific criteria for an insanity defense vary by jurisdiction, but generally, it requires evidence that the defendant had a severe mental illness or cognitive impairment that significantly affected their ability to appreciate the nature and wrongfulness of their conduct or to conform their behavior to the requirements of the law. If successful, the insanity defense can result in an acquittal, hospitalization, or other dispositions that do not involve incarceration.

It's important to note that the insanity defense is not a determination of whether the defendant is "crazy" or "insane," but rather an assessment of their mental state at the time of the offense and its impact on their legal responsibility for their actions.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), "An attempted suicide is a non-fatal self-directed, potentially injurious behavior with intent to die as a result of the behavior. It's a clear expression of intention to die."

It's important to note that anyone who has attempted suicide requires immediate professional medical attention and support. They should be assessed for their level of suicidal ideation and any underlying mental health conditions, and provided with appropriate care and treatment. If you or someone you know is struggling with thoughts of suicide, please reach out to a healthcare provider or a trusted mental health professional immediately.

"Cost of Illness" is a medical-economic concept that refers to the total societal cost associated with a specific disease or health condition. It includes both direct and indirect costs. Direct costs are those that can be directly attributed to the illness, such as medical expenses for diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation, and medications. Indirect costs include productivity losses due to morbidity (reduced efficiency while working) and mortality (lost earnings due to death). Other indirect costs may encompass expenses related to caregiving or special education needs. The Cost of Illness is often used in health policy decision-making, resource allocation, and evaluating the economic impact of diseases on society.

Patient selection, in the context of medical treatment or clinical research, refers to the process of identifying and choosing appropriate individuals who are most likely to benefit from a particular medical intervention or who meet specific criteria to participate in a study. This decision is based on various factors such as the patient's diagnosis, stage of disease, overall health status, potential risks, and expected benefits. The goal of patient selection is to ensure that the selected individuals will receive the most effective and safe care possible while also contributing to meaningful research outcomes.

A factual database in the medical context is a collection of organized and structured data that contains verified and accurate information related to medicine, healthcare, or health sciences. These databases serve as reliable resources for various stakeholders, including healthcare professionals, researchers, students, and patients, to access evidence-based information for making informed decisions and enhancing knowledge.

Examples of factual medical databases include:

1. PubMed: A comprehensive database of biomedical literature maintained by the US National Library of Medicine (NLM). It contains citations and abstracts from life sciences journals, books, and conference proceedings.
2. MEDLINE: A subset of PubMed, MEDLINE focuses on high-quality, peer-reviewed articles related to biomedicine and health. It is the primary component of the NLM's database and serves as a critical resource for healthcare professionals and researchers worldwide.
3. Cochrane Library: A collection of systematic reviews and meta-analyses focused on evidence-based medicine. The library aims to provide unbiased, high-quality information to support clinical decision-making and improve patient outcomes.
4. OVID: A platform that offers access to various medical and healthcare databases, including MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO. It facilitates the search and retrieval of relevant literature for researchers, clinicians, and students.
5. ClinicalTrials.gov: A registry and results database of publicly and privately supported clinical studies conducted around the world. The platform aims to increase transparency and accessibility of clinical trial data for healthcare professionals, researchers, and patients.
6. UpToDate: An evidence-based, physician-authored clinical decision support resource that provides information on diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of medical conditions. It serves as a point-of-care tool for healthcare professionals to make informed decisions and improve patient care.
7. TRIP Database: A search engine designed to facilitate evidence-based medicine by providing quick access to high-quality resources, including systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, and practice recommendations.
8. National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC): A database of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and related documents developed through a rigorous review process. The NGC aims to provide clinicians, healthcare providers, and policymakers with reliable guidance for patient care.
9. DrugBank: A comprehensive, freely accessible online database containing detailed information about drugs, their mechanisms, interactions, and targets. It serves as a valuable resource for researchers, healthcare professionals, and students in the field of pharmacology and drug discovery.
10. Genetic Testing Registry (GTR): A database that provides centralized information about genetic tests, test developers, laboratories offering tests, and clinical validity and utility of genetic tests. It serves as a resource for healthcare professionals, researchers, and patients to make informed decisions regarding genetic testing.

Cystectomy is a surgical procedure in which all or part of the urinary bladder is removed. This procedure is often used to treat bladder cancer, but it may also be necessary in cases of severe bladder damage, infection, or inflammation that do not respond to other treatments.

There are several types of cystectomy, including:

1. Radical cystectomy: This is the most common type of cystectomy performed for bladder cancer. It involves removing the entire bladder, as well as nearby lymph nodes, the prostate gland in men, and the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, and a portion of the vagina in women.
2. Partial cystectomy: In this procedure, only a part of the bladder is removed. This may be an option for patients with early-stage bladder cancer that has not spread deeply into the bladder muscle or to other parts of the body.
3. Urinary diversion: After a cystectomy, the surgeon must create a new way for urine to leave the body. This may involve creating a urostomy, in which a piece of intestine is used to form a stoma (an opening) on the abdominal wall, through which urine can be collected in a bag. Alternatively, the surgeon may create an internal pouch using a segment of intestine, which can then be connected to the ureters and allowed to drain into the rectum or vagina.

As with any surgical procedure, cystectomy carries risks such as bleeding, infection, and reactions to anesthesia. Patients may also experience long-term complications such as urinary incontinence, sexual dysfunction, and changes in bowel habits. However, for many patients with bladder cancer or other severe bladder conditions, cystectomy can be a life-saving procedure.

I apologize, but "Alabama" is not a medical term or condition. It is the name of one of the states in the United States of America, located in the southeastern region. The term "Alabaman" is used to describe someone from this state. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, I would be happy to help answer those for you.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Spain" is not a medical term. It is a country located in southwestern Europe. If you have any questions about medical terms or topics, I would be happy to help answer them.

Demography is the statistical study of populations, particularly in terms of size, distribution, and characteristics such as age, race, gender, and occupation. In medical contexts, demography is often used to analyze health-related data and trends within specific populations. This can include studying the prevalence of certain diseases or conditions, identifying disparities in healthcare access and outcomes, and evaluating the effectiveness of public health interventions. Demographic data can also be used to inform policy decisions and allocate resources to address population health needs.

The Kaplan-Meier estimate is a statistical method used to calculate the survival probability over time in a population. It is commonly used in medical research to analyze time-to-event data, such as the time until a patient experiences a specific event like disease progression or death. The Kaplan-Meier estimate takes into account censored data, which occurs when some individuals are lost to follow-up before experiencing the event of interest.

The method involves constructing a survival curve that shows the proportion of subjects still surviving at different time points. At each time point, the survival probability is calculated as the product of the conditional probabilities of surviving from one time point to the next. The Kaplan-Meier estimate provides an unbiased and consistent estimator of the survival function, even when censoring is present.

In summary, the Kaplan-Meier estimate is a crucial tool in medical research for analyzing time-to-event data and estimating survival probabilities over time while accounting for censored observations.

Medical records are organized, detailed collections of information about a patient's health history, including their symptoms, diagnoses, treatments, medications, test results, and any other relevant data. These records are created and maintained by healthcare professionals during the course of providing medical care and serve as an essential tool for continuity, communication, and decision-making in healthcare. They may exist in paper form, electronic health records (EHRs), or a combination of both. Medical records also play a critical role in research, quality improvement, public health, reimbursement, and legal proceedings.

A personality assessment is a systematic process used by healthcare professionals to evaluate and understand an individual's characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior. It typically involves the use of standardized measures, such as self-report questionnaires, interviews, and observational techniques, to gather information about an individual's personality traits, attitudes, values, and behaviors.

The goal of a personality assessment is to provide a comprehensive and integrated understanding of an individual's unique personality style, including their strengths, weaknesses, and potential vulnerabilities. This information can be useful in a variety of contexts, including clinical treatment planning, vocational counseling, and forensic evaluation.

It is important to note that personality assessments should always be conducted by qualified professionals with appropriate training and expertise in the use of these measures. Additionally, while personality assessments can provide valuable insights into an individual's personality style, they are not infallible and should always be considered alongside other sources of information when making important decisions about treatment or management.

Psychotropic drugs, also known as psychoactive drugs, are a class of medications that affect the function of the central nervous system, leading to changes in consciousness, perception, mood, cognition, or behavior. These drugs work by altering the chemical neurotransmitters in the brain, such as dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine, which are involved in regulating mood, thought, and behavior.

Psychotropic drugs can be classified into several categories based on their primary therapeutic effects, including:

1. Antipsychotic drugs: These medications are used to treat psychosis, schizophrenia, and other related disorders. They work by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain, which helps reduce hallucinations, delusions, and disordered thinking.
2. Antidepressant drugs: These medications are used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, and some chronic pain conditions. They work by increasing the availability of neurotransmitters such as serotonin, norepinephrine, or dopamine in the brain, which helps improve mood and reduce anxiety.
3. Mood stabilizers: These medications are used to treat bipolar disorder and other mood disorders. They help regulate the ups and downs of mood swings and can also be used as adjunctive treatment for depression and anxiety.
4. Anxiolytic drugs: Also known as anti-anxiety medications, these drugs are used to treat anxiety disorders, panic attacks, and insomnia. They work by reducing the activity of neurotransmitters such as GABA, which can help reduce anxiety and promote relaxation.
5. Stimulant drugs: These medications are used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. They work by increasing the availability of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain, which helps improve focus, concentration, and alertness.

It is important to note that psychotropic drugs can have significant side effects and should only be used under the close supervision of a qualified healthcare provider.

Psychopathology is a branch of psychology and medicine that involves the study and classification of mental disorders, including their causes, symptoms, and treatment. It is an interdisciplinary field that draws on various methods and perspectives from psychology, neuroscience, genetics, sociology, and other related disciplines to understand and explain abnormal behavior and mental processes.

The term "psychopathology" can also refer specifically to the presence of a mental disorder or to the symptoms and features of a particular mental disorder. For example, one might say that someone has a psychopathology or that they exhibit certain psychopathological symptoms.

Psychopathology is often contrasted with normal psychology, which focuses on understanding and explaining typical behavior and mental processes. However, it is important to note that the boundary between normal and abnormal behavior is not always clear-cut, and many psychological phenomena exist on a continuum rather than falling neatly into one category or the other.

Veterans hospitals, also known as Veterans Administration (VA) hospitals, are healthcare facilities provided by the US Department of Veterans Affairs. These hospitals offer comprehensive medical care, including inpatient and outpatient services, to eligible veterans. The services offered include surgery, mental health counseling, rehabilitation, long-term care, and other specialized treatments. The mission of veterans hospitals is to provide high-quality healthcare to those who have served in the US military.

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a class of diseases that affect the heart and blood vessels. They are the leading cause of death globally, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). The term "cardiovascular disease" refers to a group of conditions that include:

1. Coronary artery disease (CAD): This is the most common type of heart disease and occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the heart become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of cholesterol, fat, and other substances in the walls of the arteries. This can lead to chest pain, shortness of breath, or a heart attack.
2. Heart failure: This occurs when the heart is unable to pump blood efficiently to meet the body's needs. It can be caused by various conditions, including coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, and cardiomyopathy.
3. Stroke: A stroke occurs when the blood supply to a part of the brain is interrupted or reduced, often due to a clot or a ruptured blood vessel. This can cause brain damage or death.
4. Peripheral artery disease (PAD): This occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the limbs become narrowed or blocked, leading to pain, numbness, or weakness in the legs or arms.
5. Rheumatic heart disease: This is a complication of untreated strep throat and can cause damage to the heart valves, leading to heart failure or other complications.
6. Congenital heart defects: These are structural problems with the heart that are present at birth. They can range from mild to severe and may require medical intervention.
7. Cardiomyopathy: This is a disease of the heart muscle that makes it harder for the heart to pump blood efficiently. It can be caused by various factors, including genetics, infections, and certain medications.
8. Heart arrhythmias: These are abnormal heart rhythms that can cause the heart to beat too fast, too slow, or irregularly. They can lead to symptoms such as palpitations, dizziness, or fainting.
9. Valvular heart disease: This occurs when one or more of the heart valves become damaged or diseased, leading to problems with blood flow through the heart.
10. Aortic aneurysm and dissection: These are conditions that affect the aorta, the largest artery in the body. An aneurysm is a bulge in the aorta, while a dissection is a tear in the inner layer of the aorta. Both can be life-threatening if not treated promptly.

It's important to note that many of these conditions can be managed or treated with medical interventions such as medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes. If you have any concerns about your heart health, it's important to speak with a healthcare provider.

An insurance claim review is the process conducted by an insurance company to evaluate a claim made by a policyholder for coverage of a loss or expense. This evaluation typically involves examining the details of the claim, assessing the damages or injuries incurred, verifying the coverage provided by the policy, and determining the appropriate amount of benefits to be paid. The insurance claim review may also include investigating the circumstances surrounding the claim to ensure its validity and confirming that it complies with the terms and conditions of the insurance policy.

An inpatient, in medical terms, refers to a person who has been admitted to a hospital or other healthcare facility for the purpose of receiving medical treatment and who is expected to remain there for at least one night. Inpatients are typically cared for by a team of healthcare professionals, including doctors, nurses, and therapists, and may receive various treatments, such as medications, surgeries, or rehabilitation services.

Inpatient care is generally recommended for patients who require close monitoring, frequent assessments, or intensive medical interventions that cannot be provided in an outpatient setting. The length of stay for inpatients can vary widely depending on the nature and severity of their condition, as well as their individual treatment plan.

Primary health care is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as:

"Essential health care that is based on practical, scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods and technology made universally accessible to individuals and families in the community through their full participation and at a cost that the community and country can afford. It forms an integral part both of the country's health system, of which it is the central function and main focus, and of the overall social and economic development of the community. It is the first level of contact of individuals, the family and community with the national health system bringing health care as close as possible to where people live and work, and constitutes the first element of a continuing health care process."

Primary health care includes a range of services such as preventive care, health promotion, curative care, rehabilitation, and palliative care. It is typically provided by a team of health professionals including doctors, nurses, midwives, pharmacists, and other community health workers. The goal of primary health care is to provide comprehensive, continuous, and coordinated care to individuals and families in a way that is accessible, affordable, and culturally sensitive.

"Age distribution" is a term used to describe the number of individuals within a population or sample that fall into different age categories. It is often presented in the form of a graph, table, or chart, and can provide important information about the demographic structure of a population.

The age distribution of a population can be influenced by a variety of factors, including birth rates, mortality rates, migration patterns, and aging. Public health officials and researchers use age distribution data to inform policies and programs related to healthcare, social services, and other areas that affect the well-being of populations.

For example, an age distribution graph might show a larger number of individuals in the younger age categories, indicating a population with a high birth rate. Alternatively, it might show a larger number of individuals in the older age categories, indicating a population with a high life expectancy or an aging population. Understanding the age distribution of a population can help policymakers plan for future needs and allocate resources more effectively.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "gambling" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Gambling is generally defined as the act of betting or wagering money or something of value on an event with an uncertain outcome, with the primary intent of winning money or material goods. It can become a problematic behavior leading to financial, emotional, and social consequences for some individuals. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to help answer those!

Renal replacement therapy (RRT) is a medical treatment that takes over the normal function of the kidneys when they fail. The main objectives of RRT are to remove waste products and excess fluid, correct electrolyte imbalances, and maintain acid-base balance in the body. There are several types of RRT, including hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and kidney transplantation.

Hemodialysis involves circulating the patient's blood through an external filter called a dialyzer, which removes waste products and excess fluid. The cleaned blood is then returned to the patient's body. Hemodialysis can be performed in a hospital or dialysis center, or at home with appropriate training.

Peritoneal dialysis involves instilling a special solution called dialysate into the patient's abdominal cavity, where it remains for a period of time to allow waste products and excess fluid to move from the bloodstream into the dialysate through a membrane in the peritoneum. The used dialysate is then drained out of the body and replaced with fresh dialysate. Peritoneal dialysis can be performed continuously or intermittently, and it can also be done at home.

Kidney transplantation involves surgically implanting a healthy kidney from a donor into the patient's body to replace the failed kidneys. This is usually the most effective form of RRT, but it requires major surgery and long-term immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection of the transplanted organ.

Overall, RRT is a life-sustaining treatment for patients with end-stage kidney disease, and it can significantly improve their quality of life and longevity.

Antidepressive agents are a class of medications used to treat various forms of depression and anxiety disorders. They act on neurotransmitters, the chemical messengers in the brain, to restore the balance that has been disrupted by mental illness. The most commonly prescribed types of antidepressants include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). These medications can help alleviate symptoms such as low mood, loss of interest in activities, changes in appetite and sleep patterns, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, and thoughts of death or suicide. It is important to note that antidepressants may take several weeks to reach their full effectiveness and may cause side effects, so it is essential to work closely with a healthcare provider to find the right medication and dosage.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

Health care costs refer to the expenses incurred for medical services, treatments, procedures, and products that are used to maintain or restore an individual's health. These costs can be categorized into several types:

1. Direct costs: These include payments made for doctor visits, hospital stays, medications, diagnostic tests, surgeries, and other medical treatments and services. Direct costs can be further divided into two subcategories:
* Out-of-pocket costs: Expenses paid directly by patients, such as co-payments, deductibles, coinsurance, and any uncovered medical services or products.
* Third-party payer costs: Expenses covered by insurance companies, government programs (like Medicare, Medicaid), or other entities that pay for health care services on behalf of patients.
2. Indirect costs: These are the expenses incurred as a result of illness or injury that indirectly impact an individual's ability to work and earn a living. Examples include lost productivity, absenteeism, reduced earning capacity, and disability benefits.
3. Non-medical costs: These are expenses related to caregiving, transportation, home modifications, assistive devices, and other non-medical services required for managing health conditions or disabilities.

Health care costs can vary significantly depending on factors such as the type of medical service, geographic location, insurance coverage, and individual health status. Understanding these costs is essential for patients, healthcare providers, policymakers, and researchers to make informed decisions about treatment options, resource allocation, and health system design.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive lung disease characterized by the persistent obstruction of airflow in and out of the lungs. This obstruction is usually caused by two primary conditions: chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Chronic bronchitis involves inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to excessive mucus production and coughing. Emphysema is a condition where the alveoli (air sacs) in the lungs are damaged, resulting in decreased gas exchange and shortness of breath.

The main symptoms of COPD include progressive shortness of breath, chronic cough, chest tightness, wheezing, and excessive mucus production. The disease is often associated with exposure to harmful particles or gases, such as cigarette smoke, air pollution, or occupational dusts and chemicals. While there is no cure for COPD, treatments can help alleviate symptoms, improve quality of life, and slow the progression of the disease. These treatments may include bronchodilators, corticosteroids, combination inhalers, pulmonary rehabilitation, and, in severe cases, oxygen therapy or lung transplantation.

The term "European Continental Ancestry Group" is a medical/ethnic classification that refers to individuals who trace their genetic ancestry to the continent of Europe. This group includes people from various ethnic backgrounds and nationalities, such as Northern, Southern, Eastern, and Western European descent. It is often used in research and medical settings for population studies or to identify genetic patterns and predispositions to certain diseases that may be more common in specific ancestral groups. However, it's important to note that this classification can oversimplify the complex genetic diversity within and between populations, and should be used with caution.

"Sex distribution" is a term used to describe the number of males and females in a study population or sample. It can be presented as a simple count, a percentage, or a ratio. This information is often used in research to identify any differences in health outcomes, disease prevalence, or response to treatment between males and females. Additionally, understanding sex distribution can help researchers ensure that their studies are representative of the general population and can inform the design of future studies.

Heart disease is a broad term for a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. It's often used to refer to conditions that include:

1. Coronary artery disease (CAD): This is the most common type of heart disease. It occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the heart become hardened and narrowed due to the buildup of cholesterol and other substances, which can lead to chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, or a heart attack.

2. Heart failure: This condition occurs when the heart is unable to pump blood efficiently to meet the body's needs. It can be caused by various conditions, including coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, and cardiomyopathy.

3. Arrhythmias: These are abnormal heart rhythms, which can be too fast, too slow, or irregular. They can lead to symptoms such as palpitations, dizziness, and fainting.

4. Valvular heart disease: This involves damage to one or more of the heart's four valves, which control blood flow through the heart. Damage can be caused by various conditions, including infection, rheumatic fever, and aging.

5. Cardiomyopathy: This is a disease of the heart muscle that makes it harder for the heart to pump blood efficiently. It can be caused by various factors, including genetics, viral infections, and drug abuse.

6. Pericardial disease: This involves inflammation or other problems with the sac surrounding the heart (pericardium). It can cause chest pain and other symptoms.

7. Congenital heart defects: These are heart conditions that are present at birth, such as a hole in the heart or abnormal blood vessels. They can range from mild to severe and may require medical intervention.

8. Heart infections: The heart can become infected by bacteria, viruses, or parasites, leading to various symptoms and complications.

It's important to note that many factors can contribute to the development of heart disease, including genetics, lifestyle choices, and certain medical conditions. Regular check-ups and a healthy lifestyle can help reduce the risk of developing heart disease.

The term "frail elderly" is not a formal medical diagnosis, but rather a general description used to identify older adults who are vulnerable and at increased risk for negative health outcomes. Frailty is a complex syndrome characterized by decreased physiological reserve and resistance to stressors, which results in increased vulnerability to adverse outcomes.

The frail elderly often have multiple chronic conditions, cognitive impairment, functional limitations, social isolation, poor nutritional status, and sensory deficits. These factors contribute to a decline in their physical function, mobility, and overall health, making them more susceptible to falls, disability, hospitalization, institutionalization, and mortality.

There are several tools and criteria used to define frailty, including the Frailty Phenotype model proposed by Fried et al., which identifies frailty based on the presence of three or more of the following five criteria: unintentional weight loss, weakness (measured by grip strength), self-reported exhaustion, slow walking speed, and low physical activity. Another commonly used tool is the Clinical Frailty Scale, which assesses frailty based on a person's level of dependence and coexisting medical conditions.

It is important to note that frailty is not an inevitable part of aging, and interventions aimed at addressing its underlying causes can help improve outcomes for the frail elderly. These interventions may include exercise programs, nutritional support, medication management, and social engagement.

Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a mental health disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, affect, and mood, as well as marked impulsivity that begins by early adulthood and is present in various contexts.

Individuals with BPD often experience intense and fluctuating emotions, ranging from profound sadness, anxiety, and anger to feelings of happiness or calm. They may have difficulty managing these emotions, leading to impulsive behavior, self-harm, or suicidal ideation.

People with BPD also tend to have an unstable sense of self, which can lead to rapid changes in their goals, values, and career choices. They often struggle with feelings of emptiness and boredom, and may engage in risky behaviors such as substance abuse, reckless driving, or binge eating to alleviate these feelings.

Interpersonal relationships are often strained due to the individual's fear of abandonment, intense emotional reactions, and difficulty regulating their emotions. They may experience idealization and devaluation of others, leading to rapid shifts in how they view and treat people close to them.

Diagnosis of BPD is typically made by a mental health professional using criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which is published by the American Psychiatric Association. Treatment for BPD may include psychotherapy, medication, and support groups to help individuals manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), alcohol-related disorders are a category of mental disorders defined by a problematic pattern of alcohol use that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. The disorders include:

1. Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD): A chronic relapsing brain disorder characterized by an impaired ability to stop or control alcohol use despite adverse social, occupational, or health consequences. AUD can be mild, moderate, or severe, and recovery is possible regardless of severity. The symptoms include problems controlling intake of alcohol, continued use despite problems resulting from drinking, development of a tolerance, drinking that leads to risky situations, or withdrawal symptoms when not drinking.
2. Alcohol Intoxication: A state of acute impairment in mental and motor function caused by the recent consumption of alcohol. The symptoms include slurred speech, unsteady gait, nystagmus, impaired attention or memory, stupor, or coma. In severe cases, it can lead to respiratory depression, hypothermia, or even death.
3. Alcohol Withdrawal: A syndrome that occurs when alcohol use is heavily reduced or stopped after prolonged and heavy use. The symptoms include autonomic hyperactivity, increased hand tremor, insomnia, nausea or vomiting, transient visual, tactile, or auditory hallucinations or illusions, psychomotor agitation, anxiety, and grand mal seizures.
4. Other Alcohol-Induced Disorders: These include alcohol-induced sleep disorder, alcohol-induced sexual dysfunction, and alcohol-induced major neurocognitive disorder.

It is important to note that alcohol use disorders are complex conditions that can be influenced by a variety of factors, including genetics, environment, and personal behavior. If you or someone you know is struggling with alcohol use, it is recommended to seek professional help.

Dysthymic disorder, also known as persistent depressive disorder, is a chronic type of depression where a person's moods are regularly low. It is characterized by depressed mood that occurs for most of the day, for at least two years, and is accompanied by at least two other symptoms such as appetite or sleep changes, low energy, low self-esteem, difficulty making decisions, or feelings of hopelessness.

To meet the diagnostic criteria, the symptoms cannot be explained by substance abuse or a medical condition, and they must cause significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. Dysthymic disorder typically has a chronic course, but it may respond to treatment, including psychotherapy and medication.

Headache disorders refer to a group of conditions characterized by recurrent headaches that cause significant distress and impairment in daily functioning. The most common types of headache disorders are tension-type headaches, migraines, and cluster headaches.

Tension-type headaches are typically described as a dull, aching sensation around the head and neck, often accompanied by tightness or pressure. Migraines, on the other hand, are usually characterized by moderate to severe throbbing pain on one or both sides of the head, often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, sensitivity to light and sound, and visual disturbances.

Cluster headaches are relatively rare but extremely painful, with attacks lasting from 15 minutes to three hours and occurring several times a day for weeks or months. They typically affect one side of the head and are often accompanied by symptoms such as redness and tearing of the eye, nasal congestion, and sweating on the affected side of the face.

Headache disorders can have a significant impact on quality of life, and effective treatment often requires a multidisciplinary approach that may include medication, lifestyle changes, and behavioral therapies.

Diagnosis-Related Groups (DRGs) are a system of classifying hospital patients based on their severity of illness, resource utilization, and other factors. DRGs were developed by the US federal government to determine the relative cost of providing inpatient care for various types of diagnoses and procedures.

The DRG system categorizes patients into one of several hundred groups based on their diagnosis, treatment, and other clinical characteristics. Each DRG has a corresponding payment weight that reflects the average resource utilization and costs associated with caring for patients in that group. Hospitals are then reimbursed for inpatient services based on the DRG payment weights, providing an incentive to provide more efficient and cost-effective care.

DRGs have been widely adopted as a tool for managing healthcare costs and improving quality of care. They are used by Medicare, Medicaid, and many private insurers to determine payments for inpatient hospital services. DRGs can also be used to compare the performance of hospitals and healthcare providers, identify best practices, and support quality improvement initiatives.

Psychotic disorders are a group of severe mental health conditions characterized by distorted perceptions, thoughts, and emotions that lead to an inability to recognize reality. The two most common symptoms of psychotic disorders are hallucinations and delusions. Hallucinations are when a person sees, hears, or feels things that aren't there, while delusions are fixed, false beliefs that are not based on reality.

Other symptoms may include disorganized speech, disorganized behavior, catatonic behavior, and negative symptoms such as apathy and lack of emotional expression. Schizophrenia is the most well-known psychotic disorder, but other types include schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder, brief psychotic disorder, shared psychotic disorder, and substance-induced psychotic disorder.

Psychotic disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, brain chemistry imbalances, trauma, and substance abuse. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, therapy, and support services to help manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

Patient readmission refers to the event when a patient who was previously discharged from a hospital or healthcare facility returns for further treatment, often within a specified period. It is measured as a percentage of patients who are readmitted within a certain time frame, such as 30, 60, or 90 days after discharge. Readmissions may be planned or unplanned and can occur due to various reasons, including complications from the initial illness or treatment, inadequate post-discharge follow-up care, or the patient's inability to manage their health conditions effectively at home. High readmission rates are often considered an indicator of the quality of care provided during the initial hospitalization and may also signify potential issues with care coordination and transitions between healthcare settings.

Dyscalculia is a learning disorder characterized by difficulty in understanding and processing numerical or arithmetic concepts. It is a specific math disability that affects a person's ability to learn number-related concepts and perform calculations, even when they have normal intelligence and adequate teaching. People with dyscalculia may struggle with basic mathematical skills such as counting, recognizing numbers, remembering mathematical facts, and understanding mathematical concepts. They may also have difficulty with estimation, time management, and spatial reasoning. The exact causes of dyscalculia are not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to genetic factors and differences in brain structure and function.

In the context of medicine and psychology, personality is a complex concept that refers to the unique patterns of thoughts, behaviors, and emotions that define an individual and differentiate them from others. It is the set of characteristics that influence how we perceive the world, how we relate to other people, and how we cope with stress and challenges.

Personality is thought to be relatively stable over time, although it can also evolve and change in response to life experiences and maturation. It is shaped by a combination of genetic factors, environmental influences, and developmental experiences.

There are many different theories and models of personality, including the Five Factor Model (FFM), which identifies five broad domains of personality: openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. Other approaches to understanding personality include psychoanalytic theory, humanistic psychology, and trait theory.

It's important to note that while the term "personality" is often used in everyday language to describe someone's behavior or demeanor, in medical and psychological contexts it refers to a more complex and multifaceted construct.

Behavioral genetics is a subfield of genetics that focuses on the study of the genetic basis of behavior. It seeks to understand how genes and environment interact to influence individual differences in behaviors such as personality traits, cognitive abilities, psychiatric disorders, and addiction. This field integrates knowledge from genetics, psychology, neuroscience, and statistics to investigate the complex relationship between genetic factors and behavioral outcomes. Research in behavioral genetics includes studies of twins, families, and adopted individuals, as well as animal models, to identify specific genes or genetic variations that contribute to the heritability of various behaviors. Understanding these genetic influences can provide insights into the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of behavioral disorders.

Neoplasm staging is a systematic process used in medicine to describe the extent of spread of a cancer, including the size and location of the original (primary) tumor and whether it has metastasized (spread) to other parts of the body. The most widely accepted system for this purpose is the TNM classification system developed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC).

In this system, T stands for tumor, and it describes the size and extent of the primary tumor. N stands for nodes, and it indicates whether the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes. M stands for metastasis, and it shows whether the cancer has spread to distant parts of the body.

Each letter is followed by a number that provides more details about the extent of the disease. For example, a T1N0M0 cancer means that the primary tumor is small and has not spread to nearby lymph nodes or distant sites. The higher the numbers, the more advanced the cancer.

Staging helps doctors determine the most appropriate treatment for each patient and estimate the patient's prognosis. It is an essential tool for communication among members of the healthcare team and for comparing outcomes of treatments in clinical trials.

In medical terms, "outpatients" refers to individuals who receive medical care or treatment at a hospital or clinic without being admitted as inpatients. This means that they do not stay overnight or for an extended period; instead, they visit the healthcare facility for specific services such as consultations, diagnostic tests, treatments, or follow-up appointments and then return home afterward. Outpatient care can include various services like primary care, specialty clinics, dental care, physical therapy, and more. It is often more convenient and cost-effective than inpatient care, as it allows patients to maintain their daily routines while receiving necessary medical attention.

Mental health services refer to the various professional health services designed to treat and support individuals with mental health conditions. These services are typically provided by trained and licensed mental health professionals, such as psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, mental health counselors, and marriage and family therapists. The services may include:

1. Assessment and diagnosis of mental health disorders
2. Psychotherapy or "talk therapy" to help individuals understand and manage their symptoms
3. Medication management for mental health conditions
4. Case management and care coordination to connect individuals with community resources and support
5. Psychoeducation to help individuals and families better understand mental health conditions and how to manage them
6. Crisis intervention and stabilization services
7. Inpatient and residential treatment for severe or chronic mental illness
8. Prevention and early intervention services to identify and address mental health concerns before they become more serious
9. Rehabilitation and recovery services to help individuals with mental illness achieve their full potential and live fulfilling lives in the community.

A Personality Inventory is a standardized test used in psychology to assess an individual's personality traits and characteristics. It typically consists of a series of multiple-choice questions or statements that the respondent must rate according to their level of agreement or disagreement. The inventory measures various aspects of an individual's behavior, attitudes, and temperament, providing a quantifiable score that can be compared to normative data to help diagnose personality disorders, assess personal strengths and weaknesses, or provide insights into an individual's likely responses to different situations. Examples of well-known personality inventories include the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the California Psychological Inventory (CPI).

Premature mortality is an unfortunate event where an individual's life ends before they reach the statistically expected lifespan for their birth cohort and geographical location. This can be due to various factors such as genetic predisposition, lifestyle choices, environmental conditions or inadequate healthcare access. It often refers to deaths from diseases or injuries that could have been prevented or postponed with appropriate interventions.

This concept is crucial in public health as it helps identify populations at risk and prioritize resources towards preventive measures and treatments. The World Health Organization (WHO) uses this metric extensively while comparing health outcomes between different countries and regions, aiming to reduce premature mortality rates worldwide.

"Refusal to treat" is a medical-legal term that refers to the situation where a healthcare professional or institution declines to provide medical care or treatment to a patient. The refusal can be based on various reasons such as:

1. Lack of training or expertise to handle the patient's medical condition.
2. The belief that the treatment requested by the patient is medically inappropriate or unnecessary.
3. Personal or professional disagreements with the patient's choices or lifestyle.
4. Concerns about the safety of the healthcare provider or other patients.
5. Inability to pay for the treatment or lack of insurance coverage.

However, it is important to note that refusing to treat a patient is a serious decision that should only be made after careful consideration and consultation with other healthcare professionals. Healthcare providers have an ethical duty to provide emergency medical care to anyone in need, regardless of their ability to pay or any personal differences. In addition, they must comply with applicable laws and regulations regarding refusal to treat, which may vary depending on the jurisdiction.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Germany" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country in central Europe. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

Polypharmacy is the use of multiple medications by a patient, especially when too many forms of medication are used by a patient, inappropriately or, when there is a lack of indication for some of the drugs used. It is often seen in elderly patients who may be prescribed numerous medications by different healthcare providers that can increase the risk of adverse drug reactions, interactions, and impaired cognitive function. The term does not necessarily have a negative connotation, as polypharmacy can also refer to the complex process of managing multiple chronic conditions with appropriate medication therapy. However, it is often used to describe a situation where the number of medications being taken by a patient poses a significant risk to their health.

A hip fracture is a medical condition referring to a break in the upper part of the femur (thigh) bone, which forms the hip joint. The majority of hip fractures occur due to falls or direct trauma to the area. They are more common in older adults, particularly those with osteoporosis, a condition that weakens bones and makes them more prone to breaking. Hip fractures can significantly impact mobility and quality of life, often requiring surgical intervention and rehabilitation.

The Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) is a clinical tool used by healthcare professionals to assess the functional impairment and overall health of a patient with a chronic illness or malignancy. It was originally developed in 1948 by Dr. David A. Karnofsky and Dr. Joseph H. Burchenal to evaluate the ability of cancer patients to undergo specific treatments.

The KPS scale ranges from 0 to 100, with increments of 10, and it is based on the patient's ability to perform daily activities independently and their need for assistance or medical intervention. The following is a brief overview of the KPS scale:

* 100: Normal; no complaints; no evidence of disease
* 90: Able to carry on normal activity; minor symptoms of disease
* 80: Normal activity with effort; some symptoms of disease
* 70: Cares for self; unable to carry on normal activity or do active work
* 60: Requires occasional assistance but can take care of most needs
* 50: Requires considerable assistance and frequent medical care
* 40: Disabled; requires special care and assistance
* 30: Severely disabled; hospitalization is indicated although death not imminent
* 20: Very sick; hospitalization necessary; active supportive treatment required
* 10: Moribund; fatal processes progressing rapidly
* 0: Dead

The KPS score helps healthcare professionals determine the appropriate treatment plan, prognosis, and potential for recovery in patients with various medical conditions. It is widely used in oncology, palliative care, and clinical trials to assess the overall health status of patients and their ability to tolerate specific therapies.

Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by disturbances in thought, perception, emotion, and behavior. It often includes hallucinations (usually hearing voices), delusions, paranoia, and disorganized speech and behavior. The onset of symptoms typically occurs in late adolescence or early adulthood. Schizophrenia is a complex, chronic condition that requires ongoing treatment and management. It significantly impairs social and occupational functioning, and it's often associated with reduced life expectancy due to comorbid medical conditions. The exact causes of schizophrenia are not fully understood, but research suggests that genetic, environmental, and neurodevelopmental factors play a role in its development.

A confidence interval (CI) is a range of values that is likely to contain the true value of a population parameter with a certain level of confidence. It is commonly used in statistical analysis to express the uncertainty associated with estimates derived from sample data.

For example, if we calculate a 95% confidence interval for the mean height of a population based on a sample of individuals, we can say that we are 95% confident that the true population mean height falls within the calculated range. The width of the confidence interval gives us an idea of how precise our estimate is - narrower intervals indicate more precise estimates, while wider intervals suggest greater uncertainty.

Confidence intervals are typically calculated using statistical formulas that take into account the sample size, standard deviation, and level of confidence desired. They can be used to compare different groups or to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions in medical research.

Psychological models are theoretical frameworks used in psychology to explain and predict mental processes and behaviors. They are simplified representations of complex phenomena, consisting of interrelated concepts, assumptions, and hypotheses that describe how various factors interact to produce specific outcomes. These models can be quantitative (e.g., mathematical equations) or qualitative (e.g., conceptual diagrams) in nature and may draw upon empirical data, theoretical insights, or both.

Psychological models serve several purposes:

1. They provide a systematic and organized way to understand and describe psychological phenomena.
2. They generate hypotheses and predictions that can be tested through empirical research.
3. They integrate findings from different studies and help synthesize knowledge across various domains of psychology.
4. They inform the development of interventions and treatments for mental health disorders.

Examples of psychological models include:

1. The Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality, which posits that individual differences in personality can be described along five broad dimensions: Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism.
2. The Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) model, which suggests that maladaptive thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are interconnected and can be changed through targeted interventions.
3. The Dual Process Theory of Attitudes, which proposes that attitudes are formed and influenced by two distinct processes: a rapid, intuitive process (heuristic) and a slower, deliberative process (systematic).
4. The Social Cognitive Theory, which emphasizes the role of observational learning, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations in shaping behavior.
5. The Attachment Theory, which describes the dynamics of long-term relationships between humans, particularly the parent-child relationship.

It is important to note that psychological models are provisional and subject to revision or replacement as new evidence emerges. They should be considered as useful tools for understanding and explaining psychological phenomena rather than definitive truths.

Kidney disease, also known as nephropathy or renal disease, refers to any functional or structural damage to the kidneys that impairs their ability to filter blood, regulate electrolytes, produce hormones, and maintain fluid balance. This damage can result from a wide range of causes, including diabetes, hypertension, glomerulonephritis, polycystic kidney disease, lupus, infections, drugs, toxins, and congenital or inherited disorders.

Depending on the severity and progression of the kidney damage, kidney diseases can be classified into two main categories: acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). AKI is a sudden and often reversible loss of kidney function that occurs over hours to days, while CKD is a progressive and irreversible decline in kidney function that develops over months or years.

Symptoms of kidney diseases may include edema, proteinuria, hematuria, hypertension, electrolyte imbalances, metabolic acidosis, anemia, and decreased urine output. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and severity of the disease and may include medications, dietary modifications, dialysis, or kidney transplantation.

Neoplasms are abnormal growths of cells or tissues in the body that serve no physiological function. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are typically slow growing and do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant neoplasms are aggressive, invasive, and can metastasize to distant sites.

Neoplasms occur when there is a dysregulation in the normal process of cell division and differentiation, leading to uncontrolled growth and accumulation of cells. This can result from genetic mutations or other factors such as viral infections, environmental exposures, or hormonal imbalances.

Neoplasms can develop in any organ or tissue of the body and can cause various symptoms depending on their size, location, and type. Treatment options for neoplasms include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy, among others.

"Health services for the aged" is a broad term that refers to medical and healthcare services specifically designed to meet the unique needs of elderly individuals. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), health services for the aged should be "age-friendly" and "person-centered," meaning they should take into account the physical, mental, and social changes that occur as people age, as well as their individual preferences and values.

These services can include a range of medical and healthcare interventions, such as:

* Preventive care, including vaccinations, cancer screenings, and other routine check-ups
* Chronic disease management, such as treatment for conditions like diabetes, heart disease, or arthritis
* Rehabilitation services, such as physical therapy or occupational therapy, to help elderly individuals maintain their mobility and independence
* Palliative care and end-of-life planning, to ensure that elderly individuals receive compassionate and supportive care in their final days
* Mental health services, including counseling and therapy for conditions like depression or anxiety
* Social services, such as transportation assistance, meal delivery, or home care, to help elderly individuals maintain their quality of life and independence.

Overall, the goal of health services for the aged is to promote healthy aging, prevent disease and disability, and provide high-quality, compassionate care to elderly individuals, in order to improve their overall health and well-being.

Psychophysiologic Disorders, also known as psychosomatic disorders, refer to a category of mental health conditions where psychological stress and emotional factors play a significant role in causing physical symptoms. These disorders are characterized by the presence of bodily complaints for which no physiological explanation can be found, or where the severity of the symptoms is far greater than what would be expected from any underlying medical condition.

Examples of psychophysiologic disorders include:

* Conversion disorder: where physical symptoms such as blindness, paralysis, or difficulty swallowing occur in the absence of a clear medical explanation.
* Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): where abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits are thought to be caused or worsened by stress and emotional factors.
* Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES): where episodes that resemble epileptic seizures occur without any electrical activity in the brain.
* Chronic pain syndromes: where pain persists for months or years beyond the expected healing time, often accompanied by depression and anxiety.

The diagnosis of psychophysiologic disorders typically involves a thorough medical evaluation to rule out other potential causes of the symptoms. Treatment usually includes a combination of psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), relaxation techniques, stress management, and sometimes medication for co-occurring mental health conditions.

Elimination disorders are a category of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents characterized by the recurrent or persistent involuntary or voluntary release of urine or feces into inappropriate places. The two most common types of elimination disorders are:

1. Enuresis (also known as bedwetting): This is the repeated voiding of urine into bed or clothes, usually occurring during sleep, in children aged 5 years or older. It can be further classified as primary enuresis (when a child has never achieved consistent continence) or secondary enuresis (when a child who had previously achieved continence begins to wet the bed again).

2. Encopresis: This is the repeated passage of feces into inappropriate places, such as clothing or floor, after the age when a child has learned to use the toilet for bowel movements. It can be classified as primary encopresis (when a child has never achieved consistent continence) or secondary encopresis (when a child who had previously achieved continence begins to have accidents).

The causes of elimination disorders are varied and may include developmental delays, emotional distress, physical problems, or a combination of these factors. Treatment typically involves behavioral interventions, education, and sometimes medication. It is important to consult with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Life change events refer to significant changes or transitions in an individual's personal circumstances that may have an impact on their health and well-being. These events can include things like:

* Marriage or divorce
* Birth of a child or loss of a loved one
* Job loss or retirement
* Moving to a new home or city
* Changes in financial status
* Health diagnoses or serious illnesses
* Starting or ending of a significant relationship

Research has shown that life change events can have a profound effect on an individual's stress levels, mental health, and physical health. Some life change events may be positive and exciting, while others may be challenging and difficult to cope with. In either case, it is important for individuals to take care of themselves during times of transition and seek support as needed.

Physician's practice patterns refer to the individual habits and preferences of healthcare providers when it comes to making clinical decisions and managing patient care. These patterns can encompass various aspects, such as:

1. Diagnostic testing: The types and frequency of diagnostic tests ordered for patients with similar conditions.
2. Treatment modalities: The choice of treatment options, including medications, procedures, or referrals to specialists.
3. Patient communication: The way physicians communicate with their patients, including the amount and type of information shared, as well as the level of patient involvement in decision-making.
4. Follow-up care: The frequency and duration of follow-up appointments, as well as the monitoring of treatment effectiveness and potential side effects.
5. Resource utilization: The use of healthcare resources, such as hospitalizations, imaging studies, or specialist consultations, and the associated costs.

Physician practice patterns can be influenced by various factors, including medical training, clinical experience, personal beliefs, guidelines, and local availability of resources. Understanding these patterns is essential for evaluating the quality of care, identifying potential variations in care, and implementing strategies to improve patient outcomes and reduce healthcare costs.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Linear Models" is actually a term from the field of statistics and machine learning, rather than medicine. A linear model is a type of statistical model that is used to analyze the relationship between two or more variables. In a linear model, the relationship between the dependent variable (the outcome or result) and the independent variable(s) (the factors being studied) is assumed to be linear, meaning that it can be described by a straight line on a graph.

The equation for a simple linear model with one independent variable (x) and one dependent variable (y) looks like this:

y = β0 + β1*x + ε

In this equation, β0 is the y-intercept or the value of y when x equals zero, β1 is the slope or the change in y for each unit increase in x, and ε is the error term or the difference between the actual values of y and the predicted values of y based on the linear model.

Linear models are widely used in medical research to study the relationship between various factors (such as exposure to a risk factor or treatment) and health outcomes (such as disease incidence or mortality). They can also be used to adjust for confounding variables, which are factors that may influence both the independent variable and the dependent variable, and thus affect the observed relationship between them.

Psychotherapy is a type of treatment used primarily to treat mental health disorders and other emotional or behavioral issues. It involves a therapeutic relationship between a trained psychotherapist and a patient, where they work together to understand the patient's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, identify patterns that may be causing distress, and develop strategies to manage symptoms and improve overall well-being.

There are many different approaches to psychotherapy, including cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), psychodynamic therapy, interpersonal therapy, and others. The specific approach used will depend on the individual patient's needs and preferences, as well as the training and expertise of the therapist.

Psychotherapy can be conducted in individual, group, or family sessions, and may be provided in a variety of settings, such as hospitals, clinics, private practices, or online platforms. The goal of psychotherapy is to help patients understand themselves better, develop coping skills, improve their relationships, and enhance their overall quality of life.

Patient discharge is a medical term that refers to the point in time when a patient is released from a hospital or other healthcare facility after receiving treatment. This process typically involves the physician or healthcare provider determining that the patient's condition has improved enough to allow them to continue their recovery at home or in another appropriate setting.

The discharge process may include providing the patient with instructions for ongoing care, such as medication regimens, follow-up appointments, and activity restrictions. The healthcare team may also provide educational materials and resources to help patients and their families manage their health conditions and prevent complications.

It is important for patients and their families to understand and follow the discharge instructions carefully to ensure a smooth transition back to home or another care setting and to promote continued recovery and good health.

Epidemiologic methods are systematic approaches used to investigate and understand the distribution, determinants, and outcomes of health-related events or diseases in a population. These methods are applied to study the patterns of disease occurrence and transmission, identify risk factors and causes, and evaluate interventions for prevention and control. The core components of epidemiologic methods include:

1. Descriptive Epidemiology: This involves the systematic collection and analysis of data on the who, what, when, and where of health events to describe their distribution in a population. It includes measures such as incidence, prevalence, mortality, and morbidity rates, as well as geographic and temporal patterns.

2. Analytical Epidemiology: This involves the use of statistical methods to examine associations between potential risk factors and health outcomes. It includes observational studies (cohort, case-control, cross-sectional) and experimental studies (randomized controlled trials). The goal is to identify causal relationships and quantify the strength of associations.

3. Experimental Epidemiology: This involves the design and implementation of interventions or experiments to test hypotheses about disease prevention and control. It includes randomized controlled trials, community trials, and other experimental study designs.

4. Surveillance and Monitoring: This involves ongoing systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health-related data for early detection, tracking, and response to health events or diseases.

5. Ethical Considerations: Epidemiologic studies must adhere to ethical principles such as respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. This includes obtaining informed consent, ensuring confidentiality, and minimizing harm to study participants.

Overall, epidemiologic methods provide a framework for investigating and understanding the complex interplay between host, agent, and environmental factors that contribute to the occurrence of health-related events or diseases in populations.

Suicide is defined in the medical field as the intentional taking of one's own life. It is a complex phenomenon with various contributing factors, including psychological, biological, environmental, and sociocultural elements. Suicide is a significant global public health concern that requires comprehensive understanding, prevention, and intervention strategies. If you or someone you know is struggling with thoughts of self-harm or suicide, it's essential to seek help from a mental health professional immediately.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), "disabled persons" are those who have long-term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairments which may hinder their participation in society on an equal basis with others. The term "disability" is not meant to be understood as a 'personal tragedy' but rather as a complex interaction between the features of a person's body and mind, the activities they wish to perform and the physical and social barriers they encounter in their environment.

It's important to note that the term 'disabled persons' has been largely replaced by 'people with disabilities' or 'persons with disabilities' in many contexts, as it is considered more respectful and empowering to put the person first, rather than focusing on their disability. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) uses the term "persons with disabilities" throughout its text.

Compulsive Personality Disorder (CPD) is a mental health condition characterized by an obsessive need for order, control, and perfection, which can interfere with the individual's ability to function in daily life. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5), classifies CPD as a type of personality disorder.

The following are some of the diagnostic criteria for Compulsive Personality Disorder:

1. Rigid adherence to rules, regulations, and schedules.
2. Overconscientiousness, preoccupation with details, and perfectionism that interferes with task completion.
3. Excessive devotion to work and productivity at the expense of leisure activities and friendships.
4. Unwillingness to delegate tasks or to work with others unless they submit to exactly the individual's way of doing things.
5. Rigidity and stubbornness.
6. Inability to discard worn-out or worthless objects even when they have no sentimental value.
7. Reluctance to take vacations or engage in leisure activities due to a fear of something unexpected happening that would disrupt the individual's routine.
8. Overly restrained and inhibited in expressing emotions and affection towards others.

Individuals with CPD may experience significant distress and impairment in social, occupational, and other areas of functioning due to their rigid and inflexible behavior. Treatment typically involves psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), which can help individuals learn more adaptive ways of thinking and behaving. In some cases, medication may also be recommended to manage symptoms of anxiety or depression that often co-occur with CPD.

Prostatic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the prostate gland, which can be benign or malignant. The term "neoplasm" simply means new or abnormal tissue growth. When it comes to the prostate, neoplasms are often referred to as tumors.

Benign prostatic neoplasms, such as prostate adenomas, are non-cancerous overgrowths of prostate tissue. They usually grow slowly and do not spread to other parts of the body. While they can cause uncomfortable symptoms like difficulty urinating, they are generally not life-threatening.

Malignant prostatic neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous growths. The most common type of prostate cancer is adenocarcinoma, which arises from the glandular cells in the prostate. Prostate cancer often grows slowly and may not cause any symptoms for many years. However, some types of prostate cancer can be aggressive and spread quickly to other parts of the body, such as the bones or lymph nodes.

It's important to note that while prostate neoplasms can be concerning, early detection and treatment can significantly improve outcomes for many men. Regular check-ups with a healthcare provider are key to monitoring prostate health and catching any potential issues early on.

Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent, unprovoked seizures. These seizures are caused by abnormal electrical activity in the brain, which can result in a wide range of symptoms, including convulsions, loss of consciousness, and altered sensations or behaviors. Epilepsy can have many different causes, including genetic factors, brain injury, infection, or stroke. In some cases, the cause may be unknown.

There are many different types of seizures that can occur in people with epilepsy, and the specific type of seizure will depend on the location and extent of the abnormal electrical activity in the brain. Some people may experience only one type of seizure, while others may have several different types. Seizures can vary in frequency, from a few per year to dozens or even hundreds per day.

Epilepsy is typically diagnosed based on the patient's history of recurrent seizures and the results of an electroencephalogram (EEG), which measures the electrical activity in the brain. Imaging tests such as MRI or CT scans may also be used to help identify any structural abnormalities in the brain that may be contributing to the seizures.

While there is no cure for epilepsy, it can often be effectively managed with medication. In some cases, surgery may be recommended to remove the area of the brain responsible for the seizures. With proper treatment and management, many people with epilepsy are able to lead normal, productive lives.

Lithium compounds refer to chemical substances that contain the element lithium (Li) combined with one or more other elements. Lithium is an alkali metal with the atomic number 3 and is highly reactive, so it is typically found in nature combined with other elements to form stable compounds.

Lithium compounds have a variety of uses, including in the production of ceramics, glass, and lubricants. However, they are perhaps best known for their use in psychiatric medicine, particularly in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) is the most commonly prescribed lithium compound for this purpose.

Lithium compounds work by affecting the levels of certain neurotransmitters in the brain, including serotonin and dopamine. They can help to reduce the severity and frequency of manic episodes in people with bipolar disorder, as well as potentially having a mood-stabilizing effect. It is important to note that lithium compounds must be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider, as they can have serious side effects if not properly monitored.

Psychometrics is a branch of psychology that deals with the theory and technique of psychological measurement, such as the development and standardization of tests used to measure intelligence, aptitude, personality, attitudes, and other mental abilities or traits. It involves the construction and validation of measurement instruments, including the determination of their reliability and validity, and the application of statistical methods to analyze test data and interpret results. The ultimate goal of psychometrics is to provide accurate, objective, and meaningful measurements that can be used to understand individual differences and make informed decisions in educational, clinical, and organizational settings.

The humeral head is the rounded, articular surface at the proximal end of the humerus bone in the human body. It forms the upper part of the shoulder joint and articulates with the glenoid fossa of the scapula to form the glenohumeral joint, allowing for a wide range of motion in the arm. The humeral head is covered with cartilage that helps to provide a smooth, lubricated surface for movement and shock absorption.

A headache is defined as pain or discomfort in the head, scalp, or neck. It can be a symptom of various underlying conditions such as stress, sinus congestion, migraine, or more serious issues like meningitis or concussion. Headaches can vary in intensity, ranging from mild to severe, and may be accompanied by other symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, or sensitivity to light and sound. There are over 150 different types of headaches, including tension headaches, cluster headaches, and sinus headaches, each with their own specific characteristics and causes.

Tic disorders are a group of conditions characterized by the presence of repetitive, involuntary movements or sounds, known as tics. These movements or sounds can vary in complexity and severity, and they may be worsened by stress or strong emotions.

There are several different types of tic disorders, including:

1. Tourette's disorder: This is a neurological condition characterized by the presence of both motor (movement-related) and vocal tics that have been present for at least one year. The tics may wax and wane in severity over time, but they do not disappear for more than three consecutive months.
2. Persistent (chronic) motor or vocal tic disorder: This type of tic disorder is characterized by the presence of either motor or vocal tics (but not both), which have been present for at least one year. The tics may wax and wane in severity over time, but they do not disappear for more than three consecutive months.
3. Provisional tic disorder: This type of tic disorder is characterized by the presence of motor or vocal tics (or both) that have been present for less than one year. The tics may wax and wane in severity over time, but they do not disappear for more than three consecutive months.
4. Tic disorder not otherwise specified: This category is used to describe tic disorders that do not meet the criteria for any of the other types of tic disorders.

Tic disorders are thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, and they often co-occur with other conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Treatment for tic disorders may include behavioral therapy, medication, or a combination of both.

Bulimia nervosa is a mental health disorder that is characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating, followed by compensatory behaviors to prevent weight gain. These compensatory behaviors may include self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives or diuretics, fasting, or excessive exercise.

Individuals with bulimia nervosa often have a fear of gaining weight and a distorted body image, which can lead to a cycle of binge eating and purging that can be difficult to break. The disorder can have serious medical consequences, including electrolyte imbalances, dehydration, dental problems, and damage to the digestive system.

Bulimia nervosa typically begins in late adolescence or early adulthood and affects women more often than men. Treatment for bulimia nervosa may include cognitive-behavioral therapy, medication, and nutritional counseling. If left untreated, bulimia nervosa can lead to serious health complications and negatively impact a person's quality of life.

Patient acceptance of health care refers to the willingness and ability of a patient to follow and engage in a recommended treatment plan or healthcare regimen. This involves understanding the proposed medical interventions, considering their potential benefits and risks, and making an informed decision to proceed with the recommended course of action.

The factors that influence patient acceptance can include:

1. Patient's understanding of their condition and treatment options
2. Trust in their healthcare provider
3. Personal beliefs and values related to health and illness
4. Cultural, linguistic, or socioeconomic barriers
5. Emotional responses to the diagnosis or proposed treatment
6. Practical considerations, such as cost, time commitment, or potential side effects

Healthcare providers play a crucial role in facilitating patient acceptance by clearly communicating information, addressing concerns and questions, and providing support throughout the decision-making process. Encouraging shared decision-making and tailoring care plans to individual patient needs and preferences can also enhance patient acceptance of health care.

Affective symptoms refer to emotional or mood-related disturbances that can occur in various medical and psychological conditions. These symptoms may include:

1. Depression: feelings of sadness, hopelessness, loss of interest or pleasure in activities, changes in appetite and sleep patterns, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, and thoughts of death or suicide.
2. Anxiety: excessive worry, fear, or nervousness, often accompanied by physical symptoms such as a rapid heartbeat, sweating, and trembling.
3. Irritability: easily annoyed or agitated, often leading to outbursts of anger or frustration.
4. Mania or hypomania: abnormally elevated mood, increased energy, decreased need for sleep, racing thoughts, and impulsive or risky behavior.
5. Apathy: lack of interest, motivation, or emotion, often leading to social withdrawal and decreased activity levels.
6. Mood lability: rapid and unpredictable shifts in mood, ranging from extreme happiness to sadness, anger, or anxiety.

Affective symptoms can significantly impact a person's quality of life and ability to function in daily activities. They may be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, brain chemistry imbalances, stress, trauma, and medical conditions. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential for managing affective symptoms and improving overall well-being.

Heart failure is a pathophysiological state in which the heart is unable to pump sufficient blood to meet the metabolic demands of the body or do so only at the expense of elevated filling pressures. It can be caused by various cardiac disorders, including coronary artery disease, hypertension, valvular heart disease, cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmias. Symptoms may include shortness of breath, fatigue, and fluid retention. Heart failure is often classified based on the ejection fraction (EF), which is the percentage of blood that is pumped out of the left ventricle during each contraction. A reduced EF (less than 40%) is indicative of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), while a preserved EF (greater than or equal to 50%) is indicative of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). There is also a category of heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF) for those with an EF between 40-49%.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Croatia" is not a medical term or condition. It is a country located in Central and Southeastern Europe. If you have any questions about Croatian healthcare or medical practices, I would be happy to try to help answer those for you.

Tobacco Use Disorder is a clinical diagnosis described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), used by healthcare professionals to diagnose mental health conditions. It is defined as a problematic pattern of tobacco use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by at least two of the following, occurring within a 12-month period:

1. Tobacco is often taken in larger amounts or over a longer period than was intended.
2. There is a persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control tobacco use.
3. A great deal of time is spent on activities necessary to obtain or use tobacco, or recover from its effects.
4. Craving, or a strong desire or urge to use tobacco, occurs.
5. Recurrent tobacco use results in a failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home.
6. Important social, occupational, or recreational activities are given up or reduced because of tobacco use.
7. Tobacco use is continued despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent physical or psychological problem that is likely to have been caused or exacerbated by tobacco.
8. Tolerance, as defined by either of the following:
a. A need for markedly increased amounts of tobacco to achieve intoxication or desired effect.
b. Markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of tobacco.
9. Characteristic withdrawal syndrome for tobacco, or tobacco is taken to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms.

The diagnosis excludes nicotine withdrawal that is a normal response to the cessation of tobacco use, intoxication, or substance/medication-induced disorders. Tobacco Use Disorder can be further specified as mild, moderate, or severe based on the number of criteria met.

Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. It is a complex phenomenon that can result from various stimuli, such as thermal, mechanical, or chemical irritation, and it can be acute or chronic. The perception of pain involves the activation of specialized nerve cells called nociceptors, which transmit signals to the brain via the spinal cord. These signals are then processed in different regions of the brain, leading to the conscious experience of pain. It's important to note that pain is a highly individual and subjective experience, and its perception can vary widely among individuals.

Cognitive disorders are a category of mental health disorders that primarily affect cognitive abilities including learning, memory, perception, and problem-solving. These disorders can be caused by various factors such as brain injury, degenerative diseases, infection, substance abuse, or developmental disabilities. Examples of cognitive disorders include dementia, amnesia, delirium, and intellectual disability. It's important to note that the specific definition and diagnostic criteria for cognitive disorders may vary depending on the medical source or classification system being used.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Minnesota" is not a medical term or concept. It is a state located in the Midwestern United States, known for its cold winters, beautiful lakes, and friendly people. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help!

Compulsive behavior is a type of repetitive behavior that an individual feels driven to perform, despite its negative impact on their daily life and mental health. It is often driven by an overwhelming urge or anxiety, and the person may experience distress if they are unable to carry out the behavior. Compulsive behaviors can be associated with various psychiatric conditions, including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), body dysmorphic disorder, eating disorders, and impulse control disorders.

Examples of compulsive behaviors include:

1. Excessive handwashing or cleaning
2. Repeatedly checking locks, light switches, or appliances
3. Ordering or arranging items in a specific way
4. Compulsive hoarding
5. Compulsive shopping or spending
6. Compulsive eating or purging behaviors (such as those seen in bulimia nervosa)
7. Compulsive sexual behavior (sex addiction)
8. Compulsive exercise
9. Compulsive hair pulling (trichotillomania)
10. Compulsive skin picking (excoriation disorder)

Treatment for compulsive behaviors typically involves a combination of medication, psychotherapy (such as cognitive-behavioral therapy), and lifestyle changes to help manage the underlying causes and reduce the urge to engage in the compulsive behavior.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Pennsylvania" is not a medical term or concept. It is a state located in the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to help answer those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Saskatchewan" is not a medical term. It is a province in Canada, located in the central part of the country. If you have any questions about medical terms or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

Life expectancy is a statistical measure that indicates the average amount of time a person is expected to live, based on their current age and other demographic factors such as sex, health status, and geographical location. It is often calculated using data from population studies and represents the number of years of life remaining at a given age, assuming that current mortality rates continue to apply.

For example, if the life expectancy at birth in a particular population is 80 years, it means that on average, newborns in that population are expected to live to be 80 years old. However, it's important to note that life expectancy is a statistical measure and does not predict the exact lifespan of any individual person.

Health services research (HSR) is a multidisciplinary field of scientific investigation that studies how social factors, financing systems, organizational structures and processes, health technologies, and personal behaviors affect access to healthcare, the quality and cost of care, and ultimately, our health and well-being. The goal of HSR is to inform policy and practice, improve system performance, and enhance the health and well-being of individuals and communities. It involves the use of various research methods, including epidemiology, biostatistics, economics, sociology, management science, political science, and psychology, to answer questions about the healthcare system and how it can be improved.

Examples of HSR topics include:

* Evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different healthcare interventions and technologies
* Studying patient-centered care and patient experiences with the healthcare system
* Examining healthcare workforce issues, such as shortages of primary care providers or the impact of nurse-to-patient ratios on patient outcomes
* Investigating the impact of health insurance design and financing systems on access to care and health disparities
* Analyzing the organization and delivery of healthcare services in different settings, such as hospitals, clinics, and long-term care facilities
* Identifying best practices for improving healthcare quality and safety, reducing medical errors, and eliminating wasteful or unnecessary care.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Manitoba" is not a medical term. It is a province in Canada, located in the center of the country. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

Medicare Part A is the hospital insurance component of Medicare, which is a federal health insurance program in the United States. Specifically, Part A helps cover the costs associated with inpatient care in hospitals, skilled nursing facilities, and some types of home health care. This can include things like semi-private rooms, meals, nursing services, and any other necessary hospital services and supplies.

Part A coverage also extends to hospice care for individuals who are terminally ill and have a life expectancy of six months or less. In this case, Part A helps cover the costs associated with hospice care, including pain management, symptom control, and emotional and spiritual support for both the patient and their family.

It's important to note that Medicare Part A is not completely free, as most people do not pay a monthly premium for this coverage. However, there are deductibles and coinsurance costs associated with using Part A services, which can vary depending on the specific service being provided.

Utilization review (UR) is a comprehensive process used by healthcare insurance companies to evaluate the medical necessity, appropriateness, and efficiency of the healthcare services and treatments that have been rendered, are currently being provided, or are being recommended for members. The primary goal of utilization review is to ensure that patients receive clinically necessary and cost-effective care while avoiding unnecessary or excessive treatments.

The utilization review process may involve various steps, including:

1. Preauthorization (also known as precertification): A prospective review to approve or deny coverage for specific services, procedures, or treatments before they are provided. This step helps ensure that the planned care aligns with evidence-based guidelines and medical necessity criteria.
2. Concurrent review: An ongoing evaluation of a patient's treatment during their hospital stay or course of therapy to determine if the services remain medically necessary and consistent with established clinical pathways.
3. Retrospective review: A retrospective analysis of healthcare services already provided to assess their medical necessity, appropriateness, and quality. This step may lead to adjustments in reimbursement or require the provider to justify the rendered services.

Utilization review is typically conducted by a team of healthcare professionals, including physicians, nurses, and case managers, who apply their clinical expertise and adhere to established criteria and guidelines. The process aims to promote high-quality care, reduce wasteful spending, and safeguard patients from potential harm caused by inappropriate or unnecessary treatments.

**Referral:**
A referral in the medical context is the process where a healthcare professional (such as a general practitioner or primary care physician) sends or refers a patient to another healthcare professional who has specialized knowledge and skills to address the patient's specific health condition or concern. This could be a specialist, a consultant, or a facility that provides specialized care. The referral may involve transferring the patient's care entirely to the other professional or may simply be for a consultation and advice.

**Consultation:**
A consultation in healthcare is a process where a healthcare professional seeks the opinion or advice of another professional regarding a patient's medical condition. This can be done in various ways, such as face-to-face meetings, phone calls, or written correspondence. The consulting professional provides their expert opinion to assist in the diagnosis, treatment plan, or management of the patient's condition. The ultimate decision and responsibility for the patient's care typically remain with the referring or primary healthcare provider.

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), neurotic disorders are not a recognized category. However, the term "neurosis" has been used historically in psychiatry and psychology to refer to a group of mental disorders characterized by anxiety, obsessions, depressive moods, phobias, or hypochondriacal fears. These symptoms are often considered to be the result of internal conflicts, typically related to stress, frustration, or interpersonal difficulties.

The DSM-5 has replaced the category of neurotic disorders with several specific mental disorders that were previously classified under this heading. These include:

1. Anxiety Disorders (e.g., panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder)
2. Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders (e.g., obsessive-compulsive disorder, body dysmorphic disorder, hoarding disorder)
3. Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder, acute stress disorder, adjustment disorders)
4. Mood Disorders (e.g., major depressive disorder, persistent depressive disorder)
5. Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders (e.g., illness anxiety disorder, conversion disorder)

These specific disorders are defined by their own unique diagnostic criteria and should be evaluated based on those guidelines.

A "self-report" in a medical context refers to the information or data provided by an individual about their own symptoms, experiences, behaviors, or health status. This can be collected through various methods such as questionnaires, surveys, interviews, or diaries. Self-reports are commonly used in research and clinical settings to assess various aspects of health, including physical and mental health symptoms, quality of life, treatment adherence, and substance use.

While self-reports can be a valuable source of information, they may also be subject to biases such as recall bias, social desirability bias, or response distortion. Therefore, it is important to consider the potential limitations and validity of self-reported data in interpreting the results. In some cases, self-reports may be supplemented with other sources of information, such as medical records, physiological measures, or observer ratings.

Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) is a multidisciplinary field that studies the complex interactions between psychological processes, the nervous system, and the immune system. It explores how emotional, cognitive, and behavioral factors can affect physiological responses and immunity, as well as how immune system changes can influence mood, pain, and behavior. The goal of PNI research is to better understand these interactions to develop more effective treatments for various medical and psychological conditions, including stress-related disorders, chronic pain, depression, anxiety, and autoimmune diseases.

Hip arthroplasty, also known as hip replacement surgery, is a medical procedure where the damaged or diseased joint surfaces of the hip are removed and replaced with artificial components. These components typically include a metal or ceramic ball that replaces the head of the femur (thigh bone), and a polyethylene or ceramic socket that replaces the acetabulum (hip socket) in the pelvis.

The goal of hip arthroplasty is to relieve pain, improve joint mobility, and restore function to the hip joint. This procedure is commonly performed in patients with advanced osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, hip fractures, or other conditions that cause significant damage to the hip joint.

There are several types of hip replacement surgeries, including traditional total hip arthroplasty, partial (hemi) hip arthroplasty, and resurfacing hip arthroplasty. The choice of procedure depends on various factors, such as the patient's age, activity level, overall health, and the extent of joint damage.

After surgery, patients typically require rehabilitation to regain strength, mobility, and function in the affected hip. With proper care and follow-up, most patients can expect significant pain relief and improved quality of life following hip arthroplasty.

In a medical context, "survivors" typically refers to individuals who have lived through or recovered from a serious illness, injury, or life-threatening event. This may include people who have survived cancer, heart disease, trauma, or other conditions that posed a significant risk to their health and well-being. The term is often used to describe the resilience and strength of these individuals, as well as to highlight the importance of ongoing support and care for those who have faced serious medical challenges. It's important to note that the definition may vary depending on the context in which it's used.

Diabetes complications refer to a range of health issues that can develop as a result of poorly managed diabetes over time. These complications can affect various parts of the body and can be classified into two main categories: macrovascular and microvascular.

Macrovascular complications include:

* Cardiovascular disease (CVD): People with diabetes are at an increased risk of developing CVD, including coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, and stroke.
* Peripheral arterial disease (PAD): This condition affects the blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the limbs, particularly the legs. PAD can cause pain, numbness, or weakness in the legs and may increase the risk of amputation.

Microvascular complications include:

* Diabetic neuropathy: This is a type of nerve damage that can occur due to prolonged high blood sugar levels. It commonly affects the feet and legs, causing symptoms such as numbness, tingling, or pain.
* Diabetic retinopathy: This condition affects the blood vessels in the eye and can cause vision loss or blindness if left untreated.
* Diabetic nephropathy: This is a type of kidney damage that can occur due to diabetes. It can lead to kidney failure if not managed properly.

Other complications of diabetes include:

* Increased risk of infections, particularly skin and urinary tract infections.
* Slow healing of wounds, which can increase the risk of infection and amputation.
* Gum disease and other oral health problems.
* Hearing impairment.
* Sexual dysfunction.

Preventing or managing diabetes complications involves maintaining good blood sugar control, regular monitoring of blood glucose levels, following a healthy lifestyle, and receiving routine medical care.

Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 is a metabolic disorder characterized by high blood glucose (or sugar) levels resulting from the body's inability to produce sufficient amounts of insulin or effectively use the insulin it produces. This form of diabetes usually develops gradually over several years and is often associated with older age, obesity, physical inactivity, family history of diabetes, and certain ethnicities.

In Type 2 diabetes, the body's cells become resistant to insulin, meaning they don't respond properly to the hormone. As a result, the pancreas produces more insulin to help glucose enter the cells. Over time, the pancreas can't keep up with the increased demand, leading to high blood glucose levels and diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes is managed through lifestyle modifications such as weight loss, regular exercise, and a healthy diet. Medications, including insulin therapy, may also be necessary to control blood glucose levels and prevent long-term complications associated with the disease, such as heart disease, nerve damage, kidney damage, and vision loss.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "New Jersey" is not a medical term or concept. It is a state located in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help!

African Americans are defined as individuals who have ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa. This term is often used to describe people living in the United States who have total or partial descent from enslaved African peoples. The term does not refer to a single ethnicity but is a broad term that includes various ethnic groups with diverse cultures, languages, and traditions. It's important to note that some individuals may prefer to identify as Black or of African descent rather than African American, depending on their personal identity and background.

Asperger Syndrome is a developmental disorder that is part of the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). It is characterized by significant difficulties in social interaction and nonverbal communication, as well as restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior and interests. However, people with Asperger Syndrome usually have normal or above-average intelligence and language development.

The following are some of the diagnostic criteria for Asperger Syndrome according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5):

1. Persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts, including:
* Deficits in social-emotional reciprocity;
* Deficits in nonverbal communicative behaviors used for social interaction;
* Deficits in developing, maintaining, and understanding relationships.
2. Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities, as manifested by at least two of the following:
* Stereotyped or repetitive motor movements, use of objects, or speech;
* Insistence on sameness, inflexible adherence to routines, or ritualized patterns of verbal or nonverbal behavior;
* Highly restricted, fixated interests that are abnormal in intensity or focus;
* Hyper- or hyporeactivity to sensory input or unusual interest in sensory aspects of the environment.
3. Symptoms must be present in early childhood but may not become fully manifest until social demands exceed limited capacities or may be masked by learned strategies in later life.
4. Symptoms cause clinically significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.
5. These disturbances are not better explained by intellectual disability (intellectual developmental disorder) or global developmental delay.

It's worth noting that the term "Asperger Syndrome" is no longer used in the DSM-5, and it has been subsumed under the broader category of autism spectrum disorder. However, many people still use the term to describe a particular presentation of ASD with normal language development and intelligence.

Hemodialysis units in a hospital setting are specialized departments or facilities that provide hemodialysis treatment to patients with kidney failure. Hemodialysis is a process of purifying the blood of waste products and excess fluids using a machine (hemodialysis machine) and a semi-permeable membrane (dialyzer). The procedure typically involves accessing the patient's bloodstream through a surgically created vascular access, such as a fistula or graft, and passing the blood through the dialyzer to remove waste products and excess fluids.

Hospital hemodialysis units are staffed by trained healthcare professionals, including nephrologists (kidney specialists), nurses, technicians, and support personnel. These units provide inpatient and outpatient services for patients who require hemodialysis due to acute or chronic kidney failure, as well as those who need dialysis while hospitalized for other medical conditions.

Hospital hemodialysis units may offer various types of hemodialysis treatments, including conventional hemodialysis, high-flux hemodialysis, hemofiltration, and hemodiafiltration. They also provide education and support to patients and their families regarding dialysis treatment options, lifestyle modifications, and long-term management of kidney disease.

Geriatrics is a branch of medicine focused on the health care and well-being of older adults, typically defined as those aged 65 years and older. It deals with the physiological, psychological, social, and environmental aspects of aging and addresses the medical, functional, and cognitive issues that are common in this population. The goal of geriatric medicine is to promote health, independence, and quality of life for older adults by preventing and managing diseases and disabilities, coordinating care, and supporting optimal functioning in their daily lives.

Geriatricians, who specialize in geriatrics, receive additional training beyond medical school and residency to develop expertise in the unique needs and challenges of older adults. They often work as part of interdisciplinary teams that include nurses, social workers, physical therapists, occupational therapists, and other healthcare professionals to provide comprehensive care for their patients.

"Acting out" is a psychological term that refers to the behavior of expressing unconscious thoughts, impulses, or desires in an external, often socially unacceptable manner. It is often used to describe maladaptive behaviors that are considered inappropriate or disruptive and that may cause harm to oneself or others.

In a medical or clinical context, "acting out" might be used to describe a range of behaviors, such as aggressive or self-destructive acts, substance abuse, sexual promiscuity, or other impulsive actions that are driven by unconscious motivations. These behaviors may be more common in individuals with certain mental health conditions, such as borderline personality disorder, conduct disorder, or antisocial personality disorder.

It is important to note that "acting out" is different from "acting out behavior," which refers to any behavior that is intended to draw attention or manipulate others. While both terms involve external expressions of internal states, "acting out" specifically refers to the unconscious expression of repressed thoughts, feelings, or desires.

Separation anxiety is a condition in which an individual experiences excessive and disproportionate fear or distress when separated from a person or place that they are attached to. This condition is commonly diagnosed in children, but it can also affect adults. The anxiety experienced during separation may manifest as excessive worrying, crying, clinginess, panic attacks, or physical symptoms such as nausea, headaches, or rapid heartbeat. In order for a diagnosis of separation anxiety disorder to be made, the symptoms must cause significant distress and impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning.

Practice guidelines, also known as clinical practice guidelines, are systematically developed statements that aim to assist healthcare professionals and patients in making informed decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances. They are based on a thorough evaluation of the available scientific evidence, consensus of expert opinion, and consideration of patient preferences. Practice guidelines can cover a wide range of topics, including diagnosis, management, prevention, and treatment options for various medical conditions. They are intended to improve the quality and consistency of care, reduce unnecessary variations in practice, and promote evidence-based medicine. However, they should not replace clinical judgment or individualized patient care.

Clinical coding, also known as medical coding, is the process of converting healthcare diagnoses, procedures, and services into standardized codes used for reimbursement, statistical analysis, and public health reporting. In many healthcare systems, clinical coders review medical records, such as doctors' notes, laboratory results, and imaging reports, to assign codes from classification systems such as the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) or the Current Procedural Terminology (CPT).

Accurate clinical coding is essential for healthcare organizations to receive proper reimbursement from insurance companies and government payers, as well as to track outcomes, identify trends, and monitor quality of care. Clinical coders must have a strong understanding of anatomy, physiology, medical terminology, and coding guidelines to ensure the correct assignment of codes.

"Forecasting" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a general term used in various fields, including finance, economics, and meteorology, to describe the process of making predictions or estimates about future events or trends based on historical data, trends, and other relevant factors. In healthcare and public health, forecasting may be used to predict the spread of diseases, identify potential shortages of resources such as hospital beds or medical equipment, or plan for future health care needs. However, there is no medical definition for "forecasting" itself.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Australia" is not a medical term or concept. It is the world's largest island and smallest continent, located in the Southern Hemisphere, surrounded by the Pacific and Indian Oceans. It is composed of many diverse ecosystems, including deserts, rainforests, and coastal areas, and is home to a wide variety of unique plant and animal species.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer them for you!

Medical record linkage is the process of connecting and integrating electronic health records or other forms of medical records from different sources, time points, or healthcare providers for an individual patient. The goal is to create a comprehensive, longitudinal medical history for that person, which can improve continuity of care, support clinical decision-making, enable epidemiological research, and facilitate public health surveillance.

Record linkage typically involves the use of deterministic (exact match) or probabilistic (statistical) algorithms to identify and merge records belonging to the same individual based on various identifiers, such as name, date of birth, gender, and other demographic information. It is essential to maintain privacy, confidentiality, and data security throughout this process, often requiring strict adherence to legal and ethical guidelines.

The digestive system, also known as the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, is a series of organs that process food and liquids into nutrients and waste. Digestive system diseases refer to any conditions that affect the normal functioning of this system, leading to impaired digestion, absorption, or elimination of food and fluids.

Some common examples of digestive system diseases include:

1. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD): A condition where stomach acid flows back into the esophagus, causing symptoms such as heartburn, chest pain, and difficulty swallowing.
2. Peptic Ulcer Disease: Sores or ulcers that develop in the lining of the stomach or duodenum, often caused by bacterial infection or long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
3. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): A group of chronic inflammatory conditions that affect the intestines, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
4. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): A functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits.
5. Celiac Disease: An autoimmune disorder where the ingestion of gluten leads to damage in the small intestine, impairing nutrient absorption.
6. Diverticular Disease: A condition that affects the colon, characterized by the formation of small pouches or sacs (diverticula) that can become inflamed or infected.
7. Constipation: A common digestive system issue where bowel movements occur less frequently than usual or are difficult to pass.
8. Diarrhea: Loose, watery stools that occur more frequently than normal, often accompanied by cramps and bloating.
9. Gallstones: Small, hard deposits that form in the gallbladder, causing pain, inflammation, and potential blockages of the bile ducts.
10. Hepatitis: Inflammation of the liver, often caused by viral infections or toxins, leading to symptoms such as jaundice, fatigue, and abdominal pain.

These are just a few examples of digestive system disorders that can affect overall health and quality of life. If you experience any persistent or severe digestive symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention from a healthcare professional.

I apologize, but "Canada" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located in North America, known for its vast wilderness, multicultural cities, and significant natural resources. If you have any questions related to healthcare or medical terms, I would be happy to help answer those!

Arthroplasty, replacement, knee is a surgical procedure where the damaged or diseased joint surface of the knee is removed and replaced with an artificial joint or prosthesis. The procedure involves resurfacing the worn-out ends of the femur (thigh bone) and tibia (shin bone) with metal components, and the back of the kneecap with a plastic button. This surgery is usually performed to relieve pain and restore function in patients with severe knee osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or traumatic injuries that have damaged the joint beyond repair. The goal of knee replacement surgery is to improve mobility, reduce pain, and enhance the quality of life for the patient.

In medical terms, "character" is not a term that has a specific or technical definition. It is a common English word that can have various meanings depending on the context in which it is used. In general, "character" refers to the personality traits, behaviors, and qualities that define an individual. However, in a medical or clinical setting, healthcare professionals may use the term "character" to describe certain aspects of a patient's symptoms, such as the quality, intensity, or duration of a particular symptom. For example, a patient's pain might be described as sharp, stabbing, or dull in character.

It is important to note that while healthcare professionals may use the term "character" to describe certain aspects of a patient's symptoms or condition, it is not a medical diagnosis or a specific medical term with a standardized definition.

Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measure used to assess whether a person has a healthy weight for their height. It's calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by the square of their height in meters. Here is the medical definition:

Body Mass Index (BMI) = weight(kg) / [height(m)]^2

According to the World Health Organization, BMI categories are defined as follows:

* Less than 18.5: Underweight
* 18.5-24.9: Normal or healthy weight
* 25.0-29.9: Overweight
* 30.0 and above: Obese

It is important to note that while BMI can be a useful tool for identifying weight issues in populations, it does have limitations when applied to individuals. For example, it may not accurately reflect body fat distribution or muscle mass, which can affect health risks associated with excess weight. Therefore, BMI should be used as one of several factors when evaluating an individual's health status and risk for chronic diseases.

Affective disorders, psychotic are a category of mental health conditions characterized by significant disturbances in mood, thinking, and behavior. These disorders combine the symptoms of both mood disorders (such as depression or bipolar disorder) and psychotic disorders (such as schizophrenia).

In psychotic affective disorders, individuals experience severe changes in their mood, such as prolonged periods of depression or mania, along with psychotic features like hallucinations, delusions, or disorganized thinking and speech. These symptoms can significantly impair a person's ability to function in daily life and may require intensive treatment, including medication and therapy.

Examples of psychotic affective disorders include:

1. Psychotic Depression: A severe form of major depressive disorder that includes psychotic symptoms like delusions or hallucinations, often with a theme of guilt or worthlessness.
2. Bipolar Disorder with Psychotic Features: During manic or depressive episodes, some individuals with bipolar disorder may experience psychotic symptoms such as delusions or hallucinations. These symptoms can vary in intensity and may require hospitalization and intensive treatment.
3. Schizoaffective Disorder: A mental health condition that includes features of both schizophrenia and a mood disorder, such as depression or bipolar disorder. Individuals with this disorder experience psychotic symptoms like hallucinations and delusions, along with significant changes in mood.

It is essential to seek professional help if you suspect you or someone you know may have a psychotic affective disorder. Early intervention and treatment can significantly improve outcomes and quality of life.

"Sampling studies" is not a specific medical term, but rather a general term that refers to research studies in which a sample of individuals or data is collected and analyzed to make inferences about a larger population. In medical research, sampling studies can be used to estimate the prevalence of diseases or risk factors within a certain population, to evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions, or to study the relationships between various health-related variables.

The sample for a sampling study may be selected using various methods, such as random sampling, stratified sampling, cluster sampling, or convenience sampling. The choice of sampling method depends on the research question, the characteristics of the population of interest, and practical considerations related to cost, time, and feasibility.

It is important to note that sampling studies have limitations and potential sources of bias, just like any other research design. Therefore, it is essential to carefully consider the study methods and limitations when interpreting the results of sampling studies in medical research.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

Somnambulism is defined as a parasomnia, which is a type of sleep disorder, that involves walking or performing other complex behaviors while asleep. It's more commonly known as sleepwalking. During a sleepwalking episode, a person will have their eyes open and may appear to be awake and aware of their surroundings, but they are actually in a state of low consciousness.

Sleepwalking can range from simply sitting up in bed and looking around, to walking around the house, dressing or undressing, or even leaving the house. Episodes usually occur during deep non-REM sleep early in the night and can last from several minutes to an hour.

Although it is more common in children, especially those between the ages of 3 and 7, somnambulism can also affect adults. Factors that may contribute to sleepwalking include stress, fatigue, fever, certain medications, alcohol consumption, and underlying medical or psychiatric conditions such as sleep apnea, restless leg syndrome, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), or dissociative states.

Most of the time, somnambulism is not a cause for concern and does not require treatment. However, if sleepwalking leads to potential harm or injury, or if it frequently disrupts sleep, medical advice should be sought to address any underlying conditions and ensure safety measures are in place during sleep.

Ambulatory care is a type of health care service in which patients are treated on an outpatient basis, meaning they do not stay overnight at the medical facility. This can include a wide range of services such as diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up care for various medical conditions. The goal of ambulatory care is to provide high-quality medical care that is convenient, accessible, and cost-effective for patients.

Examples of ambulatory care settings include physician offices, community health centers, urgent care centers, outpatient surgery centers, and diagnostic imaging facilities. Patients who receive ambulatory care may have a variety of medical needs, such as routine checkups, chronic disease management, minor procedures, or same-day surgeries.

Overall, ambulatory care is an essential component of modern healthcare systems, providing patients with timely and convenient access to medical services without the need for hospitalization.

Smoking is not a medical condition, but it's a significant health risk behavior. Here is the definition from a public health perspective:

Smoking is the act of inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning tobacco that is commonly consumed through cigarettes, pipes, and cigars. The smoke contains over 7,000 chemicals, including nicotine, tar, carbon monoxide, and numerous toxic and carcinogenic substances. These toxins contribute to a wide range of diseases and health conditions, such as lung cancer, heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and various other cancers, as well as adverse reproductive outcomes and negative impacts on the developing fetus during pregnancy. Smoking is highly addictive due to the nicotine content, which makes quitting smoking a significant challenge for many individuals.

Musculoskeletal diseases are a group of medical conditions that affect the bones, joints, muscles, tendons, ligaments, and nerves. These diseases can cause pain, stiffness, limited mobility, and decreased function in the affected areas of the body. They include a wide range of conditions such as:

1. Osteoarthritis: A degenerative joint disease characterized by the breakdown of cartilage in joints, leading to pain, stiffness, and loss of mobility.
2. Rheumatoid arthritis: An autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation in the lining of the joints, resulting in swelling, pain, and bone erosion.
3. Gout: A form of arthritis caused by the buildup of uric acid crystals in the joints, leading to severe pain, redness, and swelling.
4. Osteoporosis: A condition characterized by weakened bones that are more susceptible to fractures due to decreased bone density.
5. Fibromyalgia: A disorder that causes widespread muscle pain, fatigue, and tenderness in specific areas of the body.
6. Spinal disorders: Conditions affecting the spine, such as herniated discs, spinal stenosis, or degenerative disc disease, which can cause back pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness.
7. Soft tissue injuries: Damage to muscles, tendons, and ligaments, often caused by overuse, strain, or trauma.
8. Infections: Bone and joint infections (septic arthritis or osteomyelitis) can cause pain, swelling, and fever.
9. Tumors: Benign or malignant growths in bones, muscles, or soft tissues can lead to pain, swelling, and limited mobility.
10. Genetic disorders: Certain genetic conditions, such as Marfan syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, can affect the musculoskeletal system and cause various symptoms.

Treatment for musculoskeletal diseases varies depending on the specific condition but may include medications, physical therapy, exercise, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

Watchful waiting is a medical approach where monitoring and careful observation are used in place of immediate treatment for certain conditions, such as slow-growing cancers or chronic diseases. The goal is to delay active treatment until there are signs that it's necessary, thus avoiding unnecessary side effects and costs associated with early intervention. Regular follow-ups and tests are conducted to track the progression of the condition and determine if and when treatment should be initiated.

Dementia is a broad term that describes a decline in cognitive functioning, including memory, language, problem-solving, and judgment, severe enough to interfere with daily life. It is not a specific disease but rather a group of symptoms that may be caused by various underlying diseases or conditions. Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia, accounting for 60-80% of cases. Other causes include vascular dementia, Lewy body dementia, frontotemporal dementia, and Huntington's disease.

The symptoms of dementia can vary widely depending on the cause and the specific areas of the brain that are affected. However, common early signs of dementia may include:

* Memory loss that affects daily life
* Difficulty with familiar tasks
* Problems with language or communication
* Difficulty with visual and spatial abilities
* Misplacing things and unable to retrace steps
* Decreased or poor judgment
* Withdrawal from work or social activities
* Changes in mood or behavior

Dementia is a progressive condition, meaning that symptoms will gradually worsen over time. While there is currently no cure for dementia, early diagnosis and treatment can help slow the progression of the disease and improve quality of life for those affected.

Medicaid is a joint federal-state program that provides health coverage for low-income individuals, including children, pregnant women, elderly adults, and people with disabilities. Eligibility, benefits, and administration vary by state, but the program is designed to ensure that low-income individuals have access to necessary medical services. Medicaid is funded jointly by the federal government and the states, and is administered by the states under broad federal guidelines.

Medicaid programs must cover certain mandatory benefits, such as inpatient and outpatient hospital services, laboratory and X-ray services, and physician services. States also have the option to provide additional benefits, such as dental care, vision services, and prescription drugs. In addition, many states have expanded their Medicaid programs to cover more low-income adults under the Affordable Care Act (ACA).

Medicaid is an important source of health coverage for millions of Americans, providing access to necessary medical care and helping to reduce financial burden for low-income individuals.

Pneumonia is an infection or inflammation of the alveoli (tiny air sacs) in one or both lungs. It's often caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi. Accumulated pus and fluid in these air sacs make it difficult to breathe, which can lead to coughing, chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing. The severity of symptoms can vary from mild to life-threatening, depending on the underlying cause, the patient's overall health, and age. Pneumonia is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays or blood tests. Treatment usually involves antibiotics for bacterial pneumonia, antivirals for viral pneumonia, and supportive care like oxygen therapy, hydration, and rest.

Bulimia nervosa is a mental health disorder that is characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating, followed by compensatory behaviors to prevent weight gain. These compensatory behaviors may include self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives or diuretics, fasting, or excessive exercise.

Individuals with bulimia nervosa often experience a lack of control over their eating habits and may feel intense shame, guilt, and distress about their binge eating and compensatory behaviors. The disorder can lead to serious medical complications, such as electrolyte imbalances, dehydration, dental problems, and gastrointestinal issues.

Bulimia nervosa typically begins in late adolescence or early adulthood and affects women more often than men. The exact cause of the disorder is not known, but it is believed to be related to a combination of genetic, biological, psychological, and social factors. Treatment for bulimia nervosa may include cognitive-behavioral therapy, medication, nutrition counseling, and support groups.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Virginia" is not a medical term or condition. It is a geographical location, specifically the name of a state in the United States. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

Healthcare disparities refer to differences in the quality, accessibility, and outcomes of healthcare that are systematically related to social or economic disadvantage. These disparities may exist between different racial, ethnic, socioeconomic, gender, sexual orientation, geographic, or disability status groups. They can result from a complex interplay of factors including provider bias, patient-provider communication, health system policies, and structural racism, among others. Healthcare disparities often lead to worse health outcomes and reduced quality of life for disadvantaged populations.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by recurrent abdominal pain, bloating, and altered bowel habits in the absence of any structural or biochemical abnormalities. The symptoms can vary from person to person, ranging from mild to severe.

The exact cause of IBS is not known, but it's thought to involve a combination of factors such as muscle contractions in the intestine, abnormalities in the nervous system, inflammation in the intestines, severe infection, or changes in bacteria in the gut.

It's important to note that while IBS can cause great discomfort and distress, it does not lead to serious complications such as changes in bowel tissue or increased risk of colorectal cancer. However, it can significantly affect a person's quality of life and daily activities.

I am not aware of a medical definition for "Internal-External Control." However, the term "locus of control" is commonly used in psychology and medicine to describe an individual's belief about the degree to which they have control over events and outcomes in their life.

Locus of control can be categorized as either internal or external:

* Internal locus of control refers to the belief that one has control over their own life outcomes, and that these outcomes are determined by their own efforts, abilities, and choices.
* External locus of control, on the other hand, refers to the belief that events and outcomes in one's life are controlled by external factors such as luck, chance, or powerful others.

Both internal and external locus of control can have implications for health behaviors and medical outcomes. For example, individuals with an internal locus of control may be more likely to engage in healthy behaviors such as exercise and healthy eating, while those with an external locus of control may be more likely to engage in risky behaviors such as smoking or substance abuse. Similarly, a strong internal locus of control has been associated with better medical outcomes, including improved mental health and reduced symptoms of chronic illness.

Recurrence, in a medical context, refers to the return of symptoms or signs of a disease after a period of improvement or remission. It indicates that the condition has not been fully eradicated and may require further treatment. Recurrence is often used to describe situations where a disease such as cancer comes back after initial treatment, but it can also apply to other medical conditions. The likelihood of recurrence varies depending on the type of disease and individual patient factors.

In the field of medicine, twins are defined as two offspring produced by the same pregnancy. They can be either monozygotic (identical) or dizygotic (fraternal). Monozygotic twins develop from a single fertilized egg that splits into two separate embryos, resulting in individuals who share identical genetic material. Dizygotic twins, on the other hand, result from the fertilization of two separate eggs by two different sperm cells, leading to siblings who share about 50% of their genetic material, similar to non-twin siblings.

Bosnia-Herzegovina is not a medical term. It is a country located in Southeastern Europe, bordered by Croatia to the north and west, Serbia to the east, Montenegro to the southeast, and the Adriatic Sea to the south. The country has a population of approximately 3.5 million people and is known for its rich history, diverse culture, and natural beauty.

Bosnia-Herzegovina is made up of two entities: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republika Srpska, as well as the Brčko District, which is a self-governing administrative unit. The country has a complex political system with a three-member presidency, consisting of one member from each of the three main ethnic groups: Bosniaks, Croats, and Serbs.

Bosnia-Herzegovina has faced significant challenges since the end of the Bosnian War in 1995, including political instability, economic underdevelopment, and high levels of corruption. Despite these challenges, the country is working towards greater integration with European institutions and has made progress in areas such as education, healthcare, and infrastructure development.

A database, in the context of medical informatics, is a structured set of data organized in a way that allows for efficient storage, retrieval, and analysis. Databases are used extensively in healthcare to store and manage various types of information, including patient records, clinical trials data, research findings, and genetic data.

As a topic, "Databases" in medicine can refer to the design, implementation, management, and use of these databases. It may also encompass issues related to data security, privacy, and interoperability between different healthcare systems and databases. Additionally, it can involve the development and application of database technologies for specific medical purposes, such as clinical decision support, outcomes research, and personalized medicine.

Overall, databases play a critical role in modern healthcare by enabling evidence-based practice, improving patient care, advancing medical research, and informing health policy decisions.

Mental health is a state of well-being in which an individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community. It involves the emotional, psychological, and social aspects of an individual's health. Mental health is not just the absence of mental illness, it also includes positive characteristics such as resilience, happiness, and having a sense of purpose in life.

It is important to note that mental health can change over time, and it is possible for an individual to experience periods of good mental health as well as periods of poor mental health. Factors such as genetics, trauma, stress, and physical illness can all contribute to the development of mental health problems. Additionally, cultural and societal factors, such as discrimination and poverty, can also impact an individual's mental health.

Mental Health professionals like psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers and other mental health counselors use different tools and techniques to evaluate, diagnose and treat mental health conditions. These include therapy or counseling, medication, and self-help strategies.

Hypertension is a medical term used to describe abnormally high blood pressure in the arteries, often defined as consistently having systolic blood pressure (the top number in a blood pressure reading) over 130 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number) over 80 mmHg. It is also commonly referred to as high blood pressure.

Hypertension can be classified into two types: primary or essential hypertension, which has no identifiable cause and accounts for about 95% of cases, and secondary hypertension, which is caused by underlying medical conditions such as kidney disease, hormonal disorders, or use of certain medications.

If left untreated, hypertension can lead to serious health complications such as heart attack, stroke, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease. Therefore, it is important for individuals with hypertension to manage their condition through lifestyle modifications (such as healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management) and medication if necessary, under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Elective surgical procedures are operations that are scheduled in advance because they do not involve a medical emergency. These surgeries are chosen or "elective" based on the patient's and doctor's decision to improve the patient's quality of life or to treat a non-life-threatening condition. Examples include but are not limited to:

1. Aesthetic or cosmetic surgery such as breast augmentation, rhinoplasty, etc.
2. Orthopedic surgeries like knee or hip replacements
3. Cataract surgery
4. Some types of cancer surgeries where the tumor is not spreading or causing severe symptoms
5. Gastric bypass for weight loss

It's important to note that while these procedures are planned, they still require thorough preoperative evaluation and preparation, and carry risks and benefits that need to be carefully considered by both the patient and the healthcare provider.

Morbidity, in medical terms, refers to the state or condition of being diseased or unhealthy. It is used to describe the incidence or prevalence of a particular disease or health condition within a population, or the presence of multiple diseases or health conditions in an individual. Morbidity can also refer to the complications or symptoms associated with a disease or injury. In clinical settings, morbidity may be used to assess a patient's overall health status and their response to treatment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Midwestern United States" is not a term that has a medical definition. The Midwestern United States, also known as the American Heartland or simply the Midwest, is a region of the United States that includes 12 states in the north central part of the country. It's a geographical and cultural region, not a medical one.

The term "Midwest" was reportedly first used in 1895 by journalist and historian Frederick Jackson Turner. The states included in this region can vary based on different definitions, but it generally includes Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin.

If you have any questions related to medical topics, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

Statistical data interpretation involves analyzing and interpreting numerical data in order to identify trends, patterns, and relationships. This process often involves the use of statistical methods and tools to organize, summarize, and draw conclusions from the data. The goal is to extract meaningful insights that can inform decision-making, hypothesis testing, or further research.

In medical contexts, statistical data interpretation is used to analyze and make sense of large sets of clinical data, such as patient outcomes, treatment effectiveness, or disease prevalence. This information can help healthcare professionals and researchers better understand the relationships between various factors that impact health outcomes, develop more effective treatments, and identify areas for further study.

Some common statistical methods used in data interpretation include descriptive statistics (e.g., mean, median, mode), inferential statistics (e.g., hypothesis testing, confidence intervals), and regression analysis (e.g., linear, logistic). These methods can help medical professionals identify patterns and trends in the data, assess the significance of their findings, and make evidence-based recommendations for patient care or public health policy.

Statistical models are mathematical representations that describe the relationship between variables in a given dataset. They are used to analyze and interpret data in order to make predictions or test hypotheses about a population. In the context of medicine, statistical models can be used for various purposes such as:

1. Disease risk prediction: By analyzing demographic, clinical, and genetic data using statistical models, researchers can identify factors that contribute to an individual's risk of developing certain diseases. This information can then be used to develop personalized prevention strategies or early detection methods.

2. Clinical trial design and analysis: Statistical models are essential tools for designing and analyzing clinical trials. They help determine sample size, allocate participants to treatment groups, and assess the effectiveness and safety of interventions.

3. Epidemiological studies: Researchers use statistical models to investigate the distribution and determinants of health-related events in populations. This includes studying patterns of disease transmission, evaluating public health interventions, and estimating the burden of diseases.

4. Health services research: Statistical models are employed to analyze healthcare utilization, costs, and outcomes. This helps inform decisions about resource allocation, policy development, and quality improvement initiatives.

5. Biostatistics and bioinformatics: In these fields, statistical models are used to analyze large-scale molecular data (e.g., genomics, proteomics) to understand biological processes and identify potential therapeutic targets.

In summary, statistical models in medicine provide a framework for understanding complex relationships between variables and making informed decisions based on data-driven insights.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Ontario" is not a medical term. It is the name of a province in Canada, similar to how "California" is the name of a state in the United States. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health conditions, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

In the context of medicine, risk is the probability or likelihood of an adverse health effect or the occurrence of a negative event related to treatment or exposure to certain hazards. It is usually expressed as a ratio or percentage and can be influenced by various factors such as age, gender, lifestyle, genetics, and environmental conditions. Risk assessment involves identifying, quantifying, and prioritizing risks to make informed decisions about prevention, mitigation, or treatment strategies.

'Institutionalization' in a medical context refers to the process or state of becoming accustomed to or dependent on a institution, such as a hospital or long-term care facility, for one's care and living arrangements. This can occur over time as an individual becomes more reliant on the services and structure provided by the institution. It can also refer to the social and psychological effects that may result from living in an institutional setting for a long period of time, which can include decreased initiative, dependency, and difficulty functioning in a less structured environment. Institutionalization can have negative impacts on an individual's quality of life and overall well-being, and efforts are often made to help individuals maintain their independence and community connections whenever possible.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Italy" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located in Southern Europe. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "New Zealand" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, known for its stunning landscapes, unique wildlife, and as the filming location for the "Lord of the Rings" films. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I'd be happy to try and help answer those for you!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Taiwan" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of an island nation located in East Asia. The official name of the country is the Republic of China (ROC). If you have any medical questions or inquiries, I would be happy to help answer those for you!

Cross-cultural comparison is a research method used in various fields such as anthropology, sociology, psychology, and medical sciences to compare and contrast cultural practices, beliefs, values, and behaviors across different cultural groups. In the context of medicine, cross-cultural comparison involves examining health outcomes, illness experiences, healthcare systems, and medical practices across diverse populations to identify similarities and differences.

The goal of cross-cultural comparison in medicine is to enhance our understanding of how culture shapes health and illness, improve the cultural competence of healthcare providers, reduce health disparities, and develop culturally appropriate interventions and treatments. Cross-cultural comparison can help identify best practices and effective strategies that can be adapted and applied in different cultural contexts to promote health and wellbeing.

Examples of cross-cultural comparisons in medicine include comparing the prevalence and risk factors of chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer across different populations, examining cultural differences in pain management and communication styles between patients and healthcare providers, and exploring the impact of traditional healing practices on mental health outcomes.

Statistics, as a topic in the context of medicine and healthcare, refers to the scientific discipline that involves the collection, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of numerical data or quantifiable data in a meaningful and organized manner. It employs mathematical theories and models to draw conclusions, make predictions, and support evidence-based decision-making in various areas of medical research and practice.

Some key concepts and methods in medical statistics include:

1. Descriptive Statistics: Summarizing and visualizing data through measures of central tendency (mean, median, mode) and dispersion (range, variance, standard deviation).
2. Inferential Statistics: Drawing conclusions about a population based on a sample using hypothesis testing, confidence intervals, and statistical modeling.
3. Probability Theory: Quantifying the likelihood of events or outcomes in medical scenarios, such as diagnostic tests' sensitivity and specificity.
4. Study Designs: Planning and implementing various research study designs, including randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies, case-control studies, and cross-sectional surveys.
5. Sampling Methods: Selecting a representative sample from a population to ensure the validity and generalizability of research findings.
6. Multivariate Analysis: Examining the relationships between multiple variables simultaneously using techniques like regression analysis, factor analysis, or cluster analysis.
7. Survival Analysis: Analyzing time-to-event data, such as survival rates in clinical trials or disease progression.
8. Meta-Analysis: Systematically synthesizing and summarizing the results of multiple studies to provide a comprehensive understanding of a research question.
9. Biostatistics: A subfield of statistics that focuses on applying statistical methods to biological data, including medical research.
10. Epidemiology: The study of disease patterns in populations, which often relies on statistical methods for data analysis and interpretation.

Medical statistics is essential for evidence-based medicine, clinical decision-making, public health policy, and healthcare management. It helps researchers and practitioners evaluate the effectiveness and safety of medical interventions, assess risk factors and outcomes associated with diseases or treatments, and monitor trends in population health.

In medical and psychological terms, "affect" refers to a person's emotional or expressive state, mood, or dispositions that are outwardly manifested in their behavior, facial expressions, demeanor, or speech. Affect can be described as being congruent or incongruent with an individual's thoughts and experiences.

There are different types of affect, including:

1. Neutral affect: When a person shows no apparent emotion or displays minimal emotional expressiveness.
2. Positive affect: When a person exhibits positive emotions such as happiness, excitement, or enthusiasm.
3. Negative affect: When a person experiences and displays negative emotions like sadness, anger, or fear.
4. Blunted affect: When a person's emotional response is noticeably reduced or diminished, often observed in individuals with certain mental health conditions, such as schizophrenia.
5. Flat affect: When a person has an almost complete absence of emotional expressiveness, which can be indicative of severe depression or other mental health disorders.
6. Labile affect: When a person's emotional state fluctuates rapidly and frequently between positive and negative emotions, often observed in individuals with certain neurological conditions or mood disorders.

Clinicians may assess a patient's affect during an interview or examination to help diagnose mental health conditions, evaluate treatment progress, or monitor overall well-being.

The Sickness Impact Profile (SIP) is a widely used, standardized measure of health-related quality of life and functional status. It is a self-reporting questionnaire that assesses the impact of illness or disability on an individual's daily life and functioning across multiple dimensions. The SIP evaluates four primary domains: physical, psychosocial, independent functioning, and overall health perception. These domains are further divided into 12 subscales, including sleep and rest, eating, work, home management, recreation and pastimes, ambulation, mobility, body care and movement, social interaction, communication, alertness behavior, and emotional behavior. The SIP is designed to measure both the severity and breadth of disability or impairment in individuals with a wide range of medical conditions. It has been used in research and clinical settings to evaluate treatment outcomes, compare the effectiveness of interventions, and monitor changes in health status over time.

Vital signs are a set of four to six key measurements that help healthcare providers assess a person's basic physiological functions. The most commonly measured vital signs include:

1. Heart rate (pulse): the number of times a person's heart beats per minute.
2. Blood pressure: the force exerted by blood on the walls of the arteries as it circulates through the body.
3. Respiratory rate: the number of breaths a person takes per minute.
4. Body temperature: the degree of warmth or coldness in a person's body, typically measured using a thermometer.
5. Oxygen saturation (SpO2): the percentage of oxygen in a person's blood, typically measured using a pulse oximeter.
6. Pain level: sometimes included as a vital sign, pain is assessed using a subjective scale, such as the numeric rating scale or the Wong-Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale.

Vital signs are used to quickly and objectively evaluate a person's overall health status, identify potential problems or abnormalities, and guide medical decision-making. They are typically measured during routine physical examinations, hospital admissions, and emergency situations.

Serum albumin is the most abundant protein in human blood plasma, synthesized by the liver. It plays a crucial role in maintaining the oncotic pressure or colloid osmotic pressure of blood, which helps to regulate the fluid balance between the intravascular and extravascular spaces.

Serum albumin has a molecular weight of around 66 kDa and is composed of a single polypeptide chain. It contains several binding sites for various endogenous and exogenous substances, such as bilirubin, fatty acids, hormones, and drugs, facilitating their transport throughout the body. Additionally, albumin possesses antioxidant properties, protecting against oxidative damage.

Albumin levels in the blood are often used as a clinical indicator of liver function, nutritional status, and overall health. Low serum albumin levels may suggest liver disease, malnutrition, inflammation, or kidney dysfunction.

Patient care planning is a critical aspect of medical practice that involves the development, implementation, and evaluation of an individualized plan for patients to receive high-quality and coordinated healthcare services. It is a collaborative process between healthcare professionals, patients, and their families that aims to identify the patient's health needs, establish realistic goals, and determine the most effective interventions to achieve those goals.

The care planning process typically includes several key components, such as:

1. Assessment: A comprehensive evaluation of the patient's physical, psychological, social, and environmental status to identify their healthcare needs and strengths.
2. Diagnosis: The identification of the patient's medical condition(s) based on clinical findings and diagnostic tests.
3. Goal-setting: The establishment of realistic and measurable goals that address the patient's healthcare needs and align with their values, preferences, and lifestyle.
4. Intervention: The development and implementation of evidence-based strategies to achieve the identified goals, including medical treatments, therapies, and supportive services.
5. Monitoring and evaluation: The ongoing assessment of the patient's progress towards achieving their goals and adjusting the care plan as needed based on changes in their condition or response to treatment.

Patient care planning is essential for ensuring that patients receive comprehensive, coordinated, and personalized care that promotes their health, well-being, and quality of life. It also helps healthcare professionals to communicate effectively, make informed decisions, and provide safe and effective care that meets the needs and expectations of their patients.

Patient admission in a medical context refers to the process by which a patient is formally accepted and registered into a hospital or healthcare facility for treatment or further medical care. This procedure typically includes the following steps:

1. Patient registration: The patient's personal information, such as name, address, contact details, and insurance coverage, are recorded in the hospital's system.
2. Clinical assessment: A healthcare professional evaluates the patient's medical condition to determine the appropriate level of care required and develop a plan for treatment. This may involve consulting with other healthcare providers, reviewing medical records, and performing necessary tests or examinations.
3. Bed assignment: Based on the clinical assessment, the hospital staff assigns an appropriate bed in a suitable unit (e.g., intensive care unit, step-down unit, general ward) for the patient's care.
4. Informed consent: The healthcare team explains the proposed treatment plan and associated risks to the patient or their legal representative, obtaining informed consent before proceeding with any invasive procedures or significant interventions.
5. Admission orders: The attending physician documents the admission orders in the medical chart, specifying the diagnostic tests, medications, treatments, and care plans for the patient during their hospital stay.
6. Notification of family members or caregivers: Hospital staff informs the patient's emergency contact or next of kin about their admission and provides relevant information regarding their condition, treatment plan, and any necessary follow-up instructions.
7. Patient education: The healthcare team educates the patient on what to expect during their hospital stay, including potential side effects, self-care strategies, and discharge planning.

The goal of patient admission is to ensure a smooth transition into the healthcare facility, providing timely and appropriate care while maintaining open communication with patients, families, and caregivers throughout the process.

Combined modality therapy (CMT) is a medical treatment approach that utilizes more than one method or type of therapy simultaneously or in close succession, with the goal of enhancing the overall effectiveness of the treatment. In the context of cancer care, CMT often refers to the combination of two or more primary treatment modalities, such as surgery, radiation therapy, and systemic therapies (chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, etc.).

The rationale behind using combined modality therapy is that each treatment method can target cancer cells in different ways, potentially increasing the likelihood of eliminating all cancer cells and reducing the risk of recurrence. The specific combination and sequence of treatments will depend on various factors, including the type and stage of cancer, patient's overall health, and individual preferences.

For example, a common CMT approach for locally advanced rectal cancer may involve preoperative (neoadjuvant) chemoradiation therapy, followed by surgery to remove the tumor, and then postoperative (adjuvant) chemotherapy. This combined approach allows for the reduction of the tumor size before surgery, increases the likelihood of complete tumor removal, and targets any remaining microscopic cancer cells with systemic chemotherapy.

It is essential to consult with a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals to determine the most appropriate CMT plan for each individual patient, considering both the potential benefits and risks associated with each treatment method.

"General practice" in the context of medicine refers to the provision of primary care services that are delivered by a general practitioner (GP) or family physician. These healthcare professionals offer broad-based, first-contact care for a wide range of health issues and conditions, regardless of age, gender, or type of disease. They provide continuous and comprehensive care to individuals and families in their communities, acting as the entry point into the healthcare system and coordinating care with other specialists when needed. General practice emphasizes prevention, health promotion, early intervention, and management of acute and chronic conditions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "social class" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a sociological concept that refers to the grouping of individuals in a society based on their shared economic and social positions. This can include factors such as income, education, occupation, and wealth.

However, social class can have an impact on health outcomes and access to healthcare. For example, people in lower socioeconomic groups are more likely to experience chronic diseases, mental health disorders, and have limited access to quality healthcare services compared to those in higher socioeconomic groups. This relationship is often referred to as the "social determinants of health."

Drug incompatibility refers to a situation where two or more drugs cannot be mixed, combined, or administered together because they will interact in a way that reduces their effectiveness, causes unintended side effects, or even results in harm to the patient. This can occur due to chemical reactions between the drugs, physical interactions (such as precipitation), or pharmacological interactions (such as one drug inhibiting the metabolism of another).

Drug incompatibilities can be identified through various methods, including laboratory testing, literature review, and clinical experience. Healthcare professionals must be aware of potential drug incompatibilities and take steps to avoid them when prescribing or administering medications to patients. This may involve using different administration routes, changing the timing of medication administration, or selecting alternative drugs that are compatible with each other.

Aging is a complex, progressive and inevitable process of bodily changes over time, characterized by the accumulation of cellular damage and degenerative changes that eventually lead to increased vulnerability to disease and death. It involves various biological, genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors that contribute to the decline in physical and mental functions. The medical field studies aging through the discipline of gerontology, which aims to understand the underlying mechanisms of aging and develop interventions to promote healthy aging and extend the human healthspan.

Fibromyalgia is a chronic disorder characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, sleep disturbances, and cognitive difficulties. The pain typically occurs in specific tender points or trigger points, which are located on the neck, shoulders, back, hips, arms, and legs. These points are painful when pressure is applied.

The exact cause of fibromyalgia is unknown, but it appears to be related to abnormalities in the way the brain processes pain signals. It may also be associated with certain genetic factors, physical trauma, infection, or emotional stress. Fibromyalgia is more common in women than men and tends to develop between the ages of 20 and 50.

Fibromyalgia can be difficult to diagnose because its symptoms are similar to those of other conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and chronic fatigue syndrome. However, a diagnosis of fibromyalgia may be made if a person has widespread pain for at least three months and tenderness in at least 11 of 18 specific points on the body when pressure is applied.

There is no cure for fibromyalgia, but medications, therapy, and lifestyle changes can help manage its symptoms. Treatment may include pain relievers, antidepressants, anti-seizure drugs, physical therapy, counseling, stress reduction techniques, and regular exercise.

A tension-type headache (TTH) is a common primary headache disorder characterized by mild to moderate, non-throbbing head pain, often described as a tight band or pressure surrounding the head. The pain typically occurs on both sides of the head and may be accompanied by symptoms such as scalp tenderness, neck stiffness, and light or sound sensitivity.

TTHs are classified into two main categories: episodic and chronic. Episodic TTHs occur less than 15 days per month, while chronic TTHs occur 15 or more days per month for at least three months. The exact cause of tension-type headaches is not fully understood, but they are believed to be related to muscle tension, stress, anxiety, and poor posture.

Treatment options for TTHs include over-the-counter pain relievers such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen, relaxation techniques, stress management, physical therapy, and lifestyle modifications. In some cases, prescription medications may be necessary to manage chronic TTHs.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sweden" is not a medical term. It is a country located in northern Europe. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help answer those!

A prostatectomy is a surgical procedure where all or part of the prostate gland is removed. This surgery can be performed through various approaches such as open surgery, laparoscopic surgery, or robotic-assisted surgery. The type of prostatectomy performed depends on the reason for the surgery and the patient's individual circumstances.

There are two main types of prostatectomies: radical and simple. A radical prostatectomy is a surgical procedure to remove the entire prostate gland, seminal vesicles, and surrounding lymph nodes. This type of prostatectomy is typically performed as a treatment for prostate cancer.

A simple prostatectomy, on the other hand, involves removing only the inner part of the prostate gland that is causing symptoms such as difficulty urinating or bladder obstruction. Simple prostatectomies are usually performed to alleviate benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), which is a non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland.

Regardless of the type of prostatectomy, potential risks and complications include bleeding, infection, urinary incontinence, erectile dysfunction, and changes in sexual function. It is important for patients to discuss these risks with their healthcare provider before undergoing surgery.

Insurance claim reporting is the process of informing an insurance company about a potential claim that an insured individual or business intends to make under their insurance policy. This report typically includes details about the incident or loss, such as the date, time, location, and type of damage or injury, as well as any relevant documentation, such as police reports or medical records.

The purpose of insurance claim reporting is to initiate the claims process and provide the insurance company with the necessary information to evaluate the claim and determine coverage. The insured individual or business may be required to submit additional information or evidence to support their claim, and the insurance company will conduct an investigation to assess the validity and value of the claim.

Prompt and accurate reporting of insurance claims is important to ensure that the claim is processed in a timely manner and to avoid any potential delays or denials of coverage based on late reporting. It is also important to provide complete and truthful information during the claims process, as misrepresentations or false statements can lead to claim denials or even fraud investigations.

The comorbidities were not simplified as an index because each comorbidity affected outcomes (length of hospital stay, hospital ... Comorbidity is often referred to as multimorbidity even though the two are considered distinct clinical scenarios. Comorbidity ... 2010). "Co-morbidity in ENT practice" Коморбидность в ЛОР-практике [Co-morbidity in ENT practice] (PDF). Вестник ... The comorbidities identified by the Elixhauser comorbidity measure are significantly associated with in-hospital mortality and ...
The National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R) was a study done with 9,282 new participants. And the National Comorbidity ... "NCS Home". National Comorbidity Survey. Harvard Medical School. 2005. "Questions and Answers about the National Comorbidity ... The National Comorbidity Survey: Baseline (NCS-1) was the first large-scale field survey of mental health in the United States ... The National Comorbidity Survey: Reinterview (NCS-2) was a follow-up study conducted between 2001 and 2002. The participants in ...
Comorbidity Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) Elixhauser Comorbidity Index Khanh, Linh Ngo; Helenowski, Irene B.; Hoel, Andrew W ... In medicine, the Comorbidity-polypharmacy score (CPS) is a measure of overall severity of comorbidities. It is defined as the ... "Comparing Comorbidity Polypharmacy Score and Charlson Comorbidity Index in predicting outcomes in older trauma patients". ... The test is similar to the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), but CPS also considers the number of medications taken, which is ...
Comorbidity Comorbidity-polypharmacy score (CPS) Elixhauser Comorbidity Index Charlson ME, Pompei P, Ales KL, MacKenzie CR ( ... These comorbidities may be so severe that the costs and risks of cancer treatment would outweigh its short-term benefit. Since ... "Concept: Charlson Comorbidity Index". mchp-appserv.cpe.umanitoba.ca. Retrieved 2023-03-25. Gong G, Wan W, Zhang X, Liu Y, Liu X ... It is one of the most widely used scoring system for comorbidities. The index was developed by Mary Charlson and colleagues in ...
Comorbidity Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) Comorbidity-polypharmacy score (CPS) Elixhauser, A.; Steiner, C.; Harris, D. R.; ... The comorbidities were not simplified as an index because each comorbidity affected outcomes (length of hospital stay, hospital ... The comorbidities identified by the Elixhauser comorbidity measure are significantly associated with in-hospital mortality and ... In medicine, the Elixhauser Comorbidity Index is a measure of overall severity of comorbidities, predicting hospital length of ...
Dual diagnosis (a combination of a mental health issue and a substance use disorder). Comorbidity. Acquired Brain Injury (ABI ...
The National Comorbidity Survey of over 8,000 American correspondents in 1994 revealed 12-month and lifetime prevalence rates ... Sanderson, W. C.; Dinardo, P. A.; Rapee, R. M.; Barlow, D. H. (1990). "Syndrome comorbidity in patients diagnosed with a DSM- ... "Comorbidity". The Wiley Blackwell Handbook of Social Anxiety Disorder. 2014. pp. 208-210. doi:10.1002/9781118653920.fmatter. ... Avoidant personality disorder is likewise highly correlated with SAD, with comorbidity rates ranging from 25% to 89%. To try to ...
Binge-eating disorder in the Swedish national registers; somatic comorbidity. Int J Eat Diord 2017: 50(1):58-65 8. Deal, LS, ...
"Co-morbidity". sensoryhealth.org. Retrieved 2023-04-10. Silberberg NE, Silberberg MC (September 1967). "Hyperlexia-Specific ... "Psychiatric disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders: Prevalence, comorbidity, and associated factors in a ... Comorbidity, and Associated Factors in a Population-Derived Sample". Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent ... Comorbidity, and Associated Factors in a Population-Derived Sample". Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent ...
noted 71% comorbidity. This relationship suggests the opportunistic nature of this pathogen raising the possibility that ... One particular study by Alpern and Dowell noted 85% comorbidity with malignancy, while another study by Koransky et al. ...
1 January 2021). "Comorbidity versus multimorbidity: Why it matters". Journal of Comorbidity. 11: 2633556521993993. doi:10.1177 ... A study suggested there is a paucity of multimorbidity and comorbidity data globally and mapped comorbidity patterns. With ... Multimorbidity is often referred to as comorbidity even though the two are considered distinct clinical scenarios. Comorbidity ... In other settings, for example in pharmaceutical research, comorbidity might often be the more useful term to use. The broad ...
Filipþiü I, Filipþiü I (2018). "Schizophrenia and physical comorbidity". Psychiatria Danubina. 30 (Suppl 4): 152-157. PMID ...
Individuals who have the co-occurrence of more than one externalizing disorder have homotypic comorbidity, whereas individuals ... ISBN 978-0-89042-555-8. Levy, Florence; Hawes, David J.; Johns, Adam (2015). "Externalizing and Internalizing Comorbidity". In ... ISBN 978-0-19-932467-5. Nikolas, Molly A. (2015). "Comorbidity Among Externalizing Disorders". In Beauchaine, Theodore P.; ... ISBN 978-0-19-932467-5. Beauchaine, Theodore P.; McNulty, Tiffany (2013-11-01). "Comorbidities and continuities as ontogenic ...
The prevalence of different comorbidities is influenced by gender. In men, hoarding is associated with generalized anxiety ... Frost RO, Steketee G, Tolin DF (October 2011). "Comorbidity in hoarding disorder". Depression and Anxiety. 28 (10): 876-884. ...
Grant BF, Harford TC (October 1995). "Comorbidity between DSM-IV alcohol use disorders and major depression: results of a ... Hasin DS, Stinson FS, Ogburn E, Grant BF (July 2007). "Prevalence, correlates, disability, and comorbidity of DSM-IV alcohol ... Kandel DB, Huang FY, Davies M (October 2001). "Comorbidity between patterns of substance use dependence and psychiatric ... Cornelius JR, Bukstein O, Salloum I, Clark D (2003). "Alcohol and psychiatric comorbidity". Recent Developments in Alcoholism. ...
Expenses linked to co-morbidities are estimated at an additional $23,000 per person per year. The role of insulin resistance in ... Additionally, the co-morbidities increase the treatment and financial burden of psoriasis and should be considered when ... Amin M, Lee EB, Tsai TF, Wu JJ (January 2020). "Psoriasis and Co-morbidity". Acta Dermato-Venereologica. 100 (3): 81-87. doi: ... Nearly half of individuals with psoriasis over the age of 65 have at least three comorbidities (concurrent conditions), and two ...
"National Comorbidity Survey (NCS)". Retrieved 2019-09-21. "Mental Health Around the World". Retrieved 2019-09-21. Kessler, ... Kessler is the principal investigator of the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS). The NCS was the first nationally representative ... Kessler, Ronald (2013). "National Comorbidity Survey: Reinterview, 2001-2002". ICPSR Data Holdings. doi:10.3886/ICPSR30921.v1 ...
"Comorbidity of Separation Anxiety.". Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V). Arlington, VA: American ... Common co-morbidities can include specific phobias, PTSD, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and personality ... "Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication". ...
Tohen, Mauricio (1999). Comorbidity in affective disorders. New York: M. Dekker. ISBN 0-8247-0212-3. OCLC 39982770. Tohen, ... Comorbidity in Affective Disorders (1999) Clinical Trial Design Challenges in Mood Disorders (2015), first edition "Mauricio ...
A study suggested there is a paucity of multimorbidity and comorbidity data globally and mapped comorbidity patterns. With ... January 2023). "Identifying and visualising multimorbidity and comorbidity patterns in patients in the English National Health ... Journal of Multimorbidity and Comorbidity. 12: 26335565221098327. doi:10.1177/26335565221098327. PMC 9125108. PMID 35615751. ...
and the National Comorbidity Survey. The results of her research indicate that adversities during childhood and adolescence ... and Sociodemographic Correlates of DSM-IV Disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement". ...
Germanò, Eva; Gagliano, Antonella; Curatolo, Paolo (18 August 2010). "Comorbidity of ADHD and Dyslexia". Developmental ...
doi:10.1016/0887-6185(89)90016-9. de Reiter C, Rifkin H, Garssen B, Van Schawk A (1989). "Comorbidity among the anxiety ... Flory, J. D.; Yehuda, R. (2015). "Comorbidity between post-traumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder: alternative ... efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for DSM-IV panic disorder in patients with and without severe psychiatric comorbidity ...
Dupaul, George J.; Gormley, Matthew J.; Laracy, Seth D. (2013). "Comorbidity of LD and ADHD". Journal of Learning Disabilities ...
They agreed that GD could be a coping strategy for an underlying disorder, but that in this debate, "comorbidity is more often ... 2019) described as "artificial comorbidity". PD was therefore reconceptualized in terms of a general dimension of severity, ... 2016): "Although there is significant comorbidity between desire and arousal dysfunction, the overlap of these conditions does ...
Comorbidity of addictive disorders and other psychiatric disorders, i.e., dual disorders, is very common and a large body of ... Similar patterns of comorbidity and risk factors in individuals with substance induced disorder and those with independent non- ... 2003). "Comorbidity of substance misuse and mental illness in community mental health and substance misuse services". Br J ... Regier DA; Farmer ME; Rae DS; Locke BZ; Keith SJ; Judd LL; Goodwin FK (1990). "Comorbidity of mental disorders with alcohol and ...
April 2011). "Depression comorbidity in spinocerebellar ataxia". Movement Disorders. 26 (5): 870-6. doi:10.1002/mds.23698. PMID ...
Jensen, R.; Stovner, L. J. (2008). "Epidemiology and comorbidity of headache". The Lancet Neurology. 7 (4): 354-361. doi: ...
"All above 60 years of age, 45-plus with comorbidities can get COVID-19 vaccine from March 1". The Economic Times. Retrieved 27 ... "Covid vaccination for 12-14 age group from March 16; comorbidity clause for 60+ removed". Times of India. 14 March 2022. ... residents between the ages of 45 and 60 with one or more qualifying comorbidities, and any health care or frontline worker that ... and residents over the age of 60 with comorbidities. Within this cohort, doses would be prioritized to those who had received ...
The high comorbidity of depression and anxiety, as well as the existence of mixed anxiety-depressive disorder suggests that ... "The Comorbidity of Anxiety and Depression". Nami.org. Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Bandelow, Borwin; Volz, Hans-Peter; Barnikol, Utako ... The possible causes of anxiety and depression are often similar to one another and the comorbidity of the two disorders is ... Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Schuster, Peter; Lieb, Roselind (January 2001). "Comorbidity and mixed anxiety-depressive disorder: ...
The comorbidities were not simplified as an index because each comorbidity affected outcomes (length of hospital stay, hospital ... Comorbidity is often referred to as multimorbidity even though the two are considered distinct clinical scenarios. Comorbidity ... 2010). "Co-morbidity in ENT practice" Коморбидность в ЛОР-практике [Co-morbidity in ENT practice] (PDF). Вестник ... The comorbidities identified by the Elixhauser comorbidity measure are significantly associated with in-hospital mortality and ...
Comorbidities are common among adults with inflammatory bowel disease (ibd). ... Comorbidity means more than one disease/condition is present in a person at the same time. ...
Are you familiar with the comorbidities seen with Alzheimers disease? Test your knowledge with this quick quiz. ... Most of the comorbidities associated with Alzheimers disease, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, depression, and ... In regard to treating Alzheimers disease and its comorbidities, diseases that share dysregulated pathways are likely to share ... Are you familiar with the comorbidities seen with Alzheimers disease? Test your knowledge with this quick quiz. ...
Managing Comorbidities. During the initial evaluation of the patient, the physician must perform a thorough physical ... Associated medical conditions also need to be identified and addressed, because these comorbidities directly impact the outcome ...
The study objective is to test mechanisms thought to be responsible for the comorbidity between psychiatric and medical ...
Comorbidities in patients with generalized pustular psoriasis: a nationwide population-based register study. Löfvendahl, Sofia ... case-control, comorbidities, epidemiology, generalized pustular psoriasis, healthcare register, population-based National ...
Comorbidity in rheumatoid arthritis. *Mark. Turesson, Carl LU (2016) In Swiss Medical Weekly 146. Abstract. Rheumatoid ... Register-based observational studies are useful sources of information on the impact of comorbidity and the efficacy and safety ... Register-based observational studies are useful sources of information on the impact of comorbidity and the efficacy and safety ... Register-based observational studies are useful sources of information on the impact of comorbidity and the efficacy and safety ...
How familiar are you with obesity comorbidities? Check your knowledge with this quick quiz. ... How familiar are you with obesity comorbidities? Check your knowledge with this quick quiz. ... Comprehensive, multifaceted management of obesity and its comorbidities is essential to improve outcomes. ...
Includes persons who have incomplete comorbidity; data counted as having no comorbidity. †Cell percent is the percentage within ... Characteristics, Comorbidities, and Data Gaps for Coronavirus Disease Deaths, Tennessee, USA John James Parker. , Rany Octaria ... Characteristics, Comorbidities, and Data Gaps for Coronavirus Disease Deaths, Tennessee, USA. ... comorbidity data were defined as any chart without a single recorded response for any preexisting condition or comorbidity. § ...
Description Comorbidity refers to a specific disease or disorder that might be symptomatic of another disease but may also be ... Comorbidity refers to a specific disease or disorder that might be symptomatic of another disease but may also be characterized ...
Elixhauser Comorbidity Index (ElixhauserCI)¶. A count (0-31) of the number of categories of comorbidity that someone has, based ... The comorbidity terms (e.g. "congestive heart failure") are themselves believed to be in the public domain. The ICD-10 codes ( ... Elixhauser A, Steiner C, Harris DR, Coffey RM (1998). Comorbidity measures for use with administrative data. Med Care. 36: 8-27 ... Coding algorithms for defining comorbidities in ICD-9-CM and ICD-10 administrative data. Med Care. 43: 1130-9. https://www.ncbi ...
... the comorbidity between these disorders, (c) the extent to which common personality underpinnings explain comorbidity, (d) ... 1701 Psychology; Substance use disorders; Gambling disorder; Comorbidity; Big five personality; Sex differences. Reviewed ... Big Five personality traits and alcohol, nicotine, cannabis, and gambling disorder comorbidity. Creator Dash, Genevieve; ... Big Five personality traits and alcohol, nicotine, cannabis, and gambling disorder comorbidity. ...
Leonard et al reported comorbidity scores for pregnant women. One score predicts the risk for all-cause severe morbidity and ... Leonard et al reported comorbidity scores for pregnant women. One score predicts the risk for all-cause severe morbidity and ...
An Individualized Approach to Comorbidities in Lung Cancer. Malene S Frank, Uffe Bodtger*. *Corresponding author af dette ... Frank, M. S., & Bodtger, U. (2023). An Individualized Approach to Comorbidities in Lung Cancer. Journal of Thoracic Oncology, ... An Individualized Approach to Comorbidities in Lung Cancer. / Frank, Malene S; Bodtger, Uffe. I: Journal of Thoracic Oncology, ... Frank, MS & Bodtger, U 2023, An Individualized Approach to Comorbidities in Lung Cancer, Journal of Thoracic Oncology, bind ...
... with emphasis on musculoskeletal comorbidity (arthritis or back problems). Analysis of the 2005 Canadian Community Health ... The purpose of this study was to quantify the contribution of comorbidity to activity limitations in populations with chronic ... many people have comorbidities (i.e. multiply co-occurring diseases) [4]. The occurrence of comorbidity influences decisions in ... This was expected as these are common risk factors for these chronic diseases[22, 23] and for comorbidity[24] as well as for ...
VIGANO, Carlo. Multiple assumption of substances and psychiatric comorbidity. Mental [online]. 2003, vol.1, n.1, pp. 11-22. ...
Post-ACS risk stratification should include measures of frailty and comorbidity, conclude researchers who saw that they ... Cite this: Frailty, Comorbidity Predict Post-ACS Risk in Elderly Independent of Age - Medscape - Apr 19, 2017. ... Therefore, frailty and comorbidity need to be incorporated into risk assessment after acute coronary syndrome." ... Moreover, they note that, while the concept of frailty is distinct from comorbidity and disability, "some of their measurements ...
People with osteoarthritis (OA) face an increased risk of developing comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease, depression, ...
Association of Comorbidity Burden With Abnormal Cardiac Mechanics: Findings From the HyperGEN Study Senthil Selvaraj, Frank G. ... Association of comorbidity burden with abnormal cardiac mechanics: Findings from the HyperGEN study. ... "Association of comorbidity burden with abnormal cardiac mechanics: Findings from the HyperGEN study." Journal of the American ...
Yeah, comorbidities are challenging, but, and thats another one where the combination of bupropion and naltrexone can be handy ... So it could be with someone with a BMI thats under 27 or under 30, you know, no comorbidities, but theyre gaining weight like ... So thats a body mass index of 27 or greater with one weight related comorbidity. So a component of metabolic syndrome or sleep ... We also know that metabolic comorbidity is linked to more depression, lower self-esteem, lower quality of life. As well, I ...
Text; Format: print ; Literary form: Not fiction Language: English Publication details: Washington, DC : National Academies Press, c2007Availability: Items available for loan: WHO HQ (1)Call number: HV 1553 2007FU. ...
Officials have been instructed to vaccinate 8 lakh persons with comorbidities ... Officials have been instructed to vaccinate 8 lakh persons with comorbidities July 16, 2021 02:50 am , Updated 02:50 am IST - ... focusing on vaccination of residents with comorbidities and enforcement of SoPs at commercial areas. Commissioner Gagandeep ...
Co-Morbidities. *Psychiatric disorders*Depression8. *Suicide9. *Attention deficit hyperactive disorder10 ...
In a random sample of 100 subjects with the NSP, the probable underlying cause of the pattern in 68 subjects was airway disease. In most of the remaining 32 subjects, restricted expansion of the thorax or lung may be implicated.
Comparison of a polypharmacy-based scale with Charlson comorbidity index to predict 6-month mortality in chronic complex ...
Racial disparities in COVID-19 outcomes exist despite comparable Elixhauser comorbidity indices between Blacks, Hispanics, ... Racial disparities in COVID-19 outcomes exist despite comparable Elixhauser comorbidity indices between Blacks, Hispanics, ...
The report on the state of the drugs problem in Europe presents the EMCDDAs yearly overview of the drug phenomenon. This is an essential reference book for policy-makers, specialists and practitioners in the drugs field or indeed anyone seeking the latest findings on drugs in Europe. Published every autumn, the report contains non-confidential data supported by an extensive range of figures.. ...
  • Persons with tuberculosis (TB) also often have a mental disorder (MD). We examined TB-MD comorbidity prevalence and its impact on TB treatment outcomes as reported in studies set in the United States or in the top five countries of origin (Mexico, the Philippines, India, Vietnam, and China) for non-US-born persons with TB. (cdc.gov)
  • The team observed low comorbidity prevalence among the participants. (news-medical.net)
  • In psychiatric diagnoses it has been argued in part that this "'use of imprecise language may lead to correspondingly imprecise thinking', [and] this usage of the term 'comorbidity' should probably be avoided. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in psychiatric classification, comorbidity does not necessarily imply the presence of multiple diseases, but instead can reflect current inability to supply a single diagnosis accounting for all symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study objective is to test mechanisms thought to be responsible for the comorbidity between psychiatric and medical sequelae of World Trade Center (WTC) exposures. (cdc.gov)
  • Recent surveys indicate that although clinical outcomes have improved in patients with RA, mainly owing to access to more efficient pharmacotherapy, comorbidity remains a major issue in many patients. (lu.se)
  • Comprehensive, multifaceted management of obesity and its comorbidities is essential to improve outcomes. (medscape.com)
  • Racial disparities in COVID-19 outcomes exist despite comparable Elixhauser comorbidity indices between Blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans, and Whites. (meharryresearch.org)
  • These risk factors have been reported previously for severe COVID-19 cases, and highlight the role that ageing and underlying comorbidities play in severe outcomes to respiratory disease. (who.int)
  • Patients in capitation practices had lower morbidity and comorbidity indices. (cmaj.ca)
  • In their analysis, 342 elderly patients (mean age 77.5) hospitalized for ACS between October 2010 and February 2012 were evaluated for frailty using the Fried and Green scores, for physical disability with the Barthel index, for instrumental disability via the Lawton-Brody scale, for cognitive impairment on the Pfeiffer questionnaire, and comorbidities using the Charlson comorbidity index. (medscape.com)
  • In multivariate analyses, the Green frailty score independently predicted mortality with a per-point hazard ratio (HR) of 1.11 ( P =0.01) and the Charlson comorbidity index predicted mortality with a per-point hazard ratio of 1.18 ( P =0.05). (medscape.com)
  • Fast Five Quiz: Alzheimer's Disease Comorbidities - Medscape - Sep 07, 2023. (medscape.com)
  • Fast Five Quiz: Obesity Comorbidities - Medscape - Jan 31, 2022. (medscape.com)
  • For example, in longstanding diabetes mellitus, the extent to which coronary artery disease is an independent comorbidity versus a diabetic complication is not easy to measure, because both diseases are quite multivariate and there are likely aspects of both simultaneity and consequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • In regard to treating Alzheimer's disease and its comorbidities, diseases that share dysregulated pathways are likely to share some therapeutic targets, representing an important direction for ongoing investigation into Alzheimer's disease. (medscape.com)
  • Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory condition, which is associated with an increased risk of comorbidity from other diseases. (lu.se)
  • Register-based observational studies are useful sources of information on the impact of comorbidity and the efficacy and safety of antirheumatic treatment in patients with coexisting diseases. (lu.se)
  • A count (0-31) of the number of categories of comorbidity that someone has, based on the International Classification of Diseases . (readthedocs.io)
  • Most of the comorbidities associated with Alzheimer's disease, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, depression, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are closely related to inflammation. (medscape.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to quantify the contribution of comorbidity to activity limitations in populations with chronic cardiovascular disease, diabetes or respiratory disease (index conditions), with emphasis on musculoskeletal comorbidity (arthritis or back problems). (biomedcentral.com)
  • People with osteoarthritis (OA) face an increased risk of developing comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease, depression, stroke, and diabetes. (lu.se)
  • Comorbidity is often referred to as multimorbidity even though the two are considered distinct clinical scenarios. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although adding age to the full clinical model increased its discriminatory accuracy, at a C statistic of 0.716-0.744 ( P =0.05), the addition of frailty and comorbidity did not further significantly increase the accuracy. (medscape.com)
  • However, the team found that adding age to the clinical model led to significant risk reclassification for all-cause mortality, an effect that was increased further by the addition of frailty and comorbidity. (medscape.com)
  • The objective of the current study was to recognize the clinical features and comorbidities of depression among inpatients in a tertiary care centre. (who.int)
  • Method: This was an observational study in which 50 patients admitted with ICD-10 diagnosis of depression were assessed for clinical symptomatology and comorbidity. (who.int)
  • We compared comorbidities, clinical features and other predictive factors between COVID-19 patients requiring ICU admission for intubation/mechanical ventilation and all other COVID-19 cases in Selangor, Malaysia. (who.int)
  • In the context of mental health, comorbidity often refers to disorders that are often coexistent with each other, such as depression and anxiety disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Axis II personality disorders are often criticized because their comorbidity rates are excessively high, approaching 60% in some cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aims of this study were to examine: (a) the associations of Big Five personality dimensions with alcohol, nicotine, cannabis, and gambling disorders, (b) the comorbidity between these disorders, (c) the extent to which common personality underpinnings explain comorbidity, (d) whether results differed for men and women, and (e) the magnitude of personality differences corresponding to the 4 disorders. (edu.au)
  • Children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) need to be assessed for the presence of ADHD and learning disorders, given the high comorbidity. (medscape.com)
  • A dual diagnosis is a type of comorbidity, which is when someone has two disorders at the same time. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Methods: Field data collected during the COVID-19 outbreak in Selangor, Malaysia, up to 13 April 2020 were used, comprising socio-demographic characteristics, comorbidities and presenting symptoms of COVID-19 cases. (who.int)
  • How familiar are you with obesity comorbidities? (medscape.com)
  • Frank, MS & Bodtger, U 2023, ' An Individualized Approach to Comorbidities in Lung Cancer ', Journal of Thoracic Oncology , bind 18, nr. 3, s. 254-256. (regsj.dk)
  • So I hope that upon completion of this activity, you'll be able to describe why people with schizophrenia have such high rates of cardiometabolic comorbidity, to discuss the disparities in metabolic care, which unfortunately exist in this patient population, and finally gain a general knowledge of approaches to best practice management of metabolic comorbidity in this population. (smiadviser.org)
  • RESUME Afin d'examiner l'expérience d'une clinique de pédopsychiatrie en ce qui concerne la comorbidité et les caractéristiques du traitement des enfants souffrant d'hyperactivité avec déficit de l'attention (HADA), une étude rétrospective a été réalisée auprès des patients de moins de 19 ans qui consultaient à la clinique et chez lesquels un diagnostic de HADA avait été posé. (who.int)
  • As a part of strategies to improve further the management of patients with RA, multidisciplinary collaboration for prevention and early detection of comorbidities is of major importance. (lu.se)
  • In the analysis published April 4, 2017 in Mayo Clinic Proceedings , increasing frailty independently increased the risk of death from any cause by 14% among patients with ACS who were older than 65, whereas a 1-point jump in comorbidity score was associated with 26% greater risk. (medscape.com)
  • Dr Jose Hernandez, of Santander University, said: 'One approach is to identify and treat vitamin D deficiency, especially in high-risk individuals such as the elderly, patients with comorbidities, and nursing home residents, who are the main target population for the Covid-19. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • In psychiatry, psychology, and mental health counseling, comorbidity refers to the presence of more than one diagnosis occurring in an individual at the same time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comorbidity refers to a specific disease or disorder that might be symptomatic of another disease but may also be characterized by its own particular symptoms and be classified accordingly. (newyorkbehavioralhealth.com)
  • Association of comorbidity burden with abnormal cardiac mechanics: Fin" by Senthil Selvaraj, Frank G. Aguilar et al. (wustl.edu)
  • The civic body has started taking measures to prevent any increase in the number of cases, focusing on vaccination of residents with comorbidities and enforcement of SoPs at commercial areas. (thehindu.com)
  • The team performed logistic regressions to calculate propensity scores and estimate the conditional likelihood of COVID-19 vaccination with particular schedules given comorbidities, residence, sex, priority groups, and prior COVID-19 history. (news-medical.net)
  • Background: Pre-existing comorbidities can predict severe disease requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission among COVID-19 cases. (who.int)
  • Moreover, they note that, while the concept of frailty is distinct from comorbidity and disability, "some of their measurements overlap" in a confounding way. (medscape.com)
  • Following ACS, "frailty and comorbidity provided significant incremental prognostic information and reclassified the risk of all-cause mortality beyond what age alone can do," write the authors, led by Dr Juan Sanchis (University Clinic Hospital, Valencia, Spain). (medscape.com)
  • Still, they conclude: "Frailty and comorbidity are more important mortality predictors than is age after acute coronary syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • Editorial: Comorbidity in bipolar disorder, volume II. (bvsalud.org)
  • Comorbidity means that one 'index' condition is the focus of attention, and others are viewed in relation to this. (wikipedia.org)
  • The concept of multimorbidity is related to comorbidity but presents a different meaning and approach. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, risk stratification after acute coronary syndrome needs to consider not only age but also frailty and comorbidity. (medscape.com)
  • Therefore, frailty and comorbidity need to be incorporated into risk assessment after acute coronary syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • Results of search for 'su:{Comorbidity. (who.int)
  • Are you familiar with the comorbidities seen with Alzheimer's disease? (medscape.com)
  • Comorbidity describes the effect of all other conditions an individual patient might have other than the primary condition of interest, and can be physiological or psychological. (wikipedia.org)
  • In medicine, comorbidity - from Latin morbus ("sickness"), co ("together"), -ity (as if - several sicknesses together)[circular reference] - is the presence of one or more additional conditions often co-occurring (that is, concomitant or concurrent) with a primary condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comorbidity can indicate either a condition existing simultaneously, but independently with another condition or a related derivative medical condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Incomplete comorbidity data were defined as any chart without a single recorded response for any preexisting condition or comorbidity. (cdc.gov)
  • Incomplete comorbidity data, no. (cdc.gov)
  • data counted as having no comorbidity. (cdc.gov)
  • Comorbidity measures for use with administrative data. (readthedocs.io)
  • Coding algorithms for defining comorbidities in ICD-9-CM and ICD-10 administrative data. (readthedocs.io)