Involvement in community activities or programs.
Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.
Policies and programs which ensure that DISPLACED PERSONS and chronic illnesses receive the support and SOCIAL SERVICES needed to live in their communities.
Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.
The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Organizations and individuals cooperating together toward a common goal at the local or grassroots level.
Institutions with permanent facilities and organized medical staff which provide the full range of hospital services primarily to a neighborhood area.
Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)
Persons trained to assist professional health personnel in communicating with residents in the community concerning needs and availability of health services.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A branch of medicine concerned with the total health of the individual within the home environment and in the community, and with the application of comprehensive care to the prevention and treatment of illness in the entire community.
Bacterial proteins that are used by BACTERIOPHAGES to incorporate their DNA into the DNA of the "host" bacteria. They are DNA-binding proteins that function in genetic recombination as well as in transcriptional and translational regulation.
Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.
Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.
Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.
Total pharmaceutical services provided to the public through community pharmacies.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Collaborative process of research involving researchers and community representatives.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.
A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.
General and comprehensive nursing practice directed to individuals, families, or groups as it relates to and contributes to the health of a population or community. This is not an official program of a Public Health Department.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
Specific loci on both the bacterial DNA (attB) and the phage DNA (attP) which delineate the sites where recombination takes place between them, as the phage DNA becomes integrated (inserted) into the BACTERIAL DNA during LYSOGENY.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Psychotherapeutic technique which emphasizes socioenvironmental and interpersonal influences in the resocialization and rehabilitation of the patient. The setting is usually a hospital unit or ward in which professional and nonprofessional staff interact with the patients.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Enzyme of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS that is required to integrate viral DNA into cellular DNA in the nucleus of a host cell. HIV integrase is a DNA nucleotidyltransferase encoded by the pol gene.
The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)
The status of health in rural populations.
Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Theoretical representations and constructs that describe or explain the structure and hierarchy of relationships and interactions within or between formal organizational entities or informal social groups.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The genomic analysis of assemblages of organisms.
Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Facilities which administer the delivery of psychologic and psychiatric services to people living in a neighborhood or community.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
Branch of psychiatry concerned with the provision and delivery of a coordinated program of mental health care to a specified population. The foci included in this concept are: all social, psychological and physical factors related to etiology, prevention, and maintaining positive mental health in the community.
A geographic location which has insufficient health resources (manpower and/or facilities) to meet the medical needs of the resident population.
Persons who donate their services.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.
Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.
Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.
The full collection of microbes (bacteria, fungi, virus, etc.) that naturally exist within a particular biological niche such as an organism, soil, a body of water, etc.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
The immediate physical zone surrounding plant roots that include the plant roots. It is an area of intense and complex biological activity involving plants, microorganisms, other soil organisms, and the soil.
The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)
Facilities for the preparation and dispensing of drugs.

Factors associated with the occurrence of sentinel events during transition from hospital to home for individuals with traumatic brain injury. (1/19)

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Ending homelessness among people with mental illness: the At Home/Chez Soi randomized trial of a Housing First intervention in Toronto. (2/19)

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Borderline intellectual functioning: consensus and good practice guidelines. (3/19)

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The role of prevention in promoting continuity of health care in prisoner reentry initiatives. (4/19)

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Experiencing community: perspectives of individuals diagnosed as having serious mental illness. (5/19)

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Final priority. National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research--Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems Centers Collaborative Research Project. Final priority. (6/19)

The Assistant Secretary for Special Education and Rehabilitative Services announces a priority for the Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program administered by the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR). Specifically, we announce a priority for a Disability and Rehabilitation Research Project (DRRP) on Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems Centers Collaborative Research Project. The Assistant Secretary may use this priority for competitions in fiscal year (FY) 2013 and later years. We take this action to focus research attention on areas of national need. We intend this priority to improve outcomes among individuals with traumatic brain injuries.  (+info)

Final priorities; National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research--Rehabilitation Research and Training Centers. Final priorities. (7/19)

The Assistant Secretary for Special Education and Rehabilitative Services announces priorities for the Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program administered by the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR). Specifically, we announce priorities for Rehabilitation Research and Training Centers (RRTCs) on Community Living and Participation for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (Priority 1), Employment of Individuals with Physical Disabilities (Priority 2), Health and Function of Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (Priority 3), and Community Living and Participation for Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (Priority 4). If an applicant proposes to conduct research under these priorities, the research must be focused on one of the four stages of research defined in this notice. The Assistant Secretary may use these priorities for competitions in fiscal year (FY) 2013 and later years. We take this action to focus research attention on areas of national need. We intend these priorities to improve outcomes among individuals with disabilities.  (+info)

Final priority; National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research--Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program--Rehabilitation Research Training Centers. Final priority. (8/19)

The Assistant Secretary for Special Education and Rehabilitative Services announces a priority for a Rehabilitation Research Training Center (RRTC) on Disability Statistics and Demographics under the Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers program administered by the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR). The Assistant Secretary may use this priority for a competition in fiscal year (FY) 2013 and later years. We take this action to focus research attention on areas of national need. We intend to use this priority to improve outcomes for individuals with disabilities.  (+info)

Social participation, in the context of health and medicine, refers to an individual's involvement in various life situations, activities, and interactions with others, families, communities, and society at large. It encompasses areas such as employment, education, community life, recreation, and social relationships. Social participation is considered an important aspect of overall health and well-being, as it can contribute to a person's sense of purpose, self-esteem, and quality of life. Reduced social participation may be associated with various health conditions, disabilities, or social determinants of health, making it an essential component of comprehensive healthcare and rehabilitation.

Social adjustment, in the context of mental health and psychology, refers to an individual's ability to adapt and function effectively within their social environment. It involves developing and maintaining positive relationships with others, fulfilling various social roles (such as being a family member, friend, or employee), and meeting the expectations and demands of one's social group.

Social adjustment can be affected by various factors, including an individual's personality traits, coping skills, mental and physical health status, and life experiences. Poor social adjustment can lead to feelings of isolation, loneliness, and dissatisfaction with life, as well as increased risk for mental health problems such as depression and anxiety.

Assessing social adjustment is an important aspect of mental health care, as it can provide valuable insights into an individual's overall functioning and quality of life. Treatments such as psychotherapy and social skills training may be used to help improve social adjustment in individuals who are struggling in this area.

A brain injury is defined as damage to the brain that occurs following an external force or trauma, such as a blow to the head, a fall, or a motor vehicle accident. Brain injuries can also result from internal conditions, such as lack of oxygen or a stroke. There are two main types of brain injuries: traumatic and acquired.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is caused by an external force that results in the brain moving within the skull or the skull being fractured. Mild TBIs may result in temporary symptoms such as headaches, confusion, and memory loss, while severe TBIs can cause long-term complications, including physical, cognitive, and emotional impairments.

Acquired brain injury (ABI) is any injury to the brain that occurs after birth and is not hereditary, congenital, or degenerative. ABIs are often caused by medical conditions such as strokes, tumors, anoxia (lack of oxygen), or infections.

Both TBIs and ABIs can range from mild to severe and may result in a variety of physical, cognitive, and emotional symptoms that can impact a person's ability to perform daily activities and function independently. Treatment for brain injuries typically involves a multidisciplinary approach, including medical management, rehabilitation, and supportive care.

Activities of Daily Living (ADL) are routine self-care activities that individuals usually do every day without assistance. These activities are widely used as a measure to determine the functional status and independence of a person, particularly in the elderly or those with disabilities or chronic illnesses. The basic ADLs include:

1. Personal hygiene: Bathing, washing hands and face, brushing teeth, grooming, and using the toilet.
2. Dressing: Selecting appropriate clothes and dressing oneself.
3. Eating: Preparing and consuming food, either independently or with assistive devices.
4. Mobility: Moving in and out of bed, chairs, or wheelchairs, walking independently or using mobility aids.
5. Transferring: Moving from one place to another, such as getting in and out of a car, bath, or bed.

There are also more complex Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs) that assess an individual's ability to manage their own life and live independently. These include managing finances, shopping for groceries, using the telephone, taking medications as prescribed, preparing meals, and housekeeping tasks.

Community integration, in the context of healthcare and social services, refers to the degree to which individuals with physical, cognitive, or mental health challenges are able to participate fully and effectively in their communities. This can include:

1. Living in a home of their choice, rather than an institutional setting.
2. Having access to community resources such as transportation, education, employment, and recreational opportunities.
3. Forming and maintaining relationships with family, friends, and peers.
4. Making decisions about their own care and life.
5. Contributing to the well-being and development of their communities through volunteering, employment, or other activities.

The goal of community integration is to support individuals in living a fulfilling and independent life, while also fostering a sense of belonging and connection to their community. This concept is often used in rehabilitation, mental health, and disability services to promote recovery, inclusion, and self-determination.

I'm happy to help, but I need to clarify that "residence characteristics" is not a commonly used medical term. It is more related to the field of public health or epidemiology. However, if you are asking for the characteristics of a residence that could be relevant to medical or health research, they might include:

1. Housing type (single-family home, apartment, mobile home, etc.)
2. Age and condition of the housing unit
3. Presence of environmental hazards (lead paint, asbestos, radon, etc.)
4. Quality of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems
5. Access to clean water and sanitation facilities
6. Safety features (smoke detectors, carbon monoxide detectors, etc.)
7. Presence of pests (rodents, cockroaches, bed bugs, etc.)
8. Neighborhood characteristics (crime rates, access to healthy food options, walkability, etc.)

These factors can all have an impact on the health outcomes of individuals and communities, and are often studied in public health research.

Virus integration, in the context of molecular biology and virology, refers to the insertion of viral genetic material into the host cell's genome. This process is most commonly associated with retroviruses, such as HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), which have an enzyme called reverse transcriptase that converts their RNA genome into DNA. This DNA can then integrate into the host's chromosomal DNA, becoming a permanent part of the host's genetic material.

This integration is a crucial step in the retroviral life cycle, allowing the virus to persist within the host cell and evade detection by the immune system. It also means that the viral genome can be passed on to daughter cells when the host cell divides.

However, it's important to note that not all viruses integrate their genetic material into the host's genome. Some viruses, like influenza, exist as separate entities within the host cell and do not become part of the host's DNA.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

Community health services refer to a type of healthcare delivery that is organized around the needs of a specific population or community, rather than individual patients. These services are typically focused on preventive care, health promotion, and improving access to care for underserved populations. They can include a wide range of services, such as:

* Primary care, including routine check-ups, immunizations, and screenings
* Dental care
* Mental health and substance abuse treatment
* Public health initiatives, such as disease prevention and health education programs
* Home health care and other supportive services for people with chronic illnesses or disabilities
* Health services for special populations, such as children, the elderly, or those living in rural areas

The goal of community health services is to improve the overall health of a population by addressing the social, economic, and environmental factors that can impact health. This approach recognizes that healthcare is just one factor in determining a person's health outcomes, and that other factors such as housing, education, and income also play important roles. By working to address these underlying determinants of health, community health services aim to improve the health and well-being of entire communities.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Systems Integration" is not a medical term per se. It is a term more commonly used in the fields of engineering, computer science, and information technology. However, I can provide you with a general definition:

Systems Integration refers to the process of combining different sub-systems or components into a single, cohesive system to allow seamless communication and data exchange between them. This integration aims to improve efficiency, performance, and overall functionality by unifying various standalone systems into an interconnected network that behaves as a unified whole.

In the context of healthcare, systems integration can be applied to merge different electronic health record (EHR) systems, medical devices, or other healthcare technologies to create a comprehensive, interoperable healthcare information system. This facilitates better care coordination, data sharing, and decision-making among healthcare providers, ultimately enhancing patient outcomes and satisfaction.

Community networks, in the context of public health and medical care, typically refer to local or regional networks of healthcare providers, organizations, and resources that work together to provide integrated and coordinated care to a defined population. These networks can include hospitals, clinics, primary care providers, specialists, mental health services, home health agencies, and other community-based organizations.

The goal of community networks is to improve the overall health outcomes of the population they serve by ensuring that individuals have access to high-quality, coordinated care that meets their unique needs. Community networks can also help to reduce healthcare costs by preventing unnecessary hospitalizations and emergency department visits through better management of chronic conditions and prevention efforts.

Effective community networks require strong partnerships, clear communication, and a shared commitment to improving the health of the community. They may be organized around geographic boundaries, such as a city or county, or around specific populations, such as individuals with chronic illnesses or low-income communities.

Community hospitals are healthcare facilities that provide a range of medical services to the local population in a given geographic area. They are typically smaller than major teaching or tertiary care hospitals and offer a more personalized level of care. The services provided by community hospitals may include general medical, surgical, obstetrical, and pediatric care, as well as diagnostic and therapeutic services such as laboratory testing, imaging, and rehabilitation.

Community hospitals often play an important role in providing access to healthcare for underserved populations and may offer specialized programs to address the specific health needs of the communities they serve. They may also collaborate with other healthcare providers, such as primary care physicians, specialists, and long-term care facilities, to provide coordinated care and improve outcomes for patients.

Overall, community hospitals are an essential component of the healthcare system and play a vital role in providing high-quality, accessible care to local populations.

Community health planning is a systematic and continuous process that involves assessing the health needs and resources of a defined population, setting priorities for health improvement, and developing and implementing action plans to achieve those priorities. It is a collaborative effort between various stakeholders, including community members, healthcare providers, public health professionals, and other relevant organizations. The goal of community health planning is to improve the overall health and well-being of the community by addressing the social, environmental, and economic factors that impact health. This process typically involves the following steps:

1. Needs assessment: Identifying the health needs and priorities of the community through data collection and analysis, including demographic information, health status indicators, and healthcare utilization patterns.
2. Resource assessment: Identifying the available resources in the community, such as healthcare facilities, public health programs, and community-based organizations that can be leveraged to address the identified needs.
3. Priority setting: Determining the most pressing health issues that need to be addressed based on the needs and resource assessments. This involves engaging stakeholders in a participatory process to identify shared priorities.
4. Plan development: Developing an action plan that outlines specific strategies, activities, and timelines for addressing the identified priorities. The plan should also include indicators for measuring progress and evaluating outcomes.
5. Implementation: Putting the action plan into practice by engaging community members, healthcare providers, and other stakeholders in implementing the strategies and activities outlined in the plan.
6. Evaluation: Monitoring and evaluating the progress of the action plan to ensure that it is achieving the desired outcomes and making adjustments as needed.

Community health planning is an essential component of public health practice because it helps to ensure that resources are allocated effectively, priorities are aligned with community needs, and interventions are tailored to the unique characteristics of the population being served.

Community health workers (CHWs) are individuals who are trained to work within and promote the health of their own communities. They serve as a bridge between healthcare professionals and the communities they serve, often working in underserved or hard-to-reach areas. CHWs may provide a range of services, including health education, outreach, advocacy, and case management.

CHWs come from diverse backgrounds and may have different levels of training and education. They are typically trusted members of their communities and share similar language, culture, and life experiences with the people they serve. This helps to build rapport and trust with community members, making it easier for CHWs to provide culturally sensitive care and support.

The role of CHWs can vary depending on the needs of the community and the healthcare system in which they work. In some settings, CHWs may focus on specific health issues, such as maternal and child health, infectious diseases, or chronic conditions like diabetes. In other cases, they may provide more general support to help individuals navigate the healthcare system and access needed services.

Overall, community health workers play an important role in promoting health equity and improving health outcomes for vulnerable populations. By working closely with communities and connecting them to appropriate care and resources, CHWs can help to reduce disparities and improve the overall health of their communities.

An "ecosystem" is not a term that has a specific medical definition, as it is a concept that is more commonly used in the fields of ecology and environmental science. However, I can provide you with the general ecological definition of an ecosystem:

An ecosystem is a community of living organisms interacting with each other and their non-living environment, including both biotic factors (plants, animals, microorganisms) and abiotic factors (climate, soil, water, and air). These interactions create a complex network of relationships that form the foundation of ecological processes, such as energy flow, nutrient cycling, and population dynamics.

While there is no direct medical definition for an ecosystem, understanding the principles of ecosystems can have important implications for human health. For example, healthy ecosystems can provide clean air and water, regulate climate, support food production, and offer opportunities for recreation and relaxation, all of which contribute to overall well-being. Conversely, degraded ecosystems can lead to increased exposure to environmental hazards, reduced access to natural resources, and heightened risks of infectious diseases. Therefore, maintaining the health and integrity of ecosystems is crucial for promoting human health and preventing disease.

Biodiversity is the variety of different species of plants, animals, and microorganisms that live in an ecosystem. It also includes the variety of genes within a species and the variety of ecosystems (such as forests, grasslands, deserts, and oceans) that exist in a region or on Earth as a whole. Biodiversity is important for maintaining the health and balance of ecosystems, providing resources and services such as food, clean water, and pollination, and contributing to the discovery of new medicines and other useful products. The loss of biodiversity can have negative impacts on the functioning of ecosystems and the services they provide, and can threaten the survival of species and the livelihoods of people who depend on them.

'Biota' is a term that refers to the total collection of living organisms in a particular habitat, ecosystem, or region. It includes all forms of life such as plants, animals, fungi, bacteria, and other microorganisms. Biota can be used to describe the communities of living things in a specific area, like a forest biota or marine biota, and it can also refer to the study of these organisms and their interactions with each other and their environment. In medical contexts, 'biota' may specifically refer to the microorganisms that inhabit the human body, such as the gut microbiota.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are among the earliest known life forms on Earth. They are typically characterized as having a cell wall and no membrane-bound organelles. The majority of bacteria have a prokaryotic organization, meaning they lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.

Bacteria exist in diverse environments and can be found in every habitat on Earth, including soil, water, and the bodies of plants and animals. Some bacteria are beneficial to their hosts, while others can cause disease. Beneficial bacteria play important roles in processes such as digestion, nitrogen fixation, and biogeochemical cycling.

Bacteria reproduce asexually through binary fission or budding, and some species can also exchange genetic material through conjugation. They have a wide range of metabolic capabilities, with many using organic compounds as their source of energy, while others are capable of photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

Bacteria are highly adaptable and can evolve rapidly in response to environmental changes. This has led to the development of antibiotic resistance in some species, which poses a significant public health challenge. Understanding the biology and behavior of bacteria is essential for developing strategies to prevent and treat bacterial infections and diseases.

Community medicine, also known as social medicine or public health medicine, is a branch of medical science that deals with the health of populations and communities rather than individual patients. It focuses on preventing diseases and promoting health through organized community efforts, including education, advocacy, and policy development. Community medicine aims to improve the overall health status of a population by addressing the social determinants of health, such as poverty, housing, education, and access to healthcare services. It involves collaboration between various stakeholders, including healthcare professionals, community members, policical leaders, and organizations, to identify and address the health needs of the community.

Integration Host Factors (IHF) are small, DNA-binding proteins that play a crucial role in the organization and regulation of DNA in many bacteria. They function by binding to specific sequences of DNA and causing a bend or kink in the double helix. This bending of the DNA brings distant regions of the genome into close proximity, allowing for interactions between different regulatory elements and facilitating various DNA transactions such as transcription, replication, and repair. IHF also plays a role in protecting the genome from damage by preventing the invasion of foreign DNA and promoting the specific recognition of bacterial chromosomal sites during partitioning. Overall, IHF is an essential protein that helps regulate gene expression and maintain genomic stability in bacteria.

Community Health Centers (CHCs) are primary care facilities that provide comprehensive and culturally competent health services to medically underserved communities, regardless of their ability to pay. CHCs are funded through various sources, including the federal government's Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA). They aim to reduce health disparities and improve health outcomes for vulnerable populations by providing access to high-quality preventive and primary care services.

CHCs offer a range of services, such as medical, dental, and behavioral health care, as well as enabling services like case management, transportation, and language interpretation. They operate on a sliding fee scale basis, ensuring that patients pay based on their income and ability to pay. CHCs also engage in community outreach and education to promote health awareness and prevention.

Consumer participation in the context of healthcare refers to the active involvement and engagement of patients, families, caregivers, and communities in their own healthcare decision-making processes and in the development, implementation, and evaluation of health policies, programs, and services. It emphasizes the importance of patient-centered care, where the unique needs, preferences, values, and experiences of individuals are respected and integrated into their healthcare.

Consumer participation can take many forms, including:

1. Patient-provider communication: Consumers engage in open and honest communication with their healthcare providers to make informed decisions about their health.
2. Shared decision-making: Consumers work together with their healthcare providers to weigh the benefits and risks of different treatment options and make evidence-based decisions that align with their values, preferences, and goals.
3. Patient education: Consumers receive accurate, timely, and understandable information about their health conditions, treatments, and self-management strategies.
4. Patient advocacy: Consumers advocate for their own health needs and rights, as well as those of other patients and communities.
5. Community engagement: Consumers participate in the development, implementation, and evaluation of health policies, programs, and services that affect their communities.
6. Research partnerships: Consumers collaborate with researchers to design, conduct, and disseminate research that is relevant and meaningful to their lives.

Consumer participation aims to improve healthcare quality, safety, and outcomes by empowering individuals to take an active role in their own health and well-being, and by ensuring that healthcare systems are responsive to the needs and preferences of diverse populations.

Community Mental Health Services (CMHS) refer to mental health care services that are provided in community settings, as opposed to traditional hospital-based or institutional care. These services are designed to be accessible, comprehensive, and coordinated, with the goal of promoting recovery, resilience, and improved quality of life for individuals with mental illnesses.

CMHS may include a range of services such as:

1. Outpatient care: Including individual and group therapy, medication management, and case management services provided in community clinics or healthcare centers.
2. Assertive Community Treatment (ACT): A team-based approach to providing comprehensive mental health services to individuals with severe and persistent mental illnesses who may have difficulty engaging in traditional outpatient care.
3. Crisis intervention: Including mobile crisis teams, emergency psychiatric evaluations, and short-term residential crisis stabilization units.
4. Supported housing and employment: Services that help individuals with mental illnesses to live independently in the community and to obtain and maintain competitive employment.
5. Prevention and early intervention: Programs that aim to identify and address mental health issues before they become more severe, such as suicide prevention programs, bullying prevention, and early psychosis detection and treatment.
6. Peer support: Services provided by individuals who have personal experience with mental illness and can offer support, guidance, and advocacy to others who are struggling with similar issues.
7. Family education and support: Programs that provide information, resources, and support to family members of individuals with mental illnesses.

The goal of CMHS is to provide accessible, comprehensive, and coordinated care that meets the unique needs of each individual and helps them to achieve their recovery goals in the community setting.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes, which are complex structures inside cells where protein synthesis occurs. The "16S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of the rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its size and shape. In particular, 16S rRNA is a component of the smaller subunit of the prokaryotic ribosome (found in bacteria and archaea), and is often used as a molecular marker for identifying and classifying these organisms due to its relative stability and conservation among species. The sequence of 16S rRNA can be compared across different species to determine their evolutionary relationships and taxonomic positions.

Community-institutional relations in a medical context generally refers to the interactions and relationships between healthcare institutions, such as hospitals or clinics, and the communities they serve. This can include initiatives and programs aimed at promoting community health, addressing social determinants of health, and building trust and engagement with community members. It may also involve collaborations and partnerships with other organizations, such as community-based organizations, public health agencies, and local government entities, to address shared health concerns and improve overall community wellbeing. Effective community-institutional relations can help to ensure that healthcare institutions are responsive to the needs of their communities and contribute to positive health outcomes.

Community pharmacy services refer to the healthcare services provided by retail pharmacies within a community setting. These services typically include:

1. Dispensing medications: Pharmacists ensure that prescriptions are filled correctly and provide patients with necessary instructions for use, potential side effects, and warnings about drug interactions.

2. Medication therapy management (MTM): Pharmacists review a patient's medication regimen to identify any potential issues, such as duplications, dosage errors, or interactions. They may also make recommendations to optimize the effectiveness and safety of the medications being used.

3. Immunizations: Many community pharmacies now offer immunization services for various vaccine-preventable diseases, such as influenza, pneumococcal disease, and hepatitis B.

4. Point-of-care testing: Some community pharmacies provide diagnostic tests, like blood glucose or cholesterol screening, to help monitor chronic conditions or identify health issues early on.

5. Health screenings and wellness programs: Community pharmacies often host health fairs, smoking cessation programs, or weight management initiatives to promote overall well-being and prevent disease.

6. Medication disposal: Pharmacies sometimes offer safe disposal options for unused or expired medications to help prevent environmental contamination and misuse.

7. Patient education: Community pharmacists provide counseling on various topics, such as proper use of inhalers, managing side effects, and adhering to medication schedules. They may also offer information about disease prevention and healthy lifestyle choices.

8. Consultation services: Pharmacists can provide one-on-one consultations for patients seeking advice on over-the-counter products, self-care, or management of chronic conditions.

9. Collaborative care: Community pharmacists work closely with other healthcare providers, such as physicians and nurses, to coordinate patient care and ensure optimal treatment outcomes.

10. Public health initiatives: Community pharmacies often participate in public health campaigns, like promoting tobacco-free lifestyles or supporting immunization efforts during outbreaks or epidemics.

A rural population refers to people who live in areas that are outside of urban areas, typically defined as having fewer than 2,000 residents and lacking certain infrastructure and services such as running water, sewage systems, and paved roads. Rural populations often have less access to healthcare services, education, and economic opportunities compared to their urban counterparts. This population group can face unique health challenges, including higher rates of poverty, limited access to specialized medical care, and a greater exposure to environmental hazards such as agricultural chemicals and industrial pollutants.

I apologize, but there seems to be a misunderstanding. "Soil microbiology" is not a medical term; rather, it is a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms in soil. It involves understanding the diversity, ecology, and biochemistry of bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa, and other microscopic life forms found in soil. This field has applications in agriculture, environmental science, and waste management but is not directly related to medical definitions or human health.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) is a collaborative research approach that involves community members, organizational representatives, and researchers in all aspects of the research process. It is a partnership between researchers and communities that equitably involves all parties in the research to address and respond to community-identified issues. CBPR aims to combine knowledge and action for social change to improve community health and wellbeing. This approach recognizes the strengths and expertise of both community members and researchers, and it integrates scientific research methods with community knowledge and experiential wisdom. CBPR is guided by specific principles, including co-learning, capacity building, and reciprocal sharing of power and resources, to ensure that the research is relevant, accessible, and beneficial to the community.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

Integrases are enzymes that are responsible for the integration of genetic material into a host's DNA. In particular, integrases play a crucial role in the life cycle of retroviruses, such as HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus). These viruses have an RNA genome, which must be reverse-transcribed into DNA before it can be integrated into the host's chromosomal DNA.

The integrase enzyme, encoded by the virus's pol gene, is responsible for this critical step in the retroviral replication cycle. It mediates the cutting and pasting of the viral cDNA into a specific site within the host cell's genome, leading to the formation of a provirus. This provirus can then be transcribed and translated by the host cell's machinery, resulting in the production of new virus particles.

Integrase inhibitors are an important class of antiretroviral drugs used in the treatment of HIV infection. They work by blocking the activity of the integrase enzyme, thereby preventing the integration of viral DNA into the host genome and halting the replication of the virus.

Microbial consortia refer to a group or community of microorganisms, including bacteria, archaea, fungi, and viruses, that naturally exist together in a specific environment and interact with each other. These interactions can be synergistic, where the organisms benefit from each other's presence, or competitive, where they compete for resources.

Microbial consortia play important roles in various biological processes, such as biogeochemical cycling, plant growth promotion, and wastewater treatment. The study of microbial consortia is essential to understanding the complex interactions between microorganisms and their environment, and has implications for fields such as medicine, agriculture, and environmental science.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

A metagenome is the collective genetic material contained within a sample taken from a specific environment, such as soil or water, or within a community of organisms, like the microbiota found in the human gut. It includes the genomes of all the microorganisms present in that environment or community, including bacteria, archaea, fungi, viruses, and other microbes, whether they can be cultured in the lab or not. By analyzing the metagenome, scientists can gain insights into the diversity, abundance, and functional potential of the microbial communities present in that environment.

Community health nursing, also known as public health nursing, is a specialized area of nursing practice that focuses on improving the health and well-being of communities and populations. It involves the assessment, diagnosis, intervention, and evaluation of the health needs of communities, and the development and implementation of programs and interventions to address those needs.

Community health nurses work in a variety of settings, including community health centers, public health departments, schools, and home health agencies. They may provide direct care to individuals and families, as well as coordinate and deliver population-based services such as immunization clinics, health education programs, and screenings.

The goal of community health nursing is to promote and protect the health of communities and populations, particularly those who are most vulnerable or at risk. This may include addressing issues such as infectious disease prevention and control, chronic disease management, maternal and child health, environmental health, and access to care. Community health nurses also play an important role in advocating for policies and practices that support the health and well-being of communities and populations.

Health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over their health and its determinants, and to improve their health. It moves beyond a focus on individual behavior change to include social and environmental interventions that can positively influence the health of individuals, communities, and populations. Health promotion involves engaging in a wide range of activities, such as advocacy, policy development, community organization, and education that aim to create supportive environments and personal skills that foster good health. It is based on principles of empowerment, participation, and social justice.

Attachment sites in microbiology refer to specific locations on the surface of a host cell (such as a human or animal cell) where microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites can bind and establish an infection. These sites may be receptors, proteins, or other molecules on the cell surface that the microorganism recognizes and interacts with through its own adhesive structures, such as pili or fimbriae in bacteria, or glycoprotein spikes in viruses. The ability of a microorganism to attach to a host cell is a critical first step in the infection process, and understanding these attachment sites can provide important insights into the pathogenesis of infectious diseases and potential targets for prevention and treatment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "soil" is not a term that has a medical definition. Soil is defined as the top layer of earth in which plants grow, a mixture of organic material, clay, sand, and silt. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you.

The term "Integrated Delivery of Healthcare" refers to a coordinated and seamless approach to providing healthcare services, where different providers and specialists work together to provide comprehensive care for patients. This model aims to improve patient outcomes by ensuring that all aspects of a person's health are addressed in a holistic and coordinated manner.

Integrated delivery of healthcare may involve various components such as:

1. Primary Care: A primary care provider serves as the first point of contact for patients and coordinates their care with other specialists and providers.
2. Specialty Care: Specialists provide care for specific medical conditions or diseases, working closely with primary care providers to ensure coordinated care.
3. Mental Health Services: Mental health providers work alongside medical professionals to address the mental and emotional needs of patients, recognizing that mental health is an essential component of overall health.
4. Preventive Care: Preventive services such as screenings, vaccinations, and health education are provided to help prevent illnesses and promote overall health and well-being.
5. Chronic Disease Management: Providers work together to manage chronic diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer, using evidence-based practices and coordinated care plans.
6. Health Information Technology: Electronic health records (EHRs) and other health information technologies are used to facilitate communication and coordination among providers, ensuring that all members of the care team have access to up-to-date patient information.
7. Patient Engagement: Patients are actively engaged in their care, with education and support provided to help them make informed decisions about their health and treatment options.

The goal of integrated delivery of healthcare is to provide high-quality, cost-effective care that meets the unique needs of each patient, while also improving overall population health.

Program Evaluation is a systematic and objective assessment of a healthcare program's design, implementation, and outcomes. It is a medical term used to describe the process of determining the relevance, effectiveness, and efficiency of a program in achieving its goals and objectives. Program evaluation involves collecting and analyzing data related to various aspects of the program, such as its reach, impact, cost-effectiveness, and quality. The results of program evaluation can be used to improve the design and implementation of existing programs or to inform the development of new ones. It is a critical tool for ensuring that healthcare programs are meeting the needs of their intended audiences and delivering high-quality care in an efficient and effective manner.

Viral DNA refers to the genetic material present in viruses that consist of DNA as their core component. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is one of the two types of nucleic acids that are responsible for storing and transmitting genetic information in living organisms. Viruses are infectious agents much smaller than bacteria that can only replicate inside the cells of other organisms, called hosts.

Viral DNA can be double-stranded (dsDNA) or single-stranded (ssDNA), depending on the type of virus. Double-stranded DNA viruses have a genome made up of two complementary strands of DNA, while single-stranded DNA viruses contain only one strand of DNA.

Examples of dsDNA viruses include Adenoviruses, Herpesviruses, and Poxviruses, while ssDNA viruses include Parvoviruses and Circoviruses. Viral DNA plays a crucial role in the replication cycle of the virus, encoding for various proteins necessary for its multiplication and survival within the host cell.

A Therapeutic Community (TC) is a type of residential treatment model for various psychological, behavioral, and/or addiction disorders. It is based on the concept of a democratically managed community where residents and staff work together to create a healing environment. The primary goal is to help individuals learn new social and emotional skills, improve self-awareness, develop self-efficacy, and reintegrate into society as productive members.

TCs typically have several key components:

1. A hierarchical system of roles and responsibilities that evolves over time, allowing residents to gain privileges and responsibilities as they progress in their recovery.
2. A strong emphasis on mutual self-help, where residents support each other in their recovery process through group meetings, discussions, and activities.
3. A focus on the development of prosocial attitudes and behaviors, including communication skills, problem-solving, conflict resolution, and personal responsibility.
4. The use of community meetings, where members discuss and make decisions about rules, policies, and the overall functioning of the community.
5. A structured daily routine that includes both therapeutic activities (e.g., group therapy, individual counseling, psychoeducational workshops) and daily chores to promote a sense of belonging and responsibility.
6. A long-term commitment to treatment, with stays typically ranging from 6 months to 2 years, allowing residents to build meaningful relationships and fully engage in the therapeutic process.

TCs have been shown to be effective in treating various disorders, including substance use disorders, personality disorders, and mental health issues. The communal living environment and the emphasis on personal responsibility and self-help contribute to a sense of empowerment and self-efficacy that can lead to lasting changes in behavior and improved quality of life.

I am not aware of a widely accepted medical definition for the term "software," as it is more commonly used in the context of computer science and technology. Software refers to programs, data, and instructions that are used by computers to perform various tasks. It does not have direct relevance to medical fields such as anatomy, physiology, or clinical practice. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help with those instead!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Internet" is a term that pertains to the global network of interconnected computers and servers that enable the transmission and reception of data via the internet protocol (IP). It is not a medical term and does not have a specific medical definition. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I'd be happy to try to help answer them for you!

Genetic recombination is the process by which genetic material is exchanged between two similar or identical molecules of DNA during meiosis, resulting in new combinations of genes on each chromosome. This exchange occurs during crossover, where segments of DNA are swapped between non-sister homologous chromatids, creating genetic diversity among the offspring. It is a crucial mechanism for generating genetic variability and facilitating evolutionary change within populations. Additionally, recombination also plays an essential role in DNA repair processes through mechanisms such as homologous recombinational repair (HRR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ).

Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) refers to the specific regions of DNA in a cell that contain the genes for ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Ribosomes are complex structures composed of proteins and rRNA, which play a crucial role in protein synthesis by translating messenger RNA (mRNA) into proteins.

In humans, there are four types of rRNA molecules: 18S, 5.8S, 28S, and 5S. These rRNAs are encoded by multiple copies of rDNA genes that are organized in clusters on specific chromosomes. In humans, the majority of rDNA genes are located on the short arms of acrocentric chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21, and 22.

Each cluster of rDNA genes contains both transcribed and non-transcribed spacer regions. The transcribed regions contain the genes for the four types of rRNA, while the non-transcribed spacers contain regulatory elements that control the transcription of the rRNA genes.

The number of rDNA copies varies between species and even within individuals of the same species. The copy number can also change during development and in response to environmental factors. Variations in rDNA copy number have been associated with various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "trees" is not a medical term. It is a common term used in various fields, including biology, ecology, and dendrology, to refer to a woody perennial plant with a single stem or trunk that supports branches and leaves in most species.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, please provide more context so I can offer an accurate and helpful response.

HIV Integrase is an enzyme that is produced by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It plays a critical role in the life cycle of the virus, enabling it to integrate its genetic material into the DNA of the host cell. This process is essential for the virus to replicate and infect other cells.

The integrase enzyme works by cutting the viral DNA at specific sites, creating a break that allows the viral DNA to be inserted into the host cell's DNA. Once integrated, the viral DNA can use the host cell's machinery to produce new viruses, which can then infect other cells and continue the cycle of infection.

Inhibitors of HIV integrase are an important class of antiretroviral drugs used in the treatment of HIV infection. These drugs work by binding to the integrase enzyme and preventing it from functioning properly, thereby blocking the virus's ability to integrate its genetic material into host cells. This can help to reduce viral load and slow the progression of the disease.

Cooperative behavior, in a medical or healthcare context, refers to the actions and attitudes displayed by individuals or groups working together to achieve a common goal related to health and well-being. This may involve patients following their healthcare providers' advice, healthcare professionals collaborating to diagnose and treat medical conditions, or communities coming together to promote healthy behaviors and environments. Cooperative behavior is essential for positive health outcomes, as it fosters trust, communication, and shared decision-making between patients and healthcare providers, and helps to ensure that everyone involved in the care process is working towards the same goal.

Rural health is a branch of healthcare that focuses on the unique health challenges and needs of people living in rural areas. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines rural health as "the state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, in the rural population."

Rural populations often face disparities in healthcare access and quality compared to their urban counterparts. Factors such as geographic isolation, poverty, lack of transportation, and a shortage of healthcare providers can contribute to these disparities. Rural health encompasses a broad range of services, including primary care, prevention, chronic disease management, mental health, oral health, and emergency medical services.

The goal of rural health is to improve the health outcomes of rural populations by addressing these unique challenges and providing high-quality, accessible healthcare services that meet their needs. This may involve innovative approaches such as telemedicine, mobile health clinics, and community-based programs to reach people in remote areas.

Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to separate and analyze DNA fragments (or PCR products) based on their melting behavior. This technique is particularly useful for the analysis of complex DNA mixtures, such as those found in environmental samples or in studies of microbial communities.

In DGGE, the DNA samples are subjected to an increasing gradient of denaturing agents (such as urea and formamide) during electrophoresis. As the DNA fragments migrate through the gel, they begin to denature (or melt) at specific points along the gradient, depending on their sequence and base composition. This results in a distinct melting profile for each DNA fragment, which can be visualized as a band on the gel.

The technique allows for the separation of DNA fragments that differ by only a few base pairs, making it a powerful tool for identifying and comparing different DNA sequences within a mixture. DGGE is often used in conjunction with PCR to amplify specific regions of interest in the DNA sample, such as genes or operons involved in specific metabolic pathways. The resulting PCR products can then be analyzed by DGGE to identify and compare different sequence variants (or "types") within a population.

Overall, DGGE is a valuable tool for studying the diversity and composition of complex DNA mixtures, and has applications in fields such as microbial ecology, molecular biology, and genetic engineering.

Cluster analysis is a statistical method used to group similar objects or data points together based on their characteristics or features. In medical and healthcare research, cluster analysis can be used to identify patterns or relationships within complex datasets, such as patient records or genetic information. This technique can help researchers to classify patients into distinct subgroups based on their symptoms, diagnoses, or other variables, which can inform more personalized treatment plans or public health interventions.

Cluster analysis involves several steps, including:

1. Data preparation: The researcher must first collect and clean the data, ensuring that it is complete and free from errors. This may involve removing outlier values or missing data points.
2. Distance measurement: Next, the researcher must determine how to measure the distance between each pair of data points. Common methods include Euclidean distance (the straight-line distance between two points) or Manhattan distance (the distance between two points along a grid).
3. Clustering algorithm: The researcher then applies a clustering algorithm, which groups similar data points together based on their distances from one another. Common algorithms include hierarchical clustering (which creates a tree-like structure of clusters) or k-means clustering (which assigns each data point to the nearest centroid).
4. Validation: Finally, the researcher must validate the results of the cluster analysis by evaluating the stability and robustness of the clusters. This may involve re-running the analysis with different distance measures or clustering algorithms, or comparing the results to external criteria.

Cluster analysis is a powerful tool for identifying patterns and relationships within complex datasets, but it requires careful consideration of the data preparation, distance measurement, and validation steps to ensure accurate and meaningful results.

Rural health services refer to the healthcare delivery systems and facilities that are located in rural areas and are designed to meet the unique health needs of rural populations. These services can include hospitals, clinics, community health centers, mental health centers, and home health agencies, as well as various programs and initiatives aimed at improving access to care, addressing health disparities, and promoting health and wellness in rural communities.

Rural health services are often characterized by longer travel distances to healthcare facilities, a greater reliance on primary care and preventive services, and a higher prevalence of certain health conditions such as chronic diseases, injuries, and mental health disorders. As a result, rural health services must be tailored to address these challenges and provide high-quality, affordable, and accessible care to rural residents.

In many countries, rural health services are supported by government policies and programs aimed at improving healthcare infrastructure, workforce development, and telehealth technologies in rural areas. These efforts are critical for ensuring that all individuals, regardless of where they live, have access to the healthcare services they need to maintain their health and well-being.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "geologic sediments" is not a term used in medical definitions. Geological sediments are deposits of material that accumulate over time, usually in layers, as a result of natural geological processes such as weathering, erosion, and deposition. These sediments can eventually become rock formations and provide important clues about the Earth's history, including information about past climates, environments, and life on Earth.

Biomass is defined in the medical field as a renewable energy source derived from organic materials, primarily plant matter, that can be burned or converted into fuel. This includes materials such as wood, agricultural waste, and even methane gas produced by landfills. Biomass is often used as a source of heat, electricity, or transportation fuels, and its use can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and dependence on fossil fuels.

In the context of human health, biomass burning can have both positive and negative impacts. On one hand, biomass can provide a source of heat and energy for cooking and heating, which can improve living standards and reduce exposure to harmful pollutants from traditional cooking methods such as open fires. On the other hand, biomass burning can also produce air pollution, including particulate matter and toxic chemicals, that can have negative effects on respiratory health and contribute to climate change.

Therefore, while biomass has the potential to be a sustainable and low-carbon source of energy, it is important to consider the potential health and environmental impacts of its use and implement appropriate measures to minimize any negative effects.

Computational biology is a branch of biology that uses mathematical and computational methods to study biological data, models, and processes. It involves the development and application of algorithms, statistical models, and computational approaches to analyze and interpret large-scale molecular and phenotypic data from genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and other high-throughput technologies. The goal is to gain insights into biological systems and processes, develop predictive models, and inform experimental design and hypothesis testing in the life sciences. Computational biology encompasses a wide range of disciplines, including bioinformatics, systems biology, computational genomics, network biology, and mathematical modeling of biological systems.

Health education is the process of providing information and strategies to individuals and communities about how to improve their health and prevent disease. It involves teaching and learning activities that aim to empower people to make informed decisions and take responsible actions regarding their health. Health education covers a wide range of topics, including nutrition, physical activity, sexual and reproductive health, mental health, substance abuse prevention, and environmental health. The ultimate goal of health education is to promote healthy behaviors and lifestyles that can lead to improved health outcomes and quality of life.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

"Health Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices" (HKAP) is a term used in public health to refer to the knowledge, beliefs, assumptions, and behaviors that individuals possess or engage in that are related to health. Here's a brief definition of each component:

1. Health Knowledge: Refers to the factual information and understanding that individuals have about various health-related topics, such as anatomy, physiology, disease processes, and healthy behaviors.
2. Attitudes: Represent the positive or negative evaluations, feelings, or dispositions that people hold towards certain health issues, practices, or services. These attitudes can influence their willingness to adopt and maintain healthy behaviors.
3. Practices: Encompass the specific actions or habits that individuals engage in related to their health, such as dietary choices, exercise routines, hygiene practices, and use of healthcare services.

HKAP is a multidimensional concept that helps public health professionals understand and address various factors influencing individual and community health outcomes. By assessing and addressing knowledge gaps, negative attitudes, or unhealthy practices, interventions can be designed to promote positive behavior change and improve overall health status.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Program Development" is not a medical term. It is a general term that refers to the process of creating, planning, and implementing a new program or project, typically in a business, education, or community setting. In a healthcare context, it might refer to the development of a new healthcare service, treatment program, or educational initiative.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I'd be happy to try and help!

A User-Computer Interface (also known as Human-Computer Interaction) refers to the point at which a person (user) interacts with a computer system. This can include both hardware and software components, such as keyboards, mice, touchscreens, and graphical user interfaces (GUIs). The design of the user-computer interface is crucial in determining the usability and accessibility of a computer system for the user. A well-designed interface should be intuitive, efficient, and easy to use, minimizing the cognitive load on the user and allowing them to effectively accomplish their tasks.

I'm happy to help, but it seems there might be some confusion in your question. "Interviews" is a broad topic that isn't typically a medical term or subject. However, interviews can certainly be a part of medical settings and procedures, such as job interviews for healthcare positions, patient interviews during medical consultations, or research interviews in clinical studies.

In the context of medical education, an interview might refer to the process by which medical schools evaluate applicants for admission, known as the medical school interview. This is a critical component of the application process and typically involves one-on-one conversations between the applicant and an admissions committee member or a series of multiple mini-interviews (MMIs) with various evaluators.

If you could provide more context or clarify what you mean by "Interviews as Topic" in a medical setting, I'd be happy to help further!

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Fresh Water" is not a medical term. It is a term used to describe water that contains low concentrations of dissolved salts and other dissolved minerals. It is distinguished from saline water, which includes saltwater found in the ocean and brackish water found in estuaries. Fresh water is essential for many biological processes and is the primary source of water for human consumption, agriculture, and industrial use.

Population dynamics, in the context of public health and epidemiology, refers to the study of the changes in size and structure of a population over time, as well as the factors that contribute to those changes. This can include birth rates, death rates, migration patterns, aging, and other demographic characteristics. Understanding population dynamics is crucial for planning and implementing public health interventions, such as vaccination programs or disease prevention strategies, as they allow researchers and policymakers to identify vulnerable populations, predict future health trends, and evaluate the impact of public health initiatives.

Water microbiology is not a formal medical term, but rather a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms found in water. It involves the identification, enumeration, and characterization of bacteria, viruses, parasites, and other microscopic organisms present in water sources such as lakes, rivers, oceans, groundwater, drinking water, and wastewater.

In a medical context, water microbiology is relevant to public health because it helps to assess the safety of water supplies for human consumption and recreational activities. It also plays a critical role in understanding and preventing waterborne diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms that can lead to illnesses such as diarrhea, skin infections, and respiratory problems.

Water microbiologists use various techniques to study water microorganisms, including culturing, microscopy, genetic analysis, and biochemical tests. They also investigate the ecology of these organisms, their interactions with other species, and their response to environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and nutrient availability.

Overall, water microbiology is a vital field that helps ensure the safety of our water resources and protects public health.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

"Focus groups" is a term from the field of social science research, rather than medicine. It does not have a specific medical definition. However, focus groups are sometimes used in medical research to gather data and insights from a small group of people on a specific topic or product. This can include gathering feedback on patient experiences, testing prototypes of medical devices or treatments, or exploring attitudes and perceptions related to health issues. The goal is to gain a deeper understanding of the perspectives and needs of the target population through facilitated group discussion.

Biological models, also known as physiological models or organismal models, are simplified representations of biological systems, processes, or mechanisms that are used to understand and explain the underlying principles and relationships. These models can be theoretical (conceptual or mathematical) or physical (such as anatomical models, cell cultures, or animal models). They are widely used in biomedical research to study various phenomena, including disease pathophysiology, drug action, and therapeutic interventions.

Examples of biological models include:

1. Mathematical models: These use mathematical equations and formulas to describe complex biological systems or processes, such as population dynamics, metabolic pathways, or gene regulation networks. They can help predict the behavior of these systems under different conditions and test hypotheses about their underlying mechanisms.
2. Cell cultures: These are collections of cells grown in a controlled environment, typically in a laboratory dish or flask. They can be used to study cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, or metabolism, and to test the effects of drugs or other treatments on these processes.
3. Animal models: These are living organisms, usually vertebrates like mice, rats, or non-human primates, that are used to study various aspects of human biology and disease. They can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of diseases, the mechanisms of drug action, and the safety and efficacy of new therapies.
4. Anatomical models: These are physical representations of biological structures or systems, such as plastic models of organs or tissues, that can be used for educational purposes or to plan surgical procedures. They can also serve as a basis for developing more sophisticated models, such as computer simulations or 3D-printed replicas.

Overall, biological models play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biology and medicine, helping to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention, develop novel drugs and treatments, and improve human health.

A genetic vector is a vehicle, often a plasmid or a virus, that is used to introduce foreign DNA into a host cell as part of genetic engineering or gene therapy techniques. The vector contains the desired gene or genes, along with regulatory elements such as promoters and enhancers, which are needed for the expression of the gene in the target cells.

The choice of vector depends on several factors, including the size of the DNA to be inserted, the type of cell to be targeted, and the efficiency of uptake and expression required. Commonly used vectors include plasmids, adenoviruses, retroviruses, and lentiviruses.

Plasmids are small circular DNA molecules that can replicate independently in bacteria. They are often used as cloning vectors to amplify and manipulate DNA fragments. Adenoviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses that infect a wide range of host cells, including human cells. They are commonly used as gene therapy vectors because they can efficiently transfer genes into both dividing and non-dividing cells.

Retroviruses and lentiviruses are RNA viruses that integrate their genetic material into the host cell's genome. This allows for stable expression of the transgene over time. Lentiviruses, a subclass of retroviruses, have the advantage of being able to infect non-dividing cells, making them useful for gene therapy applications in post-mitotic tissues such as neurons and muscle cells.

Overall, genetic vectors play a crucial role in modern molecular biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study gene function, develop new therapies, and modify organisms for various purposes.

Organizational models in the context of medicine refer to frameworks that are used to describe, analyze, and improve the structure, processes, and outcomes of healthcare organizations. These models provide a systematic way of understanding how different components of an organization interact with each other and how they contribute to the overall performance of the system.

Examples of organizational models in healthcare include:

1. The Donabedian model: This model focuses on the structure, process, and outcome of healthcare as interrelated components that influence the quality of care.
2. The Baldrige Performance Excellence Program: This model provides a framework for organizations to evaluate their performance and identify areas for improvement in seven categories: leadership, strategic planning, customer focus, measurement, analysis, and knowledge management; workforce focus; process management; and results.
3. The Institute of Medicine's (IOM) six aims for improvement: The IOM has identified six aims that should be the focus of healthcare quality improvement efforts: safety, timeliness, patient-centeredness, effectiveness, efficiency, and equity.
4. The Lean management system: This model is a process improvement approach that focuses on eliminating waste and maximizing value for customers through continuous improvement and respect for people.
5. The Six Sigma methodology: This model is a data-driven approach to quality improvement that seeks to reduce variation and defects in processes through the use of statistical tools and techniques.

These are just a few examples of organizational models used in healthcare. Each model has its own strengths and limitations, and organizations may choose to adopt one or more models depending on their specific needs and goals.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Urban Population" is not a medical term. It is a demographic term used to describe the portion of a country's population that lives in areas classified as urban. The United Nations defines an urban area as a city, town, or other agglomeration with a population of 20,000 or more. However, the specific definition can vary by country and organization.

In contrast, medical terms typically refer to conditions, diseases, symptoms, treatments, or healthcare-related concepts. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to help if I can!

Archaea are a domain of single-celled microorganisms that lack membrane-bound nuclei and other organelles. They are characterized by the unique structure of their cell walls, membranes, and ribosomes. Archaea were originally classified as bacteria, but they differ from bacteria in several key ways, including their genetic material and metabolic processes.

Archaea can be found in a wide range of environments, including some of the most extreme habitats on Earth, such as hot springs, deep-sea vents, and highly saline lakes. Some species of Archaea are able to survive in the absence of oxygen, while others require oxygen to live.

Archaea play important roles in global nutrient cycles, including the nitrogen cycle and the carbon cycle. They are also being studied for their potential role in industrial processes, such as the production of biofuels and the treatment of wastewater.

Seawater is not a medical term, but it is a type of water that covers more than 70% of the Earth's surface. Medically, seawater can be relevant in certain contexts, such as in discussions of marine biology, environmental health, or water safety. Seawater has a high salt content, with an average salinity of around 3.5%, which is much higher than that of freshwater. This makes it unsuitable for drinking or irrigation without desalination.

Exposure to seawater can also have medical implications, such as in cases of immersion injuries, marine envenomations, or waterborne illnesses. However, there is no single medical definition of seawater.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Metagenomics is the scientific study of genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples. This field of research involves analyzing the collective microbial genomes found in a variety of environments, such as soil, ocean water, or the human gut, without the need to culture individual species in a lab. By using high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies and computational tools, metagenomics allows researchers to identify and study the functional potential and ecological roles of diverse microbial communities, contributing to our understanding of their impacts on ecosystems, health, and disease.

Health Care Coalitions (HCCs) are multi-disciplinary, multi-agency partnerships that are organized at the local or regional level to enhance emergency preparedness and response capabilities for the healthcare system. The primary goal of HCCs is to facilitate communication, coordination, and collaboration among healthcare organizations and other key stakeholders, such as emergency management agencies, public health departments, and community organizations.

HCCs typically focus on preparing for and responding to emergencies that can impact the healthcare system, including natural disasters, mass casualty incidents, infectious disease outbreaks, and cyber attacks. They may develop plans and procedures for addressing these threats, provide training and education to members, and conduct exercises to test their capabilities.

The membership of HCCs can vary but typically includes hospitals, long-term care facilities, home health agencies, emergency medical services providers, public health departments, mental/behavioral health organizations, and other stakeholders involved in healthcare delivery and emergency response. By working together, these organizations can help ensure that the healthcare system is better prepared to meet the needs of their communities during emergencies.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

Community Mental Health Centers (CMHCs) are mental health facilities that provide a range of comprehensive and accessible mental health services to a specific geographic community or catchment area. They are designed to serve as the primary point of contact for individuals seeking mental health care and aim to provide coordinated, continuous, and person-centered care.

CMHCs typically offer a variety of services, including:

1. Outpatient mental health treatment: This includes individual, group, and family therapy sessions with licensed mental health professionals such as psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, and counselors.
2. Crisis intervention and emergency services: CMHCs often have 24-hour crisis hotlines and mobile crisis teams that can respond to mental health emergencies in the community.
3. Psychiatric evaluation and medication management: Psychiatrists or nurse practitioners at CMHCs can assess individuals for psychiatric disorders, provide diagnoses, and prescribe and manage psychotropic medications as needed.
4. Prevention and early intervention services: CMHCs may offer programs that focus on mental health promotion, suicide prevention, and early identification and treatment of mental health issues in children and adolescents.
5. Case management and care coordination: CMHC staff can help individuals navigate the mental health system, connect with community resources, and coordinate care across various providers and services.
6. Rehabilitation and recovery services: CMHCs may provide vocational training, educational support, and other rehabilitative services to help individuals with mental illness achieve their personal goals and maximize their independence.
7. Community outreach and engagement: CMHCs often engage in activities that promote mental health awareness, reduce stigma, and increase access to care within the communities they serve.

The goal of CMHCs is to provide accessible, high-quality mental health services that are integrated with primary care and other community-based services, ensuring that individuals receive the support they need to manage their mental health concerns and improve their overall well-being.

Health services accessibility refers to the degree to which individuals and populations are able to obtain needed health services in a timely manner. It includes factors such as physical access (e.g., distance, transportation), affordability (e.g., cost of services, insurance coverage), availability (e.g., supply of providers, hours of operation), and acceptability (e.g., cultural competence, language concordance).

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), accessibility is one of the key components of health system performance, along with responsiveness and fair financing. Improving accessibility to health services is essential for achieving universal health coverage and ensuring that everyone has access to quality healthcare without facing financial hardship. Factors that affect health services accessibility can vary widely between and within countries, and addressing these disparities requires a multifaceted approach that includes policy interventions, infrastructure development, and community engagement.

Proteobacteria is a major class of Gram-negative bacteria that includes a wide variety of pathogens and free-living organisms. This class is divided into six subclasses: Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, Epsilon, and Zeta proteobacteria. Proteobacteria are characterized by their single circular chromosome and the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in their outer membrane. They can be found in a wide range of environments, including soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of animals. Some notable examples of Proteobacteria include Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, and Yersinia pestis.

An algorithm is not a medical term, but rather a concept from computer science and mathematics. In the context of medicine, algorithms are often used to describe step-by-step procedures for diagnosing or managing medical conditions. These procedures typically involve a series of rules or decision points that help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care.

For example, an algorithm for diagnosing a particular type of heart disease might involve taking a patient's medical history, performing a physical exam, ordering certain diagnostic tests, and interpreting the results in a specific way. By following this algorithm, healthcare professionals can ensure that they are using a consistent and evidence-based approach to making a diagnosis.

Algorithms can also be used to guide treatment decisions. For instance, an algorithm for managing diabetes might involve setting target blood sugar levels, recommending certain medications or lifestyle changes based on the patient's individual needs, and monitoring the patient's response to treatment over time.

Overall, algorithms are valuable tools in medicine because they help standardize clinical decision-making and ensure that patients receive high-quality care based on the latest scientific evidence.

Socioeconomic factors are a range of interconnected conditions and influences that affect the opportunities and resources a person or group has to maintain and improve their health and well-being. These factors include:

1. Economic stability: This includes employment status, job security, income level, and poverty status. Lower income and lack of employment are associated with poorer health outcomes.
2. Education: Higher levels of education are generally associated with better health outcomes. Education can affect a person's ability to access and understand health information, as well as their ability to navigate the healthcare system.
3. Social and community context: This includes factors such as social support networks, discrimination, and community safety. Strong social supports and positive community connections are associated with better health outcomes, while discrimination and lack of safety can negatively impact health.
4. Healthcare access and quality: Access to affordable, high-quality healthcare is an important socioeconomic factor that can significantly impact a person's health. Factors such as insurance status, availability of providers, and cultural competency of healthcare systems can all affect healthcare access and quality.
5. Neighborhood and built environment: The physical conditions in which people live, work, and play can also impact their health. Factors such as housing quality, transportation options, availability of healthy foods, and exposure to environmental hazards can all influence health outcomes.

Socioeconomic factors are often interrelated and can have a cumulative effect on health outcomes. For example, someone who lives in a low-income neighborhood with limited access to healthy foods and safe parks may also face challenges related to employment, education, and healthcare access that further impact their health. Addressing socioeconomic factors is an important part of promoting health equity and reducing health disparities.

A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA of a bacterium or other organism. Plasmids are typically not essential for the survival of the organism, but they can confer beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to degrade certain types of pollutants.

Plasmids are capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation. They often contain genes that provide resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals, and other environmental stressors. Plasmids have also been engineered for use in molecular biology as cloning vectors, allowing scientists to replicate and manipulate specific DNA sequences.

Plasmids are important tools in genetic engineering and biotechnology because they can be easily manipulated and transferred between organisms. They have been used to produce vaccines, diagnostic tests, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for various applications, including agriculture, medicine, and industry.

A Database Management System (DBMS) is a software application that enables users to define, create, maintain, and manipulate databases. It provides a structured way to organize, store, retrieve, and manage data in a digital format. The DBMS serves as an interface between the database and the applications or users that access it, allowing for standardized interactions and data access methods. Common functions of a DBMS include data definition, data manipulation, data security, data recovery, and concurrent data access control. Examples of DBMS include MySQL, Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server, and MongoDB.

Insertional mutagenesis is a process of introducing new genetic material into an organism's genome at a specific location, which can result in a change or disruption of the function of the gene at that site. This technique is often used in molecular biology research to study gene function and regulation. The introduction of the foreign DNA is typically accomplished through the use of mobile genetic elements, such as transposons or viruses, which are capable of inserting themselves into the genome.

The insertion of the new genetic material can lead to a loss or gain of function in the affected gene, resulting in a mutation. This type of mutagenesis is called "insertional" because the mutation is caused by the insertion of foreign DNA into the genome. The effects of insertional mutagenesis can range from subtle changes in gene expression to the complete inactivation of a gene.

This technique has been widely used in genetic research, including the study of developmental biology, cancer, and genetic diseases. It is also used in the development of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for agricultural and industrial applications.

Data collection in the medical context refers to the systematic gathering of information relevant to a specific research question or clinical situation. This process involves identifying and recording data elements, such as demographic characteristics, medical history, physical examination findings, laboratory results, and imaging studies, from various sources including patient interviews, medical records, and diagnostic tests. The data collected is used to support clinical decision-making, inform research hypotheses, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. It is essential that data collection is performed in a standardized and unbiased manner to ensure the validity and reliability of the results.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Interinstitutional Relations" is not a commonly used medical term. Instead, it is more frequently used in the context of social sciences, particularly in relation to organizations and their interactions with each other. In this context, interinstitutional relations refers to the relationships, cooperative arrangements, and communication between different organizations or institutions.

However, if you are looking for a term related to medical institutions or healthcare organizations, you might be interested in "Interprofessional Relations" or "Interdisciplinary Collaboration." These terms describe the interactions, coordination, and cooperation among various healthcare professionals and disciplines to provide comprehensive and high-quality patient care.

Ecology is not a medical term, but rather a term used in the field of biology. It refers to the study of the relationships between living organisms and their environment. This includes how organisms interact with each other and with their physical surroundings, such as climate, soil, and water. Ecologists may study the distribution and abundance of species, the flow of energy through an ecosystem, and the effects of human activities on the environment. While ecology is not a medical field, understanding ecological principles can be important for addressing public health issues related to the environment, such as pollution, climate change, and infectious diseases.

Community psychiatry is a branch of psychiatry that focuses on providing mental health services within the context of a person's community, rather than in a traditional clinical setting such as a hospital or clinic. The goal of community psychiatry is to provide comprehensive, accessible, and personalized mental health care that is integrated into the individual's natural support systems, including their family, friends, and social networks.

Community psychiatrists work closely with other mental health professionals, social workers, and community organizations to develop and implement treatment plans that address the unique needs of each individual. They may provide services in a variety of settings, such as community mental health centers, group homes, schools, and primary care clinics.

The approach of community psychiatry recognizes that mental illness affects not only the individual but also their family, friends, and larger community. Therefore, interventions often focus on improving social determinants of health, such as housing, employment, and education, in addition to providing traditional mental health treatments like medication and therapy.

Overall, community psychiatry aims to reduce stigma around mental illness, improve access to care, and promote recovery and resilience in individuals with mental health conditions.

A Medically Underserved Area (MUA) is a designation used by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA). It refers to a geographic area that lacks sufficient access to primary care services, as defined by specific criteria such as:

1. The ratio of primary medical care physicians per thousand population is less than 30% of the national average.
2. The population has a poverty rate of at least 20%.
3. The population has an infant mortality rate that is higher than the U.S. average.
4. The population has a high elderly population (over 65 years old) and/or a large minority population.

MUAs are often located in rural or inner-city areas where there is a shortage of healthcare providers, facilities, and services. This designation helps to identify areas with significant healthcare needs and makes them eligible for federal assistance and resources, including funding for community health centers and other programs aimed at improving access to care.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Volunteers" generally refers to individuals who willingly offer their time, effort, and services to help others without expecting compensation. In the context of medicine or clinical research, volunteers are participants who willingly take part in medical studies or trials, playing a crucial role in the development and testing of new treatments, medications, or medical devices.

However, if you're looking for a medical term related to volunteers, you may be thinking of "voluntary muscle action." Voluntary muscles, also known as skeletal muscles, are striated muscles that we control voluntarily to perform activities like walking, talking, and lifting objects.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Oceanic Ancestry Group" is not a standard medical term or classification. It seems to be a general term that refers to people who have ancestral origins in the Oceanic region, which includes countries like Australia, New Zealand, and various islands in the Pacific Ocean.

In genetic or genealogical contexts, it might refer to a group of populations sharing certain genetic characteristics due to their geographical and historical connections. However, it's important to note that such classifications can be oversimplified and may not accurately reflect the complex genetic histories and cultural identities of individuals.

If you're looking for a medical term related to ancestry or genetics, you might be thinking of "racial" or "ethnic" categories, which are sometimes used in medical research or clinical settings to describe patterns of disease risk or treatment response. However, these categories are also flawed and can oversimplify the genetic and cultural diversity within and between populations. It's generally more useful and accurate to consider each individual's unique genetic and environmental factors when considering their health and medical needs.

A genetic database is a type of biomedical or health informatics database that stores and organizes genetic data, such as DNA sequences, gene maps, genotypes, haplotypes, and phenotype information. These databases can be used for various purposes, including research, clinical diagnosis, and personalized medicine.

There are different types of genetic databases, including:

1. Genomic databases: These databases store whole genome sequences, gene expression data, and other genomic information. Examples include the National Center for Biotechnology Information's (NCBI) GenBank, the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA), and the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ).
2. Gene databases: These databases contain information about specific genes, including their location, function, regulation, and evolution. Examples include the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database, the Universal Protein Resource (UniProt), and the Gene Ontology (GO) database.
3. Variant databases: These databases store information about genetic variants, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertions/deletions (INDELs), and copy number variations (CNVs). Examples include the Database of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (dbSNP), the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC), and the International HapMap Project.
4. Clinical databases: These databases contain genetic and clinical information about patients, such as their genotype, phenotype, family history, and response to treatments. Examples include the ClinVar database, the Pharmacogenomics Knowledgebase (PharmGKB), and the Genetic Testing Registry (GTR).
5. Population databases: These databases store genetic information about different populations, including their ancestry, demographics, and genetic diversity. Examples include the 1000 Genomes Project, the Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP), and the Allele Frequency Net Database (AFND).

Genetic databases can be publicly accessible or restricted to authorized users, depending on their purpose and content. They play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of genetics and genomics, as well as improving healthcare and personalized medicine.

Public health is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "the art and science of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts of society." It focuses on improving the health and well-being of entire communities, populations, and societies, rather than individual patients. This is achieved through various strategies, including education, prevention, surveillance of diseases, and promotion of healthy behaviors and environments. Public health also addresses broader determinants of health, such as access to healthcare, housing, food, and income, which have a significant impact on the overall health of populations.

'Information Storage and Retrieval' in the context of medical informatics refers to the processes and systems used for the recording, storing, organizing, protecting, and retrieving electronic health information (e.g., patient records, clinical data, medical images) for various purposes such as diagnosis, treatment planning, research, and education. This may involve the use of electronic health record (EHR) systems, databases, data warehouses, and other digital technologies that enable healthcare providers to access and share accurate, up-to-date, and relevant information about a patient's health status, medical history, and care plan. The goal is to improve the quality, safety, efficiency, and coordination of healthcare delivery by providing timely and evidence-based information to support clinical decision-making and patient engagement.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Rivers" is not a medical term or concept. It is a geographical term referring to large, flowing bodies of water that usually empty into a sea or an ocean. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

The term "environment" in a medical context generally refers to the external conditions and surroundings that can have an impact on living organisms, including humans. This includes both physical factors such as air quality, water supply, soil composition, temperature, and radiation, as well as biological factors such as the presence of microorganisms, plants, and animals.

In public health and epidemiology, the term "environmental exposure" is often used to describe the contact between an individual and a potentially harmful environmental agent, such as air pollution or contaminated water. These exposures can have significant impacts on human health, contributing to a range of diseases and disorders, including respiratory illnesses, cancer, neurological disorders, and reproductive problems.

Efforts to protect and improve the environment are therefore critical for promoting human health and preventing disease. This includes measures to reduce pollution, conserve natural resources, promote sustainable development, and mitigate the impacts of climate change.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Organizational Case Studies" is not a medical term. It is a term that is used in various fields including business, management, and social sciences to describe the analysis of a specific organization or a particular aspect of its functioning. An organizational case study typically involves an in-depth examination of an organization, including its structure, culture, processes, and outcomes, with the aim of understanding its performance, challenges, and opportunities for improvement.

In healthcare, case studies are often used to examine specific clinical scenarios or patient cases. However, "Organizational Case Studies" in a medical context might refer to the study of healthcare organizations, such as hospitals or clinics, to analyze their management practices, quality of care, financial performance, and other factors that can impact patient outcomes and overall organizational success.

Bacterial physiological phenomena refer to the various functional processes and activities that occur within bacteria, which are necessary for their survival, growth, and reproduction. These phenomena include:

1. Metabolism: This is the process by which bacteria convert nutrients into energy and cellular components. It involves a series of chemical reactions that break down organic compounds such as carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins to produce energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).
2. Respiration: This is the process by which bacteria use oxygen to convert organic compounds into carbon dioxide and water, releasing energy in the form of ATP. Some bacteria can also perform anaerobic respiration, using alternative electron acceptors such as nitrate or sulfate instead of oxygen.
3. Fermentation: This is a type of anaerobic metabolism in which bacteria convert organic compounds into simpler molecules, releasing energy in the form of ATP. Unlike respiration, fermentation does not require an external electron acceptor.
4. Motility: Many bacteria are capable of moving independently, using various mechanisms such as flagella or twitching motility. This allows them to move towards favorable environments and away from harmful ones.
5. Chemotaxis: Bacteria can sense and respond to chemical gradients in their environment, allowing them to move towards attractants and away from repellents.
6. Quorum sensing: Bacteria can communicate with each other using signaling molecules called autoinducers. When the concentration of autoinducers reaches a certain threshold, the bacteria can coordinate their behavior, such as initiating biofilm formation or producing virulence factors.
7. Sporulation: Some bacteria can form spores, which are highly resistant to heat, radiation, and chemicals. Spores can remain dormant for long periods of time and germinate when conditions are favorable.
8. Biofilm formation: Bacteria can form complex communities called biofilms, which are composed of cells embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Biofilms can provide protection from environmental stressors and host immune responses.
9. Cell division: Bacteria reproduce by binary fission, where the cell divides into two identical daughter cells. This process is regulated by various cell cycle checkpoints and can be influenced by environmental factors such as nutrient availability.

Health services for Indigenous people refer to medical and healthcare provision that is specifically designed, delivered, and organized to meet the unique cultural, historical, and social needs of indigenous populations. These services aim to address the health disparities and inequalities that often exist between indigenous and non-indigenous populations. They are typically community-based and involve traditional healing practices, as well as modern medical interventions. Indigenous health services may also incorporate cultural safety training for healthcare providers to ensure respectful and appropriate care.

Medical Definition of Microbiota:

The community of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and other microscopic life forms, that inhabit a specific environment or body part. In the human body, microbiota can be found on the skin, in the mouth, gut, and other areas. The largest concentration of microbiota is located in the intestines, where it plays an essential role in digestion, immune function, and overall health.

The composition of the microbiota can vary depending on factors such as age, diet, lifestyle, genetics, and environmental exposures. Dysbiosis, or imbalance of the microbiota, has been linked to various health conditions, including gastrointestinal disorders, allergies, autoimmune diseases, and neurological disorders.

Therefore, maintaining a healthy and diverse microbiota is crucial for overall health and well-being. This can be achieved through a balanced diet, regular exercise, adequate sleep, stress management, and other lifestyle practices that support the growth and maintenance of beneficial microorganisms in the body.

Genomics is the scientific study of genes and their functions. It involves the sequencing and analysis of an organism's genome, which is its complete set of DNA, including all of its genes. Genomics also includes the study of how genes interact with each other and with the environment. This field of study can provide important insights into the genetic basis of diseases and can lead to the development of new diagnostic tools and treatments.

Qualitative research is a methodological approach in social sciences and healthcare research that focuses on understanding the meanings, experiences, and perspectives of individuals or groups within a specific context. It aims to gather detailed, rich data through various techniques such as interviews, focus groups, observations, and content analysis. The findings from qualitative research are typically descriptive and exploratory, providing insights into processes, perceptions, and experiences that may not be captured through quantitative methods.

In medical research, qualitative research can be used to explore patients' experiences of illness, healthcare providers' perspectives on patient care, or the cultural and social factors that influence health behaviors. It is often used in combination with quantitative methods to provide a more comprehensive understanding of complex health issues.

Fungi, in the context of medical definitions, are a group of eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. The study of fungi is known as mycology.

Fungi can exist as unicellular organisms or as multicellular filamentous structures called hyphae. They are heterotrophs, which means they obtain their nutrients by decomposing organic matter or by living as parasites on other organisms. Some fungi can cause various diseases in humans, animals, and plants, known as mycoses. These infections range from superficial, localized skin infections to systemic, life-threatening invasive diseases.

Examples of fungal infections include athlete's foot (tinea pedis), ringworm (dermatophytosis), candidiasis (yeast infection), histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and aspergillosis. Fungal infections can be challenging to treat due to the limited number of antifungal drugs available and the potential for drug resistance.

Photic stimulation is a medical term that refers to the exposure of the eyes to light, specifically repetitive pulses of light, which is used as a method in various research and clinical settings. In neuroscience, it's often used in studies related to vision, circadian rhythms, and brain function.

In a clinical context, photic stimulation is sometimes used in the diagnosis of certain medical conditions such as seizure disorders (like epilepsy). By observing the response of the brain to this light stimulus, doctors can gain valuable insights into the functioning of the brain and the presence of any neurological disorders.

However, it's important to note that photic stimulation should be conducted under the supervision of a trained healthcare professional, as improper use can potentially trigger seizures in individuals who are susceptible to them.

The rhizosphere is not a medical term per se, but it is a term used in the field of biology and agriculture. It refers to the narrow region of soil that is directly influenced by root secretions and associated microorganisms, typically including a zone of about 1-2 mm around the root surface. The rhizosphere is characterized by increased microbial activity due to the release of organic compounds from the roots, which can affect nutrient availability, plant growth, and disease suppression.

The Arctic region is not a medical term per se, but it is a geographical and environmental term that can have health-related implications. The Arctic is defined as the region surrounding the North Pole, encompassing the Arctic Ocean and parts of Canada, Greenland (Denmark), Russia, the United States (Alaska), Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Iceland. It is characterized by its cold climate, permafrost, and unique ecosystems.

Exposure to the harsh Arctic environment can pose significant health risks, such as hypothermia, frostbite, and other cold-related injuries. Additionally, the Arctic region has been impacted by climate change, leading to changes in the distribution of wildlife, which can have implications for food security and infectious disease transmission.

Therefore, while not a medical term itself, understanding the Arctic regions and their unique environmental and health challenges is important in fields such as wilderness medicine, environmental health, and public health.

A pharmacy is a retail store or a healthcare facility where medications, both prescription and over-the-counter, are sold or dispensed. Pharmacies are staffed by professional pharmacists who provide medication therapy management services, including reviewing the patient's medication history, checking for potential drug interactions, dosage adjustments, and providing education to patients on the safe and effective use of their medications.

Pharmacies may also offer other health-related products such as medical supplies, vitamins, and personal care items. Some pharmacies are part of a larger healthcare system, such as hospitals or clinics, while others are standalone retail stores. In addition to traditional brick-and-mortar locations, there are also online pharmacies that operate over the internet.

It's important for patients to only obtain medications from licensed and reputable pharmacies to ensure their safety and the effectiveness of their treatment.

... also has strong community roots which place it in community practice fields from community psychology, to ... Institute on Community Integration. Research and Training Center on Community Integration. (1988). "From Being in the Community ... The 1988 Leadership Institute on Community Integration (From Being in the Community to Being Part of the Community, Steve J. ... "integration", with social integration the struggle for "equality and quality in life." The intent of community integration was ...
"Jean Monnet Prize for European integration". www.science-community.org. Retrieved 11 February 2021. "2020 Jean Monnet Prize". ... "Medienprojekt "Home Is Where the Herz Is" erhielt den Jean Monnet Preis für Europäische Integration 2020". OTS.at (in German). ... The Jean Monnet Prize for European Integration is an award for individuals or groups having contributed to supporting or ... Jean Monnet Prize for European Integration Official website of the prize. EuropeanConstitution.eu Official website of the ...
In this practice and the revision control community, the convention is that the system should be buildable from a fresh ... Continuous integration is intended to produce benefits such as: Integration bugs are detected early and are easy to track down ... Automated Continuous Integration employs a continuous integration server or daemon to monitor the revision control system for ... "Continuous integration". Atlassian Agile Coach. "Continuous Integration". Thoughtworks. Ries, Eric (30 March 2009). "Continuous ...
Data Integration Info. 2020-04-27. Retrieved 2020-05-04. "Kaggle: Your Machine Learning and Data Science Community". www.kaggle ... Web data integration extends and specializes data integration to see the web as a collection of views of databases accessible ... "Web-scale Data Integration - You Can Only Afford to Pay as You Go". www.datascienceassn.org. Retrieved 2019-02-12. Siegel, ... Web data integration (WDI) is the process of aggregating and managing data from different websites into a single, homogeneous ...
Hartland, Tucker (May 23, 2019). "SIAM Student Chapter Conference Unites Valley Regional Applied Mathematics Community". ... In Poland, the Integration Bee is adopted at University of Warsaw, with the name The Grand Integration Tournament UW (pol. ... Integration Bee website Facebook page of the Integration Bee On-line portal, UP Physics Association Twitter account, UP Physics ... "2014 MIT Integration Bee". Retrieved June 18, 2023. Mihori, Jim (January 29, 1981). "Integration Bee". The Tech. Vol. 100, no. ...
The integration of children into community and family endeavors in Indigenous American Communities begins as early as infancy. ... Child integration is the inclusion of children in a variety of mature daily activities of families and communities. This ... Child integration has become very important to form linkages between new immigrant communities and the predominant culture and ... Children are considered to be valuable and responsible contributors of the community. The process of child integration into ...
It also involves the entire acquisition community early in the process. Other FCBs can be created by the JROC to oversee ... The Joint Capabilities Integration and Development System (JCIDS) is the formal United States Department of Defense (DoD) ... "Operation of the Joint Capabilities Integration and Development System", Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Instruction ( ... Retrieved 2007-02-04.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "Joint Capabilities Integration and Development ...
Antillean Confederation Community of Latin American and Caribbean States European integration Organization of Ibero-American ... Inspired by the European Communities, in 1980 the ALALC was transformed into the Latin American Integration Association (ALADI ... "integration." … "That's how they created the European Community and then that became the European Union. That's what we need to ... at least in the case of support for political integration, also the center, to become the political wing favoring integration ...
An Online Community on Migration and Integration shows Good Practices from around the world. In migration and integration ... Social integration, together with economic integration and identity integration, are three main dimensions of a newcomers' ... It gives newcomers access to all areas of community life and eliminates segregation. In a broader view, social integration is a ... Social integration does not mean forced assimilation. Social integration is focused on the need to move toward a safe, stable ...
This last observation currently highlights a point of controversy within the neuroscientific community. Sadato et al. (2004) ... Multisensory integration, also known as multimodal integration, is the study of how information from the different sensory ... The Bayesian integration view is that the brain uses a form of Bayesian inference. This view has been backed up by ... The integration (empiricist) view states that at birth, sensory modalities are not at all connected. Hence, it is only through ...
"USF Sarasota-Manatee College of Education Receives Major Grant from Manatee Community Foundation". University of South Florida ... With a focus on the classroom practice of arts integration, a nonprofit called Arts Integration Solutions (formerly the Opening ... of arts integration, provides examples of arts integration in practice, and links to a range of resources. A series of Kennedy ... Arts integration differs from traditional education by its inclusion of both the arts discipline and a traditional subject as ...
Components from the Open ESB open-source community are productized in Java CAPS. Now known as IBM Integration Bus. Development ... 6] Software AG's Integration Platform "WebMethods , Integration Platform". Archived from the original on 9 August 2013. ... IBM Integration Bus V10.0 Announcement Letter see here [2]. For detail about IBM's Processor Value Units see here InterSystems ... This article is a comparison of notable business integration and business process automation software. Scope of this comparison ...
... we must take action and inform the public opinion about the academic community views". The Academy declared that: "Archival ... The name of the coalition was decided to be "Alliance for European Integration" (AIE for short). On 25 September 2009, the ... Alliance (Sweden) The declaration document of the Alliance for European Integration Total votes won by the opposition parties ( ... The Alliance for European Integration (Romanian: Alianța pentru Integrare Europeană) was a centre-right anti-communist ruling ...
It gets its name from the harambee tradition of Kenyan community self-help events. Crosswinds is a 6-10 school in Woodbury, ... EMID East Metro Integration District 6067 was a special school district in the U.S. state of Minnesota created as a ... EMID is designed to foster voluntary cultural integration among schools in the Twin Cities. EMID has four components: Harambee ...
"Deep integration". inwent.org. Archived from the original on 1 March 2010. "SADC: Address Members' Rights Issues". 14 August ... "South African Development Community". sadc.int. Retrieved 3 November 2014. "Southern African Development Community". sadc.int. ... "Southern African Development Community Protocol on Trade" (PDF). Southern African Development Community. 1996. Retrieved 14 ... Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS) Southern African Customs Union (SACU) Economic Community of West African ...
... "intelligence integration" across the Intelligence Community the primary mission of the ODNI. In 2012 the office announced an ... "Intelligence Integration". U.S. Office of the Director of National Intelligence. Archived from the original on 2014-02-25. ... Clapper has held several key positions within the United States Intelligence Community. He served as director of the Defense ... Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence (1 January 1996). Ic21: The Intelligence Community in the 21st Century: Hearings ...
European integration. Community law and European Institutions (2000); Public International Law (2 vol. 2001-2002); Treaty on ... Honorary Member of the academic community of the George Bacovia University [ro] (September 2003) of Bacău; Doctor of Ovidius ...
Hospitals Long-Term Care Homes Home and Community Care (formally Community Care Access Centres (CCACs)) Community Support ... LHINs were community-based, non-profit organizations funded by the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care to plan, fund ... Legacy LHIN functions were transferred to the new Ontario Health and the LHIN name was changed to Home and Community Care ... Local Health Integration Networks (LHINs) were the health authorities responsible for regional administration of public ...
Politics portal South America portal Andean Community Conservative wave Mercosur Union of South American Nations "PAÍSES ... Media related to Forum for the Progress and Integration of South America at Wikimedia Commons v t e v t e (CS1 Spanish-language ... The Forum for the Progress and Integration of South America (Spanish: Foro para el Progreso e integración de América del Sur, ... for the creation of an integration body to replace the Union of South American Nations. In the words of the Colombian president ...
Despite this privilege, the religious communities found it difficult to have their rights recognized. The abbot of Saint- ... The integration of Normandy into the royal domain of the Kingdom of France is the process of conquering and integrating the ... From the thirteenth century onwards, and especially during the fourteenth century, religious communities began selling off ... each religious community was able to recover its lands. Exploiting these revenues was a complicated business, however, and ...
Goitein, S.D. A Mediterranean Society: The Jewish Communities of the Arab World as Portrayed in the Documents of the Cairo ... "Migration und Integration". Statistisches Bundesamt (in German). Archived from the original on 6 April 2021. Retrieved 7 ... "Synagogues". Jewish Community Frankfurt am Main. Archived from the original on 6 October 2022. Retrieved 22 October 2022. " ... That system includes a suburban rail system (S-Bahn) linking outlying communities with the city center, and a deep underground ...
Dehousse, Renaud (1992). "Integration v. Regulation? On the Dynamics of Regulation in the European Community". JCMS: Journal of ... Dehousse, Renaud (1998). The European Court of Justice: The Politics of Judicial Integration. Houndmills, Basingstoke and ... Dehousse, Renaud (1995-07-01). "Constitutional reform in the European community: Are there alternatives to the Majoritarian ... Journal of European Integration. 34 (2): 113-132. doi:10.1080/07036337.2012.641089. hdl:20.500.11820/b87e6898-be30-43da-a290- ...
"Game/Community Integration". Archived from the original on 2008-07-30. Retrieved 2008-07-31. "HKO Closed Beta extended, again ... The design of Hello Kitty Online emphasizes the use of the game and SanrioTown web site as a social community platform. A ... During this Closed Beta period, Sanrio Digital joined with the game community MMOSite to give away more accounts to beta ... Players can also participate in the discussions posted on the community forums. The official HKO website includes a wiki, ...
"Community: PHR integration". Records For Living. Retrieved 2009-02-09. Official website at Healthvault.com "HealthVault". msdn. ... a fitness band powered by the Microsoft Health service that supported the Microsoft HealthVault for aggregation and integration ...
Nepalese NGOs provide six types of community services basically. First is integration. Hong Kong Integrated Nepalese Society ( ... set up to assist the Nepalese ethnic minority communities living in Hong Kong. The NGOs work with the communities to meet ... Some of them have their own communicating channels within the community or even to their fellow countrymen outside. Most NGOs ... Some Nepalese NGOs help directing Nepalese to the government like the Nepalese Community Support Team, locating in Jordan. It ...
"Participate". CiviCRM Community Site. Retrieved 2022-07-23. "Mosaico CiviCRM Integration , CiviCRM". civicrm.org. Retrieved ... There is an active community chat and most community and development discussion can be found on CiviCRM's Gitlab. CiviCRM ... Data-integration formats supported include RSS, JSON, XML, and CSV. Supported programming interfaces include REST, server PHP ... There are a wide and growing number of integration modules with these CMSes to leverage their strengths. A large number of ...
This concept was originally proposed in two-dimensional materials research community to construct 2D van der Waals ... van der Waals integration is a physical assembly strategy, in which prefabricated building blocks are physically assembled ... A key benefit of van der Waals integration is that it offers an alternative way to integrate highly disparate material systems ... Liu, Yuan; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng (March 2019). "Van der Waals integration before and beyond two-dimensional materials". ...
European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom), European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), European Economic Community (EEC), ... the European Economic Community (EEC), the European Communities (EC), and the European Union (EU) (all hereafter referred to as ... Archive of European Integration (AEI) Austrian Academy of Sciences Delegation of the European Union to the United States EU ... The Archive of European Integration (AEI) is an electronic repository and archive for research materials on the topic of ...
... and integration in the province. Accordingly, it provides a variety of programs for immigrants and immigrant communities in the ... Francization and Integration Francization services Francization and integration policies and programs Regional Operations The ... The department was previously overseen by the Minister of Immigration and Cultural Communities as a member of the Executive ... The federal government pays financial compensation to Quebec in order to ensure the reception and integration of immigrants. ...
"CARICOM View: 40 years of integration" (PDF). caricom.org. Retrieved February 20, 2013. is the place six Caribbean Community ( ... The Secretary General of the Caribbean Community is the Chief Executive Officer of the Community and the head of its principal ... has been an integral component of the regional integration movement from the Community's inception. Back in July 1968, it ... "From CARIFTA to the Caribbean Community" wherein he outlined policies for deepening the integration process. Caribbean portal ...
HCBS waiver provides services that enable individuals to remain in their homes or community-based settings as well as assist ... Community Integration and Habilitation Home and Community-Based Services Waiver. The Community Integration and Habilitation ( ... Community Integration and Habilitation Waiver. The Community Integration and Habilitation (CIH) HCBS waiver provides services ... Home & Community - Click to Expand * Adult Mental Health Habilitation Services Program - Click to Expand ...
Community integration also has strong community roots which place it in community practice fields from community psychology, to ... Institute on Community Integration. Research and Training Center on Community Integration. (1988). "From Being in the Community ... The 1988 Leadership Institute on Community Integration (From Being in the Community to Being Part of the Community, Steve J. ... "integration", with social integration the struggle for "equality and quality in life." The intent of community integration was ...
OAuth Integration - Provides additional features for XenForos REST API and additional methods for authentication... ... TH] OAuth Integration - Provides additional features for XenForos REST API and additional methods for authentication. The ... Could not process Audentio-API-1.0.1.zip: The add-on OAuth Integration 1.0.1 may not be compatible with XenForo Cloud: An ... ThemeHouse OAuth Integration provides additional features for XenForos REST API and additional methods for authentication, ...
... which authorizes a Demonstration project focused on community health integration models in certain rural communities. The ... Yes, the Frontier Community Health Integration Project (FCHIP) Demonstration is congressionally mandated. FCHIP is authorized ... The FCHIP Demonstration aims to support the CAH and local delivery system in keeping within the community patients who might ... increase the integration and coordination of care among providers, and reduce avoidable hospitalizations, admissions and ...
Hello, I am looking to hire someone to integrate our Google DoubleClick For Publishers ads so that they are responsive in Xenforo and on our mobile theme...
The 2-year Community Integration Through Co-operative Education Certificate at Conestoga provides individuals with ... The Community Integration through Co-operative Education (CICE) program is a two-year program designed to provide individuals ... Community Career Centre Conestoga Entrepreneurship Collective Co-operative education myCareer Services Talent Hub ... Other courses will be drawn from a number of current programs in various areas, such as Community Services, Business, and ...
The 2-year Community Integration Through Co-operative Education Certificate at Conestoga provides individuals with ... The Community Integration through Co-operative Education (CICE) program is a two-year program designed to provide individuals ... Community Career Centre Conestoga Entrepreneurship Collective Co-operative education myCareer Services Talent Hub ... Other courses will be drawn from a number of current diploma programs in Community Services, Business, Media and Design and ...
Home » Eclipse Projects » Eclipse Sprotty » Installation and integration with eclipse sirius web Show: Todays Messages :: Show ... initial integration with eclipse sirius. I have no idea on this, you should ask in the Sirius forum. Report message to a ... Re: Installation and integration with eclipse sirius web [message #1809736 is a reply to message #1808996]. Mon, 22 July 2019 ... Re: Installation and integration with eclipse sirius web [message #1816530 is a reply to message #1809736]. Wed, 30 October ...
isDev:false,site:ici.umn.edu,shortSite:ici,matomoId:13,iciHosts:[addm.umn.edu,checkandconnect.com,checkandconnect.org,checkandconnect.umn.edu,dsws.umn.edu,etc.umn.edu,files.nceo.info,files.tiescenter.org,gathering.umn.edu,globalinclusion.org,ici-s.umn.edu,intersectingart.umn.edu,lend.umn.edu,nceo.info,reinventingquality.org,risp.umn.edu,rtcom.umn.edu,selfadvocacyonline.org,teleoutreach.umn.edu,tiescenter.org,trainertracker.checkandconnect.umn.edu ...
Park City Community Foundation Eyes Integration Through Recreation in Utah September 1, 2017 • Jon Solomon ... The Park City Community Foundation is trying to change that. (Photo courtesy of the Park City Community Foundation). ... So last year a donor came to the Park City Community Foundation with $500,000 and a challenge: Help integrate the community. ... Now Reading : Park City Community Foundation Eyes Integration Through Recreation in Utah ...
Community Management solution streamlines partner communication, increases visibility among partners , & reduces errors. ... B2B Integration Your entire community. Managed and empowered.. As key capabilities of Axway B2B Integration, B2B partner and ... Manage community and onboarding processes Use flexible, pre-configured templates to define communication and document ... Provide self-service onboarding of new partners in your trading community makes it as easy for them to do business with you. ...
Information on where in the community individuals and families can find the best DSPs to meet their needs. ...
I cant get into the Windows Integration because it is greyed out. What is causing this? ... I cant get into the Windows Integration because it is greyed out. What is causing this? ...
Archive of European Integration is powered by EPrints 3 which is developed by the School of Electronics and Computer Science at ... Evain, Claude (1979) The Communitys relations with Spain. Study. [EU Economic and Social Committee] ...
OpenAIs ChatGPT Bing integration arrives, redefining AI chatbot experiences with advanced web browsing capabilities & DALL-E 3 ... The integration with Microsofts Bing not only bolsters its real-time information access but also places it a notch above by ... The integration with Bing has not just widened its horizon but has set a new benchmark for AI-powered chatbots. ... OpenAIs ChatGPT, through its Bing integration, is pioneering the AI chatbot domain, offering unparalleled web browsing ...
... its likely to be a problem with the CVI SCC integration. ... Home Community Discussion Forums Most Active Software Boards ... together with Perforce as the Source Code Control provider and have noticed a couple of problems in the integration. Versions ...
ProjectWise Design Integration Wiki Received a PW passport license email and need to make it work with ProjectWise ...
A Journey to Holistic Cloud Protection with the Microsoft 365 Security Stack Pt 6 - M365 Integration by James Key on May 11, ... I suggest raising this in the Defender for Endpoints community with regards on custom URL/Domain indicators support in MacOS. ... Saif_Rahman You can find all details here: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/cloud-app-security/wdatp-integration ...
Audiokinetics Community Q&A is the forum where users can ask and answer questions within the Wwise and Strata communities. If ...
... to-medicaid-long-term-care-spousal-impoverishment-rules-states-plans-and-implications-for-community-integration-issue-brief__ ... Plans and Implications for Community Integration - Issue Brief - 9261-02. Published: Nov 25, 2019 ...
isDev:false,site:ici.umn.edu,shortSite:ici,matomoId:13,iciHosts:[addm.umn.edu,checkandconnect.com,checkandconnect.org,checkandconnect.umn.edu,dsws.umn.edu,etc.umn.edu,files.nceo.info,files.tiescenter.org,gathering.umn.edu,globalinclusion.org,ici-s.umn.edu,intersectingart.umn.edu,lend.umn.edu,nceo.info,reinventingquality.org,risp.umn.edu,rtcom.umn.edu,selfadvocacyonline.org,teleoutreach.umn.edu,tiescenter.org,trainertracker.checkandconnect.umn.edu ...
... plugins and integrations - PunBB Forums - Lightweight PHP-based Forum ... idea] - Community Spam Removal (Page 1) - PunBB 1.2 modifications, ... idea] - Community Spam Removal. PunBB Forums → PunBB 1.2 modifications, plugins and integrations → [idea] - Community Spam ... PunBB Forums → PunBB 1.2 modifications, plugins and integrations → [idea] - Community Spam Removal ...
... community.canvaslms.com/groups/sis-integrations?sr=search&searchId=2d8c2c98-b3e1-44fd-9833-0...‌ group to get other specialists ... It just seems impossible to do a simple "import CSV" (which while not as elegant as a full on API integration) would still be ... I would like to see an integration where our professors can click a button in Canvas that pushes their class grades to Jenzabar ... We have an app, we are doing user, course, section, enrollment and grade sync with canvas from our backend integration with ...
Community Integration through Co-operative Education (CICE) Information Session. Upcoming Information Sessions: ... Review the program learning outcomes for Community Integration through Co-operative Education (CICE) (284) ... Guidance Counsellors, Teachers, Community Support Workers, etc., who support individuals that may have an interest in pursuing ...
Fine scale functional differences belie taxonomic resilience in a nutrient loaded microbial community. Microbial communities ... lending support for both neutral and functional responses in communities. Our comparison of microbial communities in salt marsh ... Reverse Ecology: Computational Integration of Genomes, Organisms, and Environments (IGERT) Cohort 1 project - taxonomic ... The two creeks were located within 5 km of one another, were surrounded by similar salt marsh plant communities and had similar ...
Community Integration through Co-operative Education (CICE) program offers students with intellectual disabilities and other ... During the information sessions, students and visitors can learn more about the Community Integration through Co-operative ...
App integrations are handy for a number of reasons. Not only do they add capabilities that your app may not be able to offer, ... This integration is a great example of knowing the needs of your customer and meeting them, even when it means teaming up with ... App integrations can provide a richer experience for users and can keep users in your app for longer periods of time. ... This integration isnt just a fun extra - it also shows customers that Starbucks cares about what its coffee clientele thinks ...
Archive of European Integration is powered by EPrints 3 which is developed by the School of Electronics and Computer Science at ... Coalmining Activity in the Community in 1986. 1987.8. [EU Commission - Working Document] ...
MyBB Community Forums. › Resources Third Party Integration .mysupport_priority_sticky td { background: #D6ECA6; } Users ... Forum Integration - Recent Posts on Main Site. (Pages: 1 2 3 4 5 ) punked, 2010-01-07, 11:20 PM ... Facebook Integration: Receive Notification to New Replies via Facebook?. (Pages: 1 2 ) Deathlock, 2012-04-10, 11:46 AM ... Tutorial] Basic Site-Forum Integration. (Pages: 1 2 3 4 ... 7 ) lupus2k5, 2006-10-31, 01:34 AM ...
  • The ThemeHouse OAuth Integration provides additional features for XenForo's REST API and additional methods for authentication, such as OAuth2, basic authentication, session authentication, and a basic XenForo API key. (xenforo.com)
  • Throughout the program, students will participate in work placements intended to develop and enhance work skills and involvement with the community. (conestogac.on.ca)
  • The guidelines include recommendations on seven aspects of a school-based program to promote healthy eating: school policy on nutrition, a sequential, coordinated curriculum, appropriate instruction for students, integration of school food service and nutrition education, staff training, family and community involvement, and program evaluation. (cdc.gov)
  • The right kind of app integrations can fill certain voids within your app, while providing more engagement and attention on both sides of the equation. (business2community.com)
  • HETS Online Journal » Implementation of a Civic Engagement Community Change Model by a Community College through the Integration of Technology and Social Media as Strategic Element. (hets.org)
  • Successful implementation of a civic engagement community change model will result in a greater number of graduates from that community, as well as spur the development of a more cohesive, stable and civically engaged community. (hets.org)
  • She proposed funding coalitions as a community engagement strategy used by other states engaged in overdose prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • The seminar was part of the European Committee of Regions' new platform, Cities and Regions for Integration Initiative , a network through which mayors and regional leaders can showcase positive examples of integration of migrants and refugees, share relevant information and promote diversity. (icmc.net)
  • By participating in the European Committee of Regions' new platform 'Cities and Regions for Integration Initiative,' ICMC continues to promote the integration of migrants and refugees in smaller communities across Europe. (icmc.net)
  • ICMC Europe and the SHARE Network are supporting evidence-based strategies for better integration of refugees and migrants in small communities by promoting the exchange of research results and experiences. (icmc.net)
  • On 25 June, ICMC Europe and the SHARE Network co-organized a seminar on the integration of migrants and refugees as a factor in local development in small European communities. (icmc.net)
  • Based on migration research and experience, panelists discussed the advantages and challenges faced by migrants and refugees who settle into smaller communities in Europe. (icmc.net)
  • The series reveals the resettlement experience of many refugees in smaller communities in seven European countries. (icmc.net)
  • Refugees coming to the United States fully integrate into the communities they resettle in. (longislandwins.com)
  • The report is based on a 2014 analysis of American Community Survey (ACS), a 5-year data for Somali, Burmese, Hmong, and Bosnian refugees. (longislandwins.com)
  • The analysis of large-scale systems change in community integration has involved challenges by local public agencies, key elements of these strategies (e.g., enabling leadership, putting people first, values and vision, learning for quality), and its implications for national policy. (wikipedia.org)
  • One context in which the function of microbial communities has important environmental implications is in estuaries, where microbial communities act as an intermediate between human nutrient and pollution runoff and marine systems This nutrient runoff can have profound implications for fisheries, water quality, and human health (Belkin & Colwell 2006). (brown.edu)
  • The national study has implications for expanding our understanding of the impact of participatory approaches on alleviating health disparities and aims to enhance our understanding of the barriers and facilitators to effective community-based participatory research. (cdc.gov)
  • The integration with Microsoft's Bing not only bolsters its real-time information access but also places it a notch above by bridging static AI knowledge with dynamic web content. (business2community.com)
  • This integration bolsters brand endearment for JetBlue customers and keeps app users in-app for longer, turning the JetBlue app from an optional extra to a must-have for flyers. (business2community.com)
  • This study aimed to assess the views of key stakeholders about integration of mental health into PHC in Karachi, Pakistan. (who.int)
  • Although there was general support among all the stakeholders for integration of mental health services within PHC, there were also a number of reservations. (who.int)
  • Develop and provide reliable, understandable information for affected communities and stakeholders. (cdc.gov)
  • Home and community-based services (HCBS) through the CIH waiver allow flexibility in providing the supports necessary to help individuals gain and maintain optimum levels of self-determination and community integration. (in.gov)
  • As the field moved toward community support, theories related to community living began to require applicability beyond a minority-group model with a new emphasis on self-determination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite this being individuals' number one concern, we learned to put the remote community building content at the end of our programs. (global-integration.com)
  • Accelerated action is needed for advocacy, strengthening of health systems, community mobilization, decentralization, integration and fostering partnerships. (who.int)
  • The Community Integration through Co-operative Education (CICE) program is a two-year program designed to provide individuals with exceptionalities and other significant learning challenges the opportunity to experience college life and enhance their academic and vocational skills with modified programming and support from Learning Strategists. (conestogac.on.ca)
  • The program will support students to be more independent members of the community, with the goal of transitioning to volunteer or paid employment or further academic studies. (conestogac.on.ca)
  • The hope is to create enduring, systemic change with the support of the whole community. (aspeninstitute.org)
  • Guidance Counsellors, Teachers, Community Support Workers, etc., who support individuals that may have an interest in pursuing Post-Secondary Education in the CICE and/or Career Pathways programs at Mohawk College. (mohawkcollege.ca)
  • In contrast to neutral models, which predict random community assemblage, these results provide clear support for a role of the functional niche that microbes occupy in determining their abundance in sediments. (brown.edu)
  • Comparisons of microbial communities among similar environmental samples using 16S amplicon sequencing and functional metagenomics have been met with mixed results, lending support for both neutral and functional responses in communities. (brown.edu)
  • The President of the Commission of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Jean-Claude Kassi Brou has called on the United States of America to continue its support of ECOWAS programmes and activities in order to achieve economic integration and peace and security in the region. (ecowas.int)
  • These are general support and standards-based integration information relevant to all third-party networking vendors for RADIUS and TACACS. (cisco.com)
  • Many strategies and interventions may support state and local integration of overdose prevention activities. (cdc.gov)
  • 3 Coalitions may also support state and local integration by facilitating collaboration between partners from different sectors to design and implement comprehensive and complementary overdose prevention efforts. (cdc.gov)
  • First was the perceived lack of support within the system in terms of resource allocation and acceptance from the community. (who.int)
  • Broadly construed integrative risks involve a failure to coordinate integration efforts at the science-policy interface, often with pernicious effects on the decision-making processes the science is meant to support. (lu.se)
  • The Community Integration and Habilitation (CIH) waiver provides services that enable individuals to remain in their homes or community-based settings. (in.gov)
  • Although the Olmstead decision explicitly did not reach the constitutional issues decided in the Pennhurst and other cases, limitations in Olmstead have been critiqued and it has been argued that there is a constitutional right to community services. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other courses will be drawn from a number of current programs in various areas, such as Community Services, Business, and Creative Industries, that reflect student interests and have been intentionally modified to suit the unique learning needs of each individual. (conestogac.on.ca)
  • Other courses will be drawn from a number of current diploma programs in Community Services, Business, Media and Design and Health Sciences that reflect student interests and have been intentionally modified to suit the unique learning needs of this population. (conestogac.on.ca)
  • Clicking that option on Google Maps brings up estimated route times for various rideshare services, featuring integration with Uber and Lyft, among others . (business2community.com)
  • The advisory includes an alert about an increase in overdoses and key community messages and may include a heat map of opioid overdose-related emergency medical services (EMS) calls. (cdc.gov)
  • To provide effective mental health services, the World Health Organization emphasizes the integration of mental health into primary health care (PHC). (who.int)
  • Furthermore, it was concluded that the participation of dentistry students in the"PET-Saúde UEL" project has promoted changes in the processes of broadening knowledge, contributing to public services and enabling greater integration between teaching, health service and community. (bvsalud.org)
  • Separate coding and payment for community health integration services. (medscape.com)
  • The CIH waiver also assists individuals who are transitioning from state-operated facilities or other institutions into community settings. (in.gov)
  • Information on where in the community individuals and families can find the best DSPs to meet their needs. (umn.edu)
  • It facilitates community outreach and the promotion of mental health, and long-term monitoring and management of affected individuals. (who.int)
  • ECOWAS Ministers of Finance have validated draft integration instruments meant to enhance a common customs framework for the region. (ecowas.int)
  • On his part, Mr. Stuart Symington commended the ECOWAS Commission for its role in promoting peace, security and economic integration. (ecowas.int)
  • By engaging local health departments, community organizations, coalitions, and community members with state overdose prevention efforts, state and local integration capitalizes on the important and distinct prevention roles of state and local partners. (cdc.gov)
  • ATSDR provides opportunities and suggests methods to actively involve community members in actions to protect the public's health from risks posed by hazardous wastes or other sources of environmental pollution. (cdc.gov)
  • In 1991 the Visegrad Group, initially comprised of three countries - Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia - united their efforts to first transform from a Communist dictatorship to parliamentary democracy and then convince the EU that they were deserving members of the European community. (lu.se)
  • So last year a donor came to the Park City Community Foundation with $500,000 and a challenge: Help integrate the community. (aspeninstitute.org)
  • The environmental and ecological processes that shape microbial community structure have been of long-standing interest to microbial ecologists. (brown.edu)
  • Historically, the role of the community college has been to serve the non-traditional student. (hets.org)
  • This will require integration of historically tested technologies with newer ones. (cdc.gov)
  • Community integration, while diversely defined, is a term encompassing the full participation of all people in community life. (wikipedia.org)
  • The intent of community integration was the participation of people with disabilities in regular environments, the antithesis of exclusionary practices (such as the minority-group model). (wikipedia.org)
  • The labor force participation rates of men in refugee communities often exceed that of U.S.-born men. (longislandwins.com)
  • Provide self-service onboarding of new partners in your trading community makes it as easy for them to do business with you. (axway.com)
  • App integrations can provide a richer experience for users and can keep users in your app for longer periods of time. (business2community.com)
  • In the third installment of this blog series we focus on the new enhancements to this integration that will provide additional flexibility and advance your threat hunting efforts. (microsoft.com)
  • In spite of a general diminution of law and policies providing a remedy for past exclusionary practices, higher education understands that as a matter of equity it has an obligation to provide educational opportunity to the marginalized community. (hets.org)
  • It aims to provide a "one-stop" shop for information, guidance and resources on the "what" and the "how" of implementing integration of mental health in PHC in the Region. (who.int)
  • Microbial communities are comprised of a diverse assemblage of taxonomic groups and metabolic functions that carry out important ecosystem processes such as nutrient cycling. (brown.edu)
  • Our comparison of microbial communities in salt marsh sediments along a polluted and unpolluted creek reveal a clear role for both processes, with strong functional differences in the abundance of metabolic genes related to nutrient cycling that are spread randomly across a range of functionally redundant taxa. (brown.edu)
  • Technology is big in the space and a few companies recently announced some integration and platform changes designed to streamline processes and make lives easier. (housingwire.com)
  • Too much integration, or integration of inappropriate elements, can undermine the legitimacy of policy processes e.g., by empowering inappropriate actors to make value judgements. (lu.se)
  • With one vendor, one integration and one invoice, lending teams realize multiple points of efficiency. (housingwire.com)
  • Coalitions are housed in local health departments and nonprofit organizations, such as health collaboratives and county medical societies, and use data to inform community actions and to implement evidence-based interventions. (cdc.gov)
  • Best practices include adapting interventions within local contexts, alleviating mistrust, supporting integration of local cultural knowledge, and training investigators from communities that experience cancer disparities. (cdc.gov)
  • Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been identified as an approach in creating interventions and prevention strategies to reduce health disparities (5,6) and was highlighted as a core strategy in the first national NIH Summit to Eliminate Disparities (7). (cdc.gov)
  • Within cancer and chronic disease prevention, CBPR provides strategies for contextualizing interventions to promote external validity across diverse communities and incorporates culturally centered indigenous knowledge with evidence-based sociobehavioral theory for comprehensive interventions (8). (cdc.gov)
  • CBPR addresses mistrust between academia, public health agencies, and communities through reciprocal learning and the challenges of translating and sustaining interventions within specific community contexts to improve health (9). (cdc.gov)
  • Anders Gustavsson (c. 1990) of Sweden has indicated that physical integration best describes the common use of the term "integration", with social integration the struggle for "equality and quality in life. (wikipedia.org)
  • He studies the communities' struggle to define their aims-be it for communal separation, autonomy, or independence-and the means each has at their disposal to achieve them. (rowman.com)
  • In 2017, the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) initiated the Overdose Prevention Initiative to prevent lives lost from overdose by funding coalitions statewide to address current and emerging community needs. (cdc.gov)
  • http://www.who.int/antimicrobial-resistance/publications/global-action-plan/en/ (accessed 16 November 2017). (who.int)
  • (http://www.who.int/blueprint/en/, accessed 16 November 2017). (who.int)
  • (http://www.paho.org/hq/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_download&gid=42290&Itemid=270&lang=en, accessed 16 November 2017). (who.int)
  • We expect much higher acceptance of the need to build community first from managers after their experiences in 2020. (global-integration.com)
  • The lack of Latinos playing soccer in Park City is directly impacted by socioeconomic status, said Diego Zegarra, Park City Community Foundation development and special projects manager. (aspeninstitute.org)
  • Dr. Yegar's encyclopedic study of the development and dynamics of Muslim communities in Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, and the Philippines represents a pioneering and valuable contribution to the literature on Islam in Southeast Asia. (rowman.com)
  • Disparate Impact and Integration: With TDHCA v. Inclusive Communities the Supreme Court Retains an Uneasy Status Quo , 24 JOURNAL OF AFFORDABLE HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT LAW 267 (2015). (missouri.edu)
  • Indeed, higher education seems to understand that in order for these communities to maximize the realization of their potential and achieve socioeconomic "success," their challenges regarding the development of human resource capital and the building of their collective community capacity must be addressed (Baber, 2015). (hets.org)
  • Refer to the official list of Cisco Security Technical Alliance Program Partners for additional product integrations that are not documented here. (cisco.com)
  • Simonds VW, Wallerstein N, Duran B, Villegas M. Community-Based Participatory Research: Its Role in Future Cancer Research and Public Health Practice. (cdc.gov)
  • The call for community-based participatory research approaches to address cancer health disparities is increasing as concern grows for the limited effectiveness of existing public health practice and research in communities that experience a disparate burden of disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Throughout recent decades, community integration programs have been increasingly effective in improving healthcare access for people with disabilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • LenderClose explained in a press release that this means a more streamlined and vastly accelerated underwriting process, an increasingly essential capability for all community lenders. (housingwire.com)
  • Countries have established programmes for testing and counselling, management of opportunistic infections, community home-based care and ART. (who.int)
  • It has specifically referred to the integration of people with disabilities into US society from the local to the national level, and for decades was a defining agenda in countries such as Great Britain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two creeks were located within 5 km of one another, were surrounded by similar salt marsh plant communities and had similar salinity gradients .The Ipswich creek received input from a sewage effluent located near the head of the creek and the reference creek received input water from a local reservoir. (brown.edu)
  • Participants concluded that when it comes to integration in small communities, there is no "one size fits all," that success depends on a certain level of flexibility and that cooperation between national, regional and local governments and civil society is essential. (icmc.net)
  • How can state and local integration work to reduce drug overdose? (cdc.gov)
  • 1 The overdose epidemic indicates the need for a comprehensive public health approach enacted through state and local integration and coordination. (cdc.gov)
  • The case studies presented here illustrate what successfully implemented state and local integration looks like. (cdc.gov)
  • Although integrating mental health into primary care has been on the agenda for many years, in many countries, there has been limited progress moving from local, time-limited projects to scaled-up sustainable integration. (who.int)
  • This report may also be useful to students, to parents, and to personnel in local and state health departments, community-based health and nutrition programs, pediatric clinics, and training institutions for teachers and public health professionals. (cdc.gov)
  • We collected metagenomic data from multiple sites along the two creeks and compared our results with studies of microbial community structures based on 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing, in which a single taxonomically informative locus is used to identify the taxonomic composition of a community (Sogin et al. (brown.edu)
  • The Park City Community Foundation, using research produced by Project Play on the benefits of youth sports, decided to apply sports as the vehicle for integration. (aspeninstitute.org)
  • The ultimate challenge to the occupational safety and health community is how to exploit new technologies appropriately without disregarding potential benefits from relatively low-tech research approaches. (cdc.gov)
  • include name="integration-hibernate. (hibernate.org)
  • These would include "person-centered planning, health system coordination, promoting patient self-advocacy, and facilitating access to community-based resources to address unmet social needs that interfere with the practitioner's diagnosis and treatment of the patient," CMS said. (medscape.com)
  • The agency described this as the first time the Medicare physician fee schedule would include care involving community health workers. (medscape.com)
  • As key capabilities of Axway B2B Integration, B2B partner and community management lets you quickly and easily onboard and manage partners, and provision endpoints. (axway.com)
  • OpenAI's ChatGPT, through its Bing integration, is pioneering the AI chatbot domain, offering unparalleled web browsing capabilities and introducing the ground-breaking DALL-E 3 text-to-image generator. (business2community.com)
  • Sweeping reform will help protect Medicare beneficiaries' access to primary care in their own communities - but physicians can't do this alone," Iroku-Malize said in a statement. (medscape.com)
  • AAFP's statement called CMS' plans to update coding and payment regulations for primary care and behavioral health integration "a meaningful step forward. (medscape.com)
  • Audiokinetic's Community Q&A is the forum where users can ask and answer questions within the Wwise and Strata communities. (audiokinetic.com)
  • Yes, the Frontier Community Health Integration Project (FCHIP) Demonstration is congressionally mandated. (cms.gov)
  • The HP Community is where owners of HP products, like you, volunteer to help each other find solutions. (hp.com)
  • As a result, I am reaching out to the community to find help! (canvaslms.com)
  • Before the Olmstead decision, the Supreme Court addressed the community integration issues multiple times in the case, Halderman v. Pennhurst State School and Hospital, a class action filed in Pennsylvania by attorney David Ferleger. (wikipedia.org)
  • If so, what have been some unforeseen issues that might have occurred with this integration? (canvaslms.com)
  • Once we had established our credentials by dealing with the "hard" management issues in the training we were then able to get away with talking more about community. (global-integration.com)
  • The donor who started the foundation's integration project has pledged $500,000 for the next five years, to secure the launch and seed grants. (aspeninstitute.org)