Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.
Organizations and individuals cooperating together toward a common goal at the local or grassroots level.
Institutions with permanent facilities and organized medical staff which provide the full range of hospital services primarily to a neighborhood area.
Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)
Persons trained to assist professional health personnel in communicating with residents in the community concerning needs and availability of health services.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A branch of medicine concerned with the total health of the individual within the home environment and in the community, and with the application of comprehensive care to the prevention and treatment of illness in the entire community.
Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.
Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.
Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Total pharmaceutical services provided to the public through community pharmacies.
The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
Collaborative process of research involving researchers and community representatives.
Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.
A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
General and comprehensive nursing practice directed to individuals, families, or groups as it relates to and contributes to the health of a population or community. This is not an official program of a Public Health Department.
A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Psychotherapeutic technique which emphasizes socioenvironmental and interpersonal influences in the resocialization and rehabilitation of the patient. The setting is usually a hospital unit or ward in which professional and nonprofessional staff interact with the patients.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
The status of health in rural populations.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.
Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
Facilities which administer the delivery of psychologic and psychiatric services to people living in a neighborhood or community.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
The genomic analysis of assemblages of organisms.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).
A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Branch of psychiatry concerned with the provision and delivery of a coordinated program of mental health care to a specified population. The foci included in this concept are: all social, psychological and physical factors related to etiology, prevention, and maintaining positive mental health in the community.
Persons who donate their services.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia.
The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
A geographic location which has insufficient health resources (manpower and/or facilities) to meet the medical needs of the resident population.
The full collection of microbes (bacteria, fungi, virus, etc.) that naturally exist within a particular biological niche such as an organism, soil, a body of water, etc.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
The immediate physical zone surrounding plant roots that include the plant roots. It is an area of intense and complex biological activity involving plants, microorganisms, other soil organisms, and the soil.
The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)
Facilities for the preparation and dispensing of drugs.
Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.
Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.
Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.
Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.
The practice of dentistry concerned with preventive as well as diagnostic and treatment programs in a circumscribed population.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
Theoretical representations and constructs that describe or explain the structure and hierarchy of relationships and interactions within or between formal organizational entities or informal social groups.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
The practice of caring for individuals in the community, rather than in an institutional environment with resultant effects on the individual, the individual's family, the community, and the health care system.
A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.
Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)
The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
The status of health in urban populations.
Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.
Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.
Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.
The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Organizational development including enhancement of management structures, processes and procedures, within organizations and among different organizations and sectors to meet present and future needs.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
Territory in north central Australia, between the states of Queensland and Western Australia. Its capital is Darwin.
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of archaea.
A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.
Those persons legally qualified by education and training to engage in the practice of pharmacy.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.
Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.
Liquid water present beneath the surface of the earth.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.
A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Living facilities for humans.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.
Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.
The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)
Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.
The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.
Individuals classified according to their sex, racial origin, religion, common place of living, financial or social status, or some other cultural or behavioral attribute. (UMLS, 2003)
A subgroup having special characteristics within a larger group, often bound together by special ties which distinguish it from the larger group.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Organisms that live in water.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.
The circulation or wide dispersal of information.
Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.
The expected function of a member of a particular profession.
Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.
Animals that have no spinal column.
Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.
Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.
A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
Size and composition of the family.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.
A self-governing territory formed from the central and eastern portions of the Northwest Territories. It was officially established April 1, 1999. The capital is Iqaluit.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.
A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.

Role of schools in the transmission of measles in rural Senegal: implications for measles control in developing countries. (1/2393)

Patterns of measles transmission at school and at home were studied in 1995 in a rural area of Senegal with a high level of vaccination coverage. Among 209 case children with a median age of 8 years, there were no deaths, although the case fatality ratio has previously been 6-7% in this area. Forty percent of the case children had been vaccinated against measles; the proportion of vaccinated children was higher among secondary cases (47%) than among index cases (33%) (prevalence ratio = 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.76). Vaccinated index cases may have been less infectious than unvaccinated index cases, since they produced fewer clinical cases among exposed children (relative risk = 0.55, 95% CI 0.29-1.04). The secondary attack rate was lower in the schools than in the homes (relative risk = 0.31, 95% CI 0.20-0.49). The school outbreaks were protracted, with 4-5 generations of cases being seen in the two larger schools. Vaccine efficacy was found to be 57% (95% CI -23 to 85) in the schools and 74% (95% CI 62-82) in the residential compounds. Measles infection resulted in a mean of 3.8 days of absenteeism per case, though this did not appear to have an impact on the children's grades. Among the index cases, 56% of children were probably infected by neighbors in the community, and 7% were probably infected at health centers, 13% outside the community, and 24% in one of the three schools which had outbreaks during the epidemic. However, most of the school-related cases occurred at the beginning and therefore contributed to the general propagation of the epidemic. To prevent school outbreaks, it may be necessary to require vaccination prior to school entry and to revaccinate children in individual schools upon detection of cases of measles. Multidose measles vaccination schedules will be necessary to control measles in developing countries.  (+info)

Longitudinal evaluation of serovar-specific immunity to Neisseria gonorrhoeae. (2/2393)

The serovars of Neisseria gonorrhoeae that are predominant in a community change over time, a phenomenon that may be due to the development of immunity to repeat infection with the same serovar. This study evaluated the epidemiologic evidence for serovar-specific immunity to N. gonorrhoeae. During a 17-month period in 1992-1994, all clients of a sexually transmitted disease clinic in rural North Carolina underwent genital culture for N. gonorrhoeae. Gonococcal isolates were serotyped according to standard methods. Odds ratios for repeat infection with the same serovar versus any different serovar were calculated on the basis of the distribution of serovars in the community at the time of reinfection. Of 2,838 patients, 608 (21.4%; 427 males and 181 females) were found to be infected with N. gonorrhoeae at the initial visit. Ninety patients (14.8% of the 608) had a total of 112 repeat gonococcal infections. Repeat infection with the same serovar occurred slightly more often than would be expected based on the serovars prevalent in the community at the time of reinfection, though the result was marginally nonsignificant (odds ratio = 1.5, 95% confidence interval 1.0-2.4; p = 0.05). Choosing partners within a sexual network may increase the likelihood of repeat exposure to the same serovar of N. gonorrhoeae. Gonococcal infection did not induce evident immunity to reinfection with the same serovar.  (+info)

Infective endocarditis due to Staphylococcus aureus: 59 prospectively identified cases with follow-up. (3/2393)

Fifty-nine consecutive patients with definite Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis (IE) by the Duke criteria were prospectively identified at our hospital over a 3-year period. Twenty-seven (45.8%) of the 59 patients had hospital-acquired S. aureus bacteremia. The presumed source of infection was an intravascular device in 50.8% of patients. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) revealed evidence of IE in 20 patients (33.9%), whereas transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) revealed evidence of IE in 48 patients (81.4%). The outcome for patients was strongly associated with echocardiographic findings: 13 (68.4%) of 19 patients with vegetations visualized by TTE had an embolic event or died of their infection vs. five (16.7%) of 30 patients whose vegetations were visualized only by TEE (P < .01). Most patients with S. aureus IE developed their infection as a consequence of a nosocomial or intravascular device-related infection. TEE established the diagnosis of S. aureus IE in many instances when TTE was nondiagnostic. Visualization of vegetations by TTE may provide prognostic information for patients with S. aureus IE.  (+info)

Risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia in adults: a population-based case-control study. (4/2393)

Although community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a major cause of hospitalization and death, few studies on risk factors have been performed. A population-based case-control study of risk factors for CAP was carried out in a mixed residential-industrial urban area of 74,610 adult inhabitants in the Maresme (Barcelona, Spain) between 1993 and 1995. All patients living in the area and clinically suspected of having CAP at primary care facilities and hospitals were registered. In total, 205 patients with symptoms, signs and radiographic infiltrate compatible with acute CAP participated in the study. They were matched by municipality, sex and age with 475 controls randomly selected from the municipal census. Risk factors relating the subject's characteristics and habits, housing conditions, medical history and treatments were investigated by means of a questionnaire. In the univariate analysis, an increased risk of CAP was associated with low body mass index, smoking, respiratory infection, previous pneumonia, chronic lung disease, lung tuberculosis, asthma, treated diabetes, chronic liver disease, and treatments with aminophiline, aerosols and plastic pear-spacers. In multivariate models, the only statistically significant risk factors were current smoking of >20 cigarettes x day(-1) (odds ratio (OR)=2.77; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-6.70 compared with never-smokers), previous respiratory infection (OR=2.73; 95% CI 1.75-4.26), and chronic bronchitis (OR=2.22; 95% CI 1.13-4.37). Benzodiazepines were found to be protective in univariate and multivariate analysis (OR=0.46; 95% CI 0.23-0.94). This population-based study provides new and better established evidence on the factors associated with the occurrence of pneumonia in the adult community.  (+info)

The economic impact of Staphylococcus aureus infection in New York City hospitals. (5/2393)

We modeled estimates of the incidence, deaths, and direct medical costs of Staphylococcus aureus infections in hospitalized patients in the New York City metropolitan area in 1995 by using hospital discharge data collected by the New York State Department of Health and standard sources for the costs of health care. We also examined the relative impact of methicillin-resistant versus -sensitive strains of S. aureus and of community-acquired versus nosocomial infections. S. aureus-associated hospitalizations resulted in approximately twice the length of stay, deaths, and medical costs of typical hospitalizations; methicillin-resistant and -sensitive infections had similar direct medical costs, but resistant infections caused more deaths (21% versus 8%). Community-acquired and nosocomial infections had similar death rates, but community-acquired infections appeared to have increased direct medical costs per patient ($35,300 versus $28,800). The results of our study indicate that reducing the incidence of methicillin-resistant and -sensitive nosocomial infections would reduce the societal costs of S. aureus infection.  (+info)

Seroprevalence of IgG antibodies to the chlamydia-like microorganism 'Simkania Z' by ELISA. (6/2393)

The newly described microorganism 'Simkania Z', related to the Chlamydiae, has been shown to be associated with bronchiolitis in infants and community acquired pneumonia in adults. The prevalence of infection in the general population is unknown. A simple ELISA assay for the detection of serum IgG antibodies to 'Simkania Z' was used to determine the prevalence of such antibodies in several population samples in southern Israel (the Negev). The groups tested included 94 medical and nursing students, 100 unselected blood donors, 106 adult members of a Negev kibbutz (communal agricultural settlement), and 45 adult Bedouin, residents of the Negev. IgG antibodies to 'Simkania Z' were found in 55-80% of these presumably healthy individuals, independently of antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae. The Bedouin had a seropositivity rate of 80%, while all other groups had rates of between 55 and 64%. These results indicate that 'Simkania Z' infection is probably common in southern Israel.  (+info)

Group A Streptococcus carriage among close contacts of patients with invasive infections. (7/2393)

During the past few years, the incidence of invasive group A Streptococcus (GAS) infection has been increasing. However, there are presently no clear recommendations regarding antibiotic prophylaxis for close contacts of index patients. The aims of this study were 1) to determine the prevalence of carriage of the same GAS strain as the patient's among contacts of patients with invasive infections and 2) to assess the importance of exposure duration. From March 1995 to March 1996, the authors prospectively included in the study all patients with invasive GAS infection, as defined by the Working Group on Severe Streptococcal Infections, who came to Hopital Maisonneuve-Rosemont in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. An epidemiologic investigation was systematically carried out for each index case. Contacts were divided into two groups: those who had spent 24 hours or more with the index patient during the week preceding the beginning of his or her illness and those who had spent 12-24 hours with the index patient during that week. Strains of GAS were examined by serotyping (proteins M and T and the presence or absence of the serum opacity factor) and by characterization of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins (exotoxins A, B, and C). One hundred and two contacts of 17 index cases with invasive GAS infection were systematically screened. Contacts were considered positive if they carried the same strain of the bacterium and the same streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin as the index case. Among the contacts who had spent at least 24 hours per week with their respective index cases, 13 out of 48 (27%) were found to be harboring the same serotype of GAS as the index patient (95% confidence interval 14.5-39.5). By comparison, only one of the 54 contacts in the 12- to 24-hour group (1.8%) was found to be carrying the same strain of the bacterium (95% confidence interval 0-5.3). This difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p<0.001). The median age of the positive carriers (10 years) was significantly lower than the median age of the noncarriers (39 years) (p< or =0.0005). This study showed that close contacts who had spent 12-24 hours with the index patient were rarely colonized with GAS. If antibiotic prophylaxis against GAS is recommended, it should probably target contacts who spent at least 24 hours with an infected patient during the week preceding illness onset.  (+info)

A community outbreak of Legionnaires' disease linked to hospital cooling towers: an epidemiological method to calculate dose of exposure. (8/2393)

BACKGROUND: From July to September 1994, 29 cases of community-acquired Legionnaires' disease (LD) were reported in Delaware. The authors conducted an investigation to a) identify the source of the outbreak and risk factors for developing Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (Lp-1) pneumonia and b) evaluate the risk associated with the components of cumulative exposure to the source (i.e. distance from the source, frequency of exposure, and duration of exposure). METHODS: A case-control study matched 21 patients to three controls per case by known risk factors for acquiring LD. Controls were selected from patients who attended the same clinic as the respective case-patients. Water samples taken at the hospital, from eight nearby cooling towers, and from four of the patient's homes were cultured for Legionella. Isolates were subtyped using monoclonal antibody (Mab) analysis and arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR). RESULTS: Eleven (52%) of 21 case-patients worked at or visited the hospital compared with 17 (27%) of 63 controls (OR 5.0, 95% CI : 1.1-29). For those who lived, worked, or visited within 4 square miles of the hospital, the risk of illness decreased by 20% for each 0.10 mile from the hospital; it increased by 80% for each visit to the hospital; and it increased by 8% for each hour spent within 0.125 miles of the hospital. Lp-1 was isolated from three patients and both hospital cooling towers. Based on laboratory results no other samples contained Lp-1. The clinical and main-tower isolates all demonstrated Mab pattern 1,2,5,6. AP-PCR matched the main-tower samples with those from two case-patients. CONCLUSION: The results of our investigation suggested that the hospital cooling towers were the source of a community outbreak of LD. Increasing proximity to and frequency of exposure to the towers increased the risk of LD. New guidelines for cooling tower maintenance are needed. Knowing the location of cooling towers could facilitate maintenance inspections and outbreak investigations.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Community-acquired methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus in children with no identified predisposing risk. AU - Herold, Betsy C.. AU - Immergluck, Lilly C.. AU - Maranan, Melinda C.. AU - Lauderdale, Diane S.. AU - Gaskin, Ryan E.. AU - Boyle-Vavra, Susan. AU - Leitch, Cindy D.. AU - Daum, Robert S.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2007 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1998/2/25. Y1 - 1998/2/25. N2 - Context.-Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in children have occurred primarily in individuals with recognized predisposing risks. Community-acquired MRSA infections in the absence of identified risk factors have been reported infrequently. Objectives.-To determine whether community-acquired MRSA infections in children with no identified predisposing risks are increasing and to define the spectrum of disease associated with MRSA isolation. Design.-Retrospective review of medical records. Patients.-Hospitalized children with S ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Commercially distributed meat as a potential vehicle for community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. AU - Ogata, Kikuyo. AU - Narimatsu, Hiroshi. AU - Suzuki, Masahiro. AU - Higuchi, Wataru. AU - Yamamoto, Tatsuo. AU - Taniguchi, Hatsumi. PY - 2012/4. Y1 - 2012/4. N2 - The incidence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infection has been increasing; however, the sources of infection remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the involvement of meat as a possible mediator of CA-MRSA infection.Weexamined the distribution ofMRSAstrains in commercially distributed raw meat samples (n=197) and diarrheal stool samples of outpatients (n=1,287) that were collected in Oita Prefecture, Japan, between 2003 and 2009 for routine legal inspections. FourteenMRSAstrains were isolated from three meat and 11 stool samples. Among these, seven isolates from three meat and four stool samples exhibited the same epidemiological marker profiles ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Community-acquired methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus among patients with puerperal mastitis requiring hospitalization. AU - Stafford, Irene. AU - Hernandez, Jennifer. AU - Laibl, Vanessa. AU - Sheffield, Jeanne. AU - Roberts, Scott. AU - Wendel, George. PY - 2008/9/1. Y1 - 2008/9/1. N2 - OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of puerperal mastitis requiring hospital admission and to describe demographic and obstetric risk factors for this condition. We also sought to identify trends in bacteriology among isolates obtained from breast abscesses and breast-milk aspirates, with a focus on treatment strategies used for community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). METHODS: Patients with puerperal mastitis who were admitted to a county-based teaching hospital between January 1997 and December 2005 were identified by International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, codes (675.1, 675.2). Data collected included demographic characteristics, ...
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a frequent cause for patients to present to a physicians office or emergency department. We observed increasing numbers of community-acquired MRSA infections in patients admitted to the hand surgery service at our suburban academic center. It is an important issue as unsuspected community-acquired MRSA hand infections can be admitted to the hospital, inadequately treated, and allowed for nosocomial spread. This study was performed to examine the trend in the incidence of community-acquired MRSA infections in patients admitted to the hand surgery service in order to sensitize practitioners to have a high index of suspicion for this entity and promote early recognition and treatment of this organism. A multihospital retrospective chart review was undertaken to compare the total number of community-acquired MRSA infections in our hospital as well as the number in patients admitted to the hand surgery service with community-acquired MRSA from 2000
BioAssay record AID 529821 submitted by ChEMBL: Bactericidal activity against community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by broth microdilution method in presence of 50% human serum.
www.lung.org/assets/documents/research/pi-trend-report.pdf.. 5. Arnold FW, Wiemken TL, Peyrani P, et al. Mortality differences among hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia in three world regions: results from the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Organization (CAPO) International Cohort Study. Respir Med 2013;107:1101-11.. 6. Mortensen EM, Coley CM, Singer DE, et al. Causes of death for patients with community-acquired pneumonia: results from the Pneumonia Patient Outcomes Research Team cohort study. Arch Intern Med 2002;162:1059-64.. 7. Bordon J, Wiemken T, Peyrani P, et al. Decrease in long-term survival for hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Chest 2010;138:279-83.. 8. Mortensen EM, Halm EA, Pugh MJ, et al. Association of azithromycin with mortality and cardiovascular events among older patients hospitalized with pneumonia. JAMA 2014;311:2199-208.. 9. Aliberti S, Ramirez JA. Cardiac diseases complicating community-acquired pneumonia. Curr Opin Infect Dis ...
SUPPLEMENT ARTICLE Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society Consensus Guidelines on the Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults Lionel A. Mandell, 1,a Richard G. Wunderink,
Klebsiella pneumoniae is the major cause of community-acquired pyogenic infections in Taiwan. This retrospective study evaluated the clinical and microbiological characteristics of bacteremic community-acquired pneumonia due to K. pneumoniae in Taiwanese adults. The clinical characteristics of bacteremic community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in adults due to K. pneumoniae were compared to those of adults with bacteremic CAP due to Streptococcus pneumoniae at a tertiary medical center in Taiwan from 2001-2008. Risk factors for mortality of bacteremic CAP due to K. pneumoniae were analyzed. All clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae were examined for capsular serotypes, hypermucoviscosity phenotype, aerobactin and rmpA gene. K. pneumoniae was the dominant cause of bacteremic CAP and was associated with a more fulminant course and a worse prognosis than bacteremic CAP due to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Initial presentation with septic shock and respiratory failure were independent risk factors for both early and
Oxidative stress is an important part of host innate immune response to foreign pathogens. However, the impact of vitamin C on oxidative stress and inflammation remains unclear in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We aimed to determine the effect of vitamin C on oxidative stress and inflammation. CAP patients were enrolled. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage, superoxide dismutases (SOD) activity, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and IL-6 were analyzed in CAP patients and LPS-stimulated macrophages cells. MH-S cells were transfected with RFP-LC3 plasmids. Autophagy was measured in LPS-stimulated macrophages cells. Severe CAP patients showed significantly increased ROS, DNA damage, TNF-α, and IL-6. SOD was significantly decreased in severe CAP. Vitamin C significantly decreased ROS, DNA damage, TNF-α, and IL-6. Vitamin C inhibited LPS-induced ROS, DNA damage, TNF-α, IL-6, and p38 in macrophages cells. Vitamin C inhibited autophagy in LPS-induced macrophages cells.
References 1. Bartlett JG, Dowell SF, Mandell LA, et al; Infectious Diseases Society of America. Practice guidelines for the management of community-acquired pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;31:347-382. 2. National Center for Health Statistics. Health, United States, 2006. Available at: www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/hus06.pdf. Accessed June 6, 2007.3. DeFrances CJ, Podgornik MN. 2004 National hospital discharge survey. Adv Data. 2006;317:1-19. 4. Division of Epidemiology. National Heart Lung and Blood Institute. Morbidity and mortality: 2004 chartbook on cardiovascular, lung and blood diseases. May 2004. 5. Mandell LA, Wunderink RG, Anzueto A, et al. Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44(suppl 2):S27-S72. 6. Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Churchill Livingstone; 2005:819-845. 7. Marrie TJ, ...
Distinguishing bacterial pneumonia from viral pneumonia is critical to providing effective treatment but remains a significant challenge. This issue provides guidance for the management of pediatric community-acquired pneumonia as well as associated complications including pleural effusion/empyema
Press Release Date: March 1, 2004. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality today announced its first clinical decision-support tool for personal digital assistants (PDAs) that is designed to help clinicians deliver evidence-based medicine at the point of care. AHRQs new Pneumonia Severity Index Calculator (which is available for download from the AHRQ Web site at http://pda.ahrq.gov), is an interactive application for Palm Pilots and other PDAs to help doctors quickly and easily determine whether patients with community-acquired pneumonia should be treated at home or in a hospital.. This new Pneumonia Severity Index Calculator is an example of how technology can support and facilitate the delivery of evidence-based medicine, said AHRQ Director Carolyn M. Clancy, M.D. AHRQ is striving to make decision support tools such as this available to clinicians. Community-acquired pneumonia contracted outside of a hospital or nursing home environment affects approximately 4 million Americans ...
There is no evidence supporting the use of de-escalation therapy (DET) among patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We assessed the outcomes associated with DET among bacteraemic CAP patients. We performed a secondary analysis of the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Organization database, which contains data on 660 bacteraemic patients hospitalized because of CAP in 35 countries (2001-2013). Exclusion criteria were death within 72h from admission and an inappropriate empirical antibiotic regimen. DET was defined as changing an appropriate empirical broad-spectrum regimen to a narrower-spectrum regimen according to culture results within 7 days from hospital admission. Two study groups were identified: patients whose antibiotic therapy was de-escalated (the DET group), and patients whose antibiotic therapy was not de-escalated (the N-DET group). The primary study outcome was 30-day mortality. Two hundred and sixty-one bacteraemic CAP patients were included. Gram-positive bacteria were ...
...WALTHAM Mass. Dec. 8 /- Decision Resources one of the ...The new Pharmacor report entitled Community-Acquired Pneumonia ... Two of the most clinically and commercially promising antibiotics in ...The report also finds that the community-acquired pneumonia market is ...,Patent,Expiries,of,Blockbuster,Antibiotics,Will,Fuel,a,Decline,of,More,Than,15,Percent,in,the,Community-Acquired,Pneumonia,Drug,Market,medicine,advanced medical technology,medical laboratory technology,medical device technology,latest medical technology,Health
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has significant morbidity and mortality. The Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society (IDSA/ATS) guidelines recommend two antimicrobial regimens for hospitalized patients with CAP, one of which includes a macrolide, and one of which does not. Both regimens have antimicrobial properties, but macrolides also possess immunomodulatory properties. Macrolides, however, may also have potential arrhythmia adverse effects. The purpose of this review is to provide an update of studies evaluating outcomes for patients with CAP treated with or without a macrolide-based regimen. Two recent randomized controlled trials conflict with each other regarding the benefit versus noninferiority of including a macrolide for the treatment for CAP. Each have their respective limitations. Most prior observational studies and meta-analyses favor using a regimen with a macrolide. We do not recommend any different treatment strategy than the current IDSA/ATS guidelines for
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A study to assess the frequency of CRB65 scoring in patients diagnosed with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in primary care has been recently published in the Dove Press journal Pragmatic and Observational Research[1].. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a leading infectious cause of death worldwide.[2] CAP requires a severity assessment for diagnosis and treatment, particularly in hospital admission decisions. As an increased mortality rate is associated with a delay in admissions to the intensive care unit in severe CAP cases, it is critical that treatment is based on the severity of CAP to improve treatment outcomes. Both the British Thoracic Society (BTS) and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommend that the CRB65 scoring system to be used for this purpose due to its high levels of accuracy. The score assigns one score for each component of confusion, respiratory rate, blood pressure and age of 65 years or more, up to a maximum of 4. However, not much is ...
Plasma YKL-40 level has been reported as playing a significant role in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, the correlation between plasma level of YKL-40 and the severity of CAP has not been reported. This study identifies the relationship between plasma level changes of the YKL-40 gene in adult patients hospitalized with CAP. The ELISA was used to measure the plasma YKL-40 level from 61 adult CAP patients before and after antibiotic treatment and from 60 healthy controls. The plasma YKL-40 levels were significantly increased in patients with CAP compared to normal controls. Moreover, the plasma concentration of YKL-40 correlated with the severity of CAP based on the pneumonia severity index (PSI) score (r = 0.630, p < 0.001), the CURB-65 (confusion, uremia, respiratory rate, BP, age 65 years) score (r = 0.640, p < 0.001), the Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score (r = 0.539, p < 0.001) and length of hospital stay (r = 0.321, p = 0.011), respectively. In
Abdel-Rahman EM, 2000, DIAGN MICR INFEC DIS, V36, P203, DOI 10.1016-S0732-8893(99)00142-X; Ahmad S, 2009, JCPSP-J COLL PHYSICI, V19, P264, DOI 04.2009-JCPSP.264265; Ahmed K, 2000, EPIDEMIOL INFECT, V125, P573, DOI 10.1017-S0950268800004751; AHMED K, 1999, J INFECT CHEMOTHER, V5, P217, DOI 10.1007-s101560050039; Akala FA, 2006, LANCET, V367, P961, DOI 10.1016-S0140-6736(06)68402-X; Akbar DH, 2001, ACTA DIABETOL, V38, P77; ALALI MK, 2007, SAUDI MED J, V28, P813; Al-Ghamdi SM, 2003, SAUDI MED J, V24, P1073; Al-Ghizawi G. J., 2007, Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, V13, P230; Al-Moyed K A, 2003, East Mediterr Health J, V9, P279; Al-Muhairi S, 2006, Monaldi Arch Chest Dis, V65, P13; Al-Muhairi SS, 2006, SAUDI MED J, V27, P1044; Alzeer A, 1998, J INFECTION, V36, P303, DOI 10.1016-S0163-4453(98)94315-8; Babay HA, 2000, SAUDI MED J, V21, P860; Balkhy HH, 2006, INT J INFECT DIS, V10, P326, DOI 10.1016-j.ijid.2005.06.013; Behbehani N, 2005, MED PRIN PRACT, V14, P235, DOI 10.1159-000085741; BISHAY FK, ...
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an emerging community-acquired pathogen among patients without established risk factors for MRSA infection (e.g., recent hospitalization, recent surgery, residence in a long-term-care facility [LTCF], or injecting-drug use [IDU]) (1). Since 1996, the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) and the Indian Health Service (IHS) have investigated cases of community-acquired MRSA infection in patients without established risk factors. This report describes four fatal cases among children with community-acquired MRSA; the MRSA strains isolated from these patients appear to be different from typical nosocomial MRSA strains in antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) characteristics.. Case Reports. Case 1. In July 1997, a 7-year-old black girl from urban Minnesota was admitted to a tertiary-care hospital with a temperature of 103 F (39.5 C) and right groin pain. An infected right hip joint was diagnosed; she ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ampicillin and penicillin concentration in serum and pleural fluid of hospitalized children with community-acquired pneumonia. AU - Giachetto, Gustavo. AU - Pirez, María Catalina. AU - Nanni, Luciana. AU - Martínez, Adriana. AU - Montano, Alicia. AU - Algorta, Gabriela. AU - Kaplan, Sheldon L.. AU - Ferrari, Ana María. PY - 2004/7/1. Y1 - 2004/7/1. N2 - Background: Optimal therapeutic efficacy of β-lactam antibiotics for treatment of pneumococcal pneumonia is thought to be associated with the serum concentration greater than the minimum inhibitory concentration for 40-50% of the interdose interval at site of infection. Objective: Establish whether intravenous administration of ampicillin 400 mg/kg/day or penicillin 200,000 IU/kg/day in 6 divided doses reaches serum and or pleural concentrations above 4 μg/ml for at least 40% of the interdose interval. Materials and Methods: Hospitalized healthy children 1 month-14 years old with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and ...
Ekloef and Schmidt Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine2012, 20(Suppl 2):P10http://www.sjtrem.com/content/20/S2/P10 Community-acquired pneumonia: a comparisonof clinical treatment failure in patients treatedwith either penicillin or cefuroximeJosefin Ekloef*, Thomas A Schmidt From 4th Danish Emergency Medicine ConferenceRoskilde, Denmark. 25-26 November 2011 cefuroxime. Forty percent of the patients treated with National and local guidelines in the Emergency depart- penicillin experienced CTF compared to 17% in the ment (ED) at Holbaek hospital recommend penicillin as group treated with cefuroxime (p=0.347). Patients were first-line treatment of community-acquired pneumonia followed for 9 days. At 5 days, a survival rate without (CAP). Nevertheless, the use of cefuroxime seem to be CTF was estimated to 0,75 for cefuroxime and 0.54 for substantial when admitting patients with CAP ...
Our comprehensive search strategy identified 14 studies describing an association between kidney disease and acute community-acquired infection. Although between-study heterogeneity precluded meta-analysis, all studies were consistent with a positive direction of association. Four studies which reported estimates on more than one category of kidney disease found a graded association in which risk of infection increased with greater severity of CKD. These four studies excluded patients with ESRD, and three were at low risk of bias in all categories of quality assessment.22 ,23 ,26 ,27. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review to address this research question systematically. We used a sensitive search strategy, with a broad definition of kidney disease, for a thorough and inclusive search. The results are consistent with the conclusion of previous narrative reviews: that an association between CKD and infection incidence is likely, but that there is a paucity of ...
TABLE: Emerging Therapies in Development for Community-Acquired Pneumonia, 2004 summarizes emerging antibacterial agents in late-stage development and their expected sales potential in the community-acquired pneumonia market.
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common infection. Approximately 20 percent of all episodes of pneumonia result in hospitalization. It is the leading cause of community-acquired infection requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission. In pulmonary infections, the release of cytokines and other inflammatory mediators from alveolar macrophages serves as a mechanism by which invading pathogens are eliminated. However, this reaction of the innate immune system can be potentially harmful when excessive release of circulating inflammatory cytokines causes damage to the patient, particularly the lung. Interest in the role of corticosteroids in the pathophysiology of critical illness has existed since the early part of the 20th century. On ICU, early treatment with corticosteroids to attenuate systemic inflammation is widespread. At the same time, outside the ICU little evidence is available on the effect of treatment with corticosteroids in patients diagnosed with CAP. Theoretically, early ...
OBJECTIVE: The 2007 American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America (ATS/IDSA) guidelines recommend that community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients admitted to hospital wards initially receive respiratory fluoroquinolone monotherapy or beta-lactam plus macrolide combination therapy. There is little evidence as to which regimen is preferred, or if differences in medical resource utilization exist between therapies. Thus, the authors compared length of hospital stay (LOS) and length of intravenous antibiotic therapy (LOIV) for patients who received initial levofloxacin 750 mg daily versus ceftriaxone 1000 mg plus azithromycin 500 mg daily (combination therapy).. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Adult hospital CAP cases from January 2005 to December 2007 were identified by principal discharge diagnosis code. Patients with a chest infiltrate and medical notes indicative of CAP were included. Direct intensive care unit admits and healthcare-associated cases were excluded. A propensity ...
Authors: Edberg M, Furebring M, Sjölin J, Enblad P.. BACKGROUND: Reports about neurointensive care of severe community-acquired meningitis are few. The aims of this retrospective study were to review the acute clinical course, management and outcome in a series of bacterial meningitis patients receiving neurointensive care.. METHODS: Thirty patients (median age 51, range 1-81) admitted from a population of 2 million people during 7 years were studied. The neurointensive care protocol included escalated stepwise treatment with mild hyperventilation, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage, continuous thiopentotal infusion and decompressive craniectomy. Clinical outcome was assessed using the Glasgow outcome scale.. RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients did not respond to commands on arrival, five were non-reacting and five had dilated pupils. Twenty-two patients had positive CSF cultures: Streptococcus pneumoniae (n=18), Neisseria meningitidis (n=2), β-streptococcus group A (n=1) and Staphylococcus aureus ...
4. Genomics to Combact Resistance against Antibiotics in Community-acquired Lower Respiratory Tract Infections in Europe [GRACE]. Network of Excellence, Contract nº LSHM-CT-2005-518226. Funding: European Commission. Principal Contractor: University Hospital Antwerp, Belgium. Participating Institutions: ITQB and 23 others. March 2006/April 2010.. 5. CONtrol of COmmunity-acquired MRSA: Rationale and Development of counteractions [CONCORD]. Project FP7-Health-F3-2008-222718. Funding: European Commission. Principal contractor: University Medical Centre Utrecht, The Netherlands. Participating institutions: ITQB and 8 others. January 2009/Junho 2012.. 6. Translational Research on Combating Antimicrobial Resistance [TROCAR]. Project FP7-Health-F3-2008-223031. Funding: European Commission. Principal contractor: Institut Dinvestigacions Biomèdiques August Pi I Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain. Participating institutions: ITQB and 15 others. January 2009/Junho 2012.. 7. A comprehensive ...
Length of hospital stay (LOS) in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is variable and directly related to medical costs. Accurate estimation of LOS on admission and during follow-up may result in earlier and more efficient discharge strategies. This is a prospective multicenter study including patients in emergency departments of 6 tertiary care hospitals in Switzerland between October 2006 and March 2008. Medical history, clinical data at presentation and health care insurance class were collected. We calculated univariate and multivariate cox regression models to assess the association of different characteristics with LOS. In a split sample analysis, we created two LOS prediction rules, first including only admission data, and second including also additional inpatient information. The mean LOS in the 875 included CAP patients was 9.8 days (95%CI 9.3-10.4). Older age, respiratory rate |20 pm, nursing home residence, chronic pulmonary disease, diabetes, multilobar CAP and the pneumonia
Background: In Western settings, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) due to Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) is relatively rare. Previous studies from Asia, however, indicate a higher prevalence of GNB in CAP, but data, particularly from Southeast Asia, are limited. Methods: This is a prospective observational study of 1451 patients ≥15 y of age with CAP from two hospitals in Cambodia between 2007 and 2010. The proportion of GNB was estimated. Risk factors and clinical characteristics of CAP due to GNB were assessed using logistic regression models. Results: The prevalence of GNB was 8.6% in all CAP patients and 15.8% among those with a valid respiratory sample. GNB infection was independently associated with diabetes, higher leucocyte count and CAP severity. Mortality was higher in patients with CAP due to GNB. Conclusions: We found a high proportion of GNB in a population hospitalized for CAP in Cambodia. Given the complex antimicrobial sensitivity patterns of certain GNBs and the rapid
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a heterogeneous disease causing great morbidity, mortality and health care burden globally. Typing methods for discriminating different clinical conditions of the same disease are essential to a better management of CAP. Traditional typing systems based separately on clinical manifestations (such as PSI and CURB-65), pathogens(bacterial types, virulence, drug resistance, etc) or host immune state (immunocompetent, immunocompromised or immunodeficiency). Thus, they are barely able to represent the real disease status nor to precisely predict the mortality.. As the development of multi-omic technologies, the relatedness of different phenotypes at a molecular level have revolutionized our ability to differentiate among patients. Our study is aimed at establishing a novel molecular typing method of CAP. Multi-omic (including genomics, transcriptomes, and metabolisms) data obtained from enrolled CAP patients and isolated pathogens would be integrated analyzed and ...
Gatifloxacin is an 8-methoxy fluoroquinolone with broad activity against respiratory tract pathogens, including those commonly associated with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). To evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral gatifloxacin 400 mg once daily for seven to 14 days, community-based physicians enrolled adult outpatients with confirmed or suspected CAP in a prospective, single-arm, open-label, noncomparative study. Of 1488 clinically evaluable patients with radiographically confirmed or clinically suspected CAP, 1417 (95.2%) were cured. All strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis, the most commonly isolated pathogens, were susceptible to gatifloxacin. Penicillin nonsusceptibility was seen in 32.6% of S. pneumoniae isolates, and beta-lactamase production was detected in H. influenzae (26.9%) and M. catarrhalis (88%) isolates. Clinical cure rates of 91%, 94%, and 92% were achieved in patients with S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis,
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the most common infections presenting to the emergency department (ED). Increasingly, antibiotic resistant bacteria have been identified as causative pathogens in patients treated for CAP, especially in patients with healthcare exposure risk factors. We retrospectively identified adult subjects treated for CAP in the ED requiring hospital admission (January 2003-December 2011). Inappropriate antibiotic treatment, defined as an antibiotic regimen that lacked in vitro activity against the isolated pathogen, served as the primary end point. Information regarding demographics, severity of illness, comorbidities, and antibiotic treatment was recorded. Logistic regression was used to determine factors independently associated with inappropriate treatment. The initial cohort included 259 patients, 72 (27.8%) receiving inappropriate antibiotic treatment. There was no difference in hospital mortality between patients receiving inappropriate and appropriate treatment
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) refers to pneumonia (any of several lung diseases) contracted by a person with little contact with the healthcare system. The chief difference between hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and CAP is that patients with HAP live in long-term care facilities or have recently visited a hospital. CAP is common, affecting people of all ages, and its symptoms occur as a result of oxygen-absorbing areas of the lung (alveoli) filling with fluid. This inhibits lung function, causing dyspnea, fever, chest pains and cough. CAP, the most common type of pneumonia, is a leading cause of illness and death worldwide. Its causes include bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. CAP is diagnosed by assessing symptoms, making a physical examination and on x-ray. Other tests, such as sputum examination, supplement chest x-rays. Patients with CAP sometimes require hospitalization, and it is treated primarily with antibiotics, antipyretics and cough medicine. Some forms of CAP can be ...
Community-acquired pneumonia substantially affects patient morbidity and mortality, and has significant health care costs. This type of pneumonia has more impact on elderly patients, who tend to have longer hospital stays and a higher cost per stay compared with younger patients. Multiple published guidelines provide physicians with information about when to admit patients with community-acquired pneumonia, which antibiotic therapy is appropriate, how long to treat, and when it is suitable to discharge patients from the hospital. These treatment strategies do not take into account the emergence of resistant organisms and the poorly understood impact of community-acquired pneumonia on younger patients. Although various studies have looked at combination antibiotic therapy, they rarely have been comparative. Brown and colleagues examined the effect of initial antibiotic therapy for community-acquired pneumonia on selected clinical outcomes.. The authors analyzed a hospital database of adult ...
Community-acquired pneumonia is diagnosed by clinical features (e.g., cough, fever, pleuritic chest pain) and by lung imaging, usually an infiltrate seen on chest radiography. Initial evaluation should determine the need for hospitalization versus outpatient management using validated mortality or severity prediction scores. Selected diagnostic laboratory testing, such as sputum and blood cultures, is indicated for inpatients with severe illness but is rarely useful for outpatients. Initial outpatient therapy should include a macrolide or doxycycline. For outpatients with comorbidities or who have used antibiotics within the previous three months, a respiratory fluoroquinolone (levofloxacin, gemifloxacin, or moxifloxacin), or an oral beta-lactam antibiotic plus a macrolide should be used. Inpatients not admitted to an intensive care unit should receive a respiratory fluoroquinolone, or a beta-lactam antibiotic plus a macrolide. Patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia or who are ...
The Outpatient Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults GUIDELINES Pocket Card is based on the latest guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Guidelines recommend blood culture sampling from hospitalized patients with suspected community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, the yield of true-positive results is low. We investigated the benefit of procalcitonin (PCT) on hospital admission to predict blood culture positivity in CAP ...
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is defined as an acute infection of the pulmonary parenchyma in a patient who has acquired the infection in the community, as distinguished from hospital-acquired (nosocomial) pneumonia (HAP).CAP is a common and pot
ABSTRACTObjective:Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common presentation to the emergency department (ED) and has high mortality rates. The aim of our study is to investigate the risk stratification and prognostic prediction value of precalcitonin (PCT) and clinical severity scores on patients
Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are responsible for high morbidity and mortality in pediatric patients, particularly in children less than five years old. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the most serious cause of ARI. Each year, from two to three million children die of pneumonia, predominantly in developing countries, and this is attributed to more severe clinical conditions, the involvement of bacteria as etiological agents, and less access to health care services and adequate therapy. This study aimed to compare clinical response to initial empirical treatment of Oxacillin associated with Ceftriaxone to Amoxicillin associated with Clavulanic Acid in children aged from two months to five years, diagnosed with severe community-acquired Pneumonia, who require hospitalization. It also aimed to evaluate the time for clinical recovery (fever and tachypnea) and the need for extending the antimicrobial spectrum in order to determine therapeutic failure in the proposed schemes. It is a ...
In a randomized clinical trial of antibiotic treatments for community-acquired pneumonia, researchers did not find that monotherapy with β-lactam alone was worse than a combination therapy with a macrolide in patients hospitalized with moderately severe pneumonia.
Introduction: Data describing real-life management and treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Europe are limited. The REtrospective Study to Assess the Clinical Management of Patients With Moderate-to-severe cSSTI or CAP Infections in the Hospital Setting (REACH) (NCT01293435) was an observational retrospective study that collected data on the management of European patients hospitalized with CAP in order to review current clinical practices and outcomes related to initial treatment failure, and to assess intercountry differences. Methods: Patients were aged ≥18 years, hospitalized with CAP between March 2010 and February 2011, and required in-hospital management and treatment with intravenous antibiotics. An electronic Case Report Form was used to collect a number of patient, disease and treatment variables, including type of CAP, medical history, treatment setting, antibiotic treatments and clinical outcomes, particularly treatment failure. Results: Patients (N=2039) were ...
Pneumonia is a type of lung infection. It can cause breathing problems and other symptoms. In community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), you get infected in a community setting. It doesnt happen in a hospital, nursing home, or other healthcare center.
Objective: To investigate the pathogens and antibiotic resistance of Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) in children under 5 y old in our hospital duri..
TY - JOUR. T1 - Diagnostic accuracy of a serotype-specific antigen test in community-acquired pneumonia. AU - Huijts, S.M.. AU - Pride, M.W.. AU - Vos, J.M.. AU - Jansen, K.U.. AU - Webber, C.. AU - Gruber, W.. AU - Boersma, W.G.. AU - Snijders, D.. AU - Kluijtmans, J.A.J.W.. AU - van der Lee, I.. AU - Kuipers, B.A.. AU - van den Ende, A.. AU - Bonten, M.J.M.. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. U2 - 10.1183/09031936.00137412. DO - 10.1183/09031936.00137412. M3 - Article. C2 - 23397295. VL - 42. SP - 1283. EP - 1290. JO - European Respiratory Journal. JF - European Respiratory Journal. SN - 0903-1936. IS - 5. ER - ...
Marion Giry, Marie Gueudin, Déborah Boyer, Adeline Baron, Gaetan Beduneau, et al.. Impact of respiratory viruses in intensive care unit patient with community-acquired pneumonia : a one-year retrospective single-centre study.. ECCMID, Apr 2019, Amsterdam, Netherlands. ⟨hal-02264276⟩ ...
Of the 224 episodes of community-acquired pneumonia, 8.5% were attended at private institutions, a datum that is difficult to compare with other studies since the use of private healthcare resources depends on the healthcare system of each study area. Despite the fact that primary care plays an important role in the management of community-acquired pneumonia, the low diagnostic yield (20% of cases) at this level is surprising. This may be explained by the lack of availability of chest radiography such that many patients are referred to the hospital emergency department, as well as for the tendency of patients in Maresme to seek care directly from the hospital emergency service 24. A study carried out in Spain in the primary care setting showed that 29.7% of cases of community-acquired pneumonia were diagnosed at hospital emergency services 25. In the study of Weingarten et al. 26, 55% of diagnoses of community-acquired pneumonia were established at the emergency department.. After discharge from ...
Given the dramatic advances in antimicrobials since penicillin was introduced, why has the mortality rate associated with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remained essentially unchanged?
C(U)RB-65 (confusion, (urea |7 mol · L(-1),) respiratory frequency ≥ 30 breaths · min(-1), systolic blood pressure |90 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≤60 mmHg and age ≥ 65 years) is now the generally accepted severity score for patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Europe. In a …
Respiratory Infections. United Kingdom: CRC Press, 2006. Menendez, Rosario. Community-Acquired Pneumonia: Strategies for ... Leeper, Kenneth V.. Severe Community Acquired Pneumonia. Germany: Springer US, 2013. Webb, Andrew. Oxford Textbook of Critical ... doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-0691.2011.03672.x Hydrocortisone Infusion for Severe Community-acquired Pneumonia A Preliminary ... His research area includes the effects of atypical bacterial infection in the immunity at cellular level in the chronic case of ...
Community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA); Hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA)". National Institute of Health. 30 May 2009. "Healthcare- ... Most of these infections occur within the long-term healthcare setting. Serious VRE infections are common among those who have ... Serious staph infections are more common in people with weak immune systems, particularly patients in hospitals and long-term ... Serious staph infections are quite difficult to treat, due to increasing numbers of antibiotic-resistant strains of S. aureus ...
Falagas, ME; Karveli, EA; Kelesidis, I; Kelesidis, T (2007). "Community acquired Acinetobacter infections". Eur J Clin ... having been implicated in a number of hospital-acquired infections such as bacteremia, urinary tract infections (UTIs), ... It can cause various other infections, including skin and wound infections, bacteremia, and meningitis, but A. lwoffi is mostly ... to community-acquired primary meningitis wherein the majority of the victims were children. Case reports also link A. baumannii ...
In community-acquired infections, they are recommended only when risk factors for multidrug resistance are present or after ... It has been recommended that fluoroquinolones not be used as a first-line agent for community-acquired pneumonia, instead ... quinolones for community-acquired pneumonia: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Clinical Microbiology and ... September 2013). "Community-associated Clostridium difficile infection and antibiotics: a meta-analysis". Journal of ...
Sharma, A; Shariff, M; Thukral, SS; Shah, A (October 2005). "Chronic community-acquired Acinetobacter pneumonia that responded ... Being referred to as an opportunistic infection, A. baumanii infections are highly prevalent in hospital settings. A. baumanii ... Some possible types of A. baumannii infections include: Pneumonia Bloodstream infections Meningitis Wound and surgical site ... infections, including necrotizing fasciitis Urinary tract infections Symptoms of A. baumannii infections are often ...
"Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Antibiotic Treatment of Community-Acquired Urinary Tract Infections". Infection & ... This might be for common or minor infections based on clinical guidelines (such as community-acquired pneumonia), or due to the ... Sometimes multiple samples may be taken if the source of an infection is not clear.[1] These samples are transferred to the ... a simple urinary tract infection might be treated with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.[2] This is because Escherichia coli is ...
The value of serum procalcitonin in treatment of community acquired pneumonia in outpatient]". Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi. 48 (3): ... In the case of virus infections this is due to the fact that one of the cellular responses to a viral infection is to produce ... "Procalcitonin guidance for reduction of antibiotic use in low-risk outpatients with community-acquired pneumonia". Respirology ... "Procalcitonin guidance of antibiotic therapy in community-acquired pneumonia: a randomized trial". American Journal of ...
These community-acquired infections occur principally in immunocompetent individuals. While many H. cinaedi infections in ... Hospital-born, medical setting-born, and community-born infections in smaller numbers of patients have also been reported. ... Less commonly, infected individuals have presented with septic arthritis, infection of an artificial joint, infection of a ... particularly those who acquire it in a community setting, typically display no life-threatening or other symptoms except fever ...
Nair, GB; Niederman, MS (November 2011). "Community-acquired pneumonia: an unfinished battle". The Medical clinics of North ... Fein, Alan (2006). Diagnosis and management of pneumonia and other respiratory infections (2 izd.). Caddo, OK: Professional ... Anevlavis S; Bouros D (February 2010). "Community acquired bacterial pneumonia". Expert Opin Pharmacother. 11 (3): 361-74. doi: ... Scalera NM; File, TM (April 2007). "How long should we treat community-acquired pneumonia?". Current Opinion in Infectious ...
2002). "Distribution of Legionella Species and Serogroups Isolated by Culture in Patients with Sporadic Community-Acquired ... Infections may be asymptomatic, and are strongly associated with the respiratory system. Early symptoms can include fever, ... A multinational study found that less than 3% of reported Legionella infections were due to L. anisa. van der Mee-Marquet N, ... "Symptoms of Legionella anisa infection". Right Diagnosis. Retrieved 2013-06-28. Yu VL, Plouffe JF, Pastoris MC, et al. ( ...
"Diagnosis of atypical pathogens in patients hospitalized with community-acquired respiratory infection". Scandinavian Journal ... "Microbiology of community-acquired pneumonia in the Gulf Corporation Council states". Journal of Chemotherapy. 19 (Suppl 1): 17 ... No signs and symptoms of lobar consolidation, meaning that the infection is restricted to small areas, rather than involving a ... Chest radiographs (X-ray photographs) often show a pulmonary infection before physical signs of atypical pneumonia are ...
S. saprophyticus is a common cause of community-acquired urinary tract infections. S. saprophyticus was not recognized as a ... it is the second-most common cause of community-acquired UTIs, after Escherichia coli. Sexual activity increases the risk of S ... saprophyticus infection. This is because unlike Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae urinary tract infections, S. saprophyticus ... Even when such an infection occurs above the neck of the bladder, low numbers of colony-forming units (less than 105 cfu/ml) ...
... community-acquired infection, or healthcare-associated infection. Those who are well may also be infected with B. pseudomallei ... Also, several cases of hospital-acquired infection of melioidosis have been reported, so healthcare providers are recommended ... In latent infection, immunocompetent people can clear the infection without showing any symptoms, but less than 5% of all ... For those with previous melioidosis-associated bone and joint infections, complications such as sinus infection, bone and joint ...
Community-acquired pneumonia due to C. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, M. pneumoniae, or S. pneumoniae Uncomplicated skin infections ... This includes middle ear infections, strep throat, pneumonia, traveler's diarrhea, and certain other intestinal infections. ... "Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired ... "Gonococcal Infections - 2015 STD Treatment Guidelines". Archived from the original on 1 March 2016. Burton M, Habtamu E, Ho D, ...
Treatment of infections in burns was his focus and in 1942 he moved to Glasgow as Director of the Medical Research Council's ... They were acquired by women after childbirth rather than before. Working together, the Colebrooks showed that streptococci were ... This showed that the strains causing puerperal sepsis were not special but were the same ones present in the community that ... He stayed initially at St Mary's Hospital but in 1917 was transferred to France where he worked on wound infections with Sir ...
They were acquired by women after childbirth rather than before. Working together, the Colebrooks showed that streptococci were ... This showed that the strains causing puerperal sepsis were not special but were the same ones present in the community that ... She investigated the source of the streptococcal infections within the hospital. After collecting samples of the bacteria from ... Colebrook, Dora C (1935). The source of infection in puerperal fever due to haemolytic streptococci. London: Medical Research ...
"Role of thiamphenicol in the treatment of community-acquired lung infections". Med Trop (Mars). 64 (1): 33-8. PMID 15224555. ... Thiamphenicol is also widely used in Brazil, particularly for the treatment of sexually transmitted infections and pelvic ...
... including complicated skin and structure infections, complicated intra-abdominal infections and community-acquired bacterial ... Tigecycline may be used for treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia caused by; penicillin susceptible Streptococcus ... The drug is licensed for the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections as well as intra-abdominal infections. The European ... Tigecycline, sold under the brand name Tygacil, is an tetracycline antibiotic medication for a number of bacterial infections. ...
Reddy, Elizabeth A.; Shaw, Andrea V.; Crump, John A. (2010). "Community-acquired bloodstream infections in Africa: a systematic ... "A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of the Prevalence of Community-Onset Bloodstream Infections among Hospitalized Patients ... Prasad, Namrata; Sharples, Katrina J.; Murdoch, David R.; Crump, John A. (2015). "Community prevalence of fever and ...
... is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia in the endemic areas of the United States. Infections ... The disease is commonly misdiagnosed as bacterial community-acquired pneumonia. The fungal infection can be demonstrated by ... In endemic regions, coccidioidomycosis is responsible for 20% of cases of community-acquired pneumonia. Notable ... An estimated 150,000 infections occur annually, with 25,000 new infections occurring every year. The incidence of ...
"Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Antibiotic Treatment of Community-Acquired Urinary Tract Infections". Infection & ... This might be for common or minor infections based on clinical guidelines (such as community-acquired pneumonia), or due to the ... A sample may be taken from the site of a suspected infection; such as a blood culture sample when bacteria are suspected to be ... Sometimes multiple samples may be taken if the source of an infection is not clear. These samples are transferred to the ...
... for treatment of community-acquired respiratory infections". Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs. 17 (3): 387-400. doi: ... is a ketolide antibiotic undergoing research for the treatment of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) and for the prevention of ... for cethromycin to treat mild-to-moderate community acquired pneumonia. On December 3, 2008 Advanced Life Sciences announced ... Originally discovered and developed by Abbott, it was acquired by Advanced Life Sciences Inc. for further development. On ...
It can be a cause of neonatal infections. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the main cause of community acquired pneumonia and ... van de Beek, Diederik; de Gans, Jan; Tunkel, Allan R.; Wijdicks, Eelco F.M. (5 January 2006). "Community-Acquired Bacterial ... Sepsis is caused by overwhelming response to an infection and leads to tissue damage, organ failure, and even death. The ... S. pneumoniae infection stimulates polymorphonuclear leukocytes (granulocytes) to produce an oxidative burst that is ...
"Community-acquired bone and joint infections in children: a 1-year prospective epidemiological study". Archives of disease in ... Gram negative infections are usually acquired through urinary tract infections, drug abuse, and skin infections. Older people ... Microorganisms in the blood may come from infections elsewhere in the body such as wound infections, urinary tract infections, ... There are three phases of artificial joint infection: early, delayed and late. Early - infection occurs in less than 3 months. ...
... infections caused by community-acquired strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in otherwise healthy ... More cognizance of the fact that animal infections can become human infections because humans are animals. We live in a world ... community measures aimed at social distancing such as closing schools and canceling mass gatherings; community engagement to ... Subsequent infection with a different type increases the risk of severe complications. A number of tests are available to ...
... of community-acquired (CAP) cases were PVL-positive, while none of the hospital-acquired cases were. CAP afflicted younger and ... Because it can be found in virtually all CA-MRSA strains that cause soft-tissue infections, it was long described as a key ... "Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: the role of Panton-Valentine leukocidin". Lab Invest. 87 (1): 3 ... "Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carrying Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes: worldwide emergence ...
It is more commonly a hospital-acquired pneumonia than a community-acquired pneumonia, in contrast to lobar pneumonia. ... Bronchopneumonia (lobular) often leads to lobar pneumonia as the infection progresses. The same organism may cause one type of ... Topic Completed: 1 August 2011 Franquet, Tomás; Chung, Johnathan H. (2019). "Imaging of Pulmonary Infection". Part of the IDKD ... Compared to pneumonia in general, the association between the bronchopneumonia pattern and hospital-acquired pneumonia warrants ...
MRSA began as a hospital-acquired infection but has become community-acquired, as well as livestock-acquired. The terms HA-MRSA ... is the first beta-lactam antibiotic approved in the US to treat MRSA infections in skin and soft tissue or community-acquired ... "Community-acquired MRSA in Children with no predisposing risk" (PDF).. *^ Holden MT, Feil EJ, Lindsay JA, Peacock SJ, Day NP, ... Community-acquired MRSA is more easily treated and more virulent than hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA).[58] The genetic ...
... , sold under the brand name Xenleta, is an antibiotic medication used it to treat adults with community-acquired ... It was also investigated for treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections (ABSSSI). Lefamulin has in vitro ... "FDA approves new antibiotic to treat community-acquired bacterial pneumonia". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Press ... Lefamulin is used to treat adults with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. ...
S. pneumoniae is the main cause of community acquired pneumonia and meningitis in children and the elderly,[5] and of ... Infection[edit]. Main article: Pneumococcal infection. S. pneumoniae is part of the normal upper respiratory tract flora. As ... van de Beek, Diederik; de Gans, Jan; Tunkel, Allan R.; Wijdicks, Eelco F.M. (5 January 2006). "Community-Acquired Bacterial ... Historically, Haemophilus influenzae has been a significant cause of infection, and both H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae can be ...
Infections[edit]. The anaerobic bacterial species Cutibacterium acnes (formerly Propionibacterium acnes) contributes to the ... Early and aggressive treatment of acne is advocated by some in the medical community to decrease the overall long-term impact ... It is unclear whether these undesirable strains evolve on-site or are acquired, or possibly both depending on the person. These ... Infection with the parasitic mite Demodex is associated with the development of acne.[30][51] It is unclear whether eradication ...
... , also known as ophthalmia neonatorum, is a form of conjunctivitis and a type of neonatal infection ... The two most common causes are N. gonorrheae and Chlamydia acquired from the birth canal during delivery. ... Topical therapy is not effective and also does not treat the infection of the nasopharynx.[7][8][9] ... Single injection of ceftriaxone IM or IV should be given to infants born to mothers with untreated gonococcal infection. ...
Infection[edit]. Bone marrow transplantation usually requires that the recipient's own bone marrow be destroyed (myeloablation ... Transplant patients lose their acquired immunity, for example immunity to childhood diseases such as measles or polio. For this ... and many other communities. ... Infection and graft-versus-host disease are major complications ... This puts a patient at high risk of infections, sepsis and septic shock, despite prophylactic antibiotics. However, antiviral ...
... and were therefore especially susceptible to infections in general.[19] Aside from these cases, there is no evidence to ... turning yellow and acquiring a honeyed flavor. ... Community portal. *Recent changes. *Contact page. Tools. *What ...
These cells were acquired from a fetus that spontaneously aborted after ten weeks in gestation. One of the most formidable ... Nevertheless, plasticity in neuronal networks is a phenomenon that is well-established in the neuroscience community, and one ... Like most cell cultures, neuron cultures are highly susceptible to infection. They are also susceptible to hyperosmolality from ...
... of the infections acquired overseas[194]), while Dr Darrel Ho-Yen, Director of the Scottish Toxoplasma Reference Laboratory and ... Community clinics have been reported to misdiagnose 23-28% of Erythema migrans (EM) rashes and 83% of other objective ... Early localized infection[edit]. Early localized infection can occur when the infection has not yet spread throughout the body ... Early disseminated infection[edit]. Within days to weeks after the onset of local infection, the Borrelia bacteria may spread ...
The degree of infection can be examined as major rim enhancement has occurred, located inferior to the hyoid bone. Soft tissue ... Most fistulae are acquired following rupture or incision of the infected thyroglossal cyst. A thyroglossal cyst is lined by ... With infections, there can be rare cases where an expression of fluid is projected into the pharynx causing other problems ... Infection can sometimes cause the transient appearance of a mass or enlargement of the cyst, at times with periodic recurrences ...
Community or neighborhood pedophiles, sex rings, and pimps. Evasion Techniques Mobile production and development sites, false ... Whether the children be in pornography, brothels, or trafficked they are all at risk for sexually transmitted infections, ... The same committee that put Protocol into action has put more effort into acquiring more accurate data on child sexual ... local community guards). At least 60% had no permanent place to live. Some of these girls started out as child domestic workers ...
... as consuming or touching it may result in sickness or infection.[3] Human perception of the odor may be contrasted by a non- ... horse droppings were a big part of the rubbish communities needed to clean off roads) ... its matter acquires the familiar brown color.[2] ...
It is possible to acquire the infection through broken skin or mucous membranes that are directly exposed to infectious ... Community education material for Lassa fever. Specialty. Infectious disease. Symptoms. Fever, headaches, bleeding[1]. ... Research in showed a twofold increase risk of infection for those living in close proximity to someone with infection symptoms ... The virus is present in urine for between three and nine weeks after infection, and it can be transmitted in semen for up to ...
Small landholders and sharecroppers acquired debts that were often swollen by usurious rates of interest.[43][S] Any poor ... Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Community Development Project. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800-". Federal Reserve ... and reduced resistance to disease led to death by opportunistic infections.[233] Second, the social disruption and dismal ... When these interact, some groups within society can become unable to purchase or acquire food even though sufficient supplies ...
Examples include acquired conditions such as systemic vasculitides (e.g. ANCA vasculitis) and autoimmune diseases (e.g., lupus ... More specialized tests can be ordered to discover or link certain systemic diseases to kidney failure such as infections ( ... is a national organization that represents and supports the independent and community-based dialysis providers. The American ...
Hospital-acquired infection. *Indium lung. *Laboratory animal allergy. *Lead poisoning. *Mad hatter disease ... OHC practitioners also coordinated their services with previously underutilized local community services in the same city, thus ...
Scalera NM; File TM (2007). "How long should we treat community-acquired pneumonia?". Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. 20 (2): 177-81. ... Fein, Alan (2006). Diagnosis and management of pneumonia and other respiratory infections (ika-2nd ed. (na) edisyon). Caddo, OK ... Nair, GB; Niederman, MS (November 2011). "Community-acquired pneumonia: an unfinished battle". The Medical clinics of North ... Anevlavis S; Bouros D (2010). "Community acquired bacterial pneumonia". Expert Opin Pharmacother. 11 (3): 361-74. doi:10.1517/ ...
Clinical signs of infection: tenderness, sinus, suppuration, swelling. Treatment options will be extraction for the primary ... caused by disruption to the blood supply at the apical foramen or as an infection-related liquefactive necrosis following ... Acquired tooth disorders. *Emergency medicine. *Medical emergencies. *Trauma types. Hidden categories: *CS1: long volume value ...
This infection of vectors without a previous blood meal seems to play a role in single, sudden breakouts of the disease.[25] ... is known as acquired immunity.[65] The virus, as well as the vector A. aegypti, were probably transferred to North and South ... The disease spread quickly through the community, eventually killing over 3,000 people, mostly residents of Norfolk and ... Surviving the infection provides lifelong immunity,[20] and normally no permanent organ damage results.[21] ...
The human half of the guide dog team does the directing, based upon skills acquired through previous mobility training. In this ... Uveitis: is a group of 30 intraocular inflammatory diseases[44] caused by infections, systemic diseases, organ-specific ... and independently in the home and the community. These professionals can also help blind people to practice travelling on ... and a number of infections.[6] Visual impairment can also be caused by problems in the brain due to stroke, premature birth, or ...
It is characterized by recurrent "cold" staphylococcal infections (due to impaired recruitment of neutrophils),[2] unusual ... "Human tyrosine kinase 2 deficiency reveals its requisite roles in multiple cytokine signals involved in innate and acquired ... Most patients with hyper IgE syndrome are treated with long-term antibiotic therapy to prevent staphylococcal infections. Good ... Buckley R, Wray B, Belmaker E (1972). "Extreme hyperimmunoglobulinemia E and undue susceptibility to infection". Pediatrics. 49 ...
Infection and pathogenesis[edit]. The initial site of infection may be the tonsils,[4] or possibly the gastrointestinal tract.[ ... The virus is very common in the general population, infecting 70% to 90% of humans; most people acquire JCV in childhood or ... JCV also appears to mediate encephalopathy, due to infection of cortical pyramidal neurons (CPN) and astrocytes.[14] Analysis ... Although JC virus infection is classically associated with white matter demyelination and PML pathogenesis, recent literature ...
This may help to avoid the use of blood products such as fresh frozen plasma with its associated risks of infections or ... However, acquired disturbance of fibrinolysis (Hyperfibrinolysis), is not uncommon. Many trauma patients suffer from an ...
Secondary hypolactasia or secondary lactase deficiency, also called acquired hypolactasia or acquired lactase deficiency, is ... Such injury could be the result of infection, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, or other diseases.[1][4] ... of adults in some communities of Asia.[72] ... secondary or acquired hypoalactasia). In either case, symptoms ...
... acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) - ACT UP/Golden Gate - active immunity - acupuncture - acute HIV infection - Acute ... community planning - Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS (CPCRA) - community-based clinical trial (CBCT) - ... ocular - off-label use - oncology - open-label trial - opportunistic infections - oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) - organelle - ... division of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (DAIDS) - DNA - Domain (biology) - dose-ranging study - dose-response ...
They defend against bacterial or fungal infection. They are usually first responders to microbial infection; their activity and ... Neutropenia can be acquired or intrinsic.[16] A decrease in levels of neutrophils on lab tests is due to either decreased ... In HIV infection, these T cells are the main index to identify the individual's immune system integrity. ... Infection. *Chronic inflammation - especially juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, Still's disease, Crohn's ...
An acute exacerbation (a sudden worsening of symptoms)[62] is commonly triggered by infection or environmental pollutants, or ... Community-acquired. *Healthcare-associated. *Hospital-acquired. By distribution. *Broncho-. *Lobar. IIP. *UIP ... COPD develops as a significant and chronic inflammatory response to inhaled irritants.[9] Chronic bacterial infections may also ... Respiratory infections such as pneumonia do not appear to increase the risk of COPD, at least in adults.[23] ...
This is to prevent patients with transient positive tests (due to infection etc.) being diagnosed as positive. ...
Back in France, he acquired enough snakes to continue his work and create serum for the local population.[1]:98 ... Yersin looked for the germ responsible for the infection specifically in these plague-spots, tumors caused by the inflammation ... Therefore, although at first named "Kitasato-Yersin bacillus" by the scientific community, the microbe will later assume only ... The discovery and use of sulfonamides in treating infections was another breakthrough. Some researchers won fame by discovering ...
Growth has pushed the city outwards and now SeaWorld San Antonio lies in the Westover Hills community in West San Antonio. The ... there have been no permits issued to facilities in the United States to import dolphins acquired through drive hunt methods.[62 ... died from a fungal infection at the SeaWorld Park in San Antonio, Texas.[38] ...
... may also arise in untreated diabetics due to the presence of glucose in their urine giving rise to infection in the ... Bolla G, Sartore G, Longo L, Rossi C (2005). "[The sclero-atrophic lichen as principal cause of acquired phimosis in pediatric ...
It is classified as either community or hospital acquired depending on where the patient contracted the infection. It is life- ... Pakhale S, Mulpuru S, Verheij TJ, Kochen MM, Rohde GG, Bjerre LM (October 2014). "Antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia ... Lodha R, Kabra SK, Pandey RM (June 2013). "Antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia in children". The Cochrane Database of ... Typical bacterial Infections: Haemophilus influenzae Staphylococcus aureus Klebsiella pneumoniae Atypical bacterial Infections ...
Respiratory Infections. United Kingdom: CRC Press, 2006. Menendez, Rosario. Community-Acquired Pneumonia: Strategies for ... Leeper, Kenneth V.. Severe Community Acquired Pneumonia. Germany: Springer US, 2013. Webb, Andrew. Oxford Textbook of Critical ... doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-0691.2011.03672.x Hydrocortisone Infusion for Severe Community-acquired Pneumonia A Preliminary ... His research area includes the effects of atypical bacterial infection in the immunity at cellular level in the chronic case of ...
Buy Vantin from our online pharmacy and treat your bacterial infections. Vantin is available for sale at cheap price without ... 3) Community acquired Pneumonia.. 4) Uncomplicated SSTI (skin and soft tissue infections).. Vantin is available in the market ... In community acquired Pneumonia the recommended adult dose is 200mg twice a day for 14 days.. • In acute exacerbation of ... This drug is used for treating many types of infections by fighting bacteria in our body. Vantin is recommended for treating ...
The government reported 262 locally acquired infections in the latest 24-hour period. Another six cases were diagnosed in hotel ... quarantine and are not considered threats to the community.. Victorian Premier Daniel Andrews, left, and Victorian COVID-19 ... Melbourne was the Australian center of the pandemic last year when new infections peaked at 725 in a day in August. Of ... Melbourne and surrounding Victoria state will lock down for seven days after eight new infections were detected in the city, ...
NSW has recorded no locally-acquired infection for nearly four weeks.. "Were deeply grateful that since the beginning of the ... the country has largely stopped community transmission of the virus with contact tracing, distancing measures and mandatory ... None of the countrys eight states and territories had reported a locally-acquired infection in the 24 hours to Wednesday. ... pandemic, the community has taken our advice (and) led the way throughout the nation and we want that to continue," NSW Premier ...
The remaining 21 cases are considered community-acquired. Thirteen of the community-acquired infections are close contacts of ... The remaining eight community-acquired cases have no known source of infection. ...
... could be a reference to the spread of an infection that a man acquires from such a woman, which causes him to be ostracised ... from his community. It was quite common in England for an upper-classman to bed a lower-class woman in the society of those ... The word goose was used commonly to address a prostitute, and here, could possibly refer to a woman who has acquired an STI ( ... Sexually Transmitted Infection). "Whither shall I wander?/ Upstairs and downstairs/ And in my ladys chamber," ...
The remaining 23 cases are considered community-acquired. Sixteen of the community-acquired infections are close contacts of ... The remaining seven community-acquired cases have no known source of infection. ... This spike in cases on-island is indicative of the states current uptick in COVID-19 infections being linked to the delta ... Please protect yourself and our community by wearing a mask indoors, staying home and getting tested if you feel sick, and ...
Headlines Today NSW recorded 207 new local COVID-19 infections and another death on Monday, with at least 50 of the latest ... NSW recorded 207 new local COVID-19 infections and another death on Monday, with at least 50 of the latest cases infectious in ... distribution centres and freight companies that needed to be operational to support the community. ... Home/News Today/World/Australia News/NSW records 207 new locally acquired coronavirus cases and one death. Australia News NSW ...
... work-acquired infection rates "almost stopped," while cases continued in the outside community. "An hour worked in the Duke ... Casey B. Mulligan examined the relationship between group size and private efforts to avoid infections ("The Backward Art of ...
It also isnt clear to what extent infections acquired within hospitals and care settings are contributing to community spread ...
... could be a reference to the spread of an infection that a man acquires from such a woman, which causes him to be ostracised ... from his community. It was quite common in England for an upper-classman to bed a lower-class woman in the society of those ... The word goose was used commonly to address a prostitute, and here, could possibly refer to a woman who has acquired an STI ( ... Sexually Transmitted Infection). "Whither shall I wander?/ Upstairs and downstairs/ And in my ladys chamber," ...
... could be a reference to the spread of an infection that a man acquires from such a woman, which causes him to be ostracised ... from his community. It was quite common in England for an upper-classman to bed a lower-class woman in the society of those ... The word goose was used commonly to address a prostitute, and here, could possibly refer to a woman who has acquired an STI ( ... Sexually Transmitted Infection). "Whither shall I wander?/ Upstairs and downstairs/ And in my ladys chamber," ...
Victoria has recorded 445 new locally acquired COVID-19 cases and two deaths. ... with the source of the remaining 316 infections under investigation. The new infections bring the total number of active cases ... Victoria has recorded 445 new locally acquired COVID-19 cases and two deaths, bringing the toll from the current outbreak to ... Authorities are investigating the outbreak at Fitzroy Community School after 29 students and staff contracted the virus, with ...
Victoria has recorded 445 new locally acquired COVID-19 cases and two deaths. ... with the source of the remaining 316 infections under investigation. The new infections bring the total number of active cases ... Victoria has recorded 445 new locally acquired COVID-19 cases and two deaths, bringing the toll from the current outbreak to ... Authorities are investigating the outbreak at Fitzroy Community School after 29 students and staff contracted the virus, with ...
Victoria has recorded 445 new locally acquired COVID-19 cases and two deaths. ... with the source of the remaining 316 infections under investigation. The new infections bring the total number of active cases ... Victoria has recorded 445 new locally acquired COVID-19 cases and two deaths, bringing the toll from the current outbreak to ... Authorities are investigating the outbreak at Fitzroy Community School after 29 students and staff contracted the virus, with ...
Evaluation of Antibiotic Prescribing for Common Community Acquired Infections at Two Family Medicine Teaching Units Katz, A. ... American Libraries Canadian Libraries Universal Library Community Texts Project Gutenberg Biodiversity Heritage Library ... American Libraries Canadian Libraries Universal Library Community Texts Project Gutenberg Biodiversity Heritage Library ...
NSW recorded 177 new locally acquired cases of COVID in the 24 hours to 8pm last night. Of these locally acquired cases, 74 are ... 46 cases were infectious in the community, and the isolation status of 62 cases remains under investigation. ... linked to a known case or cluster - 60 are household contacts and 14 are close contacts - and the source of infection for 103 ...
Victoria has recorded 445 new locally acquired COVID-19 cases and two deaths. ... with the source of the remaining 316 infections under investigation. The new infections bring the total number of active cases ... Victoria has recorded 445 new locally acquired COVID-19 cases and two deaths, bringing the toll from the current outbreak to ... Authorities are investigating the outbreak at Fitzroy Community School after 29 students and staff contracted the virus, with ...
NSW health authorities are trying to quash community transmission after seven new locally acquired cases were among the 13 ... Queensland has just two active cases amid a continued streak of no new infections. ... people in the regional centre of Shepparton have been asked to get tested after three infections emerged there. ...
"There are a great deal of concerns all-around no matter if there was infection at sporting activities which as you know we open ... "The pupils were coming into the school ill and not acquiring ill at the faculty," explained Ellen Bernstein of the Albuquerque ... Tags: college community COVID19 Eldorado Initially Shut simply Continue Reading. Previous Oklahoma Metropolis Community ... Eldorado is initially community college to be shut simply because of COVID-19. Stephanie B. Sanders April 14, 2021 3 min read ...
... with all infections linked to two growing outbreaks. ... The source of infection for index cases in both clusters ... New locally acquired cases (during 24-hour reporting period): Six, including two previously announced cases ... Infectious in the community: All. * New hotel quarantine cases: None. OTHER DETAILS ...
... and changes to the reimbursement system that will reduce serious preventable medical errors and hospital acquired infections. ... Determine the short-term and long-term financial impact of increasing the number of individuals served in home or community ... incentives for converting institutions into community care providers; and. *a long term plan to address issues that result from ... Adoption , Child abuse , Child abuse prevention , Child Protective Services , Community support services , Family and ...
September 23, 2021 ] Get an Expo Education - Metro Community Education & Mobility @ Culver City Chamber Community ... The reason for Culver Citys lower infection rate is hard to pin down, but many around the world have applauded Californias ... "They have more potential of acquiring [COVID-19] through exposure, especially those that may have underlying medical issues," ... Nursing homes have been hit hard by the pandemic, with cases typically spreading like wildfire after the first infection. " ...
He even acquired a long-lasting health condition which made his immune system very weak, leaving him vulnerable to chronic ... By the time he turned three, he was diagnosed with a severe kidney infection that required frequent hospitalization. Raising ... IoTand ML space.He is widely appreciated and respected among the US IT community for his contributions to Xandr as a Software ... infections which took him a decade to recuperate.. But Siddharthas mother is a strong-willed and resolute womanwho refused to ...
There were no new cases reported in Victoria on Wednesday - the states first day without a locally acquired infection after ... "It could have been someone who got infected at the airport, or in hotel quarantine or in the hospital or in the community, and ... Fully vaccinated people can still contract Covid, but the infection is far less likely to result in death or serious illness ... "We still have active cases in our community right here that we know about … weve still got just under 3,000 primary close ...
Eric OFlaherty was placed on the 15-day DL with a viral infection that has been bothering him for days. Its not confirmed, ... In his place, the Braves called up fellow left-handed reliever Mike Dunn, who was acquired from the Yankees in the Javier ... All 300 communities on ...
Amidst the pandemic, with the online platform as a new "normal" way of learning, we continue to acquire and obtain a quality ... and constant sanitization can assist in preventing the transmission of the infection. We cannot deny that COVID-19 halted our ... of learning entails us as the title of being millennial leaders and aspirants to become the better citizens of our community. ... Our adaptability and flexibility and our willingness to acquire new things and knowledge to help us become professionals and ...
Reconnected: Stony Brook community reunites after over a year of virtual campus environment. September 10, 2021. ... I created my own list of things to do at Stony Brook before graduation, based on the wisdom and experience I have acquired over ... Somehow end up in Roth Pond and worry about catching a pond infection. ...
To combat the high rate of infection among healthcare workers, the INMO is calling for three policy changes:. - Amend ... "The government should classify this as what it is: a workplace-acquired personal injury. This would not only reflect reality, ... 3% from community transmission. 1% from a healthcare setting as patients.. Of the 8,018 cases of infected healthcare workers in ...
Leslie Ash has defied doctors predictions in order to walk unaided after acquiring an infection in hospital more than 15 years ... In order to improve our community experience, we are temporarily suspending article commenting ... Accelerates the Adoption of Healthy Lifestyles across the Local Community. ... Accelerates the Adoption of Healthy Lifestyles across the Local Community. ...
Keeping in mind that there were 1.7 million new HIV infections in 2020 (which is 3 times higher than the UNAIDS 2020 targets), ... Thanks to the untiring efforts of the HIV community, activists, and medical fraternity, 74% (27.5 million) of the 37.7 million ... topical long-acting HIV prevention method to reduce the risk of acquiring HIV through vaginal sex. It is a silicon ring that ... Great strides have been made in HIV prevention, treatment and care, since the first case of the viral infection was reported 40 ...
  • The NICE pneumonia guidance (CG191) makes recommendations concerning best practice in the management of community-acquired pneumonia, but implementation is challenging. (nice.org.uk)
  • Aim: To enhance the quality of care for adults admitted to hospital with community-acquired pneumonia. (nice.org.uk)
  • The main purpose of this study is to compare the safety of tigecycline versus a ceftriaxone regimen in pediatric subjects (aged 8 to 17 years) with complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI) and community acquired pneumonia (CAP). (pfizer.com)
  • Have a diagnosis of a serious infection (complicated intra-abdominal infections [cIAI] or community acquired pneumonia [CAP] as applicable) requiring hospitalization and administration of IV antibiotic therapy. (pfizer.com)
  • What testing is useful in determining the community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) pathogen in patients with HIV infection? (medscape.com)
  • The differential diagnoses of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is broader than in HIV-negative patients. (medscape.com)
  • Community-Acquired Pneumonia Requiring Hospitalization among U.S. Adults. (medscape.com)
  • Community-acquired pneumonia. (medscape.com)
  • Guidelines to Manage Community-Acquired Pneumonia. (medscape.com)
  • Wunderink RG, Waterer G. Advances in the causes and management of community acquired pneumonia in adults. (medscape.com)
  • The value of signs and symptoms in differentiating between bacterial, viral and mixed aetiology in patients with community-acquired pneumonia. (medscape.com)
  • Diagnosis and Treatment of Adults with Community-acquired Pneumonia. (medscape.com)
  • Reliability of radiographic findings and the relation to etiologic agents in community-acquired pneumonia. (medscape.com)
  • Patterns of resolution of chest radiograph abnormalities in adults hospitalized with severe community-acquired pneumonia. (medscape.com)
  • Expanded CURB-65: a new score system predicts severity of community-acquired pneumonia with superior efficiency. (medscape.com)
  • Mortality prediction using serum biomarkers and various clinical risk scales in community-acquired pneumonia. (medscape.com)
  • Biomarkers of Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A Key to Disease Diagnosis and Management. (medscape.com)
  • Guo S, Mao X, Liang M. The moderate predictive value of serial serum CRP and PCT levels for the prognosis of hospitalized community-acquired pneumonia. (medscape.com)
  • Prognostic value of pneumococcal urinary antigen test in community-acquired pneumonia. (medscape.com)
  • This study will collect real-life data from patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) OR complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI) to assess the burden of the disease, review the treatment pathways, evaluate how health resources are used and identify any areas of unmet medical needs. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Flow diagram of selection process for meta-analysis of macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in pediatric community-acquired pneumonia. (cdc.gov)
  • Among patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia and high initial inflammatory response, the use of the corticosteroid methylprednisolone decreased treatment failure, compared with placebo, according to a study in the Feb. 17 issue of JAMA. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Community-acquired pneumonia is the leading infectious cause of death in developed countries, and despite advances in antibiotic treatment, mortality among hospitalized patients is still high, especially in those with severe pneumonia and in those who experience treatment failure (observed in 10 percent to 20 percent of patients). (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Antoni Torres, MD, PhD, of the Hospital Clinic in Barcelona, Spain, and colleagues randomly assigned patients at three Spanish teaching hospitals with severe community-acquired pneumonia and a high inflammatory response (defined as blood test for C-reactive protein of greater than 150 mg/L at admission) to receive intravenously the corticosteroid methylprednisolone (n=61) or placebo (n=59) for five days started within 36 hours of hospital admission. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Among patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia and high initial inflammatory response, the acute use of methylprednisolone compared with placebo decreased treatment failure. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Richard G. Wunderink, MD, of the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago, comments on the findings of this study in an accompanying editorial, Corticosteroids for Severe Community-Acquired Pneumonia: 'A more important question is what exactly are steroids preventing? (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Therapy in early-onset hospital-acquired pneumonia ampicillin/sulbactam or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid event. (slideserve.com)
  • Therapy in late-onset hospital-acquired pneumonia carbapenem (imipenem, meropenem) or -lactam/-lactamase inhibitor (piperacillin-tazobactam) event. (slideserve.com)
  • The combination of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin determinant (which encodes a virulence factor for primary skin infection and pneumonia) with the mecA gene (which confers antibiotic resistance and epidemicity) appears to have created a superadapted S. aureus strain that is spreading in the community. (nih.gov)
  • Cavallazzi R, El-Kersh K, Abu-Atherah E, Singh S, Loke YK, Wiemken T, Ramirez J. Midregional proadrenomedullin for prognosis in community-acquired pneumonia: a systematic review. (umassmed.edu)
  • Variation in resource utilization for the management of uncomplicated community-acquired pneumonia across community and children's hospitals. (umassmed.edu)
  • Comparative effectiveness of ceftriaxone in combination with a macrolide compared with ceftriaxone alone for pediatric patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia. (umassmed.edu)
  • Moran GJ, Rothman RE, Volturo GA. Emergency management of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia: what is new since the 2007 Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society guidelines. (umassmed.edu)
  • Respiratory syncytial virus infection is not generally recognized as a cause of pneumonia requiring the hospitalization of adults, except in unusual cases involving immunocompromise, chronic disease, or advanced age (1, 2). (annals.org)
  • The virus was recently implicated as a cause of life-threatening pulmonary infection in otherwise healthy adults (3), suggesting that it may be an underrecognized cause of community-acquired pneumonia in hospitalized adults. (annals.org)
  • We studied the evidence of respiratory syncitial virus in 55 consecutive adult patients requiring hospitalization for community-acquired pneumonia during November through April. (annals.org)
  • Zaroukian MH, Leader I. Community-Acquired Pneumonia and Infection with Respiratory Syncitial Virus. (annals.org)
  • Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is defined as an infection of the alveolar, distal airway and interstitium of the lungs acquired while the patient is in the community. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • AstraZeneca today announced that the European Commission has granted Marketing Authorisation to ZINFORO™ (ceftaroline fosamil), a new intravenous cephalosporin antibiotic, for the treatment of adult patients with complicated Skin and Soft Tissue Infections (cSSTI) or Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP). (astrazeneca.com)
  • This article describes the clinical effectiveness of ceftaroline fosamil in the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infection (ABSSSI) or community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) patients with renal insufficiency. (ovid.com)
  • Pneumonia is an infection of the pulmonary parenchyma. (mhmedical.com)
  • Pneumonia historically was typically classified as community-acquired (CAP), hospital-acquired (HAP), or ventilator-associated (VAP). (mhmedical.com)
  • Unfortunately, the original definitions appear to have been overly sensitive, resulting in the treatment of a high proportion of patients who had community-onset pneumonia with broad-spectrum antibiotics consistent with HAP treatment. (mhmedical.com)
  • Rather than relying on a predefined subset or category of pneumonia cases, it is likely to be of greater value to assess each case individually on the basis of risk factors for infection with an MDR organism. (mhmedical.com)
  • Forest Laboratories announced that the FDA has approved Teflaro (ceftaroline fosamil), a cephalosporin, for the treatment of adults patients with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) and acute bacterial skin and skin structure infection (ABSSSI) caused by susceptible strains of indicated pathogens. (empr.com)
  • Staphylococcus aureus is the most commonly isolated pathogen from human and often lead to endovascular infections, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis and pneumonia [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A young adult male presented with subretinal abscesses, necrotising pneumonia, pleural empyema, skin and soft tissue infection, muscle abscesses and deep vein thrombosis. (rcpe.ac.uk)
  • Infection with PVL-positive S. aureus produces a clinical disease that is characterised by necrotising pneumonia and disseminated infection that often carries a high mortality. (rcpe.ac.uk)
  • Substantial regional variation exists in the hospitalization rates for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) ( 1 ). (acpjc.org)
  • Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis are usually implicated in patients with mild to moderate disease - In patients admitted to hospital with community acquired pneumonia (CAP), assessment of initial pneumonia severity is important to guide decisions regarding site of care and initial empiric antibacterial treatment - Patients with severe CAP should be treated with combination therapy, usually a broad spectrum β-lactam plus, either a macrolide or a respiratory quinolone antibiotic. (oup.com)
  • We conducted gene-expression profiling in the whole blood of critically ill patients to identify a gene signature that would allow clinicians to distinguish influenza infection from other causes of severe respiratory failure, such as bacterial pneumonia, and noninfective systemic inflammatory response syndrome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the United States alone, the economic burden of community-acquired pneumonia has been estimated to be more than US$17 billion per annum [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When these individuals present with community-acquired pneumonia, it is difficult to determine which organism is the causative pathogen (bacterial versus viral). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Clarithromycin ER has been approved for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia, acute maxillary sinusitis and acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis. (elsevier.com)
  • We present the case of necrotizing pneumonia in a young patient without chronic comorbidities, who presented a torpid with subsequent death, highlighting in this case, subacute evolution, as well as the isolation of Staphylococcus epidermidis coagulase-negative resistant to vancomycin, acquired in the community, which finally resulted in a poor prognosis. (caijournal.com)
  • Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. (caijournal.com)
  • Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a frequent infectious disease that can be usually treated in an ambulatory setting. (caijournal.com)
  • The role of the microbiology laboratory in the diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains controversial. (asm.org)
  • Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs), including pneumonia and acute exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), are among the most common diagnoses in both outpatient and inpatient settings. (europeanreview.org)
  • The characteristics of community-acquired pneumonia associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae infection were compared with those associated with atypical bacterial infection and with mixed S. pneumoniae-atypical bacterial infection in 196 children aged 2-5 years. (elsevier.com)
  • This study shows the major role of both S. pneumoniae and atypical bacteria in the development of community-acquired pneumonia in young children, the limited role of clinical, laboratory, and radiological features in predicting etiology, and the importance of the use of adequate antimicrobial agents for treatment. (elsevier.com)
  • K. pneumoniae which is commonly associated with urinary tract infection, pneumonia, bacteraemia and wound infections, is also a primary causative agent of liver abscess particularly in Asia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fusobacteriosis presenting as community acquired pneumonia. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common and important pathogenic cause of community-acquired pneumonia presenting with fever and respiratory symptoms of varied severity. (ijcmas.com)
  • A study was conducted to determine the significance of this association and to estimate the prevalence of Community Acquired Mycoplasma Pneumonia by detecting IgM antibodies of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in the serum of patients attending the KIMS OPD, Hubballi with complaints of fever and respiratory symptoms. (ijcmas.com)
  • Detection of IgM antibodies by ELISA for precise and reliable diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections during the acute phases of disease indicating a possible use of ELISA as a valid diagnostic approach in early detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in patients with Community acquired pneumonia. (ijcmas.com)
  • This meeting brought together clinicians and researchers to shed light on the problem of achieving a balance between the optimal management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and the need to avoid possible masking of TB. (infectweb.com)
  • Objectives To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of C reactive protein in detecting radiologically proved pneumonia and to evaluate how well it can discriminate between bacterial and viral infections of the lower respiratory tract. (bmj.com)
  • Infections of the lower respiratory tract are common in the community and comprise both acute bronchitis and pneumonia. (bmj.com)
  • 5 Microbiological aetiology varies from 15-25% viral infection in radiologically proved pneumonia, to 15-40% viral infection in infection of the lower respiratory tract. (bmj.com)
  • Although bacterial pneumonia occurs much less often than other infections of the lower respiratory tract, in studies more than 70% of acute infections of the lower respiratory tract are treated with antibiotics. (bmj.com)
  • 9 10 These data call for additional information, in order to detect bacterial pneumonia and to differentiate between this diagnosis and other respiratory tract infections. (bmj.com)
  • Well-recognized and common causes of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in adults include bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae , and Staphylococcus aureus , and viruses such as influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, and parainfluenza virus. (springer.com)
  • While co-infection with bacterial pneumonia pathogens ( Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus pneumoniae , group A Streptococcus ) is well described with seasonal influenza A or B virus infections, as well as with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection, concurrent bacterial community-acquired pneumonia appears to be uncommon in patients with Asian lineage A(H7N9) virus infection. (bmj.com)
  • In most cases, empirical therapies for bacterial pneumonia and influenza virus infection are initiated before the Asian lineage A(H7N9) diagnosis is confirmed. (bmj.com)
  • Antibacterial therapy should follow evidence-based treatment guidelines, conform to local/regional standards of care, and target common community-acquired pneumonia pathogens from the region where infection occurred. (bmj.com)
  • https://www.cdc.gov/hai/vap/vap.html Relevant bacterial species-associated HCAIs, including ventilator-associated pneumonia, have been identified in some hospitalised patients with A(H7N9) virus infection. (bmj.com)
  • Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is a term often used as a synonym for pneumonia but can also be applied to other types of infection including lung abscess and acute bronchitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Community-acquired, methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus musculoskeletal infections in children. (nih.gov)
  • The clinical characteristics and virulence factors related to musculoskeletal infections caused by community-acquired, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in children are not well-defined. (nih.gov)
  • Staphylococcus aureus infection caused by a Panton Valentine leukocidin-producing strain. (nih.gov)
  • To identify groups at risk of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection, patterns of antimicrobial resistance, and the proportion of patients with MRSA infections but no history of recent hospitalisation. (mja.com.au)
  • Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of serious community- and health care-associated infection. (mja.com.au)
  • Community acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is an emerging pathogen of the 21st century whose incidence as a cause of local and invasive infections has significantly increased, especially in previously healthy term and near term newborns. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We describe two cases of human infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex (CC) 75, also called Staphylococcus argenteus, harbouring the Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL). (eurosurveillance.org)
  • 3 - 9 It has recently surpassed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as the most common hospital-acquired infection in the USA. (dovepress.com)
  • Global Markets Direct's latest Pharmaceutical and Healthcare disease pipeline guide Community Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) Infections - Pipeline Review, H2 2016, provides an overview of the Community Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) Infections (Infectious Disease) pipeline landscape. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Global Markets Direct's Pharmaceutical and Healthcare latest pipeline guide Community Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) Infections - Pipeline Review, H2 2016, provides comprehensive information on the therapeutics under development for Community Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) Infections (Infectious Disease), complete with analysis by stage of development, drug target, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The Community Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) Infections (Infectious Disease) pipeline guide also reviews of key players involved in therapeutic development for Community Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) Infections and features dormant and discontinued projects. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The guide covers therapeutics under Development by Companies /Universities /Institutes, the molecules developed by Companies in Phase II and Preclinical stages are 1 and 4 respectively.Community Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) Infections. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Community Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) Infections (Infectious Disease) pipeline guide helps in identifying and tracking emerging players in the market and their portfolios, enhances decision making capabilities and helps to create effective counter strategies to gain competitive advantage. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The pipeline guide provides a snapshot of the global therapeutic landscape of Community Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) Infections (Infectious Disease). (bio-medicine.org)
  • The pipeline guide reviews pipeline therapeutics for Community Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) Infections (Infectious Disease) by companies and universities/research institutes based on information derived from company and industry-specific sources. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The pipeline guide reviews key companies involved in Community Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) Infections (Infectious Disease) therapeutics and enlists all their major and minor projects. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The pipeline guide evaluates Community Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) Infections (Infectious Disease) therapeutics based on mechanism of action (MoA), drug target, route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (bio-medicine.org)
  • To characterize the clinical and bacteriologic characteristics of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections, we reviewed 14 cases that were diagnosed in previously healthy patients during an 18-month period in France. (nih.gov)
  • To investigate the incidence and epidemiology of non-multiresistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (nmMRSA) infection in south-east Queensland, Australia. (nih.gov)
  • Ye R, Yang J, Wang Z, Lin S, Wang Z (2017) Suppurative Tonsillitis Caused by Suspected Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infection: A Case Report. (omicsonline.org)
  • WEDNESDAY, Oct. 11, 2017 (HealthDay News) - Statin use is associated with a decreased risk of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (CA-SAB), particularly in long-term users, according to a study published in the October issue of Mayo Clinic Proceedings . (physiciansweekly.com)
  • All community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus isolates v. 52.4% of healthcare-acquired isolates were susceptible to cloxacillin. (journals.co.za)
  • Analysis of Invasive Community-Acquired Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Infections. (deepdyve.com)
  • Outbreaks of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin infections-Los Angeles County, California, 2002-2003. (deepdyve.com)
  • Comparison of Staphylococcus aureus from skin and soft-tissue infections in US emergency department patients, 2004 and 2008. (deepdyve.com)
  • Emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus at a Memphis, Tennessee Children's Hospital. (deepdyve.com)
  • Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in children with no identified predisposing risk. (deepdyve.com)
  • Pulmonary manifestations in children with invasive community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus infection. (deepdyve.com)
  • Complete genome sequence of USA300, an epidemic clone of community-acquired meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. (deepdyve.com)
  • Increase of the USA300 clone among community-acquired methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus causing invasive infections. (deepdyve.com)
  • Emergence of a predominant clone of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus among children in Houston, Texas. (deepdyve.com)
  • Three-year surveillance of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus infections in children. (deepdyve.com)
  • Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus from clinical and community sources are genetically diverse. (deepdyve.com)
  • Currently, Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important pathogens worldwide, especially for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We present here a patient with disseminated community-acquired meticillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) infection with subretinal abscesses in both eyes, with good clinical outcome and good recovery of vision with systemic antibiotics. (rcpe.ac.uk)
  • Uncomplicated and complicated skin and skin structure infections, including cellulitis , cutaneous abscesses and ischemic/diabetic foot infections caused by β-lactamase producing isolates of Staphylococcus aureus . (rxlist.com)
  • Community-Adapted Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): Population Dynamics of an Expanding Community Reservoir of MRSA. (ahcmedia.com)
  • In settings where suspicion of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is low, beta-lactam antibiotics are the first-line treatments for uncomplicated skin and soft tissue infections without focal coalescence or trauma. (aafp.org)
  • 1 A large increase in community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections has prompted changes in the approach to skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). (aafp.org)
  • Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections: hospitalization and case fatality risk in 10 pediatric facilities in Argentina. (bvsalud.org)
  • Infecciones por Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente adquirido en la comunidad: hospitalización y riesgo de letalidad en 10 centros pediátricos de Argentina. (bvsalud.org)
  • Community -acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA- MRSA ) infections are prevalent both in Argentina and worldwide, and they may have a severe clinical course . (bvsalud.org)
  • All patients community -acquired Staphylococcus aureus (CA-SA) infections admitted to 10 pediatric facilities between January 2012 and December 2014 were included. (bvsalud.org)
  • Estudio multicéntrico sobre las infecciones pediátricas por Staphylococcus aureus meticilino-resistente provenientes de la comunidad en la Argentina. (bvsalud.org)
  • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ( MRSA ) isolates are increasingly frequent causes of skin and soft- tissue infections or invasive infections in many communities . (bvsalud.org)
  • According to the latest CDC data released in 2019, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and other, less prominent strains of S. aureus accounted for an estimated 119,247 bloodstream infections within the United States in 2017, while causing 19,832 of those infected to pass away from complications associated with infection. (kenyon.edu)
  • Unadjusted healthcare-acquired community-onset cases of invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus rates by race for cases among dialysis patients. (kenyon.edu)
  • Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus has been one of the most well-known and clinically relevant pathogens within hospitals and the broader healthcare industry for decades, and it has remained a constant source of infection within them, though its frequency has oscillated somewhat over time. (kenyon.edu)
  • Strategies to Prevent Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Transmission and Infection in Acute Care Hospitals: 2014 Update. (epnet.com)
  • Racial disparities in invasive methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus infections, 2005-2014. (epnet.com)
  • A staphylococcal infection or staph infection is an infection caused by members of the Staphylococcus genus of bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Problematically, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a major cause of hospital-acquired infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • S. epidermidis, a coagulase-negative staphylococcus species, is a commensal of the skin, but can cause severe infections in immune-suppressed patients and those with central venous catheters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Community-acquired MRSA and community-acquired methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) caused musculoskeletal infections in 31 and 28 children, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • Febrile days and hospital days were greater in children with musculoskeletal infection caused by MRSA than in those affected by MSSA, but no significant differences were found in the final outcome. (nih.gov)
  • demographic factors associated with community-associated MRSA infections. (mja.com.au)
  • The prevalence of MRSA in the HNELHD region decreased during the study period, and was predominantly acquired in the community, particularly by young people, Indigenous Australians, and residents of aged care facilities. (mja.com.au)
  • Community-associated MRSA was more frequently isolated from younger people, Indigenous Australians, and residents of aged care facilities. (mja.com.au)
  • more sensitive MRSA strains are now responsible for most infections in community and health care settings. (mja.com.au)
  • 4 limited antimicrobial treatment options for MRSA infections make their management challenging. (mja.com.au)
  • Until the early 2000s, MRSA infections were predominately health care-associated. (mja.com.au)
  • Recent studies have found increasing rates of community origin MRSA infections. (mja.com.au)
  • 5 , 7 This increase in community-based MRSA infections has implications for control measures and empiric treatment options. (mja.com.au)
  • A six-fold increase in pediatric MRSA infections, prompted Alexis C Mccullough, of the the University of Toledo College of Medicine, and colleagues, to examine the clinical profile of children with MRSA infections seen at Mercy Children's Hospital in Toledo, Ohio, and to characterize the responsible strains. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Chart review of 63 patients with MRSA infections revealed that 58 (92 percent) were community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA). (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • All CA-MRSA were skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI). (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The incidence of previously healthy newborns infected with CA-MRSA skin & soft tissue (SSTI) and invasive infections is higher in those born to mothers colonized with CA-MRSA. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Pregnant women colonized with CA-MRSA are at higher risk for post-partum infection with this organism. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To study CA-MRSA transmission dynamics and evaluate the incidence of SSTI and invasive infections in newborns born to S. aureus colonized mothers. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To study the efficacy of attempted decolonization in CA-MRSA colonized mothers in decreasing the incidence of transmission and development of SSTI and invasive infections in their infants during the first month of life. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Understanding the epidemiology of the transmission dynamics of CA-MRSA in previously healthy newborns will provide important information to support the development of strategies aimed at the interruption of transmission and prevention of infection caused by CA-MRSA in newborns, as well as in pregnant women. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The incidence of CA-MRSA skin, soft tissue and invasive (SSTI) infections in healthy term and near-term infants born to CA-MRSA colonized mothers. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In later stages of the study, we will study the efficacy of attempted decolonization in CA-MRSA colonized mothers in decreasing the incidence of transmission and development of SSTI and invasive infections in their infants during the first month of life. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • MRSA infections that are acquired by persons who have not been recently (within the past year) hospitalized or had a medical procedure (such as dialysis, surgery, catheters) are known as community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) infections. (bio-medicine.org)
  • A case of pleurisy occurred in a child who acquired CA-MRSA from his mother, who had a breast abscess. (nih.gov)
  • King and colleagues (1) cite clindamycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and linezolid as alternatives to vancomycin for outpatient treatment of localized skin and soft-tissue infections due to MRSA. (annals.org)
  • However, they point out the uncertain efficacy of these agents in MRSA infections and the problem of inducible clindamycin resistance. (annals.org)
  • Missing from this list of alternatives, and from the susceptibility data included in the paper and in the Editors' Notes, are the tetracyclines, of which minocycline is the most potent against staphylococci and with which there is the most clinical experience in treating MRSA infections (2) . (annals.org)
  • Non-multiresistant MRSA infection, relatively frequently observed in Pacific Islanders in south-east Queensland, is now a risk for Caucasians as well, and is usually community acquired. (nih.gov)
  • However, only a few case reports about suppurative tonsillitis caused by community-acquired MRSA infection have been published to date. (omicsonline.org)
  • This was a case report of suppurative tonsillitis caused by suspected MRSA infection, which could provide valuable evidence in guiding the treatment of such diseases. (omicsonline.org)
  • For patients with suppurative tonsillitis who do not respond to conventional anti-inflammation therapy, the possibility of MRSA infection should be considered if the inflammation indicators increase continuously. (omicsonline.org)
  • However, few reports referred to patients' MRSA infections in Yunnan province, southwest China. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Specifically, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infection has exploded in both healthcare facility and community since 1990s [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although the availability of antimicrobial agents to treat MRSA infections, it still to be the dominant cause of mortality and morbidity all over the world [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The spread of different clones from different geographic regions have been reported, MRSA has been verified as one of the most important pathogen in hospital or community setting [ 4 , 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Does the Existence of Community Acquired MRSA Change Empiric Therapy for Skin and Soft Tissue Infections? (clinicalcorrelations.org)
  • In the face of community acquired methicillin resistant staph aureus (CA-MRSA), have guidelines for skin and soft tissue infections changed? (clinicalcorrelations.org)
  • However, although some smaller series report diabetics as a risk for CA-MRSA acquisition, and perhaps poorer outcomes with disease, the usual scenario for this pathogen is epidemic furunculosis or other purulent complicated skin and soft tissue infections, not the typical diabetes associated ulcer. (clinicalcorrelations.org)
  • If "routine" is meant to connote lack of purulence or evidence of deep infection in a patient without some stronger epidemiologic link to CA-MRSA, such as a child, a prisoner, an MSM, a younger non-white patient, or the "classic" patient involved in team contact sports, amoxicillin-clavulanate or dicloxacillin may still be adequate. (clinicalcorrelations.org)
  • 3. Since diabetics are probably not at high risk for community MRSA and since DM wound infection is not a typical presentation of the bug, why not simply use PO dicloxacillin or Augmentin in a stable patient while waiting for the cultures? (clinicalcorrelations.org)
  • Over a 7-year period, there was a dramatic increase in the isolation of community-acquired MRSA in the San Francisco area. (ahcmedia.com)
  • Community-acquired MRSA (CO-MRSA) has been isolated with increasing frequency over the past decade. (ahcmedia.com)
  • One possible explanation is that many strains of CO-MRSA are in fact nosocomial MRSA (NO-MRSA) strains that have entered into the community. (ahcmedia.com)
  • Carleton and colleagues studied the molecular epidemiology of MRSA in the hospital and community over a 7-year period. (ahcmedia.com)
  • after it became established in the community it was isolated from cases of NO-MRSA. (ahcmedia.com)
  • Carleton et al noted that some of the isolates from NO-MRSA cases belonged to genotypes associated with community-acquired disease, but bore type II SCCmec, and were resistant to multiple non beta-lactam antimicrobials. (ahcmedia.com)
  • Carelton et al were able to show that the increase in MRSA noted in their community was largely due to an increase in community-acquired strains. (ahcmedia.com)
  • When empiric coverage for MRSA is indicated and the infection is uncomplicated, oral agents, such as tetracyclines, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and clindamycin, are preferred. (aafp.org)
  • Standard infection-control precautions, including proper and frequent handwashing, are a mainstay of MRSA prevention. (aafp.org)
  • This article reviews updated diagnostic and treatment strategies for immunocompetent patients, particularly those with community-acquired MRSA. (aafp.org)
  • Eradication of MRSA carrier state is not associated with reduced incidence of clinical MRSA infection. (aafp.org)
  • The new strain, known as community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA), infects otherwise healthy people outside the health-care setting. (lww.com)
  • Interestingly, in a recent study of CA-MRSA treated in emergency departments, most infections respond to treatment even when patients were given antibiotics to which the bacterium was resistant ( 6 ). (lww.com)
  • Despite responding more readily to treatment, the CA-MRSA can cause serious infections and even death. (lww.com)
  • To estimate the hospitalization rate and case fatality risk factors of CA- MRSA infection . (bvsalud.org)
  • To determine the frequency, clinical features and outcome of infections caused by MRSA . (bvsalud.org)
  • Two hundred and eighty one (62%) infections were community -acquired MRSA (CA- MRSA ). (bvsalud.org)
  • Among the CA- MRSA isolates, 62% were obtained from children with skin and soft- tissue infections , and 38% from children with invasive infections . (bvsalud.org)
  • CA- MRSA isolates account for a high percentage and number of infections in children of Argentina . (bvsalud.org)
  • Community surveillance of CA- MRSA infections is critical to determine the appropriate empiric antibiotic treatment for either local or invasive infections . (bvsalud.org)
  • Clindamycin should be use when CA- MRSA infection is suspected in children . (bvsalud.org)
  • As shown in the number of cases within 2017 alone given above, infections due to MRSA are a widespread phenomenon, however, there are stark differences in the incidence rates between different races in the US, particularly amongst Black and White people. (kenyon.edu)
  • Image depicts the areas with a higher concentration of community-associated MRSA cases within Atlanta during the period of 2002-2004. (kenyon.edu)
  • [1] When considering the often dire health consequences associated with invasive MRSA infections, it becomes clear to see why the stark disparities in the rate of infection between races are a topic of burgeoning importance within the medical community. (kenyon.edu)
  • For the majority of its history, MRSA was considered to be a nosocomial pathogen, however, in the late 90s MRSA appeared within communities independent of any connections to particular hospitals or health care settings. (kenyon.edu)
  • This was the birth of community-acquired MRSA in the United States, which now has incidence rates exceeding those seen in hospital-acquisition cases. (kenyon.edu)
  • The similarity in the highlighted areas in Figures 4 and 5 of Atlanta should be noted, as they demonstrate how Black people are disproportionately concentrated together whilst living in poverty and being at a higher risk of acquiring community-associated MRSA. (kenyon.edu)
  • MRSA has also been recognized with increasing frequency in community-acquired infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the recent global spread of CTX-M β-lactamases in Escherichia coli isolates from community-acquired urinary tract infections (CA-UTIs), their dissemination has been little studied in developing countries. (cdc.gov)
  • The present study was performed to determine the antibiotic resistance profile and the genetic characterization of ESβL isolates from hospital- and community-acquired UTIs. (ajtmh.org)
  • In addition, all ESβL E. coli isolates were susceptible to fosfomycin, whereas all community-acquired ESβL isolates were susceptible to nitrofurantoin. (ajtmh.org)
  • Laboratory typing showed that the isolates in Pacific Islanders were Pacific Island strains, and 16/17 of these infections were community acquired. (nih.gov)
  • Eleven of the isolates from Caucasians (48%) were a new predominantly community-acquired strain that we have termed the 'R' pulsotype, nine (39%) were Pacific Island strains, and three (13%) were health care institution-associated strains. (nih.gov)
  • To describe the distribution of organisms and of antibiotic susceptibility among isolates from blood cultures at a tertiary academic hospital during a 1-year period, stratifying by place of infection acquisition. (journals.co.za)
  • The hospital-acquired isolates were stratified by ward (emergency, general medical or general surgical ward or intensive care unit (ICU)) to determine organism frequency and susceptibility patterns by hospital ward. (journals.co.za)
  • The majority of community-acquired Enterobacteriaceae were highly susceptible to antibiotics (gentamicin 95.6%, ceftriaxone 96.1% and ciprofloxacin 92.2%), whereas 64.6% of healthcare-associated isolates were susceptible to gentamicin, 58.5% to ceftriaxone and 70% to ciprofloxacin. (journals.co.za)
  • ZOSYN is a combination product consisting of a penicillin -class antibacterial , piperacillin, and a β- lactamase inhibitor, tazobactam, indicated for the treatment of patients with moderate to severe infections caused by susceptible isolates of the designated bacteria in the conditions listed below. (rxlist.com)
  • Type II SCCmec isolates were largely confined to the hospital, indicating limited ability to spread in the community. (ahcmedia.com)
  • Levofloxacin Oral Solution are indicated for the treatment of adults (≥18 years of age) with mild, moderate, and severe infections caused by susceptible isolates of the designated microorganisms in the conditions listed in this section. (drugs.com)
  • We characterized the ESBLs of a collection of Escherichia coli isolates recovered from outpatients with urinary tract infection during nationwide surveillance conducted from 2005 to 2006 in Greece, and evaluated the in vitro activity of mecillinam and mecillinam/clavulanate against them. (duke.edu)
  • Studies to monitor the prevalence of hvKp is needed since there is a potential for the community acquired isolates to develop multidrug resistance in hospital environment and may pose a major challenge for clinical management. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Herein, we evaluated the relationships (at phylogenetic and genetic population structure levels), as well as the molecular toxigenic and antibiotic resistance profiles of a set of isolates established from a case of community acquired-CDI. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This case represents the first report of community acquired-CDI in Colombia associated with hypervirulent strains and shows that isolates obtained from a single patient can carry different toxin and antibiotic resistance loci. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The relative proportion of lower respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and sepsis became increasingly higher as kidney function decreased. (eurekalert.org)
  • A Respiratory Infections Team was developed at the Royal Derby Hospital, comprising three specialist nurses supported by a respiratory consultant and antimicrobial pharmacist. (nice.org.uk)
  • Background Respiratory virus infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality after hematopoietic cell transplantation. (haematologica.org)
  • Their clinical course can be severe with progression to lower respiratory tract infection, co-infection with serious pulmonary co-pathogens, and high mortality. (haematologica.org)
  • Respiratory virus lower tract infection had high co-infection and attributable mortality rates. (haematologica.org)
  • Conclusions Respiratory virus lower tract infection during the first 100 days after hematopoietic cell transplantation was less common in persons receiving non-myeloablative conditioning regimens compared to myeloablative conditioning, despite a similar overall rate of acquisition. (haematologica.org)
  • Community-acquired respiratory infections (parainfluenza 1-4, influenza A and B, respiratory syncitial virus, and rhinovirus) are important causes of morbidity and mortality after hematopoietic cell transplantation. (haematologica.org)
  • 1 - 5 Though the incidence of these infections in hematopoietic cell transplantation patients usually parallels that in the community, their course can be more severe with progression to lower respiratory tract infection, co-infection with serious pulmonary co-pathogens such as invasive molds, and late airflow decline. (haematologica.org)
  • It is unknown whether non-myeloablative conditioning has an effect on acquisition of respiratory virus infection, likelihood of respiratory virus associated lower tract infection, risk of progression of disease from upper to lower tract infection, or mortality rate associated with respiratory virus infection. (haematologica.org)
  • Design We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases (inception to 16 January 2014) for studies analysing the association of predialysis kidney disease with the incidence of acute, community-acquired urinary tract infection (UTI), lower respiratory tract or central nervous system infections or sepsis. (bmj.com)
  • Outcome measures Acute, community-acquired UTI, lower respiratory tract or central nervous system infections or sepsis. (bmj.com)
  • To compare the effectiveness of oral co-amoxiclav with intravenous (IV) co-amoxiclav and with IV cefotaxime in patients with community-acquired lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). (acpjc.org)
  • Oral co-amoxiclav was as effective as intravenous co-amoxiclav and intravenous cefotaxime and resulted in shorter hospital stays in patients with community-acquired lower respiratory tract infection. (acpjc.org)
  • Sepsis-like syndrome (SLS, or blood infection) and acute respiratory infection (ARI, or chest infection) are two of the main types of severe viral infection in children. (isrctn.com)
  • This information may speed the identification of the cause of infection in patients presenting with severe respiratory failure, allowing appropriate patient care to be undertaken more rapidly. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This trial aims at understanding which subgroups of individuals with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) benefit from antibiotics. (isrctn.com)
  • Williams, KN & Bishai, WR 2005, ' Clarithromycin extended-release in community-acquired respiratory tract infections ', Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy , vol. 6, no. 16, pp. 2867-2876. (elsevier.com)
  • Lower respiratory tract infections are among the most common infectious diseases of humans worldwide. (asm.org)
  • Less controversial is the need to establish an etiology in the hospitalized patient and the immunocompromised host with lower respiratory tract infection. (asm.org)
  • This minireview addresses the major categories of lower respiratory tract infections, the most common etiologic agents, and the laboratory tests (and their limitations) available to diagnose them. (asm.org)
  • Lower respiratory infections in the absence of lung disease are therefore relatively infrequent as compared with upper respiratory tract infections in healthy adults. (ersjournals.com)
  • In the setting of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lower respiratory tract infections, both acute and chronic, occur with increased frequency. (ersjournals.com)
  • Enhanced understanding of the host-pathogen interaction is needed to better prevent and treat respiratory tract infection in COPD. (ersjournals.com)
  • A meeting of leading Asian experts in respiratory tract infections (RTIs) and tuberculosis (TB) was held on 27th July 2012, in Tokyo, Japan. (infectweb.com)
  • In 12 studies, the relation of C reactive protein with a bacterial aetiology of infection of the lower respiratory tract was studied. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusion Testing for C reactive protein is neither sufficiently sensitive to rule out nor sufficiently specific to rule in an infiltrate on chest radiograph and bacterial aetiology of lower respiratory tract infection. (bmj.com)
  • This is a common complication of Asian lineage A(H7N9) virus infection, usually due to acute respiratory distress syndrome. (bmj.com)
  • Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) is widely recognised as an important cause of community-acquired lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in children. (edu.au)
  • We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 2), which contains the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE (1966 to February week 5, 2012) and EMBASE (1980 to March 2012). (edu.au)
  • In one controlled study (of children with recurrent respiratory infections, whose acute LRTI was associated with Mycoplasma, Chlamydia or both by polymerase chain reaction, and/or paired sera) 100% of children treated with azithromycin had clinical resolution of their illness compared to 77% not treated with azithromycin at one month. (edu.au)
  • A routine chest X-ray is not always necessary for people who have symptoms of a lower respiratory tract infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibiotics do not help the many lower respiratory infections which are caused by parasites or viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Washington, DC (Aug. 17, 2017) -- Individuals with reduced kidney function may be at increased risk of developing infections acquired in the community, according to a study appearing in an upcoming issue of the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology (CJASN) . (eurekalert.org)
  • It covers emerging therapies for Community Acquired Infections in active clinical development stages including early and late stage clinical trials. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • The report provides Community Acquired Infections pipeline products by clinical trial stages including both early and late stage development - phase 3 clinical trials, phase 2 clinical trials, phase 1 clinical trials, preclinical research, and discovery stage. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Number of patients with infection resolution reaching clinical stability, as a measure of effectiveness [ Time Frame: Retrospective. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Published studies on community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTI) often do not link microbiological findings with clinical risk factors and patient data. (urotoday.com)
  • Several PCR assays for the diagnosis of pertussis infection have been developed, and clinical studies have compared the sensitivity and specificity of these PCR tests to culture, serology, and DFA assay. (asm.org)
  • clustering ST59-t437 showed the heterogeneity for provoking different clinical diseases in both community and hospital. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 14 years of age and had a clinical diagnosis of community-acquired LRTI defined by a sputum-producing cough and associated symptoms or signs of chest infection and by the presence of ≥ 1 of the following: fever, sweating, headache, or aches and pains. (acpjc.org)
  • For the children with signs of blood/chest infections, clinical observations, medications and clinical management are recorded on admission and weekly until discharge or day 30 of hospitalisation (whichever comes first). (isrctn.com)
  • We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the effect of macrolide resistance on the manifestations and clinical judgment during M. pneumoniae infections. (cdc.gov)
  • We found no difference in clinical severity between MRMP and macrolide-sensitive Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MSMP) infections. (cdc.gov)
  • A randomised placebo-controlled double-blind trial will be carried out with patients as unit of randomisation to study the clinical effectiveness of antibiotics in community-acquired LRTI. (isrctn.com)
  • Presence of the latter two enzymes in clinical infections can result in treatment failure if one of the second- or third-generation cephalosporin is used. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Rapid tests for influenza virus are limited by sensitivities equivalent to that of clinical judgment when influenza is circulating in a community (70 and 65 to 80%, respectively) ( 8 ). (asm.org)
  • The association between antibiotic use, increasing rates of resistance, and clinical treatment failure underlines the importance of optimizing antibiotic use in patients with community-acquired RTIs. (perfecthealthinfo.com)
  • Selecting the initial antibiotic therapy is generally considered central to achieving bacterial eradication and clinical success in patients with community-acquired RTIs. (perfecthealthinfo.com)
  • More recently, the prevalence of in vitro resistance to beta-lactam and macrolide, in addition to concerns about the clinical and economic impact of treatment failure associated with such resistance, has led to the development of alternative oral antibiotics for community-acquired RTIs, including the fluoroquinolones and ketolides. (perfecthealthinfo.com)
  • In clinical trials, these agents have been as effective as standard comparator antibiotics (including beta-lactams and macrolides) for patients with community-acquired RTIs. (perfecthealthinfo.com)
  • Another option for outpatient treatment of community-acquired RTIs is the ketolide antibiotic telithromycin (Ketek, Aventis), which the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved in 2004 for clinical use in treating outpatients (18 years of age or older) with ABS, AECB, and CAP of mild-to-moderate severity. (perfecthealthinfo.com)
  • Although white blood cell counts and C-reactive protein levels were higher in patients with pneumococcal infections, no other clinical, laboratory, or radiographic characteristic was significantly correlated with the different etiologic diagnoses. (elsevier.com)
  • There was no significant difference in the efficacy of the different treatment regimens followed by children with S. pneumoniae infection, whereas clinical failure occurred significantly more frequently among children with atypical bacterial or mixed infection who were not treated with a macrolide. (elsevier.com)
  • The addition of the inhibitor could improve and extend the activity of mecillinam, even in the setting of infection with a high bacterial inoculum, and merits clinical evaluation. (duke.edu)
  • As these infections contribute considerably to the clinical course of the patient with COPD, they constitute a significant comorbidity in COPD. (ersjournals.com)
  • The present article reviews the potential contribution of bacterial infection as a comorbid condition to the aetiology, pathogenesis and clinical course of COPD. (ersjournals.com)
  • The objective of this study is to characterise the hypervirulent strains isolated from bacteraemic patients for determination of various virulence genes and resistance genes and also to investigate the difference between healthcare associated and community acquired hvKp with respect to clinical profile, antibiogram, clinical outcome and molecular epidemiology. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Confirmed speakers include, Professor Francis Drobniewski (Professsor of International Health and Tuberculosis at Barts and the London School of Medicine), Dr Vanya Gant (Consultant Microbiologist and Clinical Director in infection,University College London Hospital), Professor Peter Hawkey (Professor of Clinical and Public Health Bacteriology, Birmingham Heartlands Hospital), and Dr Jay Lewington (Chief Technology Officer, Smiths Detection Diagnostics). (bristol.ac.uk)
  • Urinary tract infections are amongst the most common infections encountered in clinical practice. (ijcmas.com)
  • Fusobacterium species are anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli, which colonise the mucus membranes of man and animals and can cause a number of clinical manifestations including Lemierre's disease (postanginal septicaemia), abdominal infection and deep-seated abscesses. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Clinical findings in 111 cases of influenza A (H7N9) virus infection. (bmj.com)
  • Eleven patients had skin or soft-tissue infections. (nih.gov)
  • Treatment of community acquired skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) is a common indication for outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) in USA, UK and Australasia, however data from Asia are lacking. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Linezolid, daptomycin, and vancomycin have good efficacy in skin and soft-tissue infections and are choices as empiric therapy in the more severe infections in hospitalized patients. (clinicalcorrelations.org)
  • The increasing incidence of skin and soft tissue infections requires family physicians to be familiar with the management of these conditions. (aafp.org)
  • Superficial soft tissue infections are increasingly common in the outpatient setting. (aafp.org)
  • In 2013, the prevalence of the diagnoses Urinary Tract Infection (N39.0) or Acute Cystitis (N30.0) was 7.3% and 1.7%, respectively, among all females aged 12 years or older insured with the German statutory health insurer Barmer GEK ( 4 ). (aerzteblatt.de)
  • As the majority of the community-acquired UTIs manifested as an acute cystitis, in this study the term uncomplicated UTI primarily refers to acute uncomplicated cystitis ( 5 ). (aerzteblatt.de)
  • Objective A systematic review of the association of predialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) with the incidence of acute, community-acquired infections. (bmj.com)
  • Throughout Europe 3000 adult patients presenting to primary care with acute cough or other symptoms that suggest a chest infection will take part in this study. (isrctn.com)
  • Moreover, the role of acute and chronic infection in the pathogenesis of COPD has received considerable attention, since chronic infection can contribute to airways inflammation and COPD progression. (europeanreview.org)
  • Acute pelvic infections including postpartum endomyometritis, septic abortion and post surgical gynecologic infections. (nih.gov)
  • Recurrent acute infections by bacterial and/or viral pathogens are now clearly linked with the occurrence of exacerbations of COPD. (ersjournals.com)
  • Table 1 ⇓ lists bacterial pathogens implicated in acute and chronic infections in COPD. (ersjournals.com)
  • The lung in COPD becomes susceptible to repeated acute airway mucosal infections with viruses and bacterial pathogens, leading to episodes of increased inflammation and worsened symptoms, which are clinically diagnosed as exacerbations of COPD. (ersjournals.com)
  • Recurrent acute exacerbations secondary to infections by bacterial and/or viral pathogens are seen in almost all patients with COPD. (ersjournals.com)
  • email: [email protected], At the end of July 2017, a 9-year-old boy with no [email protected] unusual medical history or previous local trauma was hos- pitalized because of acute signs of infection of the third finger on his right hand. (cdc.gov)
  • Acute bronchitis can be defined as acute bacterial or viral infection of the larger airways in healthy patients with no history of recurrent disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • General practitioners and internists in private practice prospectively recruited all of their adult patients with symptoms of a urinary tract infection from May 2015 to February 2016. (aerzteblatt.de)
  • We analysed the trend of antibiotic resistance of community-acquired uropathogens over a 4-year period in a cohort of children with a first episode of culture-proven urinary tract infection presenting to the department of paediatrics at a large general secondary care hospital in the United Arab Emirates. (who.int)
  • The presence of the pvl gene may be related to an increased likelihood of complications in children with S. aureus musculoskeletal infections. (nih.gov)
  • S. aureus and Escherichia coli were the commonest causes of healthcare-acquired infections in all areas outside of the ICUs, whereas Acinetobacter was common in the ICUs and rare in all other areas. (journals.co.za)
  • Prospective and multicentric study of surveillance for community -acquired S. aureus infections in children from Argentina . (bvsalud.org)
  • From November 2006 to November 2007, 840 S. aureus infections were diagnosed, 447 of them were community -acquired. (bvsalud.org)
  • In most cases, the previously asymptomatic, commensal S. aureus that previously colonized different sections of individuals' microbiomes are responsible for their infection. (kenyon.edu)
  • Any S. aureus infection can cause the staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome, a cutaneous reaction to exotoxin absorbed into the bloodstream. (wikipedia.org)
  • Decreased susceptibility to commonly used antimicrobial agents in bacterial pathogens isolated from urinary tract infections in Rwanda: need for new antimicrobial guidelines," The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene , vol. 84, no. 6, pp. 923-928, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • Since inappropriate antimicrobial choice is associated with higher mortality, risk factors for MDR pathogens such as Pseudomonas infection should be evaluated when empiric therapy for CAP is going to be started. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli were predominant among healthcare-acquired pathogens (39.2% and 28.5%, respectively), while Enterobacteriaceae and Gram-positive organisms were the most common among community-acquired pathogens (39.2% and 54.3%, respectively). (journals.co.za)
  • The considerable antibiotic resistance of healthcare-acquired pathogens highlights the importance of infection prevention and control. (journals.co.za)
  • Assessing the immune response at a gene-expression level may assist in the diagnosis as well as the understanding of the response to pulmonary infections caused by viral compared with bacterial pathogens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The role of chronic infection in the pathogenesis of COPD is an active area of research with several different types of pathogens potentially implicated. (ersjournals.com)
  • The investigators found that the incidence rate of all infections increased with lower kidney function, from 74 per 1000 person-years of individuals with normal kidney function to 419 per 1000 person-years with stage 4 or higher chronic kidney disease (CKD). (eurekalert.org)
  • 3yrs had higher incidence of perineal infections compared to only 2 (11 percent) of the 4-12 yrs and none of the 13-18 yrs of age. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The etiology of the increasing incidence of infection in previously healthy term and near-term newborns remains unclear. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • 2 Recent studies have shown increasing incidence, severity, and recurrence rates of C. difficile infection (CDI). (dovepress.com)
  • We performed a retrospective cohort study to measure the incidence and severity of these infections in myeloablative versus non-myeloablative hematopoietic cell transplantation patients. (haematologica.org)
  • Increased mortality and hospitalisation from infection could be driven by increased severity of infection, that is, once an infection is present, the course of the associated illness is more severe, or increased incidence, that is, CKD may make people more susceptible to develop an infection. (bmj.com)
  • Background The incidence of childhood bone and joint infections (BJIs) is not well known, but is useful for identifying epidemiological differences and improving practice. (bmj.com)
  • The incidence of surgical site infection has become a focus of the National Surgical Infection Prevention Project implemented by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to promote the proper use of prophylactic antibiotics. (redorbit.com)
  • Routine urine culture testing is not recommended for uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs). (aerzteblatt.de)
  • Urine specimens from all patients were tested (including urine culture testing and antibiotic susceptibility) and infections were defined as uncomplicated or complicated UTIs. (aerzteblatt.de)
  • Complicated urinary tract infections are defined as UTIs occurring in patients with risk factors for severe disease, sequelae or treatment failure. (aerzteblatt.de)
  • Microbiological testing of the urine prior to initiation of treatment is recommended for patients with complicated UTIs, pregnant women and patients with recurrent urinary tract infections. (aerzteblatt.de)
  • Escherichia coli is the bacterium most frequently isolated in community- and hospital-acquired urinary tract infections (CA-UTIs and HA-UTIs, respectively). (cdc.gov)
  • Moreover, in the last few years CTX-M-type ESBLs have emerged within the community, particularly among E. coli isolated from UTIs ( 11 - 16 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Empiric antibiotic first-line therapy with nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin for uncomplicated community acquired UTIs are well indicated in conformity with guidelines. (urotoday.com)
  • Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESβLs) pose a serious problem in the treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs). (ajtmh.org)
  • There was no statistical difference in the prevalence of ESβL Enterobacteriaceae in community-acquired versus hospital-acquired UTIs. (ajtmh.org)
  • Fosfomycin or nitrofurantoin are recommended for the first-line empirical oral treatment of community-acquired uncomplicated UTIs. (uzh.ch)
  • Ceftazidime/avibactam is indicated to treat adults with complicated intra-abdominal infections (in combination with metronidazole) and complicated UTIs, including kidney infections (pyelonephritis), who have limited or no alternative treatment options. (medscape.com)
  • One of the common causes of uncomplicated community acquired UTIs is Escherichia coli. (ijcmas.com)
  • Hence we have undertaking this study to assess the prevalence of bacteria that causes community acquired UTIs and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern. (ijcmas.com)
  • Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are infectious diseases that commonly occur in communities. (elsevier.com)
  • This guideline targets community-acquired UTIs occurring among adult patients. (elsevier.com)
  • Healthcare-associated UTIs, catheter-associated UTIs, and infections in immunocompromised patients were not included in this guideline. (elsevier.com)
  • A team led by Juan Jesús Carrero, PhD and Hong Xu, MD (Karolinska Institutet, in Sweden) wondered if kidney function might affect one's susceptibility to such community-acquired infections. (eurekalert.org)
  • D. A. Lewis and O. Perovic, "Antimicrobial susceptibility of organisms causing community-acquired urinary tract infections in Gauteng Province, South Africa," South African Medical Journal , vol. 103, no. 6, pp. e1-e9, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • Clinicians should consider taking microbiological specimens for culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing in patients with suspected staphylococcal infections who are not responding to empirical therapy with beta-lactam antibiotics. (nih.gov)
  • Whether predialysis kidney disease increases the susceptibility to infections and whether age modifies this association remains unclear. (bmj.com)
  • For patients with severe infections, a clinically prudent approach is the use of an initial short course (48-72 h) of combination therapy with an aminoglycoside, followed by a switch to an extended-spectrum cephalosporin when susceptibility is confirmed. (medscape.com)
  • In terms of candidate antibiotics for CA-UTI, especially for cystitis which is a very common but not serious infection in community, selective pressure by antibiotics as well as treatment efficiency should be carefully considered. (urotoday.com)
  • With this perspective, fosfomycin (FM), nitrofurantoin (NI) and temocillin (TMO) would be good candidate antibiotics for uncomplicated cystitis from community. (urotoday.com)
  • This might help identify patients who need antibiotic treatment and help to avoid using antibiotics in those without infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Most people with chest infections probably don't benefit from antibiotics and inappropriate antibiotic use drives antibiotic resistance, a major global health problem. (isrctn.com)
  • The study aims at understanding which subgroups of individuals with chest infections benefit from antibiotics, but also to study antibiotic resistance after antibiotic treatment. (isrctn.com)
  • Some bacteria have the ability to share pieces of their genetic material with each other, enabling them to pass on genes to prevent damage caused by antibiotics or infection-fighting cells. (lww.com)
  • There is emerging resistance to some of the antibiotics, but trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or clindamycin alone will treat the infection. (lww.com)
  • Despite the wide spread availability of antibiotics, UTI remains the most common bacterial infection in the human population. (ijcmas.com)
  • It causes infections that are hard to treat with normal antibiotics. (epnet.com)
  • Antibiotics may be given to treat infection. (epnet.com)
  • To determine whether antibiotics are effective in the treatment of childhood LRTI secondary to M. pneumoniae infections acquired in the community. (edu.au)
  • Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing antibiotics commonly used for treating M. pneumoniae (i.e. macrolide, tetracycline or quinolone classes) versus placebo, or antibiotics from any other class in the treatment of children under 18 years of age with community-acquired LRTI secondary to M. pneumoniae. (edu.au)
  • The implications The focus of infection control measures should shift to the community setting, including enhanced surveillance and better targeted antimicrobial therapy. (mja.com.au)
  • We studied the sensitivity of Escherichia coli (E. coli) to trimethoprim (TMP) and to cotrimoxazole (i.e., trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, TMP/SMX) in community-acquired UTI and compared the findings with the resistance data of the Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (ARS). (aerzteblatt.de)
  • ARS is a laboratory-based surveillance system established at the Robert Koch Institute with the aim of providing reference data on the antimicrobial resistance situation in the community-based generalist/internist and inpatient hospital care settings ( 11 , 12 ). (aerzteblatt.de)
  • Results: The Surgical Infection Society and the Infectious Disease Society of America guidelines recommend a variety of single and combined antimicrobial therapies, including fluoroquinolone therapy, for prophylactic and definitive treatment of cIAIs with different severities. (umich.edu)
  • The Infectious Diseases Management Program (IDMP) at UCSF is an interprofessional and interhospital collaboration aimed at improving antimicrobial use and the care of patients with infections. (ucsf.edu)
  • Abstract Background: Community-acquired complicated intraabdominal infections (cIAIs) present problems for clinicians and have substantial impact on hospital resources. (umich.edu)
  • Bloodstream infections (BSIs) cause considerable morbidity and mortality. (journals.co.za)
  • His finger time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the rapid identification of arthritis was complicated by osteitis 5 weeks later, which yeasts causing bloodstream infections. (cdc.gov)
  • The latest report Community Acquired Infections Pipeline Highlights - 2018, provides most up-to-date information on key pipeline products in the global Community Acquired Infections market. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Problems associated with high prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria in patients with community-acquired infections. (nih.gov)
  • In the past bacteria were the main causes for many severe infections. (isrctn.com)
  • A number of these infections is caused by gram-negative bacteria (GNB), which have repeatedly been found to bear an adverse prognostic potential. (caijournal.com)
  • To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of ZOSYN (piperacillin/tazobactam) injection and other antibacterial drugs, ZOSYN (piperacillin/tazobactam) should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. (rxlist.com)
  • The emergence of ESBL producing bacteria, particularly E. coli and K. pneumoniae , is now a critical concern for the development of therapies against bacterial infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A number of guidelines recommend that patients be classified on the basis of the severity of disease and the presence or absence of risk factors for infection with drug-resistant bacteria prior to the selection of initial antibiotic therapy. (perfecthealthinfo.com)
  • A person with staph infection is contagious until the bacteria is completely out of their body, and any wounds from the infection are healed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infection after surgery - Hospitals are a very common place for staph bacteria to contaminate. (wikipedia.org)
  • But, each type of skin infection caused by staph bacteria is different. (wikipedia.org)
  • A few common skin infections caused by staph bacteria are: Boils - Boils are the most common type of staph infection, they are pockets of white pus that start where a hair follicle or oil gland is. (wikipedia.org)
  • Suppurative tonsillitis is mainly caused by β-hemolytic streptococcal infection , staphylococcal infection, and Streptococcus pneumoniae infection. (omicsonline.org)
  • Hypervirulent K. pneumoniae (hvKp) causes severe community acquired infections, predominantly in Asia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Klebsiella pneumoniae is a common cause of nosocomial and community acquired infections especially in immunocompromised patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Complicated skin and skin structure infections, including diabetic foot infections without osteomyelitis. (nih.gov)
  • While use of the acellular pertussis vaccine may reduce reactogenicity from pertussis vaccination, ( 2 ) waning protection after the last routine childhood dose of vaccine ( 13 ) has resulted in a reservoir of susceptible adolescents and adults capable of developing pertussis infection and passing it on to under- or unvaccinated infants. (asm.org)
  • Although recommendations for the use of the acellular pertussis vaccine in adolescents and young adults have been proposed ( 3 ), currently interruption of the spread of infection rests on early diagnosis and prompt treatment of persons with pertussis. (asm.org)
  • Setting and participants Community-based populations of adults in high-income countries. (bmj.com)
  • Diagnostic tests should be performed for the patient with chronic cough in the setting of appropriate epidemiology, since pertussis is indistinguishable clinically from other causes of bronchitis and adults may be vectors of infection in nonimmunized infants or incompletely immunized children. (asm.org)
  • Ertapenem for Injection is indicated in adults for the prophylaxis of surgical site infection following elective colorectal surgery. (nih.gov)
  • Merck & Co., Inc. announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently approved INVANZÃ ® (ertapenem), a once-daily injectable antibiotic, for the prophylaxis of surgical site infection (SSI) following elective colorectal surgery in adults. (redorbit.com)
  • Clinicians are in need of better diagnostic markers in diagnosing infections and sepsis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We studied the ability of procalcitonin, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, IL-6 and C-reactive protein to identify patients with infection and sepsis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Plasma and serum samples were obtained on admission from patients with suspected community-acquired infections and sepsis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Of 194 included patients, 106 had either infection without systemic inflammatory response syndrome or sepsis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • C-reactive protein, IL-6 and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein appear to be superior to procalcitonin as diagnostic markers for infection and sepsis in patients admitted to a Department of Internal Medicine. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These aspects make it interesting to evaluate LBP in infection and sepsis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This makes IL-6 an interesting molecule to evaluate in the early phase of infection and sepsis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An ideal marker of infection and sepsis should have several qualities. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While the dominance of the multi-resistant strain decreased, new strategies for controlling infections in the community are needed to reduce the prevalence of non-multi-resistant strains. (mja.com.au)
  • Further studies are needed to identify the unique virulence and colonization characteristics of USA300 strains in these infections. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Among the patients' strains, sixteen were recognized as community-acquired (CA), compared with 24 for hospital-acquired (HA). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, regular surveillance of drug resistance due to β-lactamases production and infection control policy are of utmost importance to minimize the spread of resistant strains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Molecular typing showed movement of community-acquired strains into hospitals. (ahcmedia.com)
  • Carelton et al took advantage of a major genetic difference between nosocomial and community-acquired strains. (ahcmedia.com)
  • Strains of community origin typically contain SCCmec IV which does not. (ahcmedia.com)
  • Further, the community strains were able to enter the hospital and displace strains of nosocomial origin. (ahcmedia.com)
  • Some of these community strains appeared to adapt to the hospital environment by acquiring the SCCmec II genotype, conferring additional resistance determinants. (ahcmedia.com)
  • The strains causing liver abscess are mostly community acquired and associated with a hypermucoid phenotype. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In August 2017, meropenem/vaborbactam was FDA approved for complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI) caused by CRE. (medscape.com)
  • There has been a startling shift in the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection over the last decade worldwide, and it is now increasingly recognized as a cause of diarrhea in the community. (dovepress.com)
  • This article summarizes the emerging epidemiology, risk factors, and outcomes for community-acquired C. difficile infection. (dovepress.com)
  • 3 , 4 , 12 - 14 This review focuses on the epidemiology, increasing importance, novel risk factors, and outcomes for community-acquired CDI. (dovepress.com)
  • Epidemiology and outcomes of community-acquired Clostridium difficile infections in Medicare beneficiaries. (umassmed.edu)
  • These data suggest diagnostic practices for the evaluation of suspected community-acquired CNS infections in children need to be modified to reflect current epidemiology and highlight the need for greater accessibility to polymerase chain reaction for viral diagnostics. (medworm.com)
  • The epidemiology of bacterial infections differs in community and hospital settings. (journals.co.za)
  • Classically considered a hospital-acquired infection, it has now emerged in populations previously considered to be low-risk and lacking the traditional risk factors for C. difficile infection, such as increased age, hospitalization, and antibiotic exposure. (dovepress.com)
  • 10 , 11 However, in contrast with prior epidemiological studies, CDI is now being increasingly recognized as a cause of diarrhea in the community, especially in younger individuals and in populations lacking the traditional risk factors for CDI, such as hospitalization and antibiotic exposure. (dovepress.com)
  • Patients were evaluated during hospitalization, at discharge, and four weeks after surgery for signs or symptoms of infection at the surgical site and to determine that no further anti-microbial therapy or surgery was necessary. (redorbit.com)
  • Seventeen infections (39%) occurred in patients from the south-west Pacific Islands (predominantly Samoa, Tonga and New Zealand). (nih.gov)
  • UTI is predominantly a disease of females and is frequently acquired through the community. (ijcmas.com)
  • S. saprophyticus, another coagulase-negative species that is part of the normal vaginal flora, is predominantly implicated in uncomplicated lower genitourinary tract infections in young sexually active women. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subretinal abscesses due to endogenous staphylococcal blood stream infection is a rare occurrence. (rcpe.ac.uk)
  • Other staphylococcal species have been implicated in human infections, notably S. lugdunensis, S. schleiferi, and S. caprae. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is limited experience in treating patients with diabetic foot infections. (astrazeneca.com)
  • Anyone can contract Staph, but pregnant women, children, and people with chronic diseases or who are immuno-deficient are often more susceptible to contracting an infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two distinct infection cycles in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (ersjournals.com)
  • 1 Infection is a major cause of mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and hospitalisation at all stages of CKD. (bmj.com)
  • 2 , 5 , 6 Predialysis CKD has been found to increase mortality among patients hospitalised with infections. (bmj.com)
  • Is the Subject Area "Nosocomial infections" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • These findings have important implications for both public health and for control of nosocomial infection. (ahcmedia.com)
  • The frequency of viral infection was likely underestimated as only 20% were tested, mainly by culture, which is suboptimal. (medworm.com)
  • Most often it is caused by viral infection and hence antibiotic therapy is not indicated in immunocompetent individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, the initial antibiotic treatment cannot be switched to a pathogen-directed therapy in many patients, because the etiologic diagnosis of community- or hospital-acquired bacterial infections could not be confirmed or eventually is confirmed with a significant delay. (hindawi.com)
  • Diagnosis of Bordetella pertussis infection has been difficult due to the low sensitivity of culture. (asm.org)
  • The diagnosis of skin infections increased nearly threefold in U.S. emergency departments from 1993 to 2005. (aafp.org)
  • Though initially isolated from liver abscesses, they are now prevalent among invasive infections such as bacteraemia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Conclusions Predialysis kidney disease appears to be associated with increased risk of severe infection. (bmj.com)
  • Address for correspondence: Anup K. Ghosh, Postgraduate Institute and joint infection with S. argenteus in a child living of Medical Education and Research, Medical Microbiology, 2nd Fl, in France. (cdc.gov)
  • OPAT treatment of community acquired SSTIs in a selected patient population has good outcomes in Singapore. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mecillinam/clavulanate combination: a possible option for the treatment of community-acquired uncomplicated urinary tract infections caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli. (duke.edu)
  • This presence within the body is referred to as colonization, and it significantly increases the chances of acquiring an infection by providing a reservoir of the pathogen. (kenyon.edu)
  • Thus, the aim of our study was to test serum levels of selected cytokines and chemokines in patients with community-acquired bacterial and viral infections and to compare them with concentrations obtained from healthy subjects. (hindawi.com)
  • In this retrospective study, the demographics, hospital course and outcome of children with musculoskeletal infections were reviewed from medical records and by contacting patients or their physicians. (nih.gov)
  • or indeterminate if symptom onset occurs in the community between 4 and 12 weeks after discharge from a hospital. (dovepress.com)
  • 18 These studies have highlighted the need to use a standard definition to distinguish between hospital-acquired CDI and community-acquired CDI. (dovepress.com)
  • To determine the drug-resistance rates of gram-positive cocci isolated from patients with hospital acquired infection (HAI) or community acquired infection (CAI) in 34 study wards of 13 hospitals located at different areas in China. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • It could be concluded that ESβL production is present at a high rate among Egyptian patients with hospital- and community-acquired UTI. (ajtmh.org)
  • Hospital acquired infections (HAI) are acquired by patients and health personnel alike in a hospital setting. (medindia.net)
  • New South Wales Biocontainment Centre and the Department of Infection Prevention and Control, Division of Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, Westmead Hospital and Western Sydney Local Health District, Australia. (cdc.gov)
  • It is classified as either community or hospital acquired depending on where the patient contracted the infection. (wikipedia.org)