Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.
Organizations and individuals cooperating together toward a common goal at the local or grassroots level.
Institutions with permanent facilities and organized medical staff which provide the full range of hospital services primarily to a neighborhood area.
Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)
Persons trained to assist professional health personnel in communicating with residents in the community concerning needs and availability of health services.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A branch of medicine concerned with the total health of the individual within the home environment and in the community, and with the application of comprehensive care to the prevention and treatment of illness in the entire community.
Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.
Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.
Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Total pharmaceutical services provided to the public through community pharmacies.
The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
Collaborative process of research involving researchers and community representatives.
Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.
A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
General and comprehensive nursing practice directed to individuals, families, or groups as it relates to and contributes to the health of a population or community. This is not an official program of a Public Health Department.
A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Psychotherapeutic technique which emphasizes socioenvironmental and interpersonal influences in the resocialization and rehabilitation of the patient. The setting is usually a hospital unit or ward in which professional and nonprofessional staff interact with the patients.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
The status of health in rural populations.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.
Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
Facilities which administer the delivery of psychologic and psychiatric services to people living in a neighborhood or community.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
The genomic analysis of assemblages of organisms.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).
A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Branch of psychiatry concerned with the provision and delivery of a coordinated program of mental health care to a specified population. The foci included in this concept are: all social, psychological and physical factors related to etiology, prevention, and maintaining positive mental health in the community.
Persons who donate their services.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia.
The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
A geographic location which has insufficient health resources (manpower and/or facilities) to meet the medical needs of the resident population.
The full collection of microbes (bacteria, fungi, virus, etc.) that naturally exist within a particular biological niche such as an organism, soil, a body of water, etc.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
The immediate physical zone surrounding plant roots that include the plant roots. It is an area of intense and complex biological activity involving plants, microorganisms, other soil organisms, and the soil.
The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)
Facilities for the preparation and dispensing of drugs.
Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.
Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.
Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.
Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.
The practice of dentistry concerned with preventive as well as diagnostic and treatment programs in a circumscribed population.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
Theoretical representations and constructs that describe or explain the structure and hierarchy of relationships and interactions within or between formal organizational entities or informal social groups.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
The practice of caring for individuals in the community, rather than in an institutional environment with resultant effects on the individual, the individual's family, the community, and the health care system.
A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.
Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)
The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
The status of health in urban populations.
Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.
Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.
Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.
The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Organizational development including enhancement of management structures, processes and procedures, within organizations and among different organizations and sectors to meet present and future needs.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
Territory in north central Australia, between the states of Queensland and Western Australia. Its capital is Darwin.
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of archaea.
A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.
Those persons legally qualified by education and training to engage in the practice of pharmacy.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.
Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.
Liquid water present beneath the surface of the earth.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.
A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Living facilities for humans.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.
Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.
The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)
Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.
The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.
Individuals classified according to their sex, racial origin, religion, common place of living, financial or social status, or some other cultural or behavioral attribute. (UMLS, 2003)
A subgroup having special characteristics within a larger group, often bound together by special ties which distinguish it from the larger group.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Organisms that live in water.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.
The circulation or wide dispersal of information.
Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.
The expected function of a member of a particular profession.
Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.
Animals that have no spinal column.
Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.
Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.
A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
Size and composition of the family.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.
A self-governing territory formed from the central and eastern portions of the Northwest Territories. It was officially established April 1, 1999. The capital is Iqaluit.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.
A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.

Role of schools in the transmission of measles in rural Senegal: implications for measles control in developing countries. (1/2393)

Patterns of measles transmission at school and at home were studied in 1995 in a rural area of Senegal with a high level of vaccination coverage. Among 209 case children with a median age of 8 years, there were no deaths, although the case fatality ratio has previously been 6-7% in this area. Forty percent of the case children had been vaccinated against measles; the proportion of vaccinated children was higher among secondary cases (47%) than among index cases (33%) (prevalence ratio = 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.76). Vaccinated index cases may have been less infectious than unvaccinated index cases, since they produced fewer clinical cases among exposed children (relative risk = 0.55, 95% CI 0.29-1.04). The secondary attack rate was lower in the schools than in the homes (relative risk = 0.31, 95% CI 0.20-0.49). The school outbreaks were protracted, with 4-5 generations of cases being seen in the two larger schools. Vaccine efficacy was found to be 57% (95% CI -23 to 85) in the schools and 74% (95% CI 62-82) in the residential compounds. Measles infection resulted in a mean of 3.8 days of absenteeism per case, though this did not appear to have an impact on the children's grades. Among the index cases, 56% of children were probably infected by neighbors in the community, and 7% were probably infected at health centers, 13% outside the community, and 24% in one of the three schools which had outbreaks during the epidemic. However, most of the school-related cases occurred at the beginning and therefore contributed to the general propagation of the epidemic. To prevent school outbreaks, it may be necessary to require vaccination prior to school entry and to revaccinate children in individual schools upon detection of cases of measles. Multidose measles vaccination schedules will be necessary to control measles in developing countries.  (+info)

Longitudinal evaluation of serovar-specific immunity to Neisseria gonorrhoeae. (2/2393)

The serovars of Neisseria gonorrhoeae that are predominant in a community change over time, a phenomenon that may be due to the development of immunity to repeat infection with the same serovar. This study evaluated the epidemiologic evidence for serovar-specific immunity to N. gonorrhoeae. During a 17-month period in 1992-1994, all clients of a sexually transmitted disease clinic in rural North Carolina underwent genital culture for N. gonorrhoeae. Gonococcal isolates were serotyped according to standard methods. Odds ratios for repeat infection with the same serovar versus any different serovar were calculated on the basis of the distribution of serovars in the community at the time of reinfection. Of 2,838 patients, 608 (21.4%; 427 males and 181 females) were found to be infected with N. gonorrhoeae at the initial visit. Ninety patients (14.8% of the 608) had a total of 112 repeat gonococcal infections. Repeat infection with the same serovar occurred slightly more often than would be expected based on the serovars prevalent in the community at the time of reinfection, though the result was marginally nonsignificant (odds ratio = 1.5, 95% confidence interval 1.0-2.4; p = 0.05). Choosing partners within a sexual network may increase the likelihood of repeat exposure to the same serovar of N. gonorrhoeae. Gonococcal infection did not induce evident immunity to reinfection with the same serovar.  (+info)

Infective endocarditis due to Staphylococcus aureus: 59 prospectively identified cases with follow-up. (3/2393)

Fifty-nine consecutive patients with definite Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis (IE) by the Duke criteria were prospectively identified at our hospital over a 3-year period. Twenty-seven (45.8%) of the 59 patients had hospital-acquired S. aureus bacteremia. The presumed source of infection was an intravascular device in 50.8% of patients. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) revealed evidence of IE in 20 patients (33.9%), whereas transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) revealed evidence of IE in 48 patients (81.4%). The outcome for patients was strongly associated with echocardiographic findings: 13 (68.4%) of 19 patients with vegetations visualized by TTE had an embolic event or died of their infection vs. five (16.7%) of 30 patients whose vegetations were visualized only by TEE (P < .01). Most patients with S. aureus IE developed their infection as a consequence of a nosocomial or intravascular device-related infection. TEE established the diagnosis of S. aureus IE in many instances when TTE was nondiagnostic. Visualization of vegetations by TTE may provide prognostic information for patients with S. aureus IE.  (+info)

Risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia in adults: a population-based case-control study. (4/2393)

Although community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a major cause of hospitalization and death, few studies on risk factors have been performed. A population-based case-control study of risk factors for CAP was carried out in a mixed residential-industrial urban area of 74,610 adult inhabitants in the Maresme (Barcelona, Spain) between 1993 and 1995. All patients living in the area and clinically suspected of having CAP at primary care facilities and hospitals were registered. In total, 205 patients with symptoms, signs and radiographic infiltrate compatible with acute CAP participated in the study. They were matched by municipality, sex and age with 475 controls randomly selected from the municipal census. Risk factors relating the subject's characteristics and habits, housing conditions, medical history and treatments were investigated by means of a questionnaire. In the univariate analysis, an increased risk of CAP was associated with low body mass index, smoking, respiratory infection, previous pneumonia, chronic lung disease, lung tuberculosis, asthma, treated diabetes, chronic liver disease, and treatments with aminophiline, aerosols and plastic pear-spacers. In multivariate models, the only statistically significant risk factors were current smoking of >20 cigarettes x day(-1) (odds ratio (OR)=2.77; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-6.70 compared with never-smokers), previous respiratory infection (OR=2.73; 95% CI 1.75-4.26), and chronic bronchitis (OR=2.22; 95% CI 1.13-4.37). Benzodiazepines were found to be protective in univariate and multivariate analysis (OR=0.46; 95% CI 0.23-0.94). This population-based study provides new and better established evidence on the factors associated with the occurrence of pneumonia in the adult community.  (+info)

The economic impact of Staphylococcus aureus infection in New York City hospitals. (5/2393)

We modeled estimates of the incidence, deaths, and direct medical costs of Staphylococcus aureus infections in hospitalized patients in the New York City metropolitan area in 1995 by using hospital discharge data collected by the New York State Department of Health and standard sources for the costs of health care. We also examined the relative impact of methicillin-resistant versus -sensitive strains of S. aureus and of community-acquired versus nosocomial infections. S. aureus-associated hospitalizations resulted in approximately twice the length of stay, deaths, and medical costs of typical hospitalizations; methicillin-resistant and -sensitive infections had similar direct medical costs, but resistant infections caused more deaths (21% versus 8%). Community-acquired and nosocomial infections had similar death rates, but community-acquired infections appeared to have increased direct medical costs per patient ($35,300 versus $28,800). The results of our study indicate that reducing the incidence of methicillin-resistant and -sensitive nosocomial infections would reduce the societal costs of S. aureus infection.  (+info)

Seroprevalence of IgG antibodies to the chlamydia-like microorganism 'Simkania Z' by ELISA. (6/2393)

The newly described microorganism 'Simkania Z', related to the Chlamydiae, has been shown to be associated with bronchiolitis in infants and community acquired pneumonia in adults. The prevalence of infection in the general population is unknown. A simple ELISA assay for the detection of serum IgG antibodies to 'Simkania Z' was used to determine the prevalence of such antibodies in several population samples in southern Israel (the Negev). The groups tested included 94 medical and nursing students, 100 unselected blood donors, 106 adult members of a Negev kibbutz (communal agricultural settlement), and 45 adult Bedouin, residents of the Negev. IgG antibodies to 'Simkania Z' were found in 55-80% of these presumably healthy individuals, independently of antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae. The Bedouin had a seropositivity rate of 80%, while all other groups had rates of between 55 and 64%. These results indicate that 'Simkania Z' infection is probably common in southern Israel.  (+info)

Group A Streptococcus carriage among close contacts of patients with invasive infections. (7/2393)

During the past few years, the incidence of invasive group A Streptococcus (GAS) infection has been increasing. However, there are presently no clear recommendations regarding antibiotic prophylaxis for close contacts of index patients. The aims of this study were 1) to determine the prevalence of carriage of the same GAS strain as the patient's among contacts of patients with invasive infections and 2) to assess the importance of exposure duration. From March 1995 to March 1996, the authors prospectively included in the study all patients with invasive GAS infection, as defined by the Working Group on Severe Streptococcal Infections, who came to Hopital Maisonneuve-Rosemont in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. An epidemiologic investigation was systematically carried out for each index case. Contacts were divided into two groups: those who had spent 24 hours or more with the index patient during the week preceding the beginning of his or her illness and those who had spent 12-24 hours with the index patient during that week. Strains of GAS were examined by serotyping (proteins M and T and the presence or absence of the serum opacity factor) and by characterization of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins (exotoxins A, B, and C). One hundred and two contacts of 17 index cases with invasive GAS infection were systematically screened. Contacts were considered positive if they carried the same strain of the bacterium and the same streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin as the index case. Among the contacts who had spent at least 24 hours per week with their respective index cases, 13 out of 48 (27%) were found to be harboring the same serotype of GAS as the index patient (95% confidence interval 14.5-39.5). By comparison, only one of the 54 contacts in the 12- to 24-hour group (1.8%) was found to be carrying the same strain of the bacterium (95% confidence interval 0-5.3). This difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p<0.001). The median age of the positive carriers (10 years) was significantly lower than the median age of the noncarriers (39 years) (p< or =0.0005). This study showed that close contacts who had spent 12-24 hours with the index patient were rarely colonized with GAS. If antibiotic prophylaxis against GAS is recommended, it should probably target contacts who spent at least 24 hours with an infected patient during the week preceding illness onset.  (+info)

A community outbreak of Legionnaires' disease linked to hospital cooling towers: an epidemiological method to calculate dose of exposure. (8/2393)

BACKGROUND: From July to September 1994, 29 cases of community-acquired Legionnaires' disease (LD) were reported in Delaware. The authors conducted an investigation to a) identify the source of the outbreak and risk factors for developing Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (Lp-1) pneumonia and b) evaluate the risk associated with the components of cumulative exposure to the source (i.e. distance from the source, frequency of exposure, and duration of exposure). METHODS: A case-control study matched 21 patients to three controls per case by known risk factors for acquiring LD. Controls were selected from patients who attended the same clinic as the respective case-patients. Water samples taken at the hospital, from eight nearby cooling towers, and from four of the patient's homes were cultured for Legionella. Isolates were subtyped using monoclonal antibody (Mab) analysis and arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR). RESULTS: Eleven (52%) of 21 case-patients worked at or visited the hospital compared with 17 (27%) of 63 controls (OR 5.0, 95% CI : 1.1-29). For those who lived, worked, or visited within 4 square miles of the hospital, the risk of illness decreased by 20% for each 0.10 mile from the hospital; it increased by 80% for each visit to the hospital; and it increased by 8% for each hour spent within 0.125 miles of the hospital. Lp-1 was isolated from three patients and both hospital cooling towers. Based on laboratory results no other samples contained Lp-1. The clinical and main-tower isolates all demonstrated Mab pattern 1,2,5,6. AP-PCR matched the main-tower samples with those from two case-patients. CONCLUSION: The results of our investigation suggested that the hospital cooling towers were the source of a community outbreak of LD. Increasing proximity to and frequency of exposure to the towers increased the risk of LD. New guidelines for cooling tower maintenance are needed. Knowing the location of cooling towers could facilitate maintenance inspections and outbreak investigations.  (+info)

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a frequent cause for patients to present to a physicians office or emergency department. We observed increasing numbers of community-acquired MRSA infections in patients admitted to the hand surgery service at our suburban academic center. It is an important issue as unsuspected community-acquired MRSA hand infections can be admitted to the hospital, inadequately treated, and allowed for nosocomial spread. This study was performed to examine the trend in the incidence of community-acquired MRSA infections in patients admitted to the hand surgery service in order to sensitize practitioners to have a high index of suspicion for this entity and promote early recognition and treatment of this organism. A multihospital retrospective chart review was undertaken to compare the total number of community-acquired MRSA infections in our hospital as well as the number in patients admitted to the hand surgery service with community-acquired MRSA from 2000
BioAssay record AID 529821 submitted by ChEMBL: Bactericidal activity against community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by broth microdilution method in presence of 50% human serum.
www.lung.org/assets/documents/research/pi-trend-report.pdf.. 5. Arnold FW, Wiemken TL, Peyrani P, et al. Mortality differences among hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia in three world regions: results from the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Organization (CAPO) International Cohort Study. Respir Med 2013;107:1101-11.. 6. Mortensen EM, Coley CM, Singer DE, et al. Causes of death for patients with community-acquired pneumonia: results from the Pneumonia Patient Outcomes Research Team cohort study. Arch Intern Med 2002;162:1059-64.. 7. Bordon J, Wiemken T, Peyrani P, et al. Decrease in long-term survival for hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Chest 2010;138:279-83.. 8. Mortensen EM, Halm EA, Pugh MJ, et al. Association of azithromycin with mortality and cardiovascular events among older patients hospitalized with pneumonia. JAMA 2014;311:2199-208.. 9. Aliberti S, Ramirez JA. Cardiac diseases complicating community-acquired pneumonia. Curr Opin Infect Dis ...
SUPPLEMENT ARTICLE Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society Consensus Guidelines on the Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults Lionel A. Mandell, 1,a Richard G. Wunderink,
Klebsiella pneumoniae is the major cause of community-acquired pyogenic infections in Taiwan. This retrospective study evaluated the clinical and microbiological characteristics of bacteremic community-acquired pneumonia due to K. pneumoniae in Taiwanese adults. The clinical characteristics of bacteremic community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in adults due to K. pneumoniae were compared to those of adults with bacteremic CAP due to Streptococcus pneumoniae at a tertiary medical center in Taiwan from 2001-2008. Risk factors for mortality of bacteremic CAP due to K. pneumoniae were analyzed. All clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae were examined for capsular serotypes, hypermucoviscosity phenotype, aerobactin and rmpA gene. K. pneumoniae was the dominant cause of bacteremic CAP and was associated with a more fulminant course and a worse prognosis than bacteremic CAP due to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Initial presentation with septic shock and respiratory failure were independent risk factors for both early and
Oxidative stress is an important part of host innate immune response to foreign pathogens. However, the impact of vitamin C on oxidative stress and inflammation remains unclear in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We aimed to determine the effect of vitamin C on oxidative stress and inflammation. CAP patients were enrolled. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage, superoxide dismutases (SOD) activity, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and IL-6 were analyzed in CAP patients and LPS-stimulated macrophages cells. MH-S cells were transfected with RFP-LC3 plasmids. Autophagy was measured in LPS-stimulated macrophages cells. Severe CAP patients showed significantly increased ROS, DNA damage, TNF-α, and IL-6. SOD was significantly decreased in severe CAP. Vitamin C significantly decreased ROS, DNA damage, TNF-α, and IL-6. Vitamin C inhibited LPS-induced ROS, DNA damage, TNF-α, IL-6, and p38 in macrophages cells. Vitamin C inhibited autophagy in LPS-induced macrophages cells.
References 1. Bartlett JG, Dowell SF, Mandell LA, et al; Infectious Diseases Society of America. Practice guidelines for the management of community-acquired pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;31:347-382. 2. National Center for Health Statistics. Health, United States, 2006. Available at: www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/hus06.pdf. Accessed June 6, 2007.3. DeFrances CJ, Podgornik MN. 2004 National hospital discharge survey. Adv Data. 2006;317:1-19. 4. Division of Epidemiology. National Heart Lung and Blood Institute. Morbidity and mortality: 2004 chartbook on cardiovascular, lung and blood diseases. May 2004. 5. Mandell LA, Wunderink RG, Anzueto A, et al. Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44(suppl 2):S27-S72. 6. Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Churchill Livingstone; 2005:819-845. 7. Marrie TJ, ...
Distinguishing bacterial pneumonia from viral pneumonia is critical to providing effective treatment but remains a significant challenge. This issue provides guidance for the management of pediatric community-acquired pneumonia as well as associated complications including pleural effusion/empyema
Press Release Date: March 1, 2004. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality today announced its first clinical decision-support tool for personal digital assistants (PDAs) that is designed to help clinicians deliver evidence-based medicine at the point of care. AHRQs new Pneumonia Severity Index Calculator (which is available for download from the AHRQ Web site at http://pda.ahrq.gov), is an interactive application for Palm Pilots and other PDAs to help doctors quickly and easily determine whether patients with community-acquired pneumonia should be treated at home or in a hospital.. This new Pneumonia Severity Index Calculator is an example of how technology can support and facilitate the delivery of evidence-based medicine, said AHRQ Director Carolyn M. Clancy, M.D. AHRQ is striving to make decision support tools such as this available to clinicians. Community-acquired pneumonia contracted outside of a hospital or nursing home environment affects approximately 4 million Americans ...
There is no evidence supporting the use of de-escalation therapy (DET) among patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We assessed the outcomes associated with DET among bacteraemic CAP patients. We performed a secondary analysis of the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Organization database, which contains data on 660 bacteraemic patients hospitalized because of CAP in 35 countries (2001-2013). Exclusion criteria were death within 72h from admission and an inappropriate empirical antibiotic regimen. DET was defined as changing an appropriate empirical broad-spectrum regimen to a narrower-spectrum regimen according to culture results within 7 days from hospital admission. Two study groups were identified: patients whose antibiotic therapy was de-escalated (the DET group), and patients whose antibiotic therapy was not de-escalated (the N-DET group). The primary study outcome was 30-day mortality. Two hundred and sixty-one bacteraemic CAP patients were included. Gram-positive bacteria were ...
...WALTHAM Mass. Dec. 8 /- Decision Resources one of the ...The new Pharmacor report entitled Community-Acquired Pneumonia ... Two of the most clinically and commercially promising antibiotics in ...The report also finds that the community-acquired pneumonia market is ...,Patent,Expiries,of,Blockbuster,Antibiotics,Will,Fuel,a,Decline,of,More,Than,15,Percent,in,the,Community-Acquired,Pneumonia,Drug,Market,medicine,advanced medical technology,medical laboratory technology,medical device technology,latest medical technology,Health
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has significant morbidity and mortality. The Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society (IDSA/ATS) guidelines recommend two antimicrobial regimens for hospitalized patients with CAP, one of which includes a macrolide, and one of which does not. Both regimens have antimicrobial properties, but macrolides also possess immunomodulatory properties. Macrolides, however, may also have potential arrhythmia adverse effects. The purpose of this review is to provide an update of studies evaluating outcomes for patients with CAP treated with or without a macrolide-based regimen. Two recent randomized controlled trials conflict with each other regarding the benefit versus noninferiority of including a macrolide for the treatment for CAP. Each have their respective limitations. Most prior observational studies and meta-analyses favor using a regimen with a macrolide. We do not recommend any different treatment strategy than the current IDSA/ATS guidelines for
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Plasma YKL-40 level has been reported as playing a significant role in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, the correlation between plasma level of YKL-40 and the severity of CAP has not been reported. This study identifies the relationship between plasma level changes of the YKL-40 gene in adult patients hospitalized with CAP. The ELISA was used to measure the plasma YKL-40 level from 61 adult CAP patients before and after antibiotic treatment and from 60 healthy controls. The plasma YKL-40 levels were significantly increased in patients with CAP compared to normal controls. Moreover, the plasma concentration of YKL-40 correlated with the severity of CAP based on the pneumonia severity index (PSI) score (r = 0.630, p < 0.001), the CURB-65 (confusion, uremia, respiratory rate, BP, age 65 years) score (r = 0.640, p < 0.001), the Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score (r = 0.539, p < 0.001) and length of hospital stay (r = 0.321, p = 0.011), respectively. In
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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an emerging community-acquired pathogen among patients without established risk factors for MRSA infection (e.g., recent hospitalization, recent surgery, residence in a long-term-care facility [LTCF], or injecting-drug use [IDU]) (1). Since 1996, the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) and the Indian Health Service (IHS) have investigated cases of community-acquired MRSA infection in patients without established risk factors. This report describes four fatal cases among children with community-acquired MRSA; the MRSA strains isolated from these patients appear to be different from typical nosocomial MRSA strains in antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) characteristics.. Case Reports. Case 1. In July 1997, a 7-year-old black girl from urban Minnesota was admitted to a tertiary-care hospital with a temperature of 103 F (39.5 C) and right groin pain. An infected right hip joint was diagnosed; she ...
Ekloef and Schmidt Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine2012, 20(Suppl 2):P10http://www.sjtrem.com/content/20/S2/P10 Community-acquired pneumonia: a comparisonof clinical treatment failure in patients treatedwith either penicillin or cefuroximeJosefin Ekloef*, Thomas A Schmidt From 4th Danish Emergency Medicine ConferenceRoskilde, Denmark. 25-26 November 2011 cefuroxime. Forty percent of the patients treated with National and local guidelines in the Emergency depart- penicillin experienced CTF compared to 17% in the ment (ED) at Holbaek hospital recommend penicillin as group treated with cefuroxime (p=0.347). Patients were first-line treatment of community-acquired pneumonia followed for 9 days. At 5 days, a survival rate without (CAP). Nevertheless, the use of cefuroxime seem to be CTF was estimated to 0,75 for cefuroxime and 0.54 for substantial when admitting patients with CAP ...
Our comprehensive search strategy identified 14 studies describing an association between kidney disease and acute community-acquired infection. Although between-study heterogeneity precluded meta-analysis, all studies were consistent with a positive direction of association. Four studies which reported estimates on more than one category of kidney disease found a graded association in which risk of infection increased with greater severity of CKD. These four studies excluded patients with ESRD, and three were at low risk of bias in all categories of quality assessment.22 ,23 ,26 ,27. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review to address this research question systematically. We used a sensitive search strategy, with a broad definition of kidney disease, for a thorough and inclusive search. The results are consistent with the conclusion of previous narrative reviews: that an association between CKD and infection incidence is likely, but that there is a paucity of ...
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common infection. Approximately 20 percent of all episodes of pneumonia result in hospitalization. It is the leading cause of community-acquired infection requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission. In pulmonary infections, the release of cytokines and other inflammatory mediators from alveolar macrophages serves as a mechanism by which invading pathogens are eliminated. However, this reaction of the innate immune system can be potentially harmful when excessive release of circulating inflammatory cytokines causes damage to the patient, particularly the lung. Interest in the role of corticosteroids in the pathophysiology of critical illness has existed since the early part of the 20th century. On ICU, early treatment with corticosteroids to attenuate systemic inflammation is widespread. At the same time, outside the ICU little evidence is available on the effect of treatment with corticosteroids in patients diagnosed with CAP. Theoretically, early ...
Authors: Edberg M, Furebring M, Sjölin J, Enblad P.. BACKGROUND: Reports about neurointensive care of severe community-acquired meningitis are few. The aims of this retrospective study were to review the acute clinical course, management and outcome in a series of bacterial meningitis patients receiving neurointensive care.. METHODS: Thirty patients (median age 51, range 1-81) admitted from a population of 2 million people during 7 years were studied. The neurointensive care protocol included escalated stepwise treatment with mild hyperventilation, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage, continuous thiopentotal infusion and decompressive craniectomy. Clinical outcome was assessed using the Glasgow outcome scale.. RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients did not respond to commands on arrival, five were non-reacting and five had dilated pupils. Twenty-two patients had positive CSF cultures: Streptococcus pneumoniae (n=18), Neisseria meningitidis (n=2), β-streptococcus group A (n=1) and Staphylococcus aureus ...
4. Genomics to Combact Resistance against Antibiotics in Community-acquired Lower Respiratory Tract Infections in Europe [GRACE]. Network of Excellence, Contract nº LSHM-CT-2005-518226. Funding: European Commission. Principal Contractor: University Hospital Antwerp, Belgium. Participating Institutions: ITQB and 23 others. March 2006/April 2010.. 5. CONtrol of COmmunity-acquired MRSA: Rationale and Development of counteractions [CONCORD]. Project FP7-Health-F3-2008-222718. Funding: European Commission. Principal contractor: University Medical Centre Utrecht, The Netherlands. Participating institutions: ITQB and 8 others. January 2009/Junho 2012.. 6. Translational Research on Combating Antimicrobial Resistance [TROCAR]. Project FP7-Health-F3-2008-223031. Funding: European Commission. Principal contractor: Institut Dinvestigacions Biomèdiques August Pi I Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain. Participating institutions: ITQB and 15 others. January 2009/Junho 2012.. 7. A comprehensive ...
Length of hospital stay (LOS) in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is variable and directly related to medical costs. Accurate estimation of LOS on admission and during follow-up may result in earlier and more efficient discharge strategies. This is a prospective multicenter study including patients in emergency departments of 6 tertiary care hospitals in Switzerland between October 2006 and March 2008. Medical history, clinical data at presentation and health care insurance class were collected. We calculated univariate and multivariate cox regression models to assess the association of different characteristics with LOS. In a split sample analysis, we created two LOS prediction rules, first including only admission data, and second including also additional inpatient information. The mean LOS in the 875 included CAP patients was 9.8 days (95%CI 9.3-10.4). Older age, respiratory rate |20 pm, nursing home residence, chronic pulmonary disease, diabetes, multilobar CAP and the pneumonia
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a heterogeneous disease causing great morbidity, mortality and health care burden globally. Typing methods for discriminating different clinical conditions of the same disease are essential to a better management of CAP. Traditional typing systems based separately on clinical manifestations (such as PSI and CURB-65), pathogens(bacterial types, virulence, drug resistance, etc) or host immune state (immunocompetent, immunocompromised or immunodeficiency). Thus, they are barely able to represent the real disease status nor to precisely predict the mortality.. As the development of multi-omic technologies, the relatedness of different phenotypes at a molecular level have revolutionized our ability to differentiate among patients. Our study is aimed at establishing a novel molecular typing method of CAP. Multi-omic (including genomics, transcriptomes, and metabolisms) data obtained from enrolled CAP patients and isolated pathogens would be integrated analyzed and ...
Gatifloxacin is an 8-methoxy fluoroquinolone with broad activity against respiratory tract pathogens, including those commonly associated with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). To evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral gatifloxacin 400 mg once daily for seven to 14 days, community-based physicians enrolled adult outpatients with confirmed or suspected CAP in a prospective, single-arm, open-label, noncomparative study. Of 1488 clinically evaluable patients with radiographically confirmed or clinically suspected CAP, 1417 (95.2%) were cured. All strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis, the most commonly isolated pathogens, were susceptible to gatifloxacin. Penicillin nonsusceptibility was seen in 32.6% of S. pneumoniae isolates, and beta-lactamase production was detected in H. influenzae (26.9%) and M. catarrhalis (88%) isolates. Clinical cure rates of 91%, 94%, and 92% were achieved in patients with S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis,
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the most common infections presenting to the emergency department (ED). Increasingly, antibiotic resistant bacteria have been identified as causative pathogens in patients treated for CAP, especially in patients with healthcare exposure risk factors. We retrospectively identified adult subjects treated for CAP in the ED requiring hospital admission (January 2003-December 2011). Inappropriate antibiotic treatment, defined as an antibiotic regimen that lacked in vitro activity against the isolated pathogen, served as the primary end point. Information regarding demographics, severity of illness, comorbidities, and antibiotic treatment was recorded. Logistic regression was used to determine factors independently associated with inappropriate treatment. The initial cohort included 259 patients, 72 (27.8%) receiving inappropriate antibiotic treatment. There was no difference in hospital mortality between patients receiving inappropriate and appropriate treatment
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) refers to pneumonia (any of several lung diseases) contracted by a person with little contact with the healthcare system. The chief difference between hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and CAP is that patients with HAP live in long-term care facilities or have recently visited a hospital. CAP is common, affecting people of all ages, and its symptoms occur as a result of oxygen-absorbing areas of the lung (alveoli) filling with fluid. This inhibits lung function, causing dyspnea, fever, chest pains and cough. CAP, the most common type of pneumonia, is a leading cause of illness and death worldwide. Its causes include bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. CAP is diagnosed by assessing symptoms, making a physical examination and on x-ray. Other tests, such as sputum examination, supplement chest x-rays. Patients with CAP sometimes require hospitalization, and it is treated primarily with antibiotics, antipyretics and cough medicine. Some forms of CAP can be ...
Community-acquired pneumonia substantially affects patient morbidity and mortality, and has significant health care costs. This type of pneumonia has more impact on elderly patients, who tend to have longer hospital stays and a higher cost per stay compared with younger patients. Multiple published guidelines provide physicians with information about when to admit patients with community-acquired pneumonia, which antibiotic therapy is appropriate, how long to treat, and when it is suitable to discharge patients from the hospital. These treatment strategies do not take into account the emergence of resistant organisms and the poorly understood impact of community-acquired pneumonia on younger patients. Although various studies have looked at combination antibiotic therapy, they rarely have been comparative. Brown and colleagues examined the effect of initial antibiotic therapy for community-acquired pneumonia on selected clinical outcomes.. The authors analyzed a hospital database of adult ...
Community-acquired pneumonia is diagnosed by clinical features (e.g., cough, fever, pleuritic chest pain) and by lung imaging, usually an infiltrate seen on chest radiography. Initial evaluation should determine the need for hospitalization versus outpatient management using validated mortality or severity prediction scores. Selected diagnostic laboratory testing, such as sputum and blood cultures, is indicated for inpatients with severe illness but is rarely useful for outpatients. Initial outpatient therapy should include a macrolide or doxycycline. For outpatients with comorbidities or who have used antibiotics within the previous three months, a respiratory fluoroquinolone (levofloxacin, gemifloxacin, or moxifloxacin), or an oral beta-lactam antibiotic plus a macrolide should be used. Inpatients not admitted to an intensive care unit should receive a respiratory fluoroquinolone, or a beta-lactam antibiotic plus a macrolide. Patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia or who are ...
The Outpatient Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults GUIDELINES Pocket Card is based on the latest guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Guidelines recommend blood culture sampling from hospitalized patients with suspected community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, the yield of true-positive results is low. We investigated the benefit of procalcitonin (PCT) on hospital admission to predict blood culture positivity in CAP ...
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is defined as an acute infection of the pulmonary parenchyma in a patient who has acquired the infection in the community, as distinguished from hospital-acquired (nosocomial) pneumonia (HAP).CAP is a common and pot
ABSTRACTObjective:Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common presentation to the emergency department (ED) and has high mortality rates. The aim of our study is to investigate the risk stratification and prognostic prediction value of precalcitonin (PCT) and clinical severity scores on patients
Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are responsible for high morbidity and mortality in pediatric patients, particularly in children less than five years old. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the most serious cause of ARI. Each year, from two to three million children die of pneumonia, predominantly in developing countries, and this is attributed to more severe clinical conditions, the involvement of bacteria as etiological agents, and less access to health care services and adequate therapy. This study aimed to compare clinical response to initial empirical treatment of Oxacillin associated with Ceftriaxone to Amoxicillin associated with Clavulanic Acid in children aged from two months to five years, diagnosed with severe community-acquired Pneumonia, who require hospitalization. It also aimed to evaluate the time for clinical recovery (fever and tachypnea) and the need for extending the antimicrobial spectrum in order to determine therapeutic failure in the proposed schemes. It is a ...
In a randomized clinical trial of antibiotic treatments for community-acquired pneumonia, researchers did not find that monotherapy with β-lactam alone was worse than a combination therapy with a macrolide in patients hospitalized with moderately severe pneumonia.
Introduction: Data describing real-life management and treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Europe are limited. The REtrospective Study to Assess the Clinical Management of Patients With Moderate-to-severe cSSTI or CAP Infections in the Hospital Setting (REACH) (NCT01293435) was an observational retrospective study that collected data on the management of European patients hospitalized with CAP in order to review current clinical practices and outcomes related to initial treatment failure, and to assess intercountry differences. Methods: Patients were aged ≥18 years, hospitalized with CAP between March 2010 and February 2011, and required in-hospital management and treatment with intravenous antibiotics. An electronic Case Report Form was used to collect a number of patient, disease and treatment variables, including type of CAP, medical history, treatment setting, antibiotic treatments and clinical outcomes, particularly treatment failure. Results: Patients (N=2039) were ...
Pneumonia is a type of lung infection. It can cause breathing problems and other symptoms. In community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), you get infected in a community setting. It doesnt happen in a hospital, nursing home, or other healthcare center.
Objective: To investigate the pathogens and antibiotic resistance of Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) in children under 5 y old in our hospital duri..
TY - JOUR. T1 - Diagnostic accuracy of a serotype-specific antigen test in community-acquired pneumonia. AU - Huijts, S.M.. AU - Pride, M.W.. AU - Vos, J.M.. AU - Jansen, K.U.. AU - Webber, C.. AU - Gruber, W.. AU - Boersma, W.G.. AU - Snijders, D.. AU - Kluijtmans, J.A.J.W.. AU - van der Lee, I.. AU - Kuipers, B.A.. AU - van den Ende, A.. AU - Bonten, M.J.M.. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. U2 - 10.1183/09031936.00137412. DO - 10.1183/09031936.00137412. M3 - Article. C2 - 23397295. VL - 42. SP - 1283. EP - 1290. JO - European Respiratory Journal. JF - European Respiratory Journal. SN - 0903-1936. IS - 5. ER - ...
Marion Giry, Marie Gueudin, Déborah Boyer, Adeline Baron, Gaetan Beduneau, et al.. Impact of respiratory viruses in intensive care unit patient with community-acquired pneumonia : a one-year retrospective single-centre study.. ECCMID, Apr 2019, Amsterdam, Netherlands. ⟨hal-02264276⟩ ...
Of the 224 episodes of community-acquired pneumonia, 8.5% were attended at private institutions, a datum that is difficult to compare with other studies since the use of private healthcare resources depends on the healthcare system of each study area. Despite the fact that primary care plays an important role in the management of community-acquired pneumonia, the low diagnostic yield (20% of cases) at this level is surprising. This may be explained by the lack of availability of chest radiography such that many patients are referred to the hospital emergency department, as well as for the tendency of patients in Maresme to seek care directly from the hospital emergency service 24. A study carried out in Spain in the primary care setting showed that 29.7% of cases of community-acquired pneumonia were diagnosed at hospital emergency services 25. In the study of Weingarten et al. 26, 55% of diagnoses of community-acquired pneumonia were established at the emergency department.. After discharge from ...
Given the dramatic advances in antimicrobials since penicillin was introduced, why has the mortality rate associated with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remained essentially unchanged?
C(U)RB-65 (confusion, (urea |7 mol · L(-1),) respiratory frequency ≥ 30 breaths · min(-1), systolic blood pressure |90 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≤60 mmHg and age ≥ 65 years) is now the generally accepted severity score for patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Europe. In a …
The comparison of the frequencies of bacterial and viral infections among children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) admitted in distinct severity categories, in an original study, is lacking in literature to-date. We aimed to achieve this goal. Children aged 2-59-months-old hospitalized with CAP were included in this prospective study in Salvador, Brazil. Clinical data and biological samples were collected to investigate 11 viruses and 8 bacteria. Severity was assessed by using the World Health Organization criteria. One hundred eighty-one patients were classified as
The differential diagnoses of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is broader than in HIV-negative patients. The patients immunologic... more
Edited by James D Chalmers Mathias W Pletz and Stefano Aliberti Community-acquired pneumonia remains the leading cause of hospitalisation for
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Community-Acquired Pneumonia - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical Consumer Version.
Patients Receive Recommended Care for Community-Acquired Pneumonia For New Jersey to be a state in which all people live long, healthy lives. DSRIP LEARNING COLLABORATIVE PRESENTATION The Care you Trust!
We present the case of a patient with a necrotizing multilobar pneumonia caused by community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The patient presented with shortness of breath and a productive cough of 3 days duration. On arrival to the emergency department she was intubated for increased work of breathing and given vasopressors for hypotension refractory to fluid resuscitation. Blood cultures taken at admission, sputum cultures from the patients endotracheal tube, and bronchoalveolar lavage cultures all grew S. aureus resistant to penicillinase-resistant penicillins. Over the following days the patients respiratory function deteriorated as she grew progressively hypoxemic and hypercarbic despite aggressive mechanical ventilation and intravenous antibiotics. On day 4 of her hospitalization a computed tomogram revealed extensive pulmonary necrosis consistent with necrotizing pneumonia. The patients family elected to withdraw support, and the patient rapidly died ...
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Community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA); Hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA)". National Institute of Health. 30 May 2009. "Healthcare- ... Most of these infections occur within the long-term healthcare setting. Serious VRE infections are common among those who have ... Serious staph infections are more common in people with weak immune systems, particularly patients in hospitals and long-term ... Serious staph infections are quite difficult to treat, due to increasing numbers of antibiotic-resistant strains of S. aureus ...
... for treatment of community-acquired respiratory infections". Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs. 17 (3): 387-400. doi: ... is a ketolide antibiotic undergoing research for the treatment of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) and for the prevention of ... for cethromycin to treat mild-to-moderate community acquired pneumonia. On December 3, 2008 Advanced Life Sciences announced ... Originally discovered and developed by Abbott, it was acquired by Advanced Life Sciences Inc. for further development. On ...
... have been associated with skin and soft tissue infections. Outbreaks of community-associated (CA)-MRSA infections have been ... Boyle-Vavra S, Daum RS (2007). "Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: the role of Panton-Valentine ... The epidemiology of infections caused by MRSA is rapidly changing: in the past 10 years, infections caused by this organism ... CA-MRSA infections now appear to be endemic in many urban regions and cause most MRSA infections. ...
Al, J. Rigaill et (2018). "Community-Acquired Staphylococcus argenteus Sequence Type 2250 Bone and Joint Infection, France, ... Infection and Drug Resistance. 11: 2335-2344. doi:10.2147/idr.s179390. PMC 6254542. PMID 30538503. Johansson, Cecilia; Rautelin ... "Clinical Staphylococcus argenteus Develops to Small Colony Variants to Promote Persistent Infection". Frontiers in Microbiology ...
It is more commonly a hospital-acquired pneumonia than a community-acquired pneumonia, in contrast to lobar pneumonia. ... Bronchopneumonia (lobular) often leads to lobar pneumonia as the infection progresses. The same organism may cause one type of ... Topic Completed: 1 August 2011 Franquet, Tomás; Chung, Johnathan H. (2019). "Imaging of Pulmonary Infection". Part of the IDKD ... Compared to pneumonia in general, the association between the bronchopneumonia pattern and hospital-acquired pneumonia warrants ...
... appears superior to vancomycin in treating community-acquired MRSA infections of the central nervous system, although ... and community-acquired pneumonia caused by S. aureus or S. pneumoniae; complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI) ... Naesens R, Ronsyn M, Druwé P, Denis O, Ieven M, Jeurissen A (June 2009). "Central nervous system invasion by community-acquired ... advises against the use of linezolid for community-acquired pneumonia or uncomplicated skin and soft tissue infections caused ...
Community-acquired pneumonia caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae may be called Friedländer's bacillus. Illness affects middle-aged ... To prevent spreading Klebsiella infections between patients, healthcare personnel must follow specific infection-control ... Many of these infections are obtained when a person is in the hospital for some other reason (a nosocomial infection). In ... though it is also commonly implicated in hospital-acquired urinary tract infections, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary ...
... is a ketolide antibiotic undergoing clinical development for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and other infections ... May 2011: solithromycin is in a Phase 2 clinical trial for serious community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and in a Phase 1 ... July 2015: patient enrollment for the second Phase 3 clinical trial (Solitaire IV) for community-acquired bacterial pneumonia ... IV to oral solithromycin demonstrated statistical non-inferiority to IV to oral moxifloxacin in adults with community-acquired ...
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is acquired in the community, outside of health care facilities. Compared with health care- ... Mixed infections with both viruses and bacteria may occur in roughly 45% of infections in children and in 15% of infections in ... The disease may be classified by where it was acquired, such as community- or hospital-acquired or healthcare-associated ... Pneumonia is most commonly classified by where or how it was acquired: community-acquired, aspiration, healthcare-associated, ...
Most cases of community-acquired pyelonephritis are due to bowel organisms that enter the urinary tract. Common organisms are E ... Hospital-acquired infections may be due to coliform bacteria and enterococci, as well as other organisms uncommon in the ... The mechanism of infection is usually spread up the urinary tract. Less often infection occurs through the bloodstream. ... close family members with frequent urinary tract infections) Analysis of the urine may show signs of urinary tract infection. ...
... for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and acute skin and skin structure infections. In vitro studies have ... infectious disease product in the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections and community-acquired ... A 750 patient phase III study comparing omadacycline to moxifloxacin for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial ... "Paratek Announces Positive Phase 3 Study of Omadacycline in Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia". www.globenewswire.com. ...
... and all appeared to be community-acquired. A systematic review of laboratory records at hospitals in Los Angeles and Orange ... German authorities said on Friday that they had conclusively identified sprouts as the cause of the E. coli infections that ... Between January 1, and June 14, 1985, 86 cases of Listeria monocytogenes infection were identified in Los Angeles and Orange ... "Multi-country outbreak of Listeria monocy togenes serogroup IVb, multi-locus sequence type 6, infections probably linked to ...
"Fatal case of community-acquired bacteremia and necrotizing fasciitis caused by Chryseobacterium meningosepticum: case report ... Hypoalbuminemia, increased pulse rate at the onset of infection, and central venous line infection were associated with a poor ... Only recently has it also been found to cause soft-tissue infection and sepsis in the immunocompetent and in a case of a fatal ... Oh MY; Kim M; Lee-Cruz L; Lai-Hoe A; Ainuddin N; Rahim RA; Shukor N; Adams JM (2012). "Distinctive bacterial communities in the ...
... pivoxil is indicated to treat uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections, community-acquired pneumonia, acute ... Community-acquired pneumonia: 400 mg twice daily for 14 days Acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis: 400 mg twice ... antimicrobial spectrum that includes the three major pathogens of community-acquired lower-respiratory tract infections: ... Wellington K, Curran MP (2004). "Cefditoren pivoxil: a review of its use in the treatment of bacterial infections". Drugs. 64 ( ...
It has been approved for the treatment of uncomplicated and complicated urinary tract infections, community-acquired ... Italy Acute uncomplicated lower urinary tract infections (simple cystitis) Complicated lower urinary tract infections Acute ... Prulifloxacin has been approved in Italy, Japan, China, India and Greece (as indicated), for treatment of infections caused by ... However, the fluoroquinolones are licensed to treat lower respiratory infections in children with cystic fibrosis in the UK. " ...
In community-acquired infections, they are recommended only when risk factors for multidrug resistance are present or after ... quinolones for community-acquired pneumonia: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Clinical Microbiology and ... It has been recommended that fluoroquinolones not be used as a first-line agent for community-acquired pneumonia,[51] instead ... September 2013). "Community-associated Clostridium difficile infection and antibiotics: a meta-analysis". Journal of ...
Novexel Reports Positive Phase II Trial Results With NXL103 in Adult Patients With Community Acquired Pneumonia, drugs.com ... "Comparative Study of NXL103 Versus Linezolid in Adults With Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections (ABSSSI)" at ... comparing it with linezolid for treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI). ...
Nair, GB; Niederman, MS (November 2011). "Community-acquired pneumonia: an unfinished battle". The Medical clinics of North ... Fein, Alan (2006). Diagnosis and management of pneumonia and other respiratory infections (2 izd.). Caddo, OK: Professional ... Anevlavis S; Bouros D (February 2010). "Community acquired bacterial pneumonia". Expert Opin Pharmacother. 11 (3): 361-74. doi: ... Scalera NM; File, TM (April 2007). "How long should we treat community-acquired pneumonia?". Current Opinion in Infectious ...
... is indicated for the treatment of intra-abdominal infections, community-acquired pneumonia, pelvic infections, and ... For diabetic foot infections, ertapenem as a single treatment or in combination with vancomycin has been found to be more ... It can also be used to prevent infections after colorectal surgery. In the United States it is also indicated for the treatment ... Ertapenem (trade name Invanz) is a carbapenem antibiotic medication for the treatment of infections of the abdomen, the lungs, ...
Community-Acquired Infections Chapter 121: Pneumonia Chapter 122: Lung Abscess Chapter 123: Infective Endocarditis Chapter 124 ... Health Care-Associated Infections Chapter 137: Infections Acquired in Health Care Facilities Chapter 138: Infections in ... Gonococcal Infections Chapter 152: Haemophilus and Moraxella Infections Chapter 153: Infections Due to the HACEK Group and ... Infections Due to DNA Viruses Chapter 187: Herpes Simplex Virus Infections Chapter 188: Varicella-Zoster Virus Infections ...
"Diagnosis of atypical pathogens in patients hospitalized with community-acquired respiratory infection". Scandinavian Journal ... "Microbiology of community-acquired pneumonia in the Gulf Corporation Council states". Journal of Chemotherapy. 19 (Suppl 1): 17 ... No signs and symptoms of lobar consolidation, meaning that the infection is restricted to small areas, rather than involving a ... Chest radiographs (X-ray photographs) often show a pulmonary infection before physical signs of atypical pneumonia are ...
Infections are usually acquired in early childhood in all countries. However, the infection rate of children in developing ... Transmission occurs mainly within families in developed nations, yet can also be acquired from the community in developing ... pylori infection have an increased risk of acquiring a cancer that is directly related to this infection. These cancers are ... Actual infection rates vary from nation to nation; the developing world has much higher infection rates than the West (Western ...
In patients with the overwhelming infections common in sepsis and septic shock, hypoalbuminemia occurs as a result of the ... Amongst patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs), hypoalbuminemia is specifically associated with ICU-acquired muscle ... and the elderly within the hospital and the community. Amongst elderly patients, prevalence can be as high as 70%. Anderson, ... the use of albumin is being considered for bacterial infections other than spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatic ...
... it is typically acquired by otherwise-healthy people and is a form of community-acquired pneumonia. Its treatment and diagnosis ... pneumoniae infection in patients with and without lung cancer found results suggesting prior infection was associated with an ... Zhan P, Suo LJ, Qian Q, Shen XK, Qiu LX, Yu LK, Song Y (March 2011). "Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and lung cancer risk: a ... C. pneumoniae infection increases adherence of macrophages to endothelial cells in vitro and aortas ex vivo. However, most ...
... and areca nut farm workers working in infected tick areas will have a high risk of acquiring KFD infection. People who live in ... tribal communities living inside the forest areas (Jenu kurubas and Betta kurubas), cashew nut workers especially those who ... "Kyasanur Forest Disease Virus Infection in Mice Is Associated with Higher Morbidity and Mortality than Infection with the ... Humans contract infection from the bite of nymphs of the tick. Man is a terminal host and there no human-to-human transmission ...
In 2006 an outbreak of a community-acquired infection Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus on the neonatal intensive ... In March 2011 several wards in the hospital were closed as a result of an outbreak of the community infection Norovirus. In ...
... raising the possibility of community-acquired infection" but "the detection of H5N1 in clinical specimens is technically ... Sichuan Province, where infections with Streptococcus suis have been detected in pigs in a concurrent outbreak, has one of the ... "Bird flu confirmed in 10 rural communities across Russia". RIA Novosti. October 31, 2005. "Deadly bird flu detected in Kuwait ... October 31, 2005 Russia confirmed previously suspected H5N1 bird flu in ten rural communities across Russia. The confirmed ...
In a community-based population examining individuals after an episode of severe infection (though not specifically delirium), ... Dementia: This group of disorders is acquired (non-congenital) with usually irreversible cognitive and psychosocial functional ... encephalitis Concurrent illness Infections - especially respiratory (e.g. pneumonia) and urinary tract infections Iatrogenic ... It may result from an underlying disease process (e.g. infection, hypoxia), side effect of a medication, withdrawal from drugs ...
"Acute-phase responsiveness of mannose-binding lectin in community-acquired pneumonia is highly dependent upon MBL2 genotypes". ... This pro-coagulant effect may limit infection by trapping pathogens in local blood clots. Also, some products of the ... Infection and Immunity. 61 (12): 5035-43. doi:10.1128/iai.61.12.5035-5043.1993. PMC 281280. PMID 7693593. Vecchi C, Montosi G, ...
... and England to stop the spread of hospital acquired infections such as c-diff and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ( ... This is an important first step of community ownership of a process that they will lead. This process occurs with the community ... A quantitative baseline is established by the community. This baseline provides an opportunity for the community to reflect on ... It provides to community members the "social proof" that an uncommon behavior can be adopted by all because it is already ...
S. pneumoniae is the main cause of community acquired pneumonia and meningitis in children and the elderly,[5] and of ... Infection[edit]. Main article: Pneumococcal infection. S. pneumoniae is part of the normal upper respiratory tract flora. As ... van de Beek, Diederik; de Gans, Jan; Tunkel, Allan R.; Wijdicks, Eelco F.M. (5 January 2006). "Community-Acquired Bacterial ... Historically, Haemophilus influenzae has been a significant cause of infection, and both H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae can be ...
Infections[edit]. The anaerobic bacterial species Cutibacterium acnes (formerly Propionibacterium acnes) contributes to the ... Early and aggressive treatment of acne is advocated by some in the medical community to decrease the overall long-term impact ... It is unclear whether these undesirable strains evolve on-site or are acquired, or possibly both depending on the person. These ... Infection with the parasitic mite Demodex is associated with the development of acne.[30][51] It is unclear whether eradication ...
... , also known as ophthalmia neonatorum, is a form of conjunctivitis and a type of neonatal infection ... The two most common causes are N. gonorrheae and Chlamydia acquired from the birth canal during delivery. ... Topical therapy is not effective and also does not treat the infection of the nasopharynx.[7][8][9] ... Single injection of ceftriaxone IM or IV should be given to infants born to mothers with untreated gonococcal infection. ...
Infection[edit]. Bone marrow transplantation usually requires that the recipient's own bone marrow be destroyed (myeloablation ... Transplant patients lose their acquired immunity, for example immunity to childhood diseases such as measles or polio. For this ... and many other communities. ... Infection and graft-versus-host disease are major complications ... This puts a patient at high risk of infections, sepsis and septic shock, despite prophylactic antibiotics. However, antiviral ...
... and were therefore especially susceptible to infections in general.[19] Aside from these cases, there is no evidence to ... turning yellow and acquiring a honeyed flavor. ... Community portal. *Recent changes. *Contact page. Tools. *What ...
These cells were acquired from a fetus that spontaneously aborted after ten weeks in gestation. One of the most formidable ... Nevertheless, plasticity in neuronal networks is a phenomenon that is well-established in the neuroscience community, and one ... Like most cell cultures, neuron cultures are highly susceptible to infection. They are also susceptible to hyperosmolality from ...
The degree of infection can be examined as major rim enhancement has occurred, located inferior to the hyoid bone. Soft tissue ... Most fistulae are acquired following rupture or incision of the infected thyroglossal cyst. A thyroglossal cyst is lined by ... With infections, there can be rare cases where an expression of fluid is projected into the pharynx causing other problems ... Infection can sometimes cause the transient appearance of a mass or enlargement of the cyst, at times with periodic recurrences ...
Community or neighborhood pedophiles, sex rings, and pimps. Evasion Techniques Mobile production and development sites, false ... Whether the children be in pornography, brothels, or trafficked they are all at risk for sexually transmitted infections, ... The same committee that put Protocol into action has put more effort into acquiring more accurate data on child sexual ... local community guards). At least 60% had no permanent place to live. Some of these girls started out as child domestic workers ...
... as consuming or touching it may result in sickness or infection.[3] Human perception of the odor may be contrasted by a non- ... horse droppings were a big part of the rubbish communities needed to clean off roads) ... its matter acquires the familiar brown color.[2] ...
It is possible to acquire the infection through broken skin or mucous membranes that are directly exposed to infectious ... Community education material for Lassa fever. Specialty. Infectious disease. Symptoms. Fever, headaches, bleeding[1]. ... Research in showed a twofold increase risk of infection for those living in close proximity to someone with infection symptoms ... The virus is present in urine for between three and nine weeks after infection, and it can be transmitted in semen for up to ...
Small landholders and sharecroppers acquired debts that were often swollen by usurious rates of interest.[43][S] Any poor ... Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Community Development Project. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800-". Federal Reserve ... and reduced resistance to disease led to death by opportunistic infections.[233] Second, the social disruption and dismal ... When these interact, some groups within society can become unable to purchase or acquire food even though sufficient supplies ...
Examples include acquired conditions such as systemic vasculitides (e.g. ANCA vasculitis) and autoimmune diseases (e.g., lupus ... More specialized tests can be ordered to discover or link certain systemic diseases to kidney failure such as infections ( ... is a national organization that represents and supports the independent and community-based dialysis providers. The American ...
Hospital-acquired infection. *Indium lung. *Laboratory animal allergy. *Lead poisoning. *Mad hatter disease ... OHC practitioners also coordinated their services with previously underutilized local community services in the same city, thus ...
Clinical signs of infection: tenderness, sinus, suppuration, swelling. Treatment options will be extraction for the primary ... caused by disruption to the blood supply at the apical foramen or as an infection-related liquefactive necrosis following ... Acquired tooth disorders. *Emergency medicine. *Medical emergencies. *Trauma types. Hidden categories: *CS1: long volume value ...
This infection of vectors without a previous blood meal seems to play a role in single, sudden breakouts of the disease.[25] ... is known as acquired immunity.[65] The virus, as well as the vector A. aegypti, were probably transferred to North and South ... The disease spread quickly through the community, eventually killing over 3,000 people, mostly residents of Norfolk and ... Surviving the infection provides lifelong immunity,[20] and normally no permanent organ damage results.[21] ...
The human half of the guide dog team does the directing, based upon skills acquired through previous mobility training. In this ... Uveitis: is a group of 30 intraocular inflammatory diseases[44] caused by infections, systemic diseases, organ-specific ... and independently in the home and the community. These professionals can also help blind people to practice travelling on ... and a number of infections.[6] Visual impairment can also be caused by problems in the brain due to stroke, premature birth, or ...
It is characterized by recurrent "cold" staphylococcal infections (due to impaired recruitment of neutrophils),[2] unusual ... "Human tyrosine kinase 2 deficiency reveals its requisite roles in multiple cytokine signals involved in innate and acquired ... Most patients with hyper IgE syndrome are treated with long-term antibiotic therapy to prevent staphylococcal infections. Good ... Buckley R, Wray B, Belmaker E (1972). "Extreme hyperimmunoglobulinemia E and undue susceptibility to infection". Pediatrics. 49 ...
Infection and pathogenesis[edit]. The initial site of infection may be the tonsils,[4] or possibly the gastrointestinal tract.[ ... The virus is very common in the general population, infecting 70% to 90% of humans; most people acquire JCV in childhood or ... JCV also appears to mediate encephalopathy, due to infection of cortical pyramidal neurons (CPN) and astrocytes.[14] Analysis ... Although JC virus infection is classically associated with white matter demyelination and PML pathogenesis, recent literature ...
This may help to avoid the use of blood products such as fresh frozen plasma with its associated risks of infections or ... However, acquired disturbance of fibrinolysis (Hyperfibrinolysis), is not uncommon. Many trauma patients suffer from an ...
... acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) - ACT UP/Golden Gate - active immunity - acupuncture - acute HIV infection - Acute ... community planning - Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS (CPCRA) - community-based clinical trial (CBCT) - ... ocular - off-label use - oncology - open-label trial - opportunistic infections - oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) - organelle - ... division of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (DAIDS) - DNA - Domain (biology) - dose-ranging study - dose-response ...
They defend against bacterial or fungal infection. They are usually first responders to microbial infection; their activity and ... Neutropenia can be acquired or intrinsic.[16] A decrease in levels of neutrophils on lab tests is due to either decreased ... In HIV infection, these T cells are the main index to identify the individual's immune system integrity. ... Infection. *Chronic inflammation - especially juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, Still's disease, Crohn's ...
An acute exacerbation (a sudden worsening of symptoms)[62] is commonly triggered by infection or environmental pollutants, or ... Community-acquired. *Healthcare-associated. *Hospital-acquired. By distribution. *Broncho-. *Lobar. IIP. *UIP ... COPD develops as a significant and chronic inflammatory response to inhaled irritants.[9] Chronic bacterial infections may also ... Respiratory infections such as pneumonia do not appear to increase the risk of COPD, at least in adults.[23] ...
This is to prevent patients with transient positive tests (due to infection etc.) being diagnosed as positive. ...
Back in France, he acquired enough snakes to continue his work and create serum for the local population.[1]:98 ... Yersin looked for the germ responsible for the infection specifically in these plague-spots, tumors caused by the inflammation ... Therefore, although at first named "Kitasato-Yersin bacillus" by the scientific community, the microbe will later assume only ... The discovery and use of sulfonamides in treating infections was another breakthrough. Some researchers won fame by discovering ...
... may also arise in untreated diabetics due to the presence of glucose in their urine giving rise to infection in the ... Bolla G, Sartore G, Longo L, Rossi C (2005). "[The sclero-atrophic lichen as principal cause of acquired phimosis in pediatric ...
Many lesbian communities are centered in bars, and drinking is an activity that correlates to community participation for ... Frenkl, Tara Lee, Potts, Jeannette (February 2008). "Sexually Transmitted Infections", Urologic Clinics of North America, 35 (1 ... Orogenital contact may indicate a higher risk of acquiring HSV,[201] even among women who have had no prior sex with men.[202] ... from both racial communities and white lesbian communities.[290] The many intersections surrounding lesbians of color can often ...
Diarrhea, swollen eyelids, rough skin, acquired habit rough skin, acquired habit Foods and medicines Calefacients harmful, ... from an uncomplicated upper respiratory infection to the plague. For example, chamomile was used to decrease heat, and lower ...
22.0 22.1 Nair, GB; Niederman, MS (November 2011). "Community-acquired pneumonia: an unfinished battle". The Medical clinics of ... Snydman, editors, Raleigh A. Bowden, Per Ljungman, David R. (2010). Transplant infections (3rd ). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer ... Marrie, edited by Thomas J. (2002). Community-acquired pneumonia. New York: Kluwer Academic Publishers. பக். 20. பன்னாட்டுத் ... Lodha, R; Kabra, SK; Pandey, RM (4 June 2013). "Antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia in children.". The Cochrane ...
Diseases and disorders of the lungs or the vocal cords, including paralysis, respiratory infections (bronchitis), vocal fold ... Various congenital and acquired tongue diseases can affect speech as can motor neuron disease. ... Nicoladis, Elena; Paradis, Johanne (2012). "Acquiring Regular and Irregular Past Tense Morphemes in English and French: ... shows that the regular forms are acquired earlier.[5][6] Speech errors associated with certain kinds of aphasia have been used ...