Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.
Organizations and individuals cooperating together toward a common goal at the local or grassroots level.
Institutions with permanent facilities and organized medical staff which provide the full range of hospital services primarily to a neighborhood area.
Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)
Persons trained to assist professional health personnel in communicating with residents in the community concerning needs and availability of health services.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A branch of medicine concerned with the total health of the individual within the home environment and in the community, and with the application of comprehensive care to the prevention and treatment of illness in the entire community.
Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.
Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.
Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Total pharmaceutical services provided to the public through community pharmacies.
The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
Collaborative process of research involving researchers and community representatives.
Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.
A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
General and comprehensive nursing practice directed to individuals, families, or groups as it relates to and contributes to the health of a population or community. This is not an official program of a Public Health Department.
A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Psychotherapeutic technique which emphasizes socioenvironmental and interpersonal influences in the resocialization and rehabilitation of the patient. The setting is usually a hospital unit or ward in which professional and nonprofessional staff interact with the patients.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
The status of health in rural populations.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.
Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
Facilities which administer the delivery of psychologic and psychiatric services to people living in a neighborhood or community.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
The genomic analysis of assemblages of organisms.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).
A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Branch of psychiatry concerned with the provision and delivery of a coordinated program of mental health care to a specified population. The foci included in this concept are: all social, psychological and physical factors related to etiology, prevention, and maintaining positive mental health in the community.
Persons who donate their services.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia.
The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
A geographic location which has insufficient health resources (manpower and/or facilities) to meet the medical needs of the resident population.
The full collection of microbes (bacteria, fungi, virus, etc.) that naturally exist within a particular biological niche such as an organism, soil, a body of water, etc.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
The immediate physical zone surrounding plant roots that include the plant roots. It is an area of intense and complex biological activity involving plants, microorganisms, other soil organisms, and the soil.
The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)
Facilities for the preparation and dispensing of drugs.
Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.
Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.
Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.
Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.
The practice of dentistry concerned with preventive as well as diagnostic and treatment programs in a circumscribed population.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
Theoretical representations and constructs that describe or explain the structure and hierarchy of relationships and interactions within or between formal organizational entities or informal social groups.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
The practice of caring for individuals in the community, rather than in an institutional environment with resultant effects on the individual, the individual's family, the community, and the health care system.
A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.
Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)
The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
The status of health in urban populations.
Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.
Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.
Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.
The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Organizational development including enhancement of management structures, processes and procedures, within organizations and among different organizations and sectors to meet present and future needs.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
Territory in north central Australia, between the states of Queensland and Western Australia. Its capital is Darwin.
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of archaea.
A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.
Those persons legally qualified by education and training to engage in the practice of pharmacy.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.
Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.
Liquid water present beneath the surface of the earth.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.
A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Living facilities for humans.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.
Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.
The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)
Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.
The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.
Individuals classified according to their sex, racial origin, religion, common place of living, financial or social status, or some other cultural or behavioral attribute. (UMLS, 2003)
A subgroup having special characteristics within a larger group, often bound together by special ties which distinguish it from the larger group.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Organisms that live in water.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.
The circulation or wide dispersal of information.
Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.
The expected function of a member of a particular profession.
Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.
Animals that have no spinal column.
Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.
Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.
A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
Size and composition of the family.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.
A self-governing territory formed from the central and eastern portions of the Northwest Territories. It was officially established April 1, 1999. The capital is Iqaluit.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.
A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.

Role of schools in the transmission of measles in rural Senegal: implications for measles control in developing countries. (1/2393)

Patterns of measles transmission at school and at home were studied in 1995 in a rural area of Senegal with a high level of vaccination coverage. Among 209 case children with a median age of 8 years, there were no deaths, although the case fatality ratio has previously been 6-7% in this area. Forty percent of the case children had been vaccinated against measles; the proportion of vaccinated children was higher among secondary cases (47%) than among index cases (33%) (prevalence ratio = 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.76). Vaccinated index cases may have been less infectious than unvaccinated index cases, since they produced fewer clinical cases among exposed children (relative risk = 0.55, 95% CI 0.29-1.04). The secondary attack rate was lower in the schools than in the homes (relative risk = 0.31, 95% CI 0.20-0.49). The school outbreaks were protracted, with 4-5 generations of cases being seen in the two larger schools. Vaccine efficacy was found to be 57% (95% CI -23 to 85) in the schools and 74% (95% CI 62-82) in the residential compounds. Measles infection resulted in a mean of 3.8 days of absenteeism per case, though this did not appear to have an impact on the children's grades. Among the index cases, 56% of children were probably infected by neighbors in the community, and 7% were probably infected at health centers, 13% outside the community, and 24% in one of the three schools which had outbreaks during the epidemic. However, most of the school-related cases occurred at the beginning and therefore contributed to the general propagation of the epidemic. To prevent school outbreaks, it may be necessary to require vaccination prior to school entry and to revaccinate children in individual schools upon detection of cases of measles. Multidose measles vaccination schedules will be necessary to control measles in developing countries.  (+info)

Longitudinal evaluation of serovar-specific immunity to Neisseria gonorrhoeae. (2/2393)

The serovars of Neisseria gonorrhoeae that are predominant in a community change over time, a phenomenon that may be due to the development of immunity to repeat infection with the same serovar. This study evaluated the epidemiologic evidence for serovar-specific immunity to N. gonorrhoeae. During a 17-month period in 1992-1994, all clients of a sexually transmitted disease clinic in rural North Carolina underwent genital culture for N. gonorrhoeae. Gonococcal isolates were serotyped according to standard methods. Odds ratios for repeat infection with the same serovar versus any different serovar were calculated on the basis of the distribution of serovars in the community at the time of reinfection. Of 2,838 patients, 608 (21.4%; 427 males and 181 females) were found to be infected with N. gonorrhoeae at the initial visit. Ninety patients (14.8% of the 608) had a total of 112 repeat gonococcal infections. Repeat infection with the same serovar occurred slightly more often than would be expected based on the serovars prevalent in the community at the time of reinfection, though the result was marginally nonsignificant (odds ratio = 1.5, 95% confidence interval 1.0-2.4; p = 0.05). Choosing partners within a sexual network may increase the likelihood of repeat exposure to the same serovar of N. gonorrhoeae. Gonococcal infection did not induce evident immunity to reinfection with the same serovar.  (+info)

Infective endocarditis due to Staphylococcus aureus: 59 prospectively identified cases with follow-up. (3/2393)

Fifty-nine consecutive patients with definite Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis (IE) by the Duke criteria were prospectively identified at our hospital over a 3-year period. Twenty-seven (45.8%) of the 59 patients had hospital-acquired S. aureus bacteremia. The presumed source of infection was an intravascular device in 50.8% of patients. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) revealed evidence of IE in 20 patients (33.9%), whereas transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) revealed evidence of IE in 48 patients (81.4%). The outcome for patients was strongly associated with echocardiographic findings: 13 (68.4%) of 19 patients with vegetations visualized by TTE had an embolic event or died of their infection vs. five (16.7%) of 30 patients whose vegetations were visualized only by TEE (P < .01). Most patients with S. aureus IE developed their infection as a consequence of a nosocomial or intravascular device-related infection. TEE established the diagnosis of S. aureus IE in many instances when TTE was nondiagnostic. Visualization of vegetations by TTE may provide prognostic information for patients with S. aureus IE.  (+info)

Risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia in adults: a population-based case-control study. (4/2393)

Although community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a major cause of hospitalization and death, few studies on risk factors have been performed. A population-based case-control study of risk factors for CAP was carried out in a mixed residential-industrial urban area of 74,610 adult inhabitants in the Maresme (Barcelona, Spain) between 1993 and 1995. All patients living in the area and clinically suspected of having CAP at primary care facilities and hospitals were registered. In total, 205 patients with symptoms, signs and radiographic infiltrate compatible with acute CAP participated in the study. They were matched by municipality, sex and age with 475 controls randomly selected from the municipal census. Risk factors relating the subject's characteristics and habits, housing conditions, medical history and treatments were investigated by means of a questionnaire. In the univariate analysis, an increased risk of CAP was associated with low body mass index, smoking, respiratory infection, previous pneumonia, chronic lung disease, lung tuberculosis, asthma, treated diabetes, chronic liver disease, and treatments with aminophiline, aerosols and plastic pear-spacers. In multivariate models, the only statistically significant risk factors were current smoking of >20 cigarettes x day(-1) (odds ratio (OR)=2.77; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-6.70 compared with never-smokers), previous respiratory infection (OR=2.73; 95% CI 1.75-4.26), and chronic bronchitis (OR=2.22; 95% CI 1.13-4.37). Benzodiazepines were found to be protective in univariate and multivariate analysis (OR=0.46; 95% CI 0.23-0.94). This population-based study provides new and better established evidence on the factors associated with the occurrence of pneumonia in the adult community.  (+info)

The economic impact of Staphylococcus aureus infection in New York City hospitals. (5/2393)

We modeled estimates of the incidence, deaths, and direct medical costs of Staphylococcus aureus infections in hospitalized patients in the New York City metropolitan area in 1995 by using hospital discharge data collected by the New York State Department of Health and standard sources for the costs of health care. We also examined the relative impact of methicillin-resistant versus -sensitive strains of S. aureus and of community-acquired versus nosocomial infections. S. aureus-associated hospitalizations resulted in approximately twice the length of stay, deaths, and medical costs of typical hospitalizations; methicillin-resistant and -sensitive infections had similar direct medical costs, but resistant infections caused more deaths (21% versus 8%). Community-acquired and nosocomial infections had similar death rates, but community-acquired infections appeared to have increased direct medical costs per patient ($35,300 versus $28,800). The results of our study indicate that reducing the incidence of methicillin-resistant and -sensitive nosocomial infections would reduce the societal costs of S. aureus infection.  (+info)

Seroprevalence of IgG antibodies to the chlamydia-like microorganism 'Simkania Z' by ELISA. (6/2393)

The newly described microorganism 'Simkania Z', related to the Chlamydiae, has been shown to be associated with bronchiolitis in infants and community acquired pneumonia in adults. The prevalence of infection in the general population is unknown. A simple ELISA assay for the detection of serum IgG antibodies to 'Simkania Z' was used to determine the prevalence of such antibodies in several population samples in southern Israel (the Negev). The groups tested included 94 medical and nursing students, 100 unselected blood donors, 106 adult members of a Negev kibbutz (communal agricultural settlement), and 45 adult Bedouin, residents of the Negev. IgG antibodies to 'Simkania Z' were found in 55-80% of these presumably healthy individuals, independently of antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae. The Bedouin had a seropositivity rate of 80%, while all other groups had rates of between 55 and 64%. These results indicate that 'Simkania Z' infection is probably common in southern Israel.  (+info)

Group A Streptococcus carriage among close contacts of patients with invasive infections. (7/2393)

During the past few years, the incidence of invasive group A Streptococcus (GAS) infection has been increasing. However, there are presently no clear recommendations regarding antibiotic prophylaxis for close contacts of index patients. The aims of this study were 1) to determine the prevalence of carriage of the same GAS strain as the patient's among contacts of patients with invasive infections and 2) to assess the importance of exposure duration. From March 1995 to March 1996, the authors prospectively included in the study all patients with invasive GAS infection, as defined by the Working Group on Severe Streptococcal Infections, who came to Hopital Maisonneuve-Rosemont in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. An epidemiologic investigation was systematically carried out for each index case. Contacts were divided into two groups: those who had spent 24 hours or more with the index patient during the week preceding the beginning of his or her illness and those who had spent 12-24 hours with the index patient during that week. Strains of GAS were examined by serotyping (proteins M and T and the presence or absence of the serum opacity factor) and by characterization of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins (exotoxins A, B, and C). One hundred and two contacts of 17 index cases with invasive GAS infection were systematically screened. Contacts were considered positive if they carried the same strain of the bacterium and the same streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin as the index case. Among the contacts who had spent at least 24 hours per week with their respective index cases, 13 out of 48 (27%) were found to be harboring the same serotype of GAS as the index patient (95% confidence interval 14.5-39.5). By comparison, only one of the 54 contacts in the 12- to 24-hour group (1.8%) was found to be carrying the same strain of the bacterium (95% confidence interval 0-5.3). This difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p<0.001). The median age of the positive carriers (10 years) was significantly lower than the median age of the noncarriers (39 years) (p< or =0.0005). This study showed that close contacts who had spent 12-24 hours with the index patient were rarely colonized with GAS. If antibiotic prophylaxis against GAS is recommended, it should probably target contacts who spent at least 24 hours with an infected patient during the week preceding illness onset.  (+info)

A community outbreak of Legionnaires' disease linked to hospital cooling towers: an epidemiological method to calculate dose of exposure. (8/2393)

BACKGROUND: From July to September 1994, 29 cases of community-acquired Legionnaires' disease (LD) were reported in Delaware. The authors conducted an investigation to a) identify the source of the outbreak and risk factors for developing Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (Lp-1) pneumonia and b) evaluate the risk associated with the components of cumulative exposure to the source (i.e. distance from the source, frequency of exposure, and duration of exposure). METHODS: A case-control study matched 21 patients to three controls per case by known risk factors for acquiring LD. Controls were selected from patients who attended the same clinic as the respective case-patients. Water samples taken at the hospital, from eight nearby cooling towers, and from four of the patient's homes were cultured for Legionella. Isolates were subtyped using monoclonal antibody (Mab) analysis and arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR). RESULTS: Eleven (52%) of 21 case-patients worked at or visited the hospital compared with 17 (27%) of 63 controls (OR 5.0, 95% CI : 1.1-29). For those who lived, worked, or visited within 4 square miles of the hospital, the risk of illness decreased by 20% for each 0.10 mile from the hospital; it increased by 80% for each visit to the hospital; and it increased by 8% for each hour spent within 0.125 miles of the hospital. Lp-1 was isolated from three patients and both hospital cooling towers. Based on laboratory results no other samples contained Lp-1. The clinical and main-tower isolates all demonstrated Mab pattern 1,2,5,6. AP-PCR matched the main-tower samples with those from two case-patients. CONCLUSION: The results of our investigation suggested that the hospital cooling towers were the source of a community outbreak of LD. Increasing proximity to and frequency of exposure to the towers increased the risk of LD. New guidelines for cooling tower maintenance are needed. Knowing the location of cooling towers could facilitate maintenance inspections and outbreak investigations.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Community-acquired methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus in children with no identified predisposing risk. AU - Herold, Betsy C.. AU - Immergluck, Lilly C.. AU - Maranan, Melinda C.. AU - Lauderdale, Diane S.. AU - Gaskin, Ryan E.. AU - Boyle-Vavra, Susan. AU - Leitch, Cindy D.. AU - Daum, Robert S.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2007 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1998/2/25. Y1 - 1998/2/25. N2 - Context.-Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in children have occurred primarily in individuals with recognized predisposing risks. Community-acquired MRSA infections in the absence of identified risk factors have been reported infrequently. Objectives.-To determine whether community-acquired MRSA infections in children with no identified predisposing risks are increasing and to define the spectrum of disease associated with MRSA isolation. Design.-Retrospective review of medical records. Patients.-Hospitalized children with S ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Commercially distributed meat as a potential vehicle for community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. AU - Ogata, Kikuyo. AU - Narimatsu, Hiroshi. AU - Suzuki, Masahiro. AU - Higuchi, Wataru. AU - Yamamoto, Tatsuo. AU - Taniguchi, Hatsumi. PY - 2012/4. Y1 - 2012/4. N2 - The incidence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infection has been increasing; however, the sources of infection remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the involvement of meat as a possible mediator of CA-MRSA infection.Weexamined the distribution ofMRSAstrains in commercially distributed raw meat samples (n=197) and diarrheal stool samples of outpatients (n=1,287) that were collected in Oita Prefecture, Japan, between 2003 and 2009 for routine legal inspections. FourteenMRSAstrains were isolated from three meat and 11 stool samples. Among these, seven isolates from three meat and four stool samples exhibited the same epidemiological marker profiles ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Community-acquired methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus among patients with puerperal mastitis requiring hospitalization. AU - Stafford, Irene. AU - Hernandez, Jennifer. AU - Laibl, Vanessa. AU - Sheffield, Jeanne. AU - Roberts, Scott. AU - Wendel, George. PY - 2008/9/1. Y1 - 2008/9/1. N2 - OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of puerperal mastitis requiring hospital admission and to describe demographic and obstetric risk factors for this condition. We also sought to identify trends in bacteriology among isolates obtained from breast abscesses and breast-milk aspirates, with a focus on treatment strategies used for community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). METHODS: Patients with puerperal mastitis who were admitted to a county-based teaching hospital between January 1997 and December 2005 were identified by International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, codes (675.1, 675.2). Data collected included demographic characteristics, ...
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a frequent cause for patients to present to a physicians office or emergency department. We observed increasing numbers of community-acquired MRSA infections in patients admitted to the hand surgery service at our suburban academic center. It is an important issue as unsuspected community-acquired MRSA hand infections can be admitted to the hospital, inadequately treated, and allowed for nosocomial spread. This study was performed to examine the trend in the incidence of community-acquired MRSA infections in patients admitted to the hand surgery service in order to sensitize practitioners to have a high index of suspicion for this entity and promote early recognition and treatment of this organism. A multihospital retrospective chart review was undertaken to compare the total number of community-acquired MRSA infections in our hospital as well as the number in patients admitted to the hand surgery service with community-acquired MRSA from 2000
BioAssay record AID 529821 submitted by ChEMBL: Bactericidal activity against community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by broth microdilution method in presence of 50% human serum.
www.lung.org/assets/documents/research/pi-trend-report.pdf.. 5. Arnold FW, Wiemken TL, Peyrani P, et al. Mortality differences among hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia in three world regions: results from the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Organization (CAPO) International Cohort Study. Respir Med 2013;107:1101-11.. 6. Mortensen EM, Coley CM, Singer DE, et al. Causes of death for patients with community-acquired pneumonia: results from the Pneumonia Patient Outcomes Research Team cohort study. Arch Intern Med 2002;162:1059-64.. 7. Bordon J, Wiemken T, Peyrani P, et al. Decrease in long-term survival for hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Chest 2010;138:279-83.. 8. Mortensen EM, Halm EA, Pugh MJ, et al. Association of azithromycin with mortality and cardiovascular events among older patients hospitalized with pneumonia. JAMA 2014;311:2199-208.. 9. Aliberti S, Ramirez JA. Cardiac diseases complicating community-acquired pneumonia. Curr Opin Infect Dis ...
SUPPLEMENT ARTICLE Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society Consensus Guidelines on the Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults Lionel A. Mandell, 1,a Richard G. Wunderink,
Klebsiella pneumoniae is the major cause of community-acquired pyogenic infections in Taiwan. This retrospective study evaluated the clinical and microbiological characteristics of bacteremic community-acquired pneumonia due to K. pneumoniae in Taiwanese adults. The clinical characteristics of bacteremic community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in adults due to K. pneumoniae were compared to those of adults with bacteremic CAP due to Streptococcus pneumoniae at a tertiary medical center in Taiwan from 2001-2008. Risk factors for mortality of bacteremic CAP due to K. pneumoniae were analyzed. All clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae were examined for capsular serotypes, hypermucoviscosity phenotype, aerobactin and rmpA gene. K. pneumoniae was the dominant cause of bacteremic CAP and was associated with a more fulminant course and a worse prognosis than bacteremic CAP due to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Initial presentation with septic shock and respiratory failure were independent risk factors for both early and
Oxidative stress is an important part of host innate immune response to foreign pathogens. However, the impact of vitamin C on oxidative stress and inflammation remains unclear in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We aimed to determine the effect of vitamin C on oxidative stress and inflammation. CAP patients were enrolled. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage, superoxide dismutases (SOD) activity, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and IL-6 were analyzed in CAP patients and LPS-stimulated macrophages cells. MH-S cells were transfected with RFP-LC3 plasmids. Autophagy was measured in LPS-stimulated macrophages cells. Severe CAP patients showed significantly increased ROS, DNA damage, TNF-α, and IL-6. SOD was significantly decreased in severe CAP. Vitamin C significantly decreased ROS, DNA damage, TNF-α, and IL-6. Vitamin C inhibited LPS-induced ROS, DNA damage, TNF-α, IL-6, and p38 in macrophages cells. Vitamin C inhibited autophagy in LPS-induced macrophages cells.
References 1. Bartlett JG, Dowell SF, Mandell LA, et al; Infectious Diseases Society of America. Practice guidelines for the management of community-acquired pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;31:347-382. 2. National Center for Health Statistics. Health, United States, 2006. Available at: www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/hus06.pdf. Accessed June 6, 2007.3. DeFrances CJ, Podgornik MN. 2004 National hospital discharge survey. Adv Data. 2006;317:1-19. 4. Division of Epidemiology. National Heart Lung and Blood Institute. Morbidity and mortality: 2004 chartbook on cardiovascular, lung and blood diseases. May 2004. 5. Mandell LA, Wunderink RG, Anzueto A, et al. Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44(suppl 2):S27-S72. 6. Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Churchill Livingstone; 2005:819-845. 7. Marrie TJ, ...
Distinguishing bacterial pneumonia from viral pneumonia is critical to providing effective treatment but remains a significant challenge. This issue provides guidance for the management of pediatric community-acquired pneumonia as well as associated complications including pleural effusion/empyema
Press Release Date: March 1, 2004. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality today announced its first clinical decision-support tool for personal digital assistants (PDAs) that is designed to help clinicians deliver evidence-based medicine at the point of care. AHRQs new Pneumonia Severity Index Calculator (which is available for download from the AHRQ Web site at http://pda.ahrq.gov), is an interactive application for Palm Pilots and other PDAs to help doctors quickly and easily determine whether patients with community-acquired pneumonia should be treated at home or in a hospital.. This new Pneumonia Severity Index Calculator is an example of how technology can support and facilitate the delivery of evidence-based medicine, said AHRQ Director Carolyn M. Clancy, M.D. AHRQ is striving to make decision support tools such as this available to clinicians. Community-acquired pneumonia contracted outside of a hospital or nursing home environment affects approximately 4 million Americans ...
There is no evidence supporting the use of de-escalation therapy (DET) among patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We assessed the outcomes associated with DET among bacteraemic CAP patients. We performed a secondary analysis of the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Organization database, which contains data on 660 bacteraemic patients hospitalized because of CAP in 35 countries (2001-2013). Exclusion criteria were death within 72h from admission and an inappropriate empirical antibiotic regimen. DET was defined as changing an appropriate empirical broad-spectrum regimen to a narrower-spectrum regimen according to culture results within 7 days from hospital admission. Two study groups were identified: patients whose antibiotic therapy was de-escalated (the DET group), and patients whose antibiotic therapy was not de-escalated (the N-DET group). The primary study outcome was 30-day mortality. Two hundred and sixty-one bacteraemic CAP patients were included. Gram-positive bacteria were ...
...WALTHAM Mass. Dec. 8 /- Decision Resources one of the ...The new Pharmacor report entitled Community-Acquired Pneumonia ... Two of the most clinically and commercially promising antibiotics in ...The report also finds that the community-acquired pneumonia market is ...,Patent,Expiries,of,Blockbuster,Antibiotics,Will,Fuel,a,Decline,of,More,Than,15,Percent,in,the,Community-Acquired,Pneumonia,Drug,Market,medicine,advanced medical technology,medical laboratory technology,medical device technology,latest medical technology,Health
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has significant morbidity and mortality. The Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society (IDSA/ATS) guidelines recommend two antimicrobial regimens for hospitalized patients with CAP, one of which includes a macrolide, and one of which does not. Both regimens have antimicrobial properties, but macrolides also possess immunomodulatory properties. Macrolides, however, may also have potential arrhythmia adverse effects. The purpose of this review is to provide an update of studies evaluating outcomes for patients with CAP treated with or without a macrolide-based regimen. Two recent randomized controlled trials conflict with each other regarding the benefit versus noninferiority of including a macrolide for the treatment for CAP. Each have their respective limitations. Most prior observational studies and meta-analyses favor using a regimen with a macrolide. We do not recommend any different treatment strategy than the current IDSA/ATS guidelines for
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A study to assess the frequency of CRB65 scoring in patients diagnosed with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in primary care has been recently published in the Dove Press journal Pragmatic and Observational Research[1].. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a leading infectious cause of death worldwide.[2] CAP requires a severity assessment for diagnosis and treatment, particularly in hospital admission decisions. As an increased mortality rate is associated with a delay in admissions to the intensive care unit in severe CAP cases, it is critical that treatment is based on the severity of CAP to improve treatment outcomes. Both the British Thoracic Society (BTS) and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommend that the CRB65 scoring system to be used for this purpose due to its high levels of accuracy. The score assigns one score for each component of confusion, respiratory rate, blood pressure and age of 65 years or more, up to a maximum of 4. However, not much is ...
Plasma YKL-40 level has been reported as playing a significant role in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, the correlation between plasma level of YKL-40 and the severity of CAP has not been reported. This study identifies the relationship between plasma level changes of the YKL-40 gene in adult patients hospitalized with CAP. The ELISA was used to measure the plasma YKL-40 level from 61 adult CAP patients before and after antibiotic treatment and from 60 healthy controls. The plasma YKL-40 levels were significantly increased in patients with CAP compared to normal controls. Moreover, the plasma concentration of YKL-40 correlated with the severity of CAP based on the pneumonia severity index (PSI) score (r = 0.630, p < 0.001), the CURB-65 (confusion, uremia, respiratory rate, BP, age 65 years) score (r = 0.640, p < 0.001), the Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score (r = 0.539, p < 0.001) and length of hospital stay (r = 0.321, p = 0.011), respectively. In
Abdel-Rahman EM, 2000, DIAGN MICR INFEC DIS, V36, P203, DOI 10.1016-S0732-8893(99)00142-X; Ahmad S, 2009, JCPSP-J COLL PHYSICI, V19, P264, DOI 04.2009-JCPSP.264265; Ahmed K, 2000, EPIDEMIOL INFECT, V125, P573, DOI 10.1017-S0950268800004751; AHMED K, 1999, J INFECT CHEMOTHER, V5, P217, DOI 10.1007-s101560050039; Akala FA, 2006, LANCET, V367, P961, DOI 10.1016-S0140-6736(06)68402-X; Akbar DH, 2001, ACTA DIABETOL, V38, P77; ALALI MK, 2007, SAUDI MED J, V28, P813; Al-Ghamdi SM, 2003, SAUDI MED J, V24, P1073; Al-Ghizawi G. J., 2007, Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, V13, P230; Al-Moyed K A, 2003, East Mediterr Health J, V9, P279; Al-Muhairi S, 2006, Monaldi Arch Chest Dis, V65, P13; Al-Muhairi SS, 2006, SAUDI MED J, V27, P1044; Alzeer A, 1998, J INFECTION, V36, P303, DOI 10.1016-S0163-4453(98)94315-8; Babay HA, 2000, SAUDI MED J, V21, P860; Balkhy HH, 2006, INT J INFECT DIS, V10, P326, DOI 10.1016-j.ijid.2005.06.013; Behbehani N, 2005, MED PRIN PRACT, V14, P235, DOI 10.1159-000085741; BISHAY FK, ...
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an emerging community-acquired pathogen among patients without established risk factors for MRSA infection (e.g., recent hospitalization, recent surgery, residence in a long-term-care facility [LTCF], or injecting-drug use [IDU]) (1). Since 1996, the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) and the Indian Health Service (IHS) have investigated cases of community-acquired MRSA infection in patients without established risk factors. This report describes four fatal cases among children with community-acquired MRSA; the MRSA strains isolated from these patients appear to be different from typical nosocomial MRSA strains in antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) characteristics.. Case Reports. Case 1. In July 1997, a 7-year-old black girl from urban Minnesota was admitted to a tertiary-care hospital with a temperature of 103 F (39.5 C) and right groin pain. An infected right hip joint was diagnosed; she ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ampicillin and penicillin concentration in serum and pleural fluid of hospitalized children with community-acquired pneumonia. AU - Giachetto, Gustavo. AU - Pirez, María Catalina. AU - Nanni, Luciana. AU - Martínez, Adriana. AU - Montano, Alicia. AU - Algorta, Gabriela. AU - Kaplan, Sheldon L.. AU - Ferrari, Ana María. PY - 2004/7/1. Y1 - 2004/7/1. N2 - Background: Optimal therapeutic efficacy of β-lactam antibiotics for treatment of pneumococcal pneumonia is thought to be associated with the serum concentration greater than the minimum inhibitory concentration for 40-50% of the interdose interval at site of infection. Objective: Establish whether intravenous administration of ampicillin 400 mg/kg/day or penicillin 200,000 IU/kg/day in 6 divided doses reaches serum and or pleural concentrations above 4 μg/ml for at least 40% of the interdose interval. Materials and Methods: Hospitalized healthy children 1 month-14 years old with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and ...
Ekloef and Schmidt Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine2012, 20(Suppl 2):P10http://www.sjtrem.com/content/20/S2/P10 Community-acquired pneumonia: a comparisonof clinical treatment failure in patients treatedwith either penicillin or cefuroximeJosefin Ekloef*, Thomas A Schmidt From 4th Danish Emergency Medicine ConferenceRoskilde, Denmark. 25-26 November 2011 cefuroxime. Forty percent of the patients treated with National and local guidelines in the Emergency depart- penicillin experienced CTF compared to 17% in the ment (ED) at Holbaek hospital recommend penicillin as group treated with cefuroxime (p=0.347). Patients were first-line treatment of community-acquired pneumonia followed for 9 days. At 5 days, a survival rate without (CAP). Nevertheless, the use of cefuroxime seem to be CTF was estimated to 0,75 for cefuroxime and 0.54 for substantial when admitting patients with CAP ...
Our comprehensive search strategy identified 14 studies describing an association between kidney disease and acute community-acquired infection. Although between-study heterogeneity precluded meta-analysis, all studies were consistent with a positive direction of association. Four studies which reported estimates on more than one category of kidney disease found a graded association in which risk of infection increased with greater severity of CKD. These four studies excluded patients with ESRD, and three were at low risk of bias in all categories of quality assessment.22 ,23 ,26 ,27. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review to address this research question systematically. We used a sensitive search strategy, with a broad definition of kidney disease, for a thorough and inclusive search. The results are consistent with the conclusion of previous narrative reviews: that an association between CKD and infection incidence is likely, but that there is a paucity of ...
TABLE: Emerging Therapies in Development for Community-Acquired Pneumonia, 2004 summarizes emerging antibacterial agents in late-stage development and their expected sales potential in the community-acquired pneumonia market.
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common infection. Approximately 20 percent of all episodes of pneumonia result in hospitalization. It is the leading cause of community-acquired infection requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission. In pulmonary infections, the release of cytokines and other inflammatory mediators from alveolar macrophages serves as a mechanism by which invading pathogens are eliminated. However, this reaction of the innate immune system can be potentially harmful when excessive release of circulating inflammatory cytokines causes damage to the patient, particularly the lung. Interest in the role of corticosteroids in the pathophysiology of critical illness has existed since the early part of the 20th century. On ICU, early treatment with corticosteroids to attenuate systemic inflammation is widespread. At the same time, outside the ICU little evidence is available on the effect of treatment with corticosteroids in patients diagnosed with CAP. Theoretically, early ...
OBJECTIVE: The 2007 American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America (ATS/IDSA) guidelines recommend that community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients admitted to hospital wards initially receive respiratory fluoroquinolone monotherapy or beta-lactam plus macrolide combination therapy. There is little evidence as to which regimen is preferred, or if differences in medical resource utilization exist between therapies. Thus, the authors compared length of hospital stay (LOS) and length of intravenous antibiotic therapy (LOIV) for patients who received initial levofloxacin 750 mg daily versus ceftriaxone 1000 mg plus azithromycin 500 mg daily (combination therapy).. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Adult hospital CAP cases from January 2005 to December 2007 were identified by principal discharge diagnosis code. Patients with a chest infiltrate and medical notes indicative of CAP were included. Direct intensive care unit admits and healthcare-associated cases were excluded. A propensity ...
Authors: Edberg M, Furebring M, Sjölin J, Enblad P.. BACKGROUND: Reports about neurointensive care of severe community-acquired meningitis are few. The aims of this retrospective study were to review the acute clinical course, management and outcome in a series of bacterial meningitis patients receiving neurointensive care.. METHODS: Thirty patients (median age 51, range 1-81) admitted from a population of 2 million people during 7 years were studied. The neurointensive care protocol included escalated stepwise treatment with mild hyperventilation, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage, continuous thiopentotal infusion and decompressive craniectomy. Clinical outcome was assessed using the Glasgow outcome scale.. RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients did not respond to commands on arrival, five were non-reacting and five had dilated pupils. Twenty-two patients had positive CSF cultures: Streptococcus pneumoniae (n=18), Neisseria meningitidis (n=2), β-streptococcus group A (n=1) and Staphylococcus aureus ...
4. Genomics to Combact Resistance against Antibiotics in Community-acquired Lower Respiratory Tract Infections in Europe [GRACE]. Network of Excellence, Contract nº LSHM-CT-2005-518226. Funding: European Commission. Principal Contractor: University Hospital Antwerp, Belgium. Participating Institutions: ITQB and 23 others. March 2006/April 2010.. 5. CONtrol of COmmunity-acquired MRSA: Rationale and Development of counteractions [CONCORD]. Project FP7-Health-F3-2008-222718. Funding: European Commission. Principal contractor: University Medical Centre Utrecht, The Netherlands. Participating institutions: ITQB and 8 others. January 2009/Junho 2012.. 6. Translational Research on Combating Antimicrobial Resistance [TROCAR]. Project FP7-Health-F3-2008-223031. Funding: European Commission. Principal contractor: Institut Dinvestigacions Biomèdiques August Pi I Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain. Participating institutions: ITQB and 15 others. January 2009/Junho 2012.. 7. A comprehensive ...
Length of hospital stay (LOS) in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is variable and directly related to medical costs. Accurate estimation of LOS on admission and during follow-up may result in earlier and more efficient discharge strategies. This is a prospective multicenter study including patients in emergency departments of 6 tertiary care hospitals in Switzerland between October 2006 and March 2008. Medical history, clinical data at presentation and health care insurance class were collected. We calculated univariate and multivariate cox regression models to assess the association of different characteristics with LOS. In a split sample analysis, we created two LOS prediction rules, first including only admission data, and second including also additional inpatient information. The mean LOS in the 875 included CAP patients was 9.8 days (95%CI 9.3-10.4). Older age, respiratory rate |20 pm, nursing home residence, chronic pulmonary disease, diabetes, multilobar CAP and the pneumonia
Background: In Western settings, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) due to Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) is relatively rare. Previous studies from Asia, however, indicate a higher prevalence of GNB in CAP, but data, particularly from Southeast Asia, are limited. Methods: This is a prospective observational study of 1451 patients ≥15 y of age with CAP from two hospitals in Cambodia between 2007 and 2010. The proportion of GNB was estimated. Risk factors and clinical characteristics of CAP due to GNB were assessed using logistic regression models. Results: The prevalence of GNB was 8.6% in all CAP patients and 15.8% among those with a valid respiratory sample. GNB infection was independently associated with diabetes, higher leucocyte count and CAP severity. Mortality was higher in patients with CAP due to GNB. Conclusions: We found a high proportion of GNB in a population hospitalized for CAP in Cambodia. Given the complex antimicrobial sensitivity patterns of certain GNBs and the rapid
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a heterogeneous disease causing great morbidity, mortality and health care burden globally. Typing methods for discriminating different clinical conditions of the same disease are essential to a better management of CAP. Traditional typing systems based separately on clinical manifestations (such as PSI and CURB-65), pathogens(bacterial types, virulence, drug resistance, etc) or host immune state (immunocompetent, immunocompromised or immunodeficiency). Thus, they are barely able to represent the real disease status nor to precisely predict the mortality.. As the development of multi-omic technologies, the relatedness of different phenotypes at a molecular level have revolutionized our ability to differentiate among patients. Our study is aimed at establishing a novel molecular typing method of CAP. Multi-omic (including genomics, transcriptomes, and metabolisms) data obtained from enrolled CAP patients and isolated pathogens would be integrated analyzed and ...
Gatifloxacin is an 8-methoxy fluoroquinolone with broad activity against respiratory tract pathogens, including those commonly associated with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). To evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral gatifloxacin 400 mg once daily for seven to 14 days, community-based physicians enrolled adult outpatients with confirmed or suspected CAP in a prospective, single-arm, open-label, noncomparative study. Of 1488 clinically evaluable patients with radiographically confirmed or clinically suspected CAP, 1417 (95.2%) were cured. All strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis, the most commonly isolated pathogens, were susceptible to gatifloxacin. Penicillin nonsusceptibility was seen in 32.6% of S. pneumoniae isolates, and beta-lactamase production was detected in H. influenzae (26.9%) and M. catarrhalis (88%) isolates. Clinical cure rates of 91%, 94%, and 92% were achieved in patients with S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis,
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the most common infections presenting to the emergency department (ED). Increasingly, antibiotic resistant bacteria have been identified as causative pathogens in patients treated for CAP, especially in patients with healthcare exposure risk factors. We retrospectively identified adult subjects treated for CAP in the ED requiring hospital admission (January 2003-December 2011). Inappropriate antibiotic treatment, defined as an antibiotic regimen that lacked in vitro activity against the isolated pathogen, served as the primary end point. Information regarding demographics, severity of illness, comorbidities, and antibiotic treatment was recorded. Logistic regression was used to determine factors independently associated with inappropriate treatment. The initial cohort included 259 patients, 72 (27.8%) receiving inappropriate antibiotic treatment. There was no difference in hospital mortality between patients receiving inappropriate and appropriate treatment
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) refers to pneumonia (any of several lung diseases) contracted by a person with little contact with the healthcare system. The chief difference between hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and CAP is that patients with HAP live in long-term care facilities or have recently visited a hospital. CAP is common, affecting people of all ages, and its symptoms occur as a result of oxygen-absorbing areas of the lung (alveoli) filling with fluid. This inhibits lung function, causing dyspnea, fever, chest pains and cough. CAP, the most common type of pneumonia, is a leading cause of illness and death worldwide. Its causes include bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. CAP is diagnosed by assessing symptoms, making a physical examination and on x-ray. Other tests, such as sputum examination, supplement chest x-rays. Patients with CAP sometimes require hospitalization, and it is treated primarily with antibiotics, antipyretics and cough medicine. Some forms of CAP can be ...
Community-acquired pneumonia substantially affects patient morbidity and mortality, and has significant health care costs. This type of pneumonia has more impact on elderly patients, who tend to have longer hospital stays and a higher cost per stay compared with younger patients. Multiple published guidelines provide physicians with information about when to admit patients with community-acquired pneumonia, which antibiotic therapy is appropriate, how long to treat, and when it is suitable to discharge patients from the hospital. These treatment strategies do not take into account the emergence of resistant organisms and the poorly understood impact of community-acquired pneumonia on younger patients. Although various studies have looked at combination antibiotic therapy, they rarely have been comparative. Brown and colleagues examined the effect of initial antibiotic therapy for community-acquired pneumonia on selected clinical outcomes.. The authors analyzed a hospital database of adult ...
Community-acquired pneumonia is diagnosed by clinical features (e.g., cough, fever, pleuritic chest pain) and by lung imaging, usually an infiltrate seen on chest radiography. Initial evaluation should determine the need for hospitalization versus outpatient management using validated mortality or severity prediction scores. Selected diagnostic laboratory testing, such as sputum and blood cultures, is indicated for inpatients with severe illness but is rarely useful for outpatients. Initial outpatient therapy should include a macrolide or doxycycline. For outpatients with comorbidities or who have used antibiotics within the previous three months, a respiratory fluoroquinolone (levofloxacin, gemifloxacin, or moxifloxacin), or an oral beta-lactam antibiotic plus a macrolide should be used. Inpatients not admitted to an intensive care unit should receive a respiratory fluoroquinolone, or a beta-lactam antibiotic plus a macrolide. Patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia or who are ...
The Outpatient Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults GUIDELINES Pocket Card is based on the latest guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Guidelines recommend blood culture sampling from hospitalized patients with suspected community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, the yield of true-positive results is low. We investigated the benefit of procalcitonin (PCT) on hospital admission to predict blood culture positivity in CAP ...
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is defined as an acute infection of the pulmonary parenchyma in a patient who has acquired the infection in the community, as distinguished from hospital-acquired (nosocomial) pneumonia (HAP).CAP is a common and pot
ABSTRACTObjective:Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common presentation to the emergency department (ED) and has high mortality rates. The aim of our study is to investigate the risk stratification and prognostic prediction value of precalcitonin (PCT) and clinical severity scores on patients
Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are responsible for high morbidity and mortality in pediatric patients, particularly in children less than five years old. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the most serious cause of ARI. Each year, from two to three million children die of pneumonia, predominantly in developing countries, and this is attributed to more severe clinical conditions, the involvement of bacteria as etiological agents, and less access to health care services and adequate therapy. This study aimed to compare clinical response to initial empirical treatment of Oxacillin associated with Ceftriaxone to Amoxicillin associated with Clavulanic Acid in children aged from two months to five years, diagnosed with severe community-acquired Pneumonia, who require hospitalization. It also aimed to evaluate the time for clinical recovery (fever and tachypnea) and the need for extending the antimicrobial spectrum in order to determine therapeutic failure in the proposed schemes. It is a ...
In a randomized clinical trial of antibiotic treatments for community-acquired pneumonia, researchers did not find that monotherapy with β-lactam alone was worse than a combination therapy with a macrolide in patients hospitalized with moderately severe pneumonia.
Introduction: Data describing real-life management and treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Europe are limited. The REtrospective Study to Assess the Clinical Management of Patients With Moderate-to-severe cSSTI or CAP Infections in the Hospital Setting (REACH) (NCT01293435) was an observational retrospective study that collected data on the management of European patients hospitalized with CAP in order to review current clinical practices and outcomes related to initial treatment failure, and to assess intercountry differences. Methods: Patients were aged ≥18 years, hospitalized with CAP between March 2010 and February 2011, and required in-hospital management and treatment with intravenous antibiotics. An electronic Case Report Form was used to collect a number of patient, disease and treatment variables, including type of CAP, medical history, treatment setting, antibiotic treatments and clinical outcomes, particularly treatment failure. Results: Patients (N=2039) were ...
Pneumonia is a type of lung infection. It can cause breathing problems and other symptoms. In community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), you get infected in a community setting. It doesnt happen in a hospital, nursing home, or other healthcare center.
Objective: To investigate the pathogens and antibiotic resistance of Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) in children under 5 y old in our hospital duri..
TY - JOUR. T1 - Diagnostic accuracy of a serotype-specific antigen test in community-acquired pneumonia. AU - Huijts, S.M.. AU - Pride, M.W.. AU - Vos, J.M.. AU - Jansen, K.U.. AU - Webber, C.. AU - Gruber, W.. AU - Boersma, W.G.. AU - Snijders, D.. AU - Kluijtmans, J.A.J.W.. AU - van der Lee, I.. AU - Kuipers, B.A.. AU - van den Ende, A.. AU - Bonten, M.J.M.. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. U2 - 10.1183/09031936.00137412. DO - 10.1183/09031936.00137412. M3 - Article. C2 - 23397295. VL - 42. SP - 1283. EP - 1290. JO - European Respiratory Journal. JF - European Respiratory Journal. SN - 0903-1936. IS - 5. ER - ...
Marion Giry, Marie Gueudin, Déborah Boyer, Adeline Baron, Gaetan Beduneau, et al.. Impact of respiratory viruses in intensive care unit patient with community-acquired pneumonia : a one-year retrospective single-centre study.. ECCMID, Apr 2019, Amsterdam, Netherlands. ⟨hal-02264276⟩ ...
Of the 224 episodes of community-acquired pneumonia, 8.5% were attended at private institutions, a datum that is difficult to compare with other studies since the use of private healthcare resources depends on the healthcare system of each study area. Despite the fact that primary care plays an important role in the management of community-acquired pneumonia, the low diagnostic yield (20% of cases) at this level is surprising. This may be explained by the lack of availability of chest radiography such that many patients are referred to the hospital emergency department, as well as for the tendency of patients in Maresme to seek care directly from the hospital emergency service 24. A study carried out in Spain in the primary care setting showed that 29.7% of cases of community-acquired pneumonia were diagnosed at hospital emergency services 25. In the study of Weingarten et al. 26, 55% of diagnoses of community-acquired pneumonia were established at the emergency department.. After discharge from ...
Given the dramatic advances in antimicrobials since penicillin was introduced, why has the mortality rate associated with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remained essentially unchanged?
C(U)RB-65 (confusion, (urea |7 mol · L(-1),) respiratory frequency ≥ 30 breaths · min(-1), systolic blood pressure |90 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≤60 mmHg and age ≥ 65 years) is now the generally accepted severity score for patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Europe. In a …
It is classified as either community or hospital acquired depending on where the patient contracted the infection. It is life- ... Pakhale S, Mulpuru S, Verheij TJ, Kochen MM, Rohde GG, Bjerre LM (October 2014). "Antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia ... Lodha R, Kabra SK, Pandey RM (June 2013). "Antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia in children". The Cochrane Database of ... Typical bacterial Infections: Haemophilus influenzae Staphylococcus aureus Klebsiella pneumoniae Atypical bacterial Infections ...
MRSA has also been recognized with increasing frequency in community-acquired infections. The symptoms of a Staph Infection ... A staphylococcal infection or staph infection is an infection caused by members of the Staphylococcus genus of bacteria. These ... Staphylococcus bacteria is one of the leading community-acquired bacteria. According to the CDC[citation needed], after a push ... Staph infection is typically characterized by redness, pus, swelling, and tenderness in areas of the infection. But, each type ...
Lastly, a community-acquired infection is one in which the infection is acquired from a whole community. One manner of proving ... and community-acquired infection. A mixed infection is an infection that is caused by two or more pathogens. An example of this ... Urinary tract infection Skin infection Respiratory tract infection Odontogenic infection (an infection that originates within a ... A nosocomial infection is also one that occurs in a health care setting. Nosocomial infections are those that are acquired ...
Gavranich, John B; Chang, Anne B (2015). "Antibiotics for community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections secondary to ... Infections associated with diseases are those infections that are associated with possible infectious etiologies that meet the ... The history of infection and disease were observed in the 1800s and related to the one of the tick-borne diseases, Rocky ... COMMON INFECTIONS AND UNCOMMON DISEASE: ELUSIVE ASSOCIATIONS OF ENTEROVIRUSES AND TYPE I DIABETES MELLITUS". In Knobler, Stacey ...
Skin ulceration or wounds, respiratory tract infections, and IV drug use are the most important causes of community-acquired ... E.coli bacteremia is usually the result of a urinary tract infection. Other organisms that can cause community-acquired ... Bloodstream infections (BSIs), which include bacteremias when the infections are bacterial and fungemias when the infections ... "Community-acquired bacterial bloodstream infections in developing countries in south and southeast Asia: a systematic review". ...
Respiratory Infections. United Kingdom: CRC Press, 2006. Menendez, Rosario. Community-Acquired Pneumonia: Strategies for ... Leeper, Kenneth V.. Severe Community Acquired Pneumonia. Germany: Springer US, 2013. Webb, Andrew. Oxford Textbook of Critical ... Torres, Antoni; Peetermans, Willy E.; Viegi, Giovanni; Blasi, Francesco (2013-11-01). "Risk factors for community-acquired ... "Hydrocortisone Infusion for Severe Community-acquired Pneumonia". American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. ...
The symptoms of CAP are the result of lung infection by microorganisms and the response of the immune system to the infection. ... Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) refers to pneumonia (any of several lung diseases) contracted by a person outside of the ... October 1995). "Community-acquired pneumonia: impact of immune status". American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care ... April 2004). "Viral community-acquired pneumonia in nonimmunocompromised adults". Chest. 125 (4): 1343-51. doi:10.1378/chest. ...
... it can also be acquired later from the mother from breast milk or from environmental and community sources. GBS-LOD commonly ... GBS infections in adults include urinary tract infection, skin and soft-tissue infection (skin and skin structure infection) ... GBS infections in the mother can cause chorioamnionitis (intra-amniotic infection or severe infection of the placental tissues ... Group B streptococcal infection, also known as Group B streptococcal disease or just Group B strep, is the infection caused by ...
Community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA); Hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA)". National Institute of Health. 30 May 2009. "Healthcare- ... Most of these infections occur within the long-term healthcare setting. Serious VRE infections are common among those who have ... Serious staph infections are more common in people with weak immune systems, particularly patients in hospitals and long-term ... Serious staph infections are quite difficult to treat, due to increasing numbers of antibiotic-resistant strains of S. aureus ...
Falagas, ME; Karveli, EA; Kelesidis, I; Kelesidis, T (2007). "Community acquired Acinetobacter infections". Eur J Clin ... having been implicated in a number of hospital-acquired infections such as bacteremia, urinary tract infections (UTIs), ... It can cause various other infections, including skin and wound infections, bacteremia, and meningitis, but A. lwoffi is mostly ... to community-acquired primary meningitis wherein the majority of the victims were children. Case reports also link A. baumannii ...
One in ten hospital-acquired infections is from Pseudomonas. Cystic fibrosis patients are also predisposed to P. aeruginosa ... January 1996). "Prognosis and outcomes of patients with community-acquired pneumonia. A meta-analysis". JAMA. 275 (2): 134-41. ... On the rare occasions where infection is superficial and limited (for example, ear infections or nail infections), topical ... Pseudomonas can, in rare circumstances, cause community-acquired pneumonias, as well as ventilator-associated pneumonias, being ...
The value of serum procalcitonin in treatment of community acquired pneumonia in outpatient]". Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi. 48 (3): ... In the case of virus infections this is due to the fact that one of the cellular responses to a viral infection is to produce ... "Procalcitonin guidance for reduction of antibiotic use in low-risk outpatients with community-acquired pneumonia". Respirology ... "Procalcitonin guidance of antibiotic therapy in community-acquired pneumonia: a randomized trial". American Journal of ...
In community-acquired infections, they are recommended only when risk factors for multidrug resistance are present or after ... It has been recommended that fluoroquinolones not be used as a first-line agent for community-acquired pneumonia, instead ... quinolones for community-acquired pneumonia: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Clinical Microbiology and ... September 2013). "Community-associated Clostridium difficile infection and antibiotics: a meta-analysis". Journal of ...
Sharma, A; Shariff, M; Thukral, SS; Shah, A (October 2005). "Chronic community-acquired Acinetobacter pneumonia that responded ... Being referred to as an opportunistic infection, A. baumannii infections are highly prevalent in hospital settings. A. ... Some possible types of A. baumannii infections include:[citation needed] Pneumonia Bloodstream infections Meningitis Wound and ... surgical site infections, including necrotizing fasciitis Urinary tract infections Symptoms of A. baumannii infections are ...
Community-acquired pneumonia due to C. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, M. pneumoniae, or S. pneumoniae Uncomplicated skin infections ... This includes middle ear infections, strep throat, pneumonia, traveler's diarrhea, and certain other intestinal infections. ... "Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired ... "Gonococcal Infections - 2015 STD Treatment Guidelines". Archived from the original on 1 March 2016. Burton M, Habtamu E, Ho D, ...
2002). "Distribution of Legionella Species and Serogroups Isolated by Culture in Patients with Sporadic Community-Acquired ... Infections may be asymptomatic, and are strongly associated with the respiratory system. Early symptoms can include fever, ... A multinational study found that less than 3% of reported Legionella infections were due to L. anisa. van der Mee-Marquet N, ... "Symptoms of Legionella anisa infection". Right Diagnosis. Retrieved 2013-06-28. Yu VL, Plouffe JF, Pastoris MC, et al. ( ...
Moreover, multidrug-resistant infections can leave the hospital and become part of the community flora if steps are not taken ... A hospital-acquired infection, also known as a nosocomial infection (from the Greek nosokomeion, meaning "hospital"), is an ... To reduce the number of hospital-acquired infections, the state of Maryland implemented the Maryland Hospital-Acquired ... In the US, the most frequent type of hospital infection is urinary tract infection (36%), followed by surgical site infection ( ...
These community-acquired infections occur principally in immunocompetent individuals. While many H. cinaedi infections in ... Hospital-born, medical setting-born, and community-born infections in smaller numbers of patients have also been reported. ... Less commonly, infected individuals have presented with septic arthritis, infection of an artificial joint, infection of a ... particularly those who acquire it in a community setting, typically display no life-threatening or other symptoms except fever ...
It can be a cause of neonatal infections. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the main cause of community acquired pneumonia and ... van de Beek, Diederik; de Gans, Jan; Tunkel, Allan R.; Wijdicks, Eelco F.M. (5 January 2006). "Community-Acquired Bacterial ... S. pneumoniae infection stimulates polymorphonuclear leukocytes (granulocytes) to produce an oxidative burst that is ... The organism also causes many types of pneumococcal infections other than pneumonia. These invasive pneumococcal diseases ...
S. saprophyticus is a common cause of community-acquired urinary tract infections. Staphylococcus saprophyticus was not ... it is the second-most common cause of community-acquired UTIs, after Escherichia coli. Sexual activity increases the risk of S ... saprophyticus infection. This is because unlike Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae urinary tract infections, S. saprophyticus ... Even when such an infection occurs above the neck of the bladder, low numbers of colony-forming units (less than 105 cfu/ml) ...
... his insights and treatment of anaerobic abdominal and pulmonary infections, community-acquired pneumonia, bioterrorism, and ... Bartlett, John G.; Mundy, Linda M. (1995). "Community-Acquired Pneumonia". New England Journal of Medicine. 333 (24): 1618-1624 ... The Johns Hopkins University Press published in 1991 The Guide to Living with HIV Infection by Dr. Bartlett and Ann Finkbeiner ... Friedland, Gerald H. (1992). "The Guide to Living with HIV Infection: Developed at the Johns Hopkins AIDS Clinic". JAMA: The ...
Treatment of infections in burns was his focus and in 1942 he moved to Glasgow as Director of the Medical Research Council's ... They were acquired by women after childbirth rather than before. Working together, the Colebrooks showed that streptococci were ... This showed that the strains causing puerperal sepsis were not special but were the same ones present in the community that ... He stayed initially at St Mary's Hospital but in 1917 was transferred to France where he worked on wound infections with Sir ...
They were acquired by women after childbirth rather than before. Working together, the Colebrooks showed that streptococci were ... This showed that the strains causing puerperal sepsis were not special but were the same ones present in the community that ... She investigated the source of the streptococcal infections within the hospital. After collecting samples of the bacteria from ... Colebrook, Dora C (1935). The source of infection in puerperal fever due to haemolytic streptococci. London: Medical Research ...
... for treatment of community-acquired respiratory infections". Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs. 17 (3): 387-400. doi: ... is a ketolide antibiotic undergoing research for the treatment of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) and for the prevention of ... for cethromycin to treat mild-to-moderate community acquired pneumonia. On December 3, 2008 Advanced Life Sciences announced ... Originally discovered and developed by Abbott, it was acquired by Advanced Life Sciences Inc. for further development. On ...
"Oral Antibiotics in Clinical Development for Community-Acquired Urinary Tract Infections". Infectious Diseases and Therapy. 10 ... Bader MS, Loeb M, Leto D, Brooks AA (April 2020). "Treatment of urinary tract infections in the era of antimicrobial resistance ... especially in the treatment of multiple drug resistant urinary tract infections. Imipenem Tebipenem Minamimura M, Taniyama Y, ...
"Role of thiamphenicol in the treatment of community-acquired lung infections". Med Trop (Mars). 64 (1): 33-8. PMID 15224555. ... Thiamphenicol is also widely used in Brazil, particularly for the treatment of sexually transmitted infections and pelvic ...
Henao-Martínez AF, González-Fontal GR, Johnson S (June 2012). "A case of community-acquired Acinetobacter junii-johnsonii ... This bacterium has been linked to nosocomial infections including catheter-related blood stream infections and cellulitis. ... February 2009). "Clinical characteristics of patients with Acinetobacter junii infection". Journal of Microbiology, Immunology ... and Infection = Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran Za Zhi. 42 (1): 47-53. PMID 19424558. Tsai, H.-Y.; Cheng, A.; Liu, C.-Y.; Huang, Y.-T.; Lee ...
... causing periods of increased shedding that could substantially contribute to community-acquired infection rates. As a result of ... Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI or C-diff), also known as Clostridium difficile infection, is a symptomatic infection ... of infections are transmitted within hospitals. The majority of infections are acquired outside of hospitals, where medications ... Increasing rates of community-acquired CDI are associated with the use of medication to suppress gastric acid production: H2- ...
Uropathogenic E. coli from the gut is the cause of 80-85% of community-acquired urinary tract infections, with Staphylococcus ... Kidney infection, if it occurs, usually follows a bladder infection but may also result from a blood-borne infection. Diagnosis ... A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract. When it affects the lower urinary tract ... Up to 10% of women have a urinary tract infection in a given year, and half of women have at least one infection at some point ...
Reddy, Elizabeth A.; Shaw, Andrea V.; Crump, John A. (2010). "Community-acquired bloodstream infections in Africa: a systematic ... "A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of the Prevalence of Community-Onset Bloodstream Infections among Hospitalized Patients ... Prasad, Namrata; Sharples, Katrina J.; Murdoch, David R.; Crump, John A. (2015). "Community prevalence of fever and ...
He was active in community affairs and colonial and state politics, as well as national and international affairs. From 1785 to ... who could never acquire the "Complexion" of Anglo-American settlers and referred to "Blacks and Tawneys" as weakening the ... but receiv'd the Distemper in the common Way of Infection ... I intended to have my Child inoculated.". The child had a bad ... ISBN 978-1-4800-6550-5. Olson, Lester C. Benjamin Franklin's Vision of American Community: A Study in Rhetorical Iconology. ( ...
These infections can be with or without symptoms. In severe cases, persistent infections can lead to norovirus‐associated ... "Takeda to Acquire LigoCyte Pharmaceuticals, Inc". Archived from the original on 2013-06-29. Retrieved 2013-06-22. Baehner, F.; ... national health authorities and the scientific community to use the virus name Norwalk virus, rather than the genus name ... More than 70% of the diners at an adjacent table fell ill; at a table on the other side of the restaurant, the infection rate ...
31 August 2020: Sex workers in Vienna who wish to acquire their Green Health Cards which are required for legal work can now ... A quarter of the arrested unregistered prostitutes had multiple infections with sexually transmitted diseases. On the other ... Restaurants, cafés, brothels and other community places are still closed. 4 May 2020: Restaurants, bars, cafés may reopen ... some women need to wait up to a few months before they can acquire their legal documents and start working again. As a result ...
HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS is considered by many in the scientific and medical community to be the most lethal infectious disease in the ... As part of the trial protocol, a volunteer must have begun drug treatment in the first year of infection and have achieved 6 ... In 2002 laboratory space, equipment and personnel were acquired and work on an HIV-1 vaccine development plan began, and in May ... Gay and bisexual men bear the greatest burden by risk group, representing nearly 70% of new infections in the U.S. African- ...
The plaster repels water, and stops dirt and germs from entering the wound, thus preventing infection. At first, the plaster ... Rutter, Paul (2013). "Evidence base for over-the-counter medication". Community Pharmacy: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment. ... which was then acquired by HRA Pharma in 2017. Compeed plasters are still manufactured by Coloplast. The product originally was ...
This infection is also common in poor communities in Sub-Saharan Africa and impoverished parts of Asia. This neglected ... women and children who do their household chores by the water are more likely to acquire the disease. Activities that women and ... HIV infection and TB are also closely tied. Being infected with HIV increases the rate of activation of latent TB infections, ... Chronic worm infections can further burden the immune system. At the same time, chronic worm infections can cause immune ...
New infections and deaths started to break records by late October 2021. By then, a total of 2.8 million coronavirus cases and ... Community contracted cases caused numbers to rise from 600 to 1,000 in November resulting in another lockdown.[citation needed ... In Hungary, prime minister Viktor Orban acquired near absolute powers through such legislation on 3 April. The European Union's ... A cluster of infections was discovered in Haute-Savoie which originated from a British national who had visited Singapore. From ...
Rabindra Abeyasinghe, confirmed community transmission and dominance of SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant in the country, based on the ... However, donated vaccines can only be accepted by DOH upon acquiring EUA from FDA. January 17 - In less than a year after its ... April 26 - The country had breached 1-M mark on the number of COVID-19 cases with additional 8,929 new infections, swelling the ... At least 61 out of 146 cities in the country already set to acquire COVID-19 vaccines for their residents according to League ...
During the nationwide community lockdown amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, Nina staged a two-hour acoustic concert via Facebook ... During their relationship, the couple acquired real estate properties in Boracay which were later sold after their break-up in ... She maintains a healthy food diet to easily recover from throat infections. She sings at least twenty songs a day for practice ... Like the previous one, the concert was held during Enhanced Community Quarantine (ECQ) re-imposition period. The following day ...
Breakthrough infections happen in only a small proportion of people who are fully vaccinated. The U.S. Occupational Safety and ... Patterns of commerce may change, both in terms of what goods are demanded, and the means of acquiring these goods (such as ... The disease severity in the community where the business is located affects the responses taken. It has been suggested that ... Prevention of work-related infection in the COVID-19 pandemic May 2020. European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Healthy ...
She is the Co-Director of the Institute for Communities and Wildlife in Africa (iCWild), and was the founding director of the ... the cost to treat sick children who acquired AIDS from their mother was greater than to prevent the tragedy from happening. ... estimated that Mbeki's denialist policies led to the early deaths of more than 340,000 South Africans and 171,000 infections, ... "iCWild - Our team". Institute for Communities and Wildlife in Africa. Retrieved 10 June 2020. "ASRU - Overview - Researchers". ...
In a time of increased dangers from COVID-19, the detainees suffered from high risk of infection in crowded institutions. In ... The Reuters reported on 22 July 2020 about the expatriates community in Dubai, which has been affected largely by the economic ... Citizenship is rarely offered and labor can oftentimes be acquired below the legal minimum wage. Foreign workers often lack ... Especially members of underprivileged communities are attracted by the opportunities of living and working in the US. Some of ...
That's how he acquired a taste for blood. / Raiden: So that's why they call him Vamp... / Solid Snake: No, Vamp isn't for " ... Although Diamond Dogs are able to cure the infection, Quiet refuses the treatment owing to a latent desire for revenge. However ... Madnar bitterly defects to Zanzibar Land and develops Metal Gear D after being rejected by the scientific community. He comes ... But Philanthropy acquires a disk containing the Wisemen's Committee identities and learns that all 12 members have been dead ...
However, members do not live in a separate community-they participate in the general community as "salt and light" to the world ... In the 1770s Catherine the Great of the Russian Empire acquired a great deal of land north of the Black Sea (in present-day ... Infection rates in rural Mennonite areas are the highest in the region ... "Unfortunately, we have encountered insufficient co- ... Outreach and help to the wider community at home and abroad is encouraged. The Mennonite Central Committee (MCC) is a leader in ...
... including a laboratory-acquired infection of a natural or engineered virus. Some early rumors focused on the deliberate leak of ... on scientific research and the scientific community by implying that scientists who "bring up the lab-leak theory ... are doing ...
Community resources such as forums and guides exist in support of this play style. For example, if a player wants to play a ... Player motivation to outperform others is fueled by acquiring such items and is a significant determining factor in their ... and the potential human response to large-scale epidemic infection. However, due to Blizzard Entertainments failure to keep ... Over time, the MMORPG community has developed a sub-culture with its own slang and metaphors, as well as an unwritten list of ...
"Whitebark Pine Communities". Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center, United States Geological Survey. Archived from the ... In 2020 the National Park Service in partnership with the Conservation Fund acquired a 35-acre (14 ha) parcel located within ... Whitebark pine has generally had a lower incidence of blister rust infection throughout the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem than ... "Grand Teton National Park Acquires Parcel of Land in Collaboration with The Conservation Fund" (Press release). The ...
Candida species are acquired from the mother's vaginal canal during birth. At very young ages, the immune system is yet to ... Unusually for candidal infections, there is an absence of predisposing factors such as immunosuppression, and it occurs in ... Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology. 28 (2): 141-149. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0528.2000.028002141.x. PMID 10730723. Gleiznys A ... In humans, oral candidiasis is the most common form of candidiasis, by far the most common fungal infection of the mouth, and ...
One common host is the domestic cat, from which human infections are most often acquired. Cowpox virus has also infected a ... because many subsistence-level nomadic communities depend heavily on camels.[citation needed] The genus contains the following ... Human cowpox is a relatively severe localized infection. A survey of 54 cases reported three cases of generalized infection, ... Lesions alone are not diagnostic for Orthopoxvirus infection and may be mistaken for zoonotic Parapoxvirus infections, anthrax ...
In September 2020, Ineos inked a 10-year deal to acquire offshore wind power from Engie's Northern wind farm. Terms of the deal ... INEOS have invested in wide range of charitable projects in the fields of health, education, conservation and the community. In ... to help tackle the threat of drug resistant infections worldwide. INEOS Chairman, Sir Jim Ratcliffe also funds sustainable ... In June 2020, Ineos signed an intent to acquire the petrochemicals unit of BP for $5 billion. The business is focused on ...
In 1999 CVS acquired Soma.com, the first online pharmacy, and renamed it CVS.com. The same year, CVS launched their CVS ProCare ... "CVS Pharmacy y más, a New Personalized Shopping Experience for the Hispanic Community, Launches in the Los Angeles Market". CVS ... and bronchial infections, and provide prescriptions when clinically appropriate. MinuteClinic also offers common vaccinations, ... In 1977, CVS acquired the 36-store New Jersey-based Mack Drug chain. The chain had more than 400 stores by 1981. Sales reached ...
Acquiring a medieval executioner costume and weapon accessories, specifically an axe, sword and a dagger, by killing a man ... Zombie Crocodile: A zombified crocodile that is blind as a result of the infection, forcing it to hunt using its other senses. ... inserted in a community as the local sheriff. This TR-5 does not know it is a machine until its metal skeleton is exposed. In ... TR-4s are generally equipped with a handgun but are skilled in use of bludgeoning weapons they acquire, and have superhuman ...
Some also undertake to educate community leaders and public officials in reducing new infections and caring for Latinos living ... and aims to increase awareness of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in the Hispanic/ ... "Communities Rally for 4th Annual National Latino AIDS Awareness; Local Events Across the Nation Offer Testing and Prevention ... By the third NLAAD in 2005, the number of community partner organisations had reached 1000 and the day was marked in more than ...
Following a community outbreak of the Delta variant in Auckland and the Coromandel Peninsula in 17 August, Prime Minister ... Bauer Media's Australian and NZ operations were subsequently acquired by Mercury Capital, which revived the company as Are ... Harvey expressed concern that the return of cruiser ships to New Zealand could lead to an increased risk of COVID-19 infections ... Following the Delta community outbreak in mid-August 2021, there were reports of panic buying at several supermarkets including ...
Some communities of foragers migrated north, leading to changes in lifestyle and environment, with a decrease in temperatures ... acquired during life). People of Celtic (Irish, Scottish, Welsh, Cornish, Breton etc.), English, and Scandinavian origin have a ... it as an indicator of iron overload is that it can be elevated in a variety of other medical conditions including infection, ... Starting during the Mesolithic era, communities of people lived in an environment that was fairly sunny, warm and had the dry ...
Eventually the infections increased to around 200,000 to 300,000 infections. Brazil, Colombia and Vietnam made up of 41.5% of ... IoT defines a device with an identity like a citizen in a community and connect them to the internet to provide services to its ... For example, farmers can now monitor soil temperature and moisture from afar, and even apply IoT-acquired data to precision ... Commission of the European Communities (18 June 2009). "Internet of Things - An action plan for Europe" (PDF). COM(2009) 278 ...
In addition, Dmowski wished to acquire the oil fields of Galicia. His support for that was however more lackluster than that ... In Dmowski's opinion Jewish community was not attracted to the cause of Polish independence and was likely to ally itself with ... he also spent much of that year either in Paris or recuperating from a lung infection, in Algeria. He reorganized endecja into ... Within the Polish political community, he opposed those who supported allying themselves with Germany and Austria-Hungary, ...
"Prognostic implications of aspiration pneumonia in patients with community acquired pneumonia: A systematic review with meta- ... Infection can be due to a variety of bacteria. Risk factors include decreased level of consciousness, problems with swallowing ... Aspiration pneumonia is a type of lung infection that is due to a relatively large amount of material from the stomach or mouth ... By reducing the amount of bacteria in the mouth, the likelihood of infection when aspiration occurs is reduced as well. For ...
COVID-19 pandemic in the United States: The number of daily infections in the U.S. exceeds one million for the first time, with ... "Kanye West to acquire conservative social media platform Parler , CNN Business". CNN. October 17, 2022. Fung, Brian (December 1 ... Nearly one million people across twenty-three communities are affected. FBI search of Mar-a-Lago: armed Trump supporters ... April 25 - After weeks of speculation, Elon Musk proposes to acquire social media website Twitter for $44 billion. April 28 The ...
These cells were acquired from a fetus that spontaneously aborted after ten weeks in gestation. One of the most formidable ... Nevertheless, plasticity in neuronal networks is a phenomenon that is well-established in the neuroscience community, and one ... Like most cell cultures, neuron cultures are highly susceptible to infection. They are also susceptible to hyperosmolality from ...
Relationship between demographic characteristics and community-acquired urinary tract infection  Astal, Z.Y.; Sharif, F.A. (‎ ... To investigate the effect of age, sex and marital status on the etiology of community-acquired urinary tract infection and the ... Community-based surveillance of antimicrobial use and resistance in resource-constrained settings: report on five pilot ... "Community-Acquired Infections". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W. X. Y. Z. * 0-9 ...
Community acquired bacterial infections and their antimicrobial susceptibility in Nairobi, Kenya. Authors:. Malonza, I.M.. ...
Antibiotic resistance trends in paediatric community-acquired first urinary tract infections in the United Arab Emirates ... Bacterial susceptibility to oral antibiotics in community acquired urinary tract infection. Archives of disease of childhood, ... There has been no significant increase in antibiotic resistance to urinary pathogens in community-acquired infections ... Antibiotic resistance trends in paediatric community-acquired first urinary tract infections in the United Arab Emirates ...
Similarly, a significant rise in resistance over time was seen in studies reporting on community-acquired E. coli UTI. ... Systematic reviews of studies investigating ciprofloxacin resistance in community- and hospital-acquired E. coli urinary tract ... CI 0.24-0.31 in community-acquired UTIs, P < 0.001). Resistance significantly varied by region and country with the highest ... meta-analysed studies investigating ciprofloxacin resistance in community- and hospital-acquired E. coli UTIs. Observational ...
Clinical spectrum and antimicrobial resistance pattern of skin and soft tissue infections caused by community acquired- ... The infection was considered to be community-acquired as per the CDC case definition, which includes any MRSA infection ... Out of 224 patients with community acquired skin and soft tissue infections, 59 (26.3%) were diagnosed with pyoderma caused by ... The significance of this pathogen in community acquired skin and soft tissue infections has been highlighted in previous ...
Rodger, Alison J (2001) The long term outcomes of community acquired hepatitis C infection in a cohort with sera stored from ... The long term outcomes of community acquired hepatitis C infection in a cohort with sera stored from 1971-1975 ... This suggests that the natural history of community acquired HCV may be more benign than previously thought. ... At 25 years follow-up, 54% of the anti-HCV positive group had evidence of chionic HCV infection (both anti-HCV and HCV RNA ...
MRI is the preferred imaging modality for the investigation of pediatric CA-SA musculoskeletal infection because it offers ... Optimal imaging strategy for community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus musculoskeletal infections in children Pediatr Radiol. ... Background: Invasive musculoskeletal infections from community-acquired methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible ... Conclusion: MRI is the preferred imaging modality for the investigation of pediatric CA-SA musculoskeletal infection because it ...
Community-Acquired Infections Humans Male Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Methicillin Resistance Microbial ... Title : Community-acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 Infection, Italy Personal Author(s) : Pan, Angelo; ... Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has become a major problem in US hospitals already ... Community-associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Outpatients, United States, 1999-2006 Cite ...
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In this review, we provide an overview of the reported susceptibility of common community acquired bacterial pathogens in Sub- ... Methods We reviewed the literature for reports of the susceptibility of prevalent pathogens in the community in SSA and Asia to ... Objective Antimicrobial resistance has arisen across the globe in both nosocomial and community settings as a consequence of ... Antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates from community acquired infections in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asian low and ...
Most documented MRSA infections are acquired nosocomially; previously, community-acquired cases were restricted to patients ... The extent of community-acquired MRSA infection in the United States is unknown. Few data are available to define the molecular ... More recently, however, community-acquired MRSA infections have been identified at a Chicago pediatric hospital, in day care ... Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections--Michigan. MMWR 1981;30:185-7. ...
T2 - Community-acquired invasive infections caused by ceftriaxone- and ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype ... 深入研究「A new therapeutic challenge for old pathogens: Community-acquired invasive infections caused by ceftriaxone- and ... A new therapeutic challenge for old pathogens: Community-acquired invasive infections caused by ceftriaxone- and ciprofloxacin- ... A new therapeutic challenge for old pathogens: Community-acquired invasive infections caused by ceftriaxone- and ciprofloxacin- ...
Sero diagnosis of Legionella infection in community acquired pneumonia.. Authors: Javed, Sabah. Chaudhry, Rama. Passi, Kapil. ... The present study was thus undertaken to see the presence of Legionella infection in patients with community acquired pneumonia ... Sero diagnosis of Legionella infection in community acquired pneumonia. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 2010 Jan; 131(1): ... In order to evaluate the actual burden of Legionella in community acquired pneumonia, further studies with larger samples need ...
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the most common infectious diseases and is an important cause of mortality and ... What infection control measures should be taken when pulmonary tuberculosis is suspected in patients with community-acquired ... How common is community-acquired pneumonia (CAP)?. Does the incidence of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) increase with age? ... Outpatient Care in Community-Acquired Pneumonia. Patients with mild community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) who are being treated on ...
Pneumonia is a lung infection caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi. ... Pneumonia is a lung infection caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi.. This article covers community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in ... Community-acquired pneumonia. In: Kliegman RM, St. Geme JW, Blum NJ, Shah SS, Tasker RC, Wilson KM, eds. Nelson Textbook of ... Pediatric community-acquired pneumonia. In: Cherry JD, Harrison GJ, Kaplan SL, Steinbach WJ, Hotez PJ, eds. Feigin and Cherrys ...
Your search words will be searched in article title, abstract and full text of all the articles ...
Community Acquir Infect, Official publication of Spring Media Publishing Co. Ltd (SMP) Chinese Medical Association Respiratory ...
... disinfection system to clean contact precautions rooms was associated with a significant decrease in hospital-acquired ... C. diff: How Did a Community Hospital Cut Infections by 77%? * 2001/viewarticle/970559 ... Cite this: Ultraviolet Disinfection Cuts Hospital-Acquired Infections - Medscape - May 29, 2014. ... Overall rates of hospital-acquired MDROs and CD were stable during the period before use of the UVD system (Ptrend = .89) and ...
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the most common infectious diseases and is an important cause of mortality and ... What infection control measures should be taken when pulmonary tuberculosis is suspected in patients with community-acquired ... How common is community-acquired pneumonia (CAP)?. Does the incidence of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) increase with age? ... Outpatient Care in Community-Acquired Pneumonia. Patients with mild community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) who are being treated on ...
... skin and soft tissue infections (11.4%) and sepsis (11.1%). Among antimicrobials, systemic antibiotics accounted for 83.5%, of ... were treated empirically compared to health-care associated infections (94.0% vs. 86.1% respectively, p = 0.002). Main ... Overall antimicrobial prevalence was 53.3%. More community-acquired infections (CAI) ... for community-acquired infections had a higher proportion compared to empirical treatment for healthcare-acquired infections. ...
Great overlap occurs among the clinical manifestations of the pathogens associated with acute community-acquired pneumonia. ... In a few communities, community-acquired methi-cillin-resistant S. aureus (Community-acquired methicillin-resistant ... Group В and non-typable H. influenzae can both cause community-acquired pneumonia. Infection with non-typable H. influenzae is ... Clinically, Legionella infection causes symptoms typical of other acute community-acquired pneumonias, including high fever, ...
1.3 Skin and Skin Structure Infections 1.4 Female Pelvic Infections 1.5 Community-acquired Pneumonia 1.6 Usage 2 DOSAGE AND ... Skin and skin structure infections in adults (1.3). •. Female pelvic infections in adults (1.4). •. Community-acquired ... 1.5 Community-acquired Pneumonia. Piperacillin and tazobactam for injection is indicated in adults for the treatment of ... Intra-abdominal infections in adult and pediatric patients 2 months of age and older (1.1). •. Nosocomial pneumonia in adult ...
Risk factors for complicated parapneumonic effusion and empyema on presentation to hospital with community-acquired pneumonia ... Risk factors for complicated parapneumonic effusion and empyema on presentation to hospital with community-acquired pneumonia ... Risk factors for complicated parapneumonic effusion and empyema on presentation to hospital with community-acquired pneumonia ...
Outcomes in community-acquired Clostridium difficile infection. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2012;35:613-8. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Community-acquired Clostridium difficile infection: an increasing public health threat. Infect Drug Resist. 2014;7:63-72.PubMed ... Epidemiological and genomic characterization of community-acquired Clostridium difficile infections. BMC Infect Dis. 2018;18: ... Epidemiology of community-onset Clostridium difficile infection in a community in the South of England. J Infect Public Health ...
Severe sepsis in community-acquired pneumonia: when does it happen, and do systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria ... Of note, infection has been shown to induce a greater release of TNF-α -thus inducing a greater release of IL-6 and IL-8-than ... In response to infection or injury, as is seen with SIRS, HMGB1 is secreted by innate immune cells and/or released passively by ... Sepsis-3 was born, defined as "life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection." [1, 2] ...
Guidelines for the initial management of adults with community-acquired pneumonia: diagnosis, assessment of severity, and ... Community-Acquired Infections / diagnosis * Community-Acquired Infections / microbiology * Community-Acquired Infections / ... Guidelines for the initial management of adults with community-acquired pneumonia: diagnosis, assessment of severity, and ...
  • Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the most common infectious diseases and an important cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. (medscape.com)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Sero diagnosis of Legionella infection in community acquired pneumonia. (who.int)
  • Background & objectives: Legionella pneumophila has been increasingly recognized as an emerging pathogen responsible for community acquired pneumonia (CAP) worldwide. (who.int)
  • The present study was thus undertaken to see the presence of Legionella infection in patients with community acquired pneumonia admitted in a tertiary care centre in north India. (who.int)
  • In order to evaluate the actual burden of Legionella in community acquired pneumonia, further studies with larger samples need to be done. (who.int)
  • Pneumonia is a lung infection caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This article covers community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This is called hospital-acquired pneumonia . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. (cdc.gov)
  • Management of Adults With Hospital-acquired and Ventilator-associated Pneumonia: 2016 Clinical Practice Guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Thoracic Society. (cdc.gov)
  • Great overlap occurs among the clinical manifestations of the pathogens associated with acute community-acquired pneumonia. (antiinfectivemeds.com)
  • S. pneumoniae is the most common form of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. (antiinfectivemeds.com)
  • Guidelines for the initial management of adults with community-acquired pneumonia: diagnosis, assessment of severity, and initial antimicrobial therapy. (nih.gov)
  • Common infections such as community-acquired pneumonia, skin and soft tissue infections, influenza, and pyelonephritis are major causes of hospital bed occupancy. (health.gov.au)
  • Patients (≥ 20 years) with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI), influenza, meningitis, and pyelonephritis were identified from discharge coding at the University Hospital Geelong. (health.gov.au)
  • It often causes a mild illness in older children and young adults, but it can also cause pneumonia, an infection of the lung. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Doctors do not usually recommend lab tests for a mild pneumonia infection, as they can be unreliable, expensive, not widely available, or take a long time. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • They concern community-acquired pneumonia, infections in survivors from natural disasters, and infected war wounds in troops from Iraq and Afghanistan. (univ-angers.fr)
  • Xenleta (lefamulin) is a pleuromutilin antibacterial indicated for the treatment of adults with community- acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) caused by susceptible microorganisms. (rxlist.com)
  • A risk model to identify Legionella among patients admitted with community-acquired pneumonia: a retrospective cohort study. (ahrq.gov)
  • Community-acquired pneumonia remains a major cause of mortality in developed countries. (ersjournals.com)
  • Data were derived from a multicentre prospective study initiated by the German Competence Network for Community-Acquired Pneumonia. (ersjournals.com)
  • Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) represents a public health problem of substantial magnitude. (ersjournals.com)
  • There is much controversy about the ideal approach to the management of community acquired pneumonia (CAP). (bmj.com)
  • Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a common and serious illness. (bmj.com)
  • Aspiration, community-acquired pneumonia 1-2g 6 hourly. (medindia.net)
  • Hospital-acquired pneumonia 2g 6 hourly. (medindia.net)
  • Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a major cause of respiratory infections among children and young adults and is responsible for up to 40% of all community-acquired pneumonia. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2013, an increase in the number of community-acquired pneumonia cases was reported in children and their adult contacts from 2 towns in Russia separated by 45 km, Ozerniy and Duchovshina, during January-March and October-November, respectively. (cdc.gov)
  • For comparison purposes, because no previous data regarding M. pneumoniae molecular epidemiology in Russia were available, we retrospectively characterized 29 specimens, not from an outbreak, that were previously randomly collected for community-acquired pneumonia etiologic studies during October 2006-October 2007 and February-October 2010 by the laboratory of Smolensk State Medical Academy ( Table ). (cdc.gov)
  • 1 This chapter will focus on the diagnosis, prevention, and management of bacterial community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in people with HIV. (hiv.gov)
  • In the Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Treatment (START) study, the incidence rate of serious bacterial infections overall was 0.87 per 100 person-years, and approximately 40% of these infections were due to bacterial pneumonia. (hiv.gov)
  • 9-11 Bacterial pneumonia may be the first manifestation of underlying HIV infection and can occur at any stage of HIV disease and at any CD4 count. (hiv.gov)
  • In individuals with HIV, Streptococcus pneumoniae ( S. pneumoniae) and Haemophilus species are the most frequently identified causes of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia, the same as in individuals without HIV. (hiv.gov)
  • 19-25 Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus) and S. pneumoniae are among the most common etiologies of pneumonia in association with influenza infection. (hiv.gov)
  • This makes them vulnerable to opportunistic infections , such as Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia or toxoplasmosis . (healthline.com)
  • AIDS also makes them vulnerable to typical infections, such as community-acquired pneumonia and cellulitis . (healthline.com)
  • Pneumonia is a breathing (respiratory) condition in which there is an infection of the lung. (adam.com)
  • To determine whether HIV exposure without infection is an independent risk factor for mortality and morbidity in children admitted to PICU with pneumonia. (who.int)
  • Although guidelines have been established for prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) for adults with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, they have not been available for children (1). (cdc.gov)
  • Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia is the most common serious HIV-associated opportunistic infection among children. (cdc.gov)
  • Infants and young children may be more seriously affected than older children and adults because for the former, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia may represent primary infection rather than reactivation disease, and because an infant's or young child's immune defenses may be immature. (cdc.gov)
  • It is not known if ZITHROMAX is safe and effective for children with ear infections, sinus infections, and community-acquired pneumonia under 6 months of age. (pfizermedicalinformation.com)
  • It is used in adults and children for the treatment of acute maxillary sinusitis, acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, mild to moderate community-acquired pneumonia and skin and soft tissue infections. (affygility.com)
  • Pneumococcal Community-Acquired Pneumonia Detected by Serotype-Specific Urinary Antigen Detection Assays. (rush.edu)
  • In patients with suspected community-acquired pneumonia, early chest CT significantly changed management decisions. (reliasmedia.com)
  • Early chest computed tomography scan to assist diagnosis and guide treatment decision for suspected community-acquired pneumonia. (reliasmedia.com)
  • Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a very common diagnostic consideration. (reliasmedia.com)
  • This began the aureus infections range from superficial skin infections dominance of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in to life-threating syndromes, including subcutaneous healthcare facilities, which through unclear mechanisms, abscess, impetigo, osteomyelitis, infective endocarditis, acquired further resistance to multiple classes of pneumonia, sepsis and septic shock syndrome ( 1 ). (who.int)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae causes otitis media, bacteremia, and meningitis and is a leading cause of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia worldwide. (cdc.gov)
  • We also carried out the nasopharyngeal colonization and pneumonia infections in the absence of competition to assess the ability of the mutants to colonize and to produce pneumonia in the absence of competition from the susceptible parent. (cdc.gov)
  • Sefdin 300 Mg is used in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia which is a common type of lung infection caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilusinfluenzae. (welloxpharma.com)
  • Human infections caused by Acinetobacter species include pneumonia, which is most often related to endotracheal tubes or tracheostomies, endocarditis, meningitis, skin and wound infections, peritonitis in patients receiving peritoneal dialysis, UTI and bacteremia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We analysed the trend of antibiotic resistance of community-acquired uropathogens over a 4-year period in a cohort of children with a first episode of culture-proven urinary tract infection presenting to the department of paediatrics at a large general secondary care hospital in the United Arab Emirates. (who.int)
  • Limitations of the study include the fact that the study is from a single institution, the lack of assessment of antibiotic use, and the potential for a cumulative effect of multiple infection control interventions used to reduce acquisition of MDRO and CD. (medscape.com)
  • Infections that are caused by antibiotic-resistant strains often occur in epidemic waves that are initiated by one or a few successful clones. (cdc.gov)
  • The aim of our study is to determine microorganisms that cause community-acquired urinary tract infections and their antibiotic susceptibility in children. (qxmd.com)
  • The results represent the increasing antibiotic resistance against microorganisms among the community-acquired UTI patients in a developing country such as Turkey. (qxmd.com)
  • Antibiotic resistance of urinary tract pathogens and evaluation of empirical treatment in Turkish children with urinary tract infections. (qxmd.com)
  • An 11-year analysis of the prevalent uropathogens and the changing pattern of Escherichia coli antibiotic resistance in 38,530 community urinary tract infections, Dublin 1999-2009. (qxmd.com)
  • Antibiotic resistance in pathogens causing community-acquired urinary tract infections in India: a multicenter study. (qxmd.com)
  • Antibiotic sensitivity of bacteria isolated from the urine of children with urinary tract infections from 1986 to 1995]. (qxmd.com)
  • Avelox is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic medicine used to treat certain types of infections caused by certain germs called bacteria in adults 18 years or older. (rxlist.com)
  • This medication is a penicillin antibiotic, prescribed for susceptible bacterial infections like skin infections, gynecological infections or infections of the abdomen either alone or with other medications. (medindia.net)
  • [1] Risk factors for infection include antibiotic or proton pump inhibitor use, hospitalization, other health problems, and older age. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbapenemaseproducing Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infections: lowering mortality by antibiotic combination schemes and the role of carbapenems. (ufrgs.br)
  • For patients who have sepsis, especially septic shock from infection, getting them on the right antibiotic early improves their outcomes. (sunnybrook.ca)
  • Over the past decade, clinical trials have found that shorter durations of antibiotic treatment are as effective as longer courses for syndromes caused by intra-abdominal infections, and those of the lung, skin, soft tissue and urinary tract. (sunnybrook.ca)
  • The BALANCE program was developed to ask whether seven days of antibiotic therapy is as good as 14 days for preventing death among critically ill patients with bloodstream infections. (sunnybrook.ca)
  • a)previous diagnosis of H. pylori infection, b)use of acid suppressants and/or antibiotic within the preceeding 3 weeks, c) moderate to severe cardiopulmonary disease. (ispub.com)
  • Health care providers commonly use the antibiotic vancomycin to treat Enterococcal infections, but VRE are resistant to the drug. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Clostridium difficile is a common cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea, which is usually associated with previous antibiotic use. (balkanmedicaljournal.org)
  • Clostridium difficile should be considered in diarrhea cases with a history of antibiotic use within the last 8 weeks (community-associated CDI) or with a hospital stay of at least 3 days, regardless of the duration of antibiotic use (hospital-acquired CDI). (balkanmedicaljournal.org)
  • Antibiotic resistance presents a threat to the health of our communities. (thibodaux.com)
  • The nasal discharge likely represents a secondary bacterial infection that quickly resolves with treatment with a broad-spectrum, bactericidal antibiotic. (naturalhealthtechniques.com)
  • Invasive musculoskeletal infections from community-acquired methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (CA-SA) are increasingly encountered in children. (nih.gov)
  • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an emerging community-acquired pathogen among patients without established risk factors for MRSA infection (e.g., recent hospitalization, recent surgery, residence in a long-term-care facility [LTCF], or injecting-drug use [IDU]) (1). (cdc.gov)
  • Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections: hospitalization and case fatality risk in 10 pediatric facilities in Argentina. (bvsalud.org)
  • Infecciones por Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente adquirido en la comunidad: hospitalización y riesgo de letalidad en 10 centros pediátricos de Argentina. (bvsalud.org)
  • Community -acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA- MRSA ) infections are prevalent both in Argentina and worldwide, and they may have a severe clinical course . (bvsalud.org)
  • All patients community -acquired Staphylococcus aureus (CA-SA) infections admitted to 10 pediatric facilities between January 2012 and December 2014 were included. (bvsalud.org)
  • Se incluyeron todos los pacientes infección por Staphylococcus aureusadquirido en la comunidad (SA-C) hospitalizados en 10 centros pediátricos, entre enero/2012-diciembre/2014. (bvsalud.org)
  • This week, Science Clips is pleased to collaborate with CDC Vital Signs by featuring scientific articles from the latest issue on Staphylococcus aureus infections. (cdc.gov)
  • The frequency of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections continues to grow in hospital-associated settings and, more recently, in community settings in the United States and globally. (cdc.gov)
  • To assess the effects of the opioid epidemic on invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections during 2005-2016, surveillance data from CDC's Emerging Infections Program (EIP) were analyzed (8). (cdc.gov)
  • Stakeholder engagement in a comparative effectiveness/implementation study to prevent Staphylococcus aureus infection recurrence: CA-MRSA Project (CAMP2). (ahrq.gov)
  • The purpose of this study was to determine whether the presence and participation of a stakeholder committee would positively impact the effectiveness of the design and execution of a home-based Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus infection prevention intervention. (ahrq.gov)
  • Many people are unaware of and unprepared for life-threatening, life-changing infections from bacteria like methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). (cdc.gov)
  • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was originally recognized as a hospital acquired infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Staphylococcus aureus , particularly methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), is an important cause of pyogenic skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aim of present study is to investigate the molecular characteristic of Staphylococcus aureus isolates isolated from the pus samples from the patients with purulent skin and soft tissue infections in Wenzhou, China. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus , especially methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), are emerging as a major public health problem. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The most recent Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guidelines recommend that fluoroquinolones should be reserved for important uses due to their propensity for ecological unfavorable effects of antimicrobial therapy such as the selection of drug-resistant pathogens and colonisation or infection with multidrug-resistant organisms [ 9 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bacterial pathogens, resistance patterns and treatment options in community acquired pediatric urinary tract infection]. (qxmd.com)
  • Dr. Metlay's research spans two major areas, the epidemiology of drug resistance among common bacterial respiratory pathogens, particularly S. pneumoniae and the development and evaluation of interventions to improve the quality of treatment decisions for respiratory tract infections. (massgeneral.org)
  • Monitor for signs of anaphylaxis, blood count, kidney and liver function, signs of super infections with mycotic or bacterial pathogens during treatment. (medindia.net)
  • As in human medicine, some microorganisms are becoming multiresistant and emerging pathogens, such as K. oxytoca will be a major challenge for veterinarians, because while at the same time committed to the judicious use of antibiotics, antimicrobial resistance can make infections difficult to treat. (ufrgs.br)
  • Though water meets drinking standards when it enters a building, the complexity of healthcare building water systems can create conditions that allow growth of microorganisms, including waterborne pathogens that have been linked to healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Though several Gram-negative pathogens have been found to persist in water systems, the association between Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections and water sources is best understood. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of skin and soft tissue infections: 2014 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. (cdc.gov)
  • likewise, invasive bacterial infections, including endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and skin and soft tissue infections, have increased in areas where the opioid epidemic is expanding (5-7). (cdc.gov)
  • Bacteraemia cases were predominantly related to catheter sepsis, followed by skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI). (sun.ac.za)
  • Objectives: It was aimed to determine the risk factors for the development of skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTI), to compare duration of therapy of mostly used antibiotics and to compare laboratory parameters of complicated and uncomplicated SSTI. (ejmad.org)
  • A recent World Health Organisation (WHO) report on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance specified nine bacteria of international concern which are responsible for some of the most common infections in community and hospital settings [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • They should therefore be used with caution and reserved for severe infections, and preceded by antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the bacteria involved [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection and other antibacterial drugs, piperacillin and tazobactam for injection should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • The bacteria usually cause an upper respiratory tract infection with a cough and sore throat . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The infection spreads when droplets containing the bacteria travel through the air when a person coughs or sneezes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A clear diagnosis might only be possible if the symptoms do not respond to the usual treatments for upper respiratory infections, which involve other types of bacteria. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Traditionally, this infection has been associated with the use of antibiotics which somehow alter the balance of the healthy bacteria in the large intestine, allowing C. difficile to flourish. (cdc.gov)
  • More than 90,000 Americans contract potentially life-threatening infections every year from drug-resistant staph bacteria, according to the first federal study of invasive disease caused by such infections. (healthday.com)
  • This medication is effective only for the treatment of infections caused by bacteria and not viruses or fungi. (practo.com)
  • Bloodstream infections arise when bacteria leaks into the blood, arising from an infection elsewhere in the body. (sunnybrook.ca)
  • bacteria biofilms, the epidemiology of this community, the challenges in the eradication of such biofilms, and the most relevant treatments. (mdpi.com)
  • Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE. (rush.edu)
  • This allows the bacteria to cause but, within a decade, new strains emerged that were infection when host defences are compromised ( 1 ). (who.int)
  • Now, more than 80 percent of all C. difficile infections are related to a healthcare setting. (cdc.gov)
  • C. difficile infections occur in all areas of the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • [2] [10] C. difficile infections occur more often in women than men. (wikipedia.org)
  • So in terms of community and household-associated transmission, it's definitely a bit of an understudied area in comparison to hospital-associated C. difficile infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Since 1996, the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) and the Indian Health Service (IHS) have investigated cases of community-acquired MRSA infection in patients without established risk factors. (cdc.gov)
  • To estimate the hospitalization rate and case fatality risk factors of CA- MRSA infection . (bvsalud.org)
  • A growing concern is the emergence of MRSA infections in patients with no apparent risk factors. (cdc.gov)
  • MRSA infection in community settings involves considerable morbidity and mortality, as does nosocomial MRSA infection. (cdc.gov)
  • For community-associated MRSA, person-to-person transmission has been reported, and several factors have been shown to predict disease. (cdc.gov)
  • We examine the trends in both nosocomial and community-associated MRSA infections and explore recent studies of the mechanisms that allow S. aureus to become resistant to currently available drugs. (cdc.gov)
  • Historically associated with hospitals and other health care settings, MRSA has now emerged as a widespread cause of community infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Community or community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) can spread rapidly among healthy individuals. (cdc.gov)
  • Outbreaks of CA-MRSA infections have been reported worldwide, and CA-MRSA strains are now epidemic in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • Persons who inject drugs were estimated to be 16.3 times more likely to develop invasive MRSA infections than others. (cdc.gov)
  • In recent years, this new breed of staph -- called community-associated MRSA -- has quickly become a serious threat. (healthday.com)
  • This is what happened to our family in 2006 when our son, Nile Moss, contracted a life-threatening, drug resistant MRSA infection in our local hospital and died. (cdc.gov)
  • However, it is now recognized that MRSA infections are frequently acquired in the community and agricultural settings as well. (cdc.gov)
  • The rate of MRSA infections are rapidly increasing worldwide. (sun.ac.za)
  • Klonale groepe (spa-CC) van MRSA en MSSA isolate is deur BURP analise verkry, en vergelyk met internasionaal belangrike klone. (sun.ac.za)
  • ST239-MRSA-SCC mec III and ST1018-MRSA-SCC mec III clones were found to be main clones and spread between community and hospital. (biomedcentral.com)
  • MRSA has moved beyond healthcare facilities, affecting individuals in the community without substantial risk factors. (who.int)
  • Regional prevalence of MRSA is reported as 25-35%, with clear dominance of community-acquired (CA)-MRSA. (who.int)
  • MRSA is one of the most common hospital-acquired infections. (medlineplus.gov)
  • MRI is the preferred imaging modality for the investigation of pediatric CA-SA musculoskeletal infection because it offers superior sensitivity for osteomyelitis compared to bone scintigraphy and detects extraosseous complications that occur in a substantial proportion of patients. (nih.gov)
  • Complicated skin and skin structure infections, including diabetic foot infections, without concomitant osteomyelitis. (ebmconsult.com)
  • Interpretation & conclusions: Combination of serology and antigenuria detection may be a valuable tool for the diagnosis of Legionella infection in absence of culture positivity. (who.int)
  • Prompt, accurate diagnosis of STEC infection is important because appropriate treatment early in the course of infection might decrease the risk for serious complications such as renal damage and improve overall patient outcome. (cdc.gov)
  • Improving the diagnostic accuracy of STEC infection by clinical laboratories should ensure prompt diagnosis and treatment of these infections in patients and increase detection of STEC outbreaks in the community. (cdc.gov)
  • Both were also required to have a diagnosis of COVID-19 infection, identified in the TriNetX system by laboratory code 9088, signifying "presence of SARS coronavirus 2 and related RNA. (cureus.com)
  • It is related to the laboratory diagnosis of human and animal infections and the role of the laboratory in both the management of infectious diseases and the elucidation of the epidemiology of infections. (hilarispublisher.com)
  • Urinary Tract Infection: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Long Term Management of Urinary Tract Infection in Children. (edu.hk)
  • Sepsis-3 was born, defined as "life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. (medscape.com)
  • In 2001, the SCCM/ESICM, along with other leading organizations, including the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST), the American Thoracic Society (ATS), and the Surgical Infection Society (SIS), convened as the Consensus Conference reviewing the 1992 SIRS criteria to establish the general definitions known as Sepsis-2, leaving the definitions of sepsis and septic shock unchanged for the next twenty years. (medscape.com)
  • Sepsis is the systemic response to infection and is defined as the presence of SIRS in addition to a documented or presumed infection. (medscape.com)
  • 3) Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes infections generalized by inflammation and sepsis, which can be fatal if colonization occurs in critical body organs, such as the lungs, urinary tract or kidneys. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Even so, they are at higher risk of bloodstream infections, which in turn can lead to sepsis. (sunnybrook.ca)
  • For trauma patients, whose wounds and injuries leave them susceptible to infection, avoiding sepsis becomes yet another hurdle to clear. (sunnybrook.ca)
  • Sepsis occurs when chemicals released into the bloodstream to fight infection trigger an inflammatory response. (sunnybrook.ca)
  • In 2011, an epidemic of M. pneumoniae infection was reported in several countries in Europe and Asia and in Israel that primarily involved adhesin P1 type 1 strains and only a few P1 type 2 strains ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • A 2005 study investigated 132 cases of P. aeruginosa infections using genetic techniques to match strains causing illness to potential sources. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The molecular epidemiology of hospital acquired (HA), health-care associated (HCA) and community acquired (CA) S. aureus bacteraemic strains at this hospital was examined. (sun.ac.za)
  • Strains containing the GyrA: Ser81Phe, ParC: Ser79Phe double mutations, which are frequently seen in clinical QRSP, competed poorly with EF3030 in competitive colonization or competitive lung infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Increasingly, however, strains are circulating in the community and can cause severe infections. (medlineplus.gov)
  • email: [email protected], At the end of July 2017, a 9-year-old boy with no [email protected] unusual medical history or previous local trauma was hos- pitalized because of acute signs of infection of the third finger on his right hand. (cdc.gov)
  • Aim: To examine the long term outcomes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in a cohort of patients admitted with acute viral hepatitis between 1971 and 1975. (gla.ac.uk)
  • University of Florida researchers report that outbreaks of C anine Influenza virus, which causes an acute respiratory infection, have been identified in dogs in shelters, humane societies, boarding facilities and veterinary clinics in Florida, predominantly in Broward, Dade, Palm Beach and Duval counties. (naturalhealthtechniques.com)
  • Differences in neighborhood, hospital and intensive care unit-acquired acute kidney injury: observational study in a nephrology service of a creating country. (edu.hk)
  • Spectrum of hospital-acquired acute renal failure within the creating countries-Chandigarh research. (edu.hk)
  • Spectrum of community-acquired acute kidney damage in India: a retrospective study. (edu.hk)
  • Predictive factors for acute renal cortial scintigraphic lesion and ultimate scar formation in youngsters with first febrile urinary tract an infection. (edu.hk)
  • M. pneumoniae infection is most likely to affect young adults and older children. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • However, to date no study has analyzed its prognostic accuracy in older adults admitted to hospital with community urinary tract infection. (wustl.edu)
  • METHODS: In a prospective study of 282 older adults admitted to hospital with community acquired urinary tract infection, the application of qSOFA to predict hospital mortality was analyzed. (wustl.edu)
  • CONCLUSION: qSOFA showed a better predictive prognostic accuracy than SIRS and similar to SOFA in older adults admitted to hospital with community acquired urinary tract infection, having the advantage of not requiring laboratory tests. (wustl.edu)
  • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a significant cause of respiratory tract infection in infants, young children, and older or immunocompromised adults. (medscape.com)
  • In Jamaica, a previous endoscopic study found a prevalence of 55% H. pylori infection in adults (7). (ispub.com)
  • EQUIP will rapidly improve the lives of thousands of people in Malawi by reducing new infections in infants and adults and by ensuring more persons who are infected get the quality treatment and care they need," Eisenman said. (uclahealth.org)
  • Infection prevention and control and continued national surveillance are integral to clarifying CDI epidemiology, investigation, and control. (cdc.gov)
  • however, its exact incidence is hard to evaluate because surveillance data for it are not collected systematically as for other opportunistic infections (OIs). (hiv.gov)
  • Although there were many other simultaneous infection control interventions occurring at our hospital during the period from 2009 until 2013 that could have contributed to the reduction in VRE acquisition," state the investigators, "the rates experienced during UVD are the lowest incidence rates of VRE at our institution for the past 10 years and were sustained for 22 months. (medscape.com)
  • Patients with HIV infection also have defects in antibody production, and they have a higher incidence of pneumococcal infection. (antiinfectivemeds.com)
  • The increase in the incidence of infections due to S. aureus is partially a consequence of advances in patient care and also of the pathogen's ability to adapt to a changing environment. (cdc.gov)
  • We analyzed the incidence of these infections in a regional city and extrapolated these results to the Australian population. (health.gov.au)
  • We aimed to estimate the age-specific incidence, mortality and length of stay of selected common infectious diseases (including the incidence of severe infection) in Australia by extrapolating incidence data from the Geelong region. (health.gov.au)
  • The study found that the overall incidence rate was 32 invasive infections per 100,000 people -- a figure that the journals editors called astounding. (healthday.com)
  • 1 The incidence of gonorrhoea was chosen as a proxy indicator for trends in condom use and new cases of HIV infection. (bmj.com)
  • The focus on trends in national rates of infection for the whole adult population masks known variations in the incidence of gonorrhoea by geography, age, and sex, 4 and it has been suggested that local targets defined by health authorities would be more useful. (bmj.com)
  • Hence the incidence of sexually transmitted infections in the population of a health authority cannot be calculated directly from the number of episodes recorded by local clinics. (bmj.com)
  • The highest incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infections was observed among administrative staff (2.8 cases per 1 000 staff days), followed by nursing staff (2.7 cases per 1 000 staff days). (bvsalud.org)
  • Bacterial susceptibility to oral antibiotics in community acquired urinary tract infection. (qxmd.com)
  • Among the recent cases, nearly all had received antibiotics before their infection with C. difficile , and a little more than a third had not been in the hospital or healthcare setting. (cdc.gov)
  • Therefore, we are working hard to discourage unnecessary use of antibiotics and preventing transmission through improved infection control practice. (cdc.gov)
  • Bermeo's doctor prescribed antibiotics, but the infection didn't slow down. (healthday.com)
  • [1] The antibiotics metronidazole , vancomycin or fidaxomicin , will cure the infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluoroquinolones (FQs) are a class of antibiotics widely used in the treatment of common bacterial infections in patients. (lww.com)
  • Yet there are no studies that examine what duration of antibiotics is required for bloodstream infections. (sunnybrook.ca)
  • It tends to be transmitted through the fecal-oral route, and the way that infections typically arise are when somebody if exposed to the bacterium typically also receive antibiotics. (cdc.gov)
  • And the way that the infection typically occurs is that a person who might be exposed to the bacterium might have received antibiotics, and the antibiotics might have disrupted the normal intestinal flora that allows the bacterium to multiply and ultimately produce toxins which gives rise to the intestinal infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Some CRE infections are resistant to most available antibiotics and can be life-threatening. (medlineplus.gov)
  • the risk for nosocomial transmission increases during community outbreaks (7). (cdc.gov)
  • We report 2 outbreaks of M. pneumoniae infections that occurred in the first and last quarter of 2013 in western Russia (Smolensk region). (cdc.gov)
  • The techniques developed can be used to identify outbreaks and recurrent infections. (sun.ac.za)
  • In this retrospective study, Janet P. Haas, PhD, RN, from the Westchester Medical Center Department of Infection Prevention and Control, Valhalla, New York, and colleagues describe implementation of a pulsed xenon UVD system after discharge cleaning of contact precautions rooms and other high-risk areas at a 643-bed tertiary care hospital. (medscape.com)
  • Against this backdrop, many HCWs with infection prevention and control (IPC) policies, aerosolisation and essential support staff have acquired SARS-CoV-2 infections and risks, or the type of service provided by the discipline. (bvsalud.org)
  • His finger time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the rapid identification of arthritis was complicated by osteitis 5 weeks later, which yeasts causing bloodstream infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Bloodstream infections are a common and serious problem that affects 15% of critically ill patients and an estimated 50,000 Canadians per year. (sunnybrook.ca)
  • It's therefore essential that doctors tending to trauma patients who have been moved into the ICU after initial resuscitation find ways to prevent, diagnose and treat the onset of bloodstream infections. (sunnybrook.ca)
  • Nursing home residents showed a four-fold increased mortality rate and an increased rate of Gram-negative bacillary infections compared with patients dwelling in the community. (ersjournals.com)
  • The combination of medication containing elexacaftor, ivacaftor, and tezacaftor (EIT) has dramatically impacted the treatment and prognosis for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Lung function, weight, and self-reported quality of life have improved for many of these patients, but little is known about whether this treatment will have a beneficial effect in preventing morbidity and/or mortality from respiratory infections such as COVID-19. (cureus.com)
  • Survival analysis was used to determine the association between HIV infection/exposure with mortality, and linear regression was used to examine the association with length of stay and duration of mechanical ventilation. (who.int)
  • HIV infection was associated with prolonged length of mechanical ventilation and ICU stay but not increased mortality. (who.int)
  • infections are associated with a high mortality rate. (cdc.gov)
  • Management of common infections with antimicrobials guidance clinical practice guidelines were released in February 2019 by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). (medscape.com)
  • and clinical considerations and recommendations for management of patients with STEC infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Clinical aspects of pandemic 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus infection. (cdc.gov)
  • OBJECTIVES: An effective clinical decision support system (CDSS) may address the current provider training barrier to offering pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to youth at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. (stanford.edu)
  • PCP is often the initial clinical sign of HIV infection, particularly among infants. (cdc.gov)
  • Clinical microbiology is the study of micro organisms that caused infections and diseases to Human and other animals. (hilarispublisher.com)
  • The strain containing the GyrA: Ser81Phe, ParC: Ser79Tyr double mutations, which is seen more frequently in laboratory-derived QRSP than in clinical QRSP, demonstrated reduced nasal colonization in competitive or noncompetitive lung infections. (cdc.gov)
  • The clinical manifestations of C. difficile infection (CDI) may range from mild diarrhea to fulminant colitis. (balkanmedicaljournal.org)
  • Community health is a major field of study within the medical and clinical sciences which focuses on the maintenance, protection, and improvement of the health status of population groups and communities. (hyclassproject.com)
  • Increasing antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from community-acquired urinary tract infections during 1998-2003 in Manisa, Turkey. (qxmd.com)
  • The intramuscular injection is used to treat urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli. (welloxpharma.com)
  • Influenza is associated with the greatest percentage of severe infections requiring intensive care unit admission. (health.gov.au)
  • and describe antiviral treatment recommendations for patients with suspected or confirmed influenza for the 2022-2023 season, including during community co circulation of influenza viruses and SARS-CoV-2. (cdc.gov)
  • La información en esta página debería ser considerada como ejemplos de información de antecedentes para la temporada de influenza 2021-2022 para la práctica médica respecto del uso de medicamentos antivirales contra la influenza. (cdc.gov)
  • Actualización sobre el virus la influenza aviar A (H5N1) en los seres humanos. (cdc.gov)
  • Effectiveness of antiviral treatment in human influenza A(H5N1) infections: analysis of a Global Patient Registry. (cdc.gov)
  • A(H1N2) variant viruses and one human case of infection with an influenza A(H3N2) variant virus were reported officially.3 One additional human case of infection with an influenza A(H1N1)v virus was detected. (who.int)
  • All human infections caused by a new influenza subtype are required to be reported under the International Health Regulations (IHR, 2005).4 This includes any influenza A virus that has demonstrated the capacity to infect a human and its haemagglutinin gene (or protein) is not a mutated form of those, i.e. (who.int)
  • Since the last risk assessment on 21 May 2021, one new laboratory-confirmed human case of influenza A(H5N6) virus infection was reported from China to WHO on 30 May 2021. (who.int)
  • 1. What is the likelihood that additional human cases of infection with avian influenza A(H5) viruses will occur? (who.int)
  • Even though small clusters of A(H5) virus infections have been reported previously including those involving healthcare workers, current epidemiological and virological evidence suggests that influenza A(H5) viruses have not acquired the ability of sustained transmission among humans, thus the likelihood is low. (who.int)
  • H. pylori infection is usually acquired in childhood in developing countries but the prevalence differs among socioeconomic status of the family during childhood. (ispub.com)
  • This study determined the prevalence of H. pylori infection in children undergoing upper endoscopy in Jamaica. (ispub.com)
  • To better understand the prevalence and transmission patterns of COVID-19 across the state -- with attention to vulnerable communities, including underserved populations, Native Americans and people of color -- Oregon Health & Science University, in collaboration with the State of Oregon and the OHSU-PSU School of Public Health, will conduct a statewide study to track, test and precisely map the virus in real time. (iheart.com)
  • A subset of up to 10,000 randomly selected study participants also will be provided home testing kits to provide better data about prevalence of asymptomatic infection, and prevent wider spread in the community and the state. (iheart.com)
  • Overall, the emergence of community-acquired A. baumannii infections could be associated with interactions between animals, environment, and humans that are considered to be potentially involved in the emergence or re-emergence of some infectious diseases. (univ-angers.fr)
  • In September 2005, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) reported that the germ was spreading at an 'alarming rate' and causing illness ranging from mild skin infections to potentially deadly infections of the blood, heart, or lungs. (healthday.com)
  • Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases, affecting greater than 50% of the world's population. (ispub.com)
  • A 2002 study used genetic techniques to demonstrate the epidemiological relationship between water isolates and patient infection with P. aeruginosa, finding that faucets were the source of infection for 15 of 45 patients. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Among the 111 S. aureus isolates, 48 and 63 isolates were community-acquired and hospital-acquired respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We used whole-genome sequencing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from patients to identify genotypic clusters and assess the association between previous incarceration and TB transmission in the community. (cdc.gov)
  • Experts in pediatric HIV infection (convened by the Pediatric HIV Resource Center) independently reviewed recent data and provided recommendations to the U.S. Public Health Service for PCP prophylaxis for HIV-infected or -exposed children. (cdc.gov)
  • IV/IM Susceptible infections 1-2g 6 hrly. (medindia.net)
  • They also often occur in people who are susceptible to infection due to other medical problems or the presence of certain catheters or other devices. (medlineplus.gov)
  • All dogs are susceptible and have no naturally acquired or vaccine- induced immunity. (naturalhealthtechniques.com)
  • Infective endocarditis is defined as community-acquired or health care-associated infection. (mhmedical.com)
  • Multicenter Retrospective Study of Vascular Infections and Endocarditis Caused by Campylobacter spp. (cdc.gov)
  • We aimed to describe vascular infection or endocarditis caused by Campylobacter spp. (cdc.gov)
  • 44 patients had vascular infections, 12 had endocarditis, and 1 had both conditions. (cdc.gov)
  • Initially, antimicrobial resistance in a pathogen may come at a cost: modifications that allow survival in the presence of antimicrobial drugs may render the pathogen less efficient at host infection, even in the absence of the antimicrobial agent (3). (cdc.gov)
  • We investigated epidemiologic and molecular characteristics of healthcare-associated (HA) and community-associated (CA) Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) among adult patients in Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program hospitals during 2015-2019. (cdc.gov)
  • The purpose of this study was to validate the Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) risk scores of previously developed predictive models. (ahrq.gov)
  • Clostridioides difficile infection [5] ( CDI or C-diff ), also known as Clostridium difficile infection , is a symptomatic infection due to the spore -forming bacterium Clostridioides difficile . (wikipedia.org)
  • Clostridioides difficile infection is spread by bacterial spores found within feces . (wikipedia.org)
  • Infection is defined as "a microbial phenomenon characterized by an inflammatory response to the microorganisms or the invasion of normally sterile tissue by those organisms. (medscape.com)
  • This undermines the effectiveness of the available treatment options and thus contributes to the persistence of microbial infections. (who.int)
  • In southern Taiwan, we encountered 3 cases of invasive infections caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis with resistance to ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone. (elsevier.com)
  • Secondary localizations complicating invasive infections are poorly described. (cdc.gov)
  • BACKGROUND: The occurrence of complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI) remains high despite system improvement in accordance with Joint Commission International because of heterogeneity of management. (bvsalud.org)
  • Intra-abdominal infections are one of the most common gastrointestinal emergencies and a leading cause of septic shock. (bvsalud.org)
  • Use of an ultraviolet environmental disinfection (UVD) system after routine discharge cleaning of contact precautions rooms and other high-risk areas was associated with decreased rates of hospital-acquired infections caused by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) or Clostridium difficile (CD), investigators report in a study published in the June issue of the American Journal of Infection Control . (medscape.com)
  • Therefore, since it is a global public health problem involving several sectors, it also requires a global solution in the context of the One Health approach to achieve adequate control through the prevention, reduction, and mitigation of drug-resistant infections. (who.int)
  • A 2013 investigation found that a catheter-related blood stream infection caused by Acinetobacter baumannii was from a showerhead. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Fluoroquinolones are ranked as one of four of the highest priority critically important antimicrobials [ 7 ] as they have an important role in the treatment of more severe infections, such as septicaemia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We identified the age-specific number of hospitalisations and severe infections requiring intensive care unit admissions in the Geelong region. (health.gov.au)
  • are a leading cause of bacterial enteric infections in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • Nosocomial infections due to steroid use for treatment of ARF carditis or secondary to the changes in the cellular immune response have not been reported in the literature. (ksbu.edu.tr)
  • and control of nosocomial infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Semaglutide: moderate concomitant use for urinary tract infections caused by carbapenem-resistant klebsiella is usually treated empirically for asymptomatic bacteriuria. (eliteplatinumlimo.com)
  • Avelox is also used to treat bacterial infections such as bronchitis , and others that may infect the sinuses, skin , or abdomen . (rxlist.com)
  • It is implicated in a wide range of infections, from superficial skin infections to life- threatening syndromes. (who.int)
  • patients with community-acquired SSTI who were hospitalized and treated in our clinic between November 2010 and October 2014 were evaluated retrospectively. (ejmad.org)
  • What is Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection? (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • M. pneumoniae is usually a community-acquired infection. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Most cases of M. pneumoniae infection last in a mild form for several weeks. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The symptoms of M. pneumoniae infection are similar to those of other respiratory infections. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A person with asthma may find that infection with M. pneumoniae makes their symptoms worse. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The symptoms of M. pneumoniae infection can be more subtle than those of other forms of lung infection. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • 9) In another case, a Klebsiella pneumoniae infection resulted from aspiration tubes being rinsed in tap water. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Prolonged use may increase the risk of fungal infection. (medindia.net)
  • If a person has a rash on their penis and an HIV test comes up negative, their healthcare provider may have them take a urine test to look for a possible yeast or fungal infection. (healthline.com)
  • H. capsulatum is the most common endemic fungal infection in the US and is most prevalent in the midwestern and central states along the Ohio and Mississippi River valleys. (lecturio.com)
  • Skipping doses or not completing the course of treatment may result in an increased risk of re-infection that would be difficult to treat in the future. (practo.com)
  • Sefdin 300 Mg is used in the treatment of Pyelonephritis which is a type of kidney infection caused by E.coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococci and Klebsiellapneumoniae. (welloxpharma.com)
  • Healthcare costs attributed to C. difficile infection (CDI) are estimated to be $4.8 billion in the United States and €3 billion in Europe ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Whereas CDI was once believed to be mostly healthcare-associated (HA), increased evidence points to transmission in community settings ( 5 , 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Although the mechanisms by which organisms in a particular country will be determined by a acquire resistance are often well understood, includ- number of factors, including the range of diseases ing the selective pressures arising from exposure to of public health significance, the organization of antimicrobials, the precise role of drug usage in healthcare services and the resources available. (who.int)
  • Read the blog below, authored by Nile's Project founders Carole and Ty Moss, to learn more about the importance of preventing healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). (cdc.gov)
  • As we began our patient safety work, we quickly learned that millions of patients enter hospitals and other healthcare facilities in the United States each year, and many of them contract infections while there. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2006, patients and the public were largely unaware of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and unprepared to protect their loved ones. (cdc.gov)
  • [10] In the United States, healthcare-associated infections increase the cost of care by US$1.5 billion each year. (wikipedia.org)
  • [11] Although C. difficile is a common healthcare-associated infection, at most 30% of infections are transmitted within hospitals. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is often linked to healthcare-associated and community-acquired infections. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • SARS-CoV-2 infections were categorised as either possibly community or possibly healthcare facility acquired for 26.6% and 73.4% of the infections, respectively. (bvsalud.org)
  • C. difficile spores have been found in community settings, healthcare settings, even in outdoors. (cdc.gov)
  • So things like healthcare settings, hospitals, nursing homes and long-term care facilities, settings where there's a density of individuals who might have an infection are generally seen as the primary reservoir for infection. (cdc.gov)
  • So when it comes to community versus healthcare settings, the bulk of the research has tended to focus on healthcare environments. (cdc.gov)
  • So from the early 2000s to around 2010, cases of both healthcare and community-associated C. difficile had been increasing. (cdc.gov)
  • However, beginning around 2010, 2011, cases of healthcare-associated C. difficile have generally been decreasing while cases of community- associated C. difficile infection have tended to be fairly constant or having perhaps a slight increase in the first half of the 2010s. (cdc.gov)
  • To determine contributions of previously incarcerated persons to tuberculosis (TB) transmission in the community, we performed a healthcare facility-based cohort study of TB patients in Thailand during 2017-2020. (cdc.gov)