Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Community Networks: Organizations and individuals cooperating together toward a common goal at the local or grassroots level.Hospitals, Community: Institutions with permanent facilities and organized medical staff which provide the full range of hospital services primarily to a neighborhood area.Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Community Health Workers: Persons trained to assist professional health personnel in communicating with residents in the community concerning needs and availability of health services.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Biotinidase Deficiency: The late onset form of MULTIPLE CARBOXYLASE DEFICIENCY (deficiency of the activities of biotin-dependent enzymes propionyl-CoA carboxylase, methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase, and PYRUVATE CARBOXYLASE) due to a defect or deficiency in biotinidase which is essential for recycling BIOTIN.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Community Medicine: A branch of medicine concerned with the total health of the individual within the home environment and in the community, and with the application of comprehensive care to the prevention and treatment of illness in the entire community.Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Community Pharmacy Services: Total pharmaceutical services provided to the public through community pharmacies.Community-Institutional Relations: The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Community-Based Participatory Research: Collaborative process of research involving researchers and community representatives.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Microbial Consortia: A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Community Health Nursing: General and comprehensive nursing practice directed to individuals, families, or groups as it relates to and contributes to the health of a population or community. This is not an official program of a Public Health Department.Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.United StatesTherapeutic Community: Psychotherapeutic technique which emphasizes socioenvironmental and interpersonal influences in the resocialization and rehabilitation of the patient. The setting is usually a hospital unit or ward in which professional and nonprofessional staff interact with the patients.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis: Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Health Facilities, Proprietary: Health care institutions operated by private groups or corporations for a profit.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Quinazolinones: Chemicals with two conjoined aromatic rings incorporating two nitrogen atoms and one of the carbons oxidized with a keto oxygen.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Health Care Coalitions: Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Foeniculum: A plant genus of the family APIACEAE used in SPICES.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Community Mental Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of psychologic and psychiatric services to people living in a neighborhood or community.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Metagenomics: The genomic analysis of assemblages of organisms.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Proteobacteria: A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Community Psychiatry: Branch of psychiatry concerned with the provision and delivery of a coordinated program of mental health care to a specified population. The foci included in this concept are: all social, psychological and physical factors related to etiology, prevention, and maintaining positive mental health in the community.Volunteers: Persons who donate their services.Oceanic Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Medically Underserved Area: A geographic location which has insufficient health resources (manpower and/or facilities) to meet the medical needs of the resident population.Microbiota: The full collection of microbes (bacteria, fungi, virus, etc.) that naturally exist within a particular biological niche such as an organism, soil, a body of water, etc.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).rho Guanine Nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitor alpha: An abundantly-expressed rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor subtype that regulates a broad variety of RHO GTPASES.Arctic Regions: The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)Pharmacokinetics: Dynamic and kinetic mechanisms of exogenous chemical and DRUG LIBERATION; ABSORPTION; BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT; TISSUE DISTRIBUTION; BIOTRANSFORMATION; elimination; and DRUG TOXICITY as a function of dosage, and rate of METABOLISM. LADMER, ADME and ADMET are abbreviations for liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicology.Plankton: Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Health Services, Indigenous: Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.Indians, North American: Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Data Compression: Information application based on a variety of coding methods to minimize the amount of data to be stored, retrieved, or transmitted. Data compression can be applied to various forms of data, such as images and signals. It is used to reduce costs and increase efficiency in the maintenance of large volumes of data.Poverty Areas: City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Geothermal Energy: Thermal energy contained in the earth. It can be used directly to supply heat or converted to mechanical or electrical energy. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.Community Dentistry: The practice of dentistry concerned with preventive as well as diagnostic and treatment programs in a circumscribed population.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Models, Organizational: Theoretical representations and constructs that describe or explain the structure and hierarchy of relationships and interactions within or between formal organizational entities or informal social groups.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Pick Disease of the Brain: A rare form of DEMENTIA that is sometimes familial. Clinical features include APHASIA; APRAXIA; CONFUSION; ANOMIA; memory loss; and personality deterioration. This pattern is consistent with the pathologic findings of circumscribed atrophy of the poles of the FRONTAL LOBE and TEMPORAL LOBE. Neuronal loss is maximal in the HIPPOCAMPUS, entorhinal cortex, and AMYGDALA. Some ballooned cortical neurons contain argentophylic (Pick) bodies. (From Brain Pathol 1998 Apr;8(2):339-54; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1057-9)Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Deinstitutionalization: The practice of caring for individuals in the community, rather than in an institutional environment with resultant effects on the individual, the individual's family, the community, and the health care system.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)CaliforniaFood Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.After-Hours Care: Medical care provided after the regular practice schedule of the physicians. Usually it is designed to deliver 24-hour-a-day and 365-day-a-year patient care coverage for emergencies, triage, pediatric care, or hospice care.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Social Change: Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.Organizational Innovation: Introduction of changes which are new to the organization and are created by management.IndiaSocieties, Scientific: Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Capacity Building: Organizational development including enhancement of management structures, processes and procedures, within organizations and among different organizations and sectors to meet present and future needs.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Northern Territory: Territory in north central Australia, between the states of Queensland and Western Australia. Its capital is Darwin.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Community-Acquired Infections: Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.BrazilPolymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.DNA, Archaeal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of archaea.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Hearing Loss, Mixed Conductive-Sensorineural: Hearing loss due to damage or impairment of both the conductive elements (HEARING LOSS, CONDUCTIVE) and the sensorineural elements (HEARING LOSS, SENSORINEURAL) of the ear.Lakes: Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.Pharmacists: Those persons legally qualified by education and training to engage in the practice of pharmacy.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Social Medicine: A branch of medicine concerned with the role of socio-environmental factors in the occurrence, prevention and treatment of disease.Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.North CarolinaGroundwater: Liquid water present beneath the surface of the earth.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)AlaskaBiodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.EnglandHousing: Living facilities for humans.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Audiology: The study of hearing and hearing impairment.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Leadership: The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Developmental Biology: The field of biology which deals with the process of the growth and differentiation of an organism.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Methanobacteriales: An order of anaerobic, coccoid to rod-shaped methanogens, in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. They are nonmotile, do not catabolize carbohydrates, proteinaceous material, or organic compounds other than formate or carbon monoxide, and are widely distributed in nature.Microbial Interactions: The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Population Groups: Individuals classified according to their sex, racial origin, religion, common place of living, financial or social status, or some other cultural or behavioral attribute. (UMLS, 2003)Minors: A person who has not attained the age at which full civil rights are accorded.ChicagoNew York CityCohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Waste Disposal, Fluid: The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Minocycline: A TETRACYCLINE analog, having a 7-dimethylamino and lacking the 5 methyl and hydroxyl groups, which is effective against tetracycline-resistant STAPHYLOCOCCUS infections.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Aquatic Organisms: Organisms that live in water.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Information Dissemination: The circulation or wide dispersal of information.WashingtonHealth Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Mexiletine: Antiarrhythmic agent pharmacologically similar to LIDOCAINE. It may have some anticonvulsant properties.Professional Role: The expected function of a member of a particular profession.Viomycin: A strongly basic peptide, antibiotic complex from several strains of Streptomyces. It is allergenic and toxic to kidneys and the labyrinth. Viomycin is used in tuberculosis as several different salts and in combination with other agents.Inverted Repeat Sequences: Copies of nucleic acid sequence that are arranged in opposing orientation. They may lie adjacent to each other (tandem) or be separated by some sequence that is not part of the repeat (hyphenated). They may be true palindromic repeats, i.e. read the same backwards as forward, or complementary which reads as the base complement in the opposite orientation. Complementary inverted repeats have the potential to form hairpin loop or stem-loop structures which results in cruciform structures (such as CRUCIFORM DNA) when the complementary inverted repeats occur in double stranded regions.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Vulnerable Populations: Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.British Columbia: A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Family Leave: The authorized absence from work of a family member to attend the illness or participate in the care of a parent, a sibling, or other family member. For the care of a parent for a child or for pre- or postnatal leave of a parent, PARENTAL LEAVE is available.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Nunavut: A self-governing territory formed from the central and eastern portions of the Northwest Territories. It was officially established April 1, 1999. The capital is Iqaluit.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Anthozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Water Purification: Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.ColoradoCatechol 2,3-Dioxygenase: Catalyzes the oxidation of catechol to 2-hydroxymuconate semialdehyde in the carbazole and BENZOATE degradation via HYDROXYLATION pathways. It also catalyzes the conversion of 3-methylcatechol to cis, cis-2-hydroxy-6-oxohept-2,4-dienoate in the TOLUENE and XYLENE degradation pathway. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC 1.13.1.2.

Role of schools in the transmission of measles in rural Senegal: implications for measles control in developing countries. (1/2393)

Patterns of measles transmission at school and at home were studied in 1995 in a rural area of Senegal with a high level of vaccination coverage. Among 209 case children with a median age of 8 years, there were no deaths, although the case fatality ratio has previously been 6-7% in this area. Forty percent of the case children had been vaccinated against measles; the proportion of vaccinated children was higher among secondary cases (47%) than among index cases (33%) (prevalence ratio = 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.76). Vaccinated index cases may have been less infectious than unvaccinated index cases, since they produced fewer clinical cases among exposed children (relative risk = 0.55, 95% CI 0.29-1.04). The secondary attack rate was lower in the schools than in the homes (relative risk = 0.31, 95% CI 0.20-0.49). The school outbreaks were protracted, with 4-5 generations of cases being seen in the two larger schools. Vaccine efficacy was found to be 57% (95% CI -23 to 85) in the schools and 74% (95% CI 62-82) in the residential compounds. Measles infection resulted in a mean of 3.8 days of absenteeism per case, though this did not appear to have an impact on the children's grades. Among the index cases, 56% of children were probably infected by neighbors in the community, and 7% were probably infected at health centers, 13% outside the community, and 24% in one of the three schools which had outbreaks during the epidemic. However, most of the school-related cases occurred at the beginning and therefore contributed to the general propagation of the epidemic. To prevent school outbreaks, it may be necessary to require vaccination prior to school entry and to revaccinate children in individual schools upon detection of cases of measles. Multidose measles vaccination schedules will be necessary to control measles in developing countries.  (+info)

Longitudinal evaluation of serovar-specific immunity to Neisseria gonorrhoeae. (2/2393)

The serovars of Neisseria gonorrhoeae that are predominant in a community change over time, a phenomenon that may be due to the development of immunity to repeat infection with the same serovar. This study evaluated the epidemiologic evidence for serovar-specific immunity to N. gonorrhoeae. During a 17-month period in 1992-1994, all clients of a sexually transmitted disease clinic in rural North Carolina underwent genital culture for N. gonorrhoeae. Gonococcal isolates were serotyped according to standard methods. Odds ratios for repeat infection with the same serovar versus any different serovar were calculated on the basis of the distribution of serovars in the community at the time of reinfection. Of 2,838 patients, 608 (21.4%; 427 males and 181 females) were found to be infected with N. gonorrhoeae at the initial visit. Ninety patients (14.8% of the 608) had a total of 112 repeat gonococcal infections. Repeat infection with the same serovar occurred slightly more often than would be expected based on the serovars prevalent in the community at the time of reinfection, though the result was marginally nonsignificant (odds ratio = 1.5, 95% confidence interval 1.0-2.4; p = 0.05). Choosing partners within a sexual network may increase the likelihood of repeat exposure to the same serovar of N. gonorrhoeae. Gonococcal infection did not induce evident immunity to reinfection with the same serovar.  (+info)

Infective endocarditis due to Staphylococcus aureus: 59 prospectively identified cases with follow-up. (3/2393)

Fifty-nine consecutive patients with definite Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis (IE) by the Duke criteria were prospectively identified at our hospital over a 3-year period. Twenty-seven (45.8%) of the 59 patients had hospital-acquired S. aureus bacteremia. The presumed source of infection was an intravascular device in 50.8% of patients. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) revealed evidence of IE in 20 patients (33.9%), whereas transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) revealed evidence of IE in 48 patients (81.4%). The outcome for patients was strongly associated with echocardiographic findings: 13 (68.4%) of 19 patients with vegetations visualized by TTE had an embolic event or died of their infection vs. five (16.7%) of 30 patients whose vegetations were visualized only by TEE (P < .01). Most patients with S. aureus IE developed their infection as a consequence of a nosocomial or intravascular device-related infection. TEE established the diagnosis of S. aureus IE in many instances when TTE was nondiagnostic. Visualization of vegetations by TTE may provide prognostic information for patients with S. aureus IE.  (+info)

Risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia in adults: a population-based case-control study. (4/2393)

Although community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a major cause of hospitalization and death, few studies on risk factors have been performed. A population-based case-control study of risk factors for CAP was carried out in a mixed residential-industrial urban area of 74,610 adult inhabitants in the Maresme (Barcelona, Spain) between 1993 and 1995. All patients living in the area and clinically suspected of having CAP at primary care facilities and hospitals were registered. In total, 205 patients with symptoms, signs and radiographic infiltrate compatible with acute CAP participated in the study. They were matched by municipality, sex and age with 475 controls randomly selected from the municipal census. Risk factors relating the subject's characteristics and habits, housing conditions, medical history and treatments were investigated by means of a questionnaire. In the univariate analysis, an increased risk of CAP was associated with low body mass index, smoking, respiratory infection, previous pneumonia, chronic lung disease, lung tuberculosis, asthma, treated diabetes, chronic liver disease, and treatments with aminophiline, aerosols and plastic pear-spacers. In multivariate models, the only statistically significant risk factors were current smoking of >20 cigarettes x day(-1) (odds ratio (OR)=2.77; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-6.70 compared with never-smokers), previous respiratory infection (OR=2.73; 95% CI 1.75-4.26), and chronic bronchitis (OR=2.22; 95% CI 1.13-4.37). Benzodiazepines were found to be protective in univariate and multivariate analysis (OR=0.46; 95% CI 0.23-0.94). This population-based study provides new and better established evidence on the factors associated with the occurrence of pneumonia in the adult community.  (+info)

The economic impact of Staphylococcus aureus infection in New York City hospitals. (5/2393)

We modeled estimates of the incidence, deaths, and direct medical costs of Staphylococcus aureus infections in hospitalized patients in the New York City metropolitan area in 1995 by using hospital discharge data collected by the New York State Department of Health and standard sources for the costs of health care. We also examined the relative impact of methicillin-resistant versus -sensitive strains of S. aureus and of community-acquired versus nosocomial infections. S. aureus-associated hospitalizations resulted in approximately twice the length of stay, deaths, and medical costs of typical hospitalizations; methicillin-resistant and -sensitive infections had similar direct medical costs, but resistant infections caused more deaths (21% versus 8%). Community-acquired and nosocomial infections had similar death rates, but community-acquired infections appeared to have increased direct medical costs per patient ($35,300 versus $28,800). The results of our study indicate that reducing the incidence of methicillin-resistant and -sensitive nosocomial infections would reduce the societal costs of S. aureus infection.  (+info)

Seroprevalence of IgG antibodies to the chlamydia-like microorganism 'Simkania Z' by ELISA. (6/2393)

The newly described microorganism 'Simkania Z', related to the Chlamydiae, has been shown to be associated with bronchiolitis in infants and community acquired pneumonia in adults. The prevalence of infection in the general population is unknown. A simple ELISA assay for the detection of serum IgG antibodies to 'Simkania Z' was used to determine the prevalence of such antibodies in several population samples in southern Israel (the Negev). The groups tested included 94 medical and nursing students, 100 unselected blood donors, 106 adult members of a Negev kibbutz (communal agricultural settlement), and 45 adult Bedouin, residents of the Negev. IgG antibodies to 'Simkania Z' were found in 55-80% of these presumably healthy individuals, independently of antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae. The Bedouin had a seropositivity rate of 80%, while all other groups had rates of between 55 and 64%. These results indicate that 'Simkania Z' infection is probably common in southern Israel.  (+info)

Group A Streptococcus carriage among close contacts of patients with invasive infections. (7/2393)

During the past few years, the incidence of invasive group A Streptococcus (GAS) infection has been increasing. However, there are presently no clear recommendations regarding antibiotic prophylaxis for close contacts of index patients. The aims of this study were 1) to determine the prevalence of carriage of the same GAS strain as the patient's among contacts of patients with invasive infections and 2) to assess the importance of exposure duration. From March 1995 to March 1996, the authors prospectively included in the study all patients with invasive GAS infection, as defined by the Working Group on Severe Streptococcal Infections, who came to Hopital Maisonneuve-Rosemont in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. An epidemiologic investigation was systematically carried out for each index case. Contacts were divided into two groups: those who had spent 24 hours or more with the index patient during the week preceding the beginning of his or her illness and those who had spent 12-24 hours with the index patient during that week. Strains of GAS were examined by serotyping (proteins M and T and the presence or absence of the serum opacity factor) and by characterization of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins (exotoxins A, B, and C). One hundred and two contacts of 17 index cases with invasive GAS infection were systematically screened. Contacts were considered positive if they carried the same strain of the bacterium and the same streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin as the index case. Among the contacts who had spent at least 24 hours per week with their respective index cases, 13 out of 48 (27%) were found to be harboring the same serotype of GAS as the index patient (95% confidence interval 14.5-39.5). By comparison, only one of the 54 contacts in the 12- to 24-hour group (1.8%) was found to be carrying the same strain of the bacterium (95% confidence interval 0-5.3). This difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p<0.001). The median age of the positive carriers (10 years) was significantly lower than the median age of the noncarriers (39 years) (p< or =0.0005). This study showed that close contacts who had spent 12-24 hours with the index patient were rarely colonized with GAS. If antibiotic prophylaxis against GAS is recommended, it should probably target contacts who spent at least 24 hours with an infected patient during the week preceding illness onset.  (+info)

A community outbreak of Legionnaires' disease linked to hospital cooling towers: an epidemiological method to calculate dose of exposure. (8/2393)

BACKGROUND: From July to September 1994, 29 cases of community-acquired Legionnaires' disease (LD) were reported in Delaware. The authors conducted an investigation to a) identify the source of the outbreak and risk factors for developing Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (Lp-1) pneumonia and b) evaluate the risk associated with the components of cumulative exposure to the source (i.e. distance from the source, frequency of exposure, and duration of exposure). METHODS: A case-control study matched 21 patients to three controls per case by known risk factors for acquiring LD. Controls were selected from patients who attended the same clinic as the respective case-patients. Water samples taken at the hospital, from eight nearby cooling towers, and from four of the patient's homes were cultured for Legionella. Isolates were subtyped using monoclonal antibody (Mab) analysis and arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR). RESULTS: Eleven (52%) of 21 case-patients worked at or visited the hospital compared with 17 (27%) of 63 controls (OR 5.0, 95% CI : 1.1-29). For those who lived, worked, or visited within 4 square miles of the hospital, the risk of illness decreased by 20% for each 0.10 mile from the hospital; it increased by 80% for each visit to the hospital; and it increased by 8% for each hour spent within 0.125 miles of the hospital. Lp-1 was isolated from three patients and both hospital cooling towers. Based on laboratory results no other samples contained Lp-1. The clinical and main-tower isolates all demonstrated Mab pattern 1,2,5,6. AP-PCR matched the main-tower samples with those from two case-patients. CONCLUSION: The results of our investigation suggested that the hospital cooling towers were the source of a community outbreak of LD. Increasing proximity to and frequency of exposure to the towers increased the risk of LD. New guidelines for cooling tower maintenance are needed. Knowing the location of cooling towers could facilitate maintenance inspections and outbreak investigations.  (+info)

*Acinetobacter

Falagas, ME; Karveli, EA; Kelesidis, I; Kelesidis, T (2007). "Community acquired Acinetobacter infections". Eur J Clin ... having been implicated in a number of hospital-acquired infections such as bacteremia, urinary tract infections (UTIs), ... It can cause various other infections, including skin and wound infections, bacteremia, and meningitis, but A. lwoffi is mostly ... to community-acquired primary meningitis wherein the majority of the victims were children. Case reports also link A. baumannii ...

*Omadacycline

Paratek Pharmaceuticals is developing omadacycline as a treatment for certain serious community-acquired infections. In vitro ... infectious disease product in the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections and community-acquired ... "Paratek Announces Positive Phase 3 Study of Omadacycline in Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia". www.globenewswire.com. ... A 750 patient phase 3 study comparing omadacycline to moxifloxacin for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia ...

*Thiamphenicol

"Role of thiamphenicol in the treatment of community-acquired lung infections". Med Trop (Mars). 64 (1): 33-8. PMID 15224555. ... Thiamphenicol is also widely used in Brazil, particularly for the treatment of sexually transmitted infections and pelvic ...

*Home care

2006). "Community-Acquired Infection With Healthcare-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: The Role of Home ... However, from an epidemiological standpoint, the risks of some community acquired infections are higher from home nursing than ... that enables the patient to live independently in the community. While there are differences in terms used in describing ... Nursing Care". Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. 27 (11): 1213-1218. doi:10.1086/507920. PMID 17080379. Paul IM, et ...

*Hyper-CVAD

... to prevent against community acquired infections. Patients are also at risk of hospital acquired infections, such as ... It is not uncommon for patients to require hospitalisation to treat infections. Other side effects Temporary hair loss is a ...

*Cethromycin

... for treatment of community-acquired respiratory infections". Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs. 17 (3): 387-400. doi: ... is a ketolide antibiotic undergoing research for the treatment of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) and for the prevention of ... for cethromycin to treat mild-to-moderate community acquired pneumonia. On December 3, 2008 Advanced Life Sciences announced ... Originally discovered and developed by Abbott, it was acquired by Advanced Life Sciences Inc. for further development. On ...

*Staphylococcus aureus

The carriage of S. aureus is an important source of hospital-acquired infection (also called nosocomial) and community-acquired ... but are becoming increasingly prevalent in community-acquired infections. Minor skin infections can be treated with triple ... It is still one of the five most common causes of hospital-acquired infections and is often the cause of wound infections ... Deeply penetrating S. aureus infections can be severe. Skin infections are the most common form of S. aureus infection. This ...

*Atypical pneumonia

"Diagnosis of atypical pathogens in patients hospitalized with community-acquired respiratory infection". Scandinavian Journal ... "Microbiology of community-acquired pneumonia in the Gulf Corporation Council states". Journal of Chemotherapy. 19 (Suppl 1): 17 ... No signs and symptoms of lobar consolidation, meaning that the infection is restricted to small areas, rather than involving a ... Chest radiographs (X-ray photographs) often show a pulmonary infection before physical signs of atypical pneumonia are ...

*Pseudomonas oryzihabitans

In cases of patients with indwelling catheters, special care should be taken so that a community-acquired infection does not ... or they are community-acquired, which means that the patient had evidence of infection before admission or during the first ... Infections can be either nosocomially acquired, which means that the bacteria originated during a patient's duration in the ... However, it is rare for the infection to escalate into sepsis, but there have been cases where patients have acquired the ...

*Staphylococcus saprophyticus

S. saprophyticus is a common cause of community-acquired urinary tract infections. S. saprophyticus was not recognized as a ... it is the second-most common cause of community-acquired UTIs, after Escherichia coli. Sexual activity increases the risk of S ... saprophyticus infection. This is because unlike Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae urinary tract infections, S. saprophyticus ... Vitamin C Source Food Articles, Cure of Urinary Tract Infection in North India Lee, WH; Loo, CY; Bebawy, M; Luk, F; et al. ( ...

*Plasmid-mediated resistance

... and community-acquired infections. Both narrow spectrum beta-lactamases (e.g. penicillinases) and extended spectrum beta- ... KPC, NDM-1, VIM and OXA-48 carbapenemases have been increasingly reported worldwide as causes of hospital-acquired infections. ... Antibiotic resistance mediated by MDR plasmids severely limits the treatment options for the infections caused by Gram-negative ...

*Quinolone antibiotic

In community-acquired infections, they are recommended only when risk factors for multidrug resistance are present or after ... It has been recommended that fluoroquinolones not be used as a first-line agent for community-acquired pneumonia, instead ... quinolones for community-acquired pneumonia: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Clinical Microbiology and ... September 2013). "Community-associated Clostridium difficile infection and antibiotics: a meta-analysis". Journal of ...

*Bacteremia

Skin ulceration or wounds, respiratory tract infections, and IV drug use are the most important causes of community-acquired ... E.coli bacteremia is usually the result of a urinary tract infection. Other organisms that can cause community-acquired ... "Community-acquired bacterial bloodstream infections in developing countries in south and southeast Asia: a systematic review". ... of all cases of community-acquired bacteremia. In general, gram negative bacteria enter the bloodstream from infections in the ...

*Carbapenem

... are recommended for high-risk community-acquired abdominal infections and for abdominal infections that are hospital-acquired. ... Carbapenems are less commonly used in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia, as community-acquired strains of the most ... Enterobacteriaceae are common pathogens responsible for urinary tract infections, abdominal infections, and hospital-acquired ... by the Infectious Disease Society of America for the empiric treatment of community-acquired intra-abdominal infections of mild ...

*Infections associated with diseases

"Antibiotics for community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections secondary toMycoplasma pneumoniaein children". doi: ... The history of infection and disease were observed in the 1800s and related to the one of the tick-borne diseases, Rocky ... COMMON INFECTIONS AND UNCOMMON DISEASE: ELUSIVE ASSOCIATIONS OF ENTEROVIRUSES AND TYPE I DIABETES MELLITUS". In Knobler, Stacey ... Infections associated with diseases are those that are associated with possible infectious etiologies, that meet the ...

*Antimicrobial copper-alloy touch surfaces

... and community-acquired infections. Staphylococcus aureus, the most common of all bacterial staphylococcus (i.e., Staph) ... antimicrobial copper surfaces to reduce hospital-acquired infections because it wants to prevent hospital-acquired infections ... Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, May 2013 "Copper Surfaces Reduce the Rate of Health Care-Acquired Infections in ... surfaces may increase the effectiveness of existing infection control practices and may lower the risk of infections acquired ...

*Staphylococcal infection

Among neurosurgical patients, it can cause community-acquired meningitis. Other infections include: Closed-space infections of ... MRSA has also been recognized with increasing frequency in community-acquired infections. The symptoms of a Staph Infection ... Problematically, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a major cause of hospital-acquired infections, ... "Staphylococcus aureus Infections - Infections". Merck Manuals Consumer Version. Retrieved 2015-12-03. Cheng-Ching, Esteban; ...

*Ertapenem

... is marketed by Merck as a first-line treatment for community-acquired infections. It should not be used as empirical ... treatment for hospital-acquired infections because of its lack of activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In practice, it is ... Acquired resistance to ertapenem is usually mediated by up-regulation of efflux mechanisms and by the selection of porin- ... In 2006, Ertapenem became approved for pediatric use in certain infections. Ertapenem is not recommended for children under 3 ...

*Morganella morganii

Although M. morganii has a wide distribution, it is considered an uncommon cause of community-acquired infection and it is most ... Morganella infections UniProt. Morganella morganii (Proteus morganii) "Morganella infections". Medscape. Retrieved 5 December ... Numerous cases of nosocomial infection have been described, usually as postsurgical wound infections or urinary tract ... nosocomial surgical wound infections, peritonitis, central nervous system infection, endophthalmitis, pneumonia, ...

*Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital

In 2006 an outbreak of a community-acquired infection Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus on the neonatal intensive ... In March 2011 several wards in the hospital were closed as a result of an outbreak of the community infection Norovirus. In ...

*Global spread of H5N1 in 2005

... raising the possibility of community-acquired infection" but "the detection of H5N1 in clinical specimens is technically ... Sichuan Province, where infections with Streptococcus suis have been detected in pigs in a concurrent outbreak, has one of the ... "Bird flu confirmed in 10 rural communities across Russia". RIA Novosti. October 31, 2005. "Deadly bird flu detected in Kuwait ... October 31, 2005 Russia confirmed previously suspected H5N1 bird flu in ten rural communities across Russia. The confirmed ...

*Anaerobic infection

The infection is often polymicrobial in nature and isolates of community-acquired infection (in 60-80% of cases) are aerobic ... The recommendations suggest the following: For mild-to-moderate community-acquired infections in adults, the agents recommended ... The isolates found in soft-tissue infections can vary depending on the type of infection. The infection's location and the ... For high risk community-acquired infections in adults, the agents recommended for empiric regimens are: meropenem, imipenem- ...

*Cathay Drug

... spoke about the stewardship of community and hospital-acquired infections. Dr. Kurt Naber of the Technical University of Munich ... The company acquires its products through licensing agreements with domestic and international firms. Among its main suppliers ... inflammation/infection of the urinary bladder). The novelty is its single dose regimen that assures excellent patient ... depending on the severity of the infection. Flores, W.L. (2006-05-08). "Who will be the next taipans?". Philstar. Retrieved ...

*Cavernous sinus thrombosis

"Cavernous sinus thrombosis and meningitis from community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection". ... and dental infections (10%). Less common primary sites of infection include tonsils, soft palate, middle ear, or orbit (orbital ... Infection can spread to contralateral cavernous sinus within 24-48 hours of initial presentation. CST most commonly results ... This infection is life-threatening and requires immediate treatment, which usually includes antibiotics and sometimes surgical ...

*Cefditoren

... pivoxil is used to treat uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections, community-acquired pneumonia, acute ... Cefditoren pivoxil has a broad spectrum of activity and has been used to treat bacterial infections of the skin and respiratory ...

*Norovirus

... infection cannot be treated with antibiotics because it is not a bacterial infection. Treatments aim to avoid ... "Norovirus Vaccine" (PDF). "Takeda to Acquire LigoCyte Pharmaceuticals, Inc". Norovirus; Ligocyte.com; accessed . "How To Stay ... national health authorities and the scientific community to use the virus name Norwalk virus, rather than the genus name ... Infection is characterized by diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach pain. Blood is not usually present. Fever or headaches may also ...
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a frequent cause for patients to present to a physicians office or emergency department. We observed increasing numbers of community-acquired MRSA infections in patients admitted to the hand surgery service at our suburban academic center. It is an important issue as unsuspected community-acquired MRSA hand infections can be admitted to the hospital, inadequately treated, and allowed for nosocomial spread. This study was performed to examine the trend in the incidence of community-acquired MRSA infections in patients admitted to the hand surgery service in order to sensitize practitioners to have a high index of suspicion for this entity and promote early recognition and treatment of this organism. A multihospital retrospective chart review was undertaken to compare the total number of community-acquired MRSA infections in our hospital as well as the number in patients admitted to the hand surgery service with community-acquired MRSA from 2000
BioAssay record AID 529821 submitted by ChEMBL: Bactericidal activity against community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by broth microdilution method in presence of 50% human serum.
www.lung.org/assets/documents/research/pi-trend-report.pdf.. 5. Arnold FW, Wiemken TL, Peyrani P, et al. Mortality differences among hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia in three world regions: results from the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Organization (CAPO) International Cohort Study. Respir Med 2013;107:1101-11.. 6. Mortensen EM, Coley CM, Singer DE, et al. Causes of death for patients with community-acquired pneumonia: results from the Pneumonia Patient Outcomes Research Team cohort study. Arch Intern Med 2002;162:1059-64.. 7. Bordon J, Wiemken T, Peyrani P, et al. Decrease in long-term survival for hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Chest 2010;138:279-83.. 8. Mortensen EM, Halm EA, Pugh MJ, et al. Association of azithromycin with mortality and cardiovascular events among older patients hospitalized with pneumonia. JAMA 2014;311:2199-208.. 9. Aliberti S, Ramirez JA. Cardiac diseases complicating community-acquired pneumonia. Curr Opin Infect Dis ...
SUPPLEMENT ARTICLE Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society Consensus Guidelines on the Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults Lionel A. Mandell, 1,a Richard G. Wunderink,
Oxidative stress is an important part of host innate immune response to foreign pathogens. However, the impact of vitamin C on oxidative stress and inflammation remains unclear in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We aimed to determine the effect of vitamin C on oxidative stress and inflammation. CAP patients were enrolled. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage, superoxide dismutases (SOD) activity, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and IL-6 were analyzed in CAP patients and LPS-stimulated macrophages cells. MH-S cells were transfected with RFP-LC3 plasmids. Autophagy was measured in LPS-stimulated macrophages cells. Severe CAP patients showed significantly increased ROS, DNA damage, TNF-α, and IL-6. SOD was significantly decreased in severe CAP. Vitamin C significantly decreased ROS, DNA damage, TNF-α, and IL-6. Vitamin C inhibited LPS-induced ROS, DNA damage, TNF-α, IL-6, and p38 in macrophages cells. Vitamin C inhibited autophagy in LPS-induced macrophages cells.
References 1. Bartlett JG, Dowell SF, Mandell LA, et al; Infectious Diseases Society of America. Practice guidelines for the management of community-acquired pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;31:347-382. 2. National Center for Health Statistics. Health, United States, 2006. Available at: www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/hus06.pdf. Accessed June 6, 2007.3. DeFrances CJ, Podgornik MN. 2004 National hospital discharge survey. Adv Data. 2006;317:1-19. 4. Division of Epidemiology. National Heart Lung and Blood Institute. Morbidity and mortality: 2004 chartbook on cardiovascular, lung and blood diseases. May 2004. 5. Mandell LA, Wunderink RG, Anzueto A, et al. Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44(suppl 2):S27-S72. 6. Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Churchill Livingstone; 2005:819-845. 7. Marrie TJ, ...
Press Release Date: March 1, 2004. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality today announced its first clinical decision-support tool for personal digital assistants (PDAs) that is designed to help clinicians deliver evidence-based medicine at the point of care. AHRQs new Pneumonia Severity Index Calculator (which is available for download from the AHRQ Web site at http://pda.ahrq.gov), is an interactive application for Palm Pilots and other PDAs to help doctors quickly and easily determine whether patients with community-acquired pneumonia should be treated at home or in a hospital.. This new Pneumonia Severity Index Calculator is an example of how technology can support and facilitate the delivery of evidence-based medicine, said AHRQ Director Carolyn M. Clancy, M.D. AHRQ is striving to make decision support tools such as this available to clinicians. Community-acquired pneumonia contracted outside of a hospital or nursing home environment affects approximately 4 million Americans ...
There is no evidence supporting the use of de-escalation therapy (DET) among patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We assessed the outcomes associated with DET among bacteraemic CAP patients. We performed a secondary analysis of the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Organization database, which contains data on 660 bacteraemic patients hospitalized because of CAP in 35 countries (2001-2013). Exclusion criteria were death within 72h from admission and an inappropriate empirical antibiotic regimen. DET was defined as changing an appropriate empirical broad-spectrum regimen to a narrower-spectrum regimen according to culture results within 7 days from hospital admission. Two study groups were identified: patients whose antibiotic therapy was de-escalated (the DET group), and patients whose antibiotic therapy was not de-escalated (the N-DET group). The primary study outcome was 30-day mortality. Two hundred and sixty-one bacteraemic CAP patients were included. Gram-positive bacteria were ...
...WALTHAM Mass. Dec. 8 /- Decision Resources one of the ...The new Pharmacor report entitled Community-Acquired Pneumonia ... Two of the most clinically and commercially promising antibiotics in ...The report also finds that the community-acquired pneumonia market is ...,Patent,Expiries,of,Blockbuster,Antibiotics,Will,Fuel,a,Decline,of,More,Than,15,Percent,in,the,Community-Acquired,Pneumonia,Drug,Market,medicine,advanced medical technology,medical laboratory technology,medical device technology,latest medical technology,Health
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has significant morbidity and mortality. The Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society (IDSA/ATS) guidelines recommend two antimicrobial regimens for hospitalized patients with CAP, one of which includes a macrolide, and one of which does not. Both regimens have antimicrobial properties, but macrolides also possess immunomodulatory properties. Macrolides, however, may also have potential arrhythmia adverse effects. The purpose of this review is to provide an update of studies evaluating outcomes for patients with CAP treated with or without a macrolide-based regimen. Two recent randomized controlled trials conflict with each other regarding the benefit versus noninferiority of including a macrolide for the treatment for CAP. Each have their respective limitations. Most prior observational studies and meta-analyses favor using a regimen with a macrolide. We do not recommend any different treatment strategy than the current IDSA/ATS guidelines for
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Plasma YKL-40 level has been reported as playing a significant role in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, the correlation between plasma level of YKL-40 and the severity of CAP has not been reported. This study identifies the relationship between plasma level changes of the YKL-40 gene in adult patients hospitalized with CAP. The ELISA was used to measure the plasma YKL-40 level from 61 adult CAP patients before and after antibiotic treatment and from 60 healthy controls. The plasma YKL-40 levels were significantly increased in patients with CAP compared to normal controls. Moreover, the plasma concentration of YKL-40 correlated with the severity of CAP based on the pneumonia severity index (PSI) score (r = 0.630, p < 0.001), the CURB-65 (confusion, uremia, respiratory rate, BP, age 65 years) score (r = 0.640, p < 0.001), the Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score (r = 0.539, p < 0.001) and length of hospital stay (r = 0.321, p = 0.011), respectively. In
Abdel-Rahman EM, 2000, DIAGN MICR INFEC DIS, V36, P203, DOI 10.1016-S0732-8893(99)00142-X; Ahmad S, 2009, JCPSP-J COLL PHYSICI, V19, P264, DOI 04.2009-JCPSP.264265; Ahmed K, 2000, EPIDEMIOL INFECT, V125, P573, DOI 10.1017-S0950268800004751; AHMED K, 1999, J INFECT CHEMOTHER, V5, P217, DOI 10.1007-s101560050039; Akala FA, 2006, LANCET, V367, P961, DOI 10.1016-S0140-6736(06)68402-X; Akbar DH, 2001, ACTA DIABETOL, V38, P77; ALALI MK, 2007, SAUDI MED J, V28, P813; Al-Ghamdi SM, 2003, SAUDI MED J, V24, P1073; Al-Ghizawi G. J., 2007, Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, V13, P230; Al-Moyed K A, 2003, East Mediterr Health J, V9, P279; Al-Muhairi S, 2006, Monaldi Arch Chest Dis, V65, P13; Al-Muhairi SS, 2006, SAUDI MED J, V27, P1044; Alzeer A, 1998, J INFECTION, V36, P303, DOI 10.1016-S0163-4453(98)94315-8; Babay HA, 2000, SAUDI MED J, V21, P860; Balkhy HH, 2006, INT J INFECT DIS, V10, P326, DOI 10.1016-j.ijid.2005.06.013; Behbehani N, 2005, MED PRIN PRACT, V14, P235, DOI 10.1159-000085741; BISHAY FK, ...
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an emerging community-acquired pathogen among patients without established risk factors for MRSA infection (e.g., recent hospitalization, recent surgery, residence in a long-term-care facility [LTCF], or injecting-drug use [IDU]) (1). Since 1996, the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) and the Indian Health Service (IHS) have investigated cases of community-acquired MRSA infection in patients without established risk factors. This report describes four fatal cases among children with community-acquired MRSA; the MRSA strains isolated from these patients appear to be different from typical nosocomial MRSA strains in antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) characteristics.. Case Reports. Case 1. In July 1997, a 7-year-old black girl from urban Minnesota was admitted to a tertiary-care hospital with a temperature of 103 F (39.5 C) and right groin pain. An infected right hip joint was diagnosed; she ...
Ekloef and Schmidt Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine2012, 20(Suppl 2):P10http://www.sjtrem.com/content/20/S2/P10 Community-acquired pneumonia: a comparisonof clinical treatment failure in patients treatedwith either penicillin or cefuroximeJosefin Ekloef*, Thomas A Schmidt From 4th Danish Emergency Medicine ConferenceRoskilde, Denmark. 25-26 November 2011 cefuroxime. Forty percent of the patients treated with National and local guidelines in the Emergency depart- penicillin experienced CTF compared to 17% in the ment (ED) at Holbaek hospital recommend penicillin as group treated with cefuroxime (p=0.347). Patients were first-line treatment of community-acquired pneumonia followed for 9 days. At 5 days, a survival rate without (CAP). Nevertheless, the use of cefuroxime seem to be CTF was estimated to 0,75 for cefuroxime and 0.54 for substantial when admitting patients with CAP ...
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common infection. Approximately 20 percent of all episodes of pneumonia result in hospitalization. It is the leading cause of community-acquired infection requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission. In pulmonary infections, the release of cytokines and other inflammatory mediators from alveolar macrophages serves as a mechanism by which invading pathogens are eliminated. However, this reaction of the innate immune system can be potentially harmful when excessive release of circulating inflammatory cytokines causes damage to the patient, particularly the lung. Interest in the role of corticosteroids in the pathophysiology of critical illness has existed since the early part of the 20th century. On ICU, early treatment with corticosteroids to attenuate systemic inflammation is widespread. At the same time, outside the ICU little evidence is available on the effect of treatment with corticosteroids in patients diagnosed with CAP. Theoretically, early ...
Authors: Edberg M, Furebring M, Sjölin J, Enblad P.. BACKGROUND: Reports about neurointensive care of severe community-acquired meningitis are few. The aims of this retrospective study were to review the acute clinical course, management and outcome in a series of bacterial meningitis patients receiving neurointensive care.. METHODS: Thirty patients (median age 51, range 1-81) admitted from a population of 2 million people during 7 years were studied. The neurointensive care protocol included escalated stepwise treatment with mild hyperventilation, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage, continuous thiopentotal infusion and decompressive craniectomy. Clinical outcome was assessed using the Glasgow outcome scale.. RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients did not respond to commands on arrival, five were non-reacting and five had dilated pupils. Twenty-two patients had positive CSF cultures: Streptococcus pneumoniae (n=18), Neisseria meningitidis (n=2), β-streptococcus group A (n=1) and Staphylococcus aureus ...
4. "Genomics to Combact Resistance against Antibiotics in Community-acquired Lower Respiratory Tract Infections in Europe [GRACE]". Network of Excellence, Contract nº LSHM-CT-2005-518226. Funding: European Commission. Principal Contractor: University Hospital Antwerp, Belgium. Participating Institutions: ITQB and 23 others. March 2006/April 2010.. 5. "CONtrol of COmmunity-acquired MRSA: Rationale and Development of counteractions [CONCORD]". Project FP7-Health-F3-2008-222718. Funding: European Commission. Principal contractor: University Medical Centre Utrecht, The Netherlands. Participating institutions: ITQB and 8 others. January 2009/Junho 2012.. 6. "Translational Research on Combating Antimicrobial Resistance [TROCAR]". Project FP7-Health-F3-2008-223031. Funding: European Commission. Principal contractor: Institut Dinvestigacions Biomèdiques August Pi I Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain. Participating institutions: ITQB and 15 others. January 2009/Junho 2012.. 7. A comprehensive ...
Gatifloxacin is an 8-methoxy fluoroquinolone with broad activity against respiratory tract pathogens, including those commonly associated with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). To evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral gatifloxacin 400 mg once daily for seven to 14 days, community-based physicians enrolled adult outpatients with confirmed or suspected CAP in a prospective, single-arm, open-label, noncomparative study. Of 1488 clinically evaluable patients with radiographically confirmed or clinically suspected CAP, 1417 (95.2%) were cured. All strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis, the most commonly isolated pathogens, were susceptible to gatifloxacin. Penicillin nonsusceptibility was seen in 32.6% of S. pneumoniae isolates, and beta-lactamase production was detected in H. influenzae (26.9%) and M. catarrhalis (88%) isolates. Clinical cure rates of 91%, 94%, and 92% were achieved in patients with S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis,
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) refers to pneumonia (any of several lung diseases) contracted by a person with little contact with the healthcare system. The chief difference between hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and CAP is that patients with HAP live in long-term care facilities or have recently visited a hospital. CAP is common, affecting people of all ages, and its symptoms occur as a result of oxygen-absorbing areas of the lung (alveoli) filling with fluid. This inhibits lung function, causing dyspnea, fever, chest pains and cough. CAP, the most common type of pneumonia, is a leading cause of illness and death worldwide. Its causes include bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. CAP is diagnosed by assessing symptoms, making a physical examination and on x-ray. Other tests, such as sputum examination, supplement chest x-rays. Patients with CAP sometimes require hospitalization, and it is treated primarily with antibiotics, antipyretics and cough medicine. Some forms of CAP can be ...
Community-acquired pneumonia substantially affects patient morbidity and mortality, and has significant health care costs. This type of pneumonia has more impact on elderly patients, who tend to have longer hospital stays and a higher cost per stay compared with younger patients. Multiple published guidelines provide physicians with information about when to admit patients with community-acquired pneumonia, which antibiotic therapy is appropriate, how long to treat, and when it is suitable to discharge patients from the hospital. These treatment strategies do not take into account the emergence of resistant organisms and the poorly understood impact of community-acquired pneumonia on younger patients. Although various studies have looked at combination antibiotic therapy, they rarely have been comparative. Brown and colleagues examined the effect of initial antibiotic therapy for community-acquired pneumonia on selected clinical outcomes.. The authors analyzed a hospital database of adult ...
The Outpatient Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults GUIDELINES Pocket Card is based on the latest guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is defined as an acute infection of the pulmonary parenchyma in a patient who has acquired the infection in the community, as distinguished from hospital-acquired (nosocomial) pneumonia (HAP).CAP is a common and pot
Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are responsible for high morbidity and mortality in pediatric patients, particularly in children less than five years old. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the most serious cause of ARI. Each year, from two to three million children die of pneumonia, predominantly in developing countries, and this is attributed to more severe clinical conditions, the involvement of bacteria as etiological agents, and less access to health care services and adequate therapy. This study aimed to compare clinical response to initial empirical treatment of Oxacillin associated with Ceftriaxone to Amoxicillin associated with Clavulanic Acid in children aged from two months to five years, diagnosed with severe community-acquired Pneumonia, who require hospitalization. It also aimed to evaluate the time for clinical recovery (fever and tachypnea) and the need for extending the antimicrobial spectrum in order to determine therapeutic failure in the proposed schemes. It is a ...
In a randomized clinical trial of antibiotic treatments for community-acquired pneumonia, researchers did not find that monotherapy with β-lactam alone was worse than a combination therapy with a macrolide in patients hospitalized with moderately severe pneumonia.
Introduction: Data describing real-life management and treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Europe are limited. The REtrospective Study to Assess the Clinical Management of Patients With Moderate-to-severe cSSTI or CAP Infections in the Hospital Setting (REACH) (NCT01293435) was an observational retrospective study that collected data on the management of European patients hospitalized with CAP in order to review current clinical practices and outcomes related to initial treatment failure, and to assess intercountry differences. Methods: Patients were aged ≥18 years, hospitalized with CAP between March 2010 and February 2011, and required in-hospital management and treatment with intravenous antibiotics. An electronic Case Report Form was used to collect a number of patient, disease and treatment variables, including type of CAP, medical history, treatment setting, antibiotic treatments and clinical outcomes, particularly treatment failure. Results: Patients (N=2039) were ...
Pneumonia is a type of lung infection. It can cause breathing problems and other symptoms. In community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), you get infected in a community setting. It doesnt happen in a hospital, nursing home, or other healthcare center.
Objective: To investigate the pathogens and antibiotic resistance of Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) in children under 5 y old in our hospital duri..
Edited by James D Chalmers Mathias W Pletz and Stefano Aliberti Community-acquired pneumonia remains the leading cause of hospitalisation for
Patients Receive Recommended Care for Community-Acquired Pneumonia For New Jersey to be a state in which all people live long, healthy lives. DSRIP LEARNING COLLABORATIVE PRESENTATION The Care you Trust!
We present the case of a patient with a necrotizing multilobar pneumonia caused by community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The patient presented with shortness of breath and a productive cough of 3 days duration. On arrival to the emergency department she was intubated for increased work of breathing and given vasopressors for hypotension refractory to fluid resuscitation. Blood cultures taken at admission, sputum cultures from the patients endotracheal tube, and bronchoalveolar lavage cultures all grew S. aureus resistant to penicillinase-resistant penicillins. Over the following days the patients respiratory function deteriorated as she grew progressively hypoxemic and hypercarbic despite aggressive mechanical ventilation and intravenous antibiotics. On day 4 of her hospitalization a computed tomogram revealed extensive pulmonary necrosis consistent with necrotizing pneumonia. The patients family elected to withdraw support, and the patient rapidly died ...
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If the participating doctors think there is no definite need for antibiotics, participants will be asked to take a 7-day course of tablets to be taken three times a day. The tablets will be either amoxicillin, a very commonly used and safe penicillin-based antibiotic, or a placebo (a tablet without any medication in it). They will not be able to tell whether they will have the real antibiotic or the placebo. Random numbers are used to decide whether participants get antibiotic or placebo to make sure that they have an equal chance of getting either. This is the best way for us to show scientifically whether antibiotics really make a difference. If it is necessary to know whether participants are using an antibiotic or not, the participating doctors will be able to get that information at any time and change the participants medication. The participating doctors will also like to take one throat swab at day 8 (extra visit) and at the second study visit (day 28-35). The swab at day 8 will not be ...
WEDNESDAY, Oct. 11, 2017 (HealthDay News) - Statin use is associated with a decreased risk of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (CA-SAB), particularly in long-term users, according to a study published in the October issue of Mayo Clinic Proceedings.. Jesper Smit, M.D., Ph.D., from Aalborg University Hospital in Denmark, and colleagues used population-based medical registries to identify 2,638 adults with first-time CA-SAB and 26,379 population controls matched for age, sex, and residence in northern Denmark (Jan. 1, 2000, through Dec. 31, 2011). Statin users were characterized as current users (new or long-term use), former users, and nonusers.. The researchers found that compared with nonusers, current statin users experienced markedly decreased risk of CA-SAB (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.73; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.63 to 0.84). The adjusted OR was 0.96 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.6 to 1.51) for new users, 0.71 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.62 to 0.82) ...
Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) should be considered the cause of this type of infection until definitive cultures are obtained? As crabwise cabergoline price part of a class of drugs called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, it works by helping to block the reuptake of a chemical in the brain called serotonin. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of methylprednisolone in obesi. Then I went to Tomshardware, and one guy recommended wwwMicrosoftkeysalescom to me? During the entire course of treatment, it is recommended that patients consume plenty of water? Hypothyroidism, buy propecia online the chronic condition of an under-active thyroid, affects millions of Americans? Olympic hockey goals leader signs with Boston Bruins March 19, dostinex costo upwardly 2018 9:47 am Final World Cup Alpine skiing races canceled March 18, 2018 8:47 am Declan Farmer heroics lift US. Its a simple tool thats designed to perform a job, the tools for which you always ...
Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has increasingly been noted as an emerging pathogen worldwide
Hospital length of stay (LOS) and time for a patient to reach clinical stability (TCS) have increasingly become important outcomes when investigating ways in which to combat Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP). Difficulties arise when deciding how to handle in-hospital mortality. Ad-hoc approaches that are commonly used to handle time to event outcomes with mortality can give disparate results and provide conflicting conclusions based on the same data. To ensure compatibility among studies investigating these outcomes, this type of data should be handled in a consistent and appropriate fashion. Using both simulated data and data from the international Community Acquired Pneumonia Organization (CAPO) database, we evaluate two ad-hoc approaches for handling mortality when estimating the probability of hospital discharge and clinical stability: 1) restricting analysis to those patients who lived, and 2) assigning individuals who die the worst outcome (right-censoring them at the longest recorded LOS or
S. Ewig, G. Höffken, W. V. Kern, G. Rohde, H. Flick, R. Krause, S. Ott, T. Bauer, K. Dalhoff, S. Gatermann, M. Kolditz, S. Krüger, J. Lorenz, M. Pletz, A. de Roux, B. Schaaf, T. Schaberg, H. Schütte, T.Welte; Behandlung von erwachsenen Patienten mit ambulant erworbener, Pneumonie und Prävention - Update 2016, Management of Adult Community-acquired Pneumonia and Prevention - Update 2016. Online-Publikation: 2016, Pneumologie, Georg Thieme Verlag KG - Stuttgart, New York, ISSN 0934-8387. Herzmann C, Sotgiu G, Schaberg T, Ernst M, Stenger S, Lange C; Consortium for the German TB or Not TB9. Early BCG vaccination is unrelated to pulmonary immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in adults. Eur Respir J. 2014 Jun 25. pii: erj00865-2014. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 24969658. Rose MA, Damm O, Greiner W, Knuf M, Wutzler P, Liese JG, Krüger H, Wahn U,Schaberg T, Schwehm M, Kochmann TF, Eichner M. The epidemiological impact ofchildhood influenza vaccination using live-attenuated influenza ...
Main hypothesis: microbiological diagnossis off severe community acquired pneumonia can be performed by non invasive or semi invasive microbiological tools, semi invasive tools including protected distal bronchial samplings by the mean of Fiber optic bronchoscopy (FOB). A microbiological diagnosis could improve antibiotic therapy efficacy and improve patients outcome.. These Two strategies have never been prospectivally evauated.. ...
After 7 days of treatment, 41.2% of patients in the monotherapy group had not reached clinical stability, compared with 33.6% of patients in the combination arm (P = .07), the researchers said. Kaplan-Meier curves showed that the difference between the two groups peaked on day 7 and persisted until day 30, but never reached statistical significance, they added. At the same time, patients with atypical infections were less likely to stabilize with monotherapy compared with dual treatment (hazard ratio, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.85), the researchers said. The superiority of dual therapy in these patients "may be explained by failure to provide timely coverage of the Legionella infection," the investigators said. Patients randomized to monotherapy whose urine tested positive went an average of almost 2 days before starting macrolides, they noted. "This long interval reflects real-life practice, with delays in collecting a urine sample for testing, receiving the results, and prescribing the ...
The results of our study suggest a higher adherence to the German guideline for the management of CAP patients after active implementation. The proportion of guideline conformity increased concerning the indicators "duration of antibiotic treatment in outpatients" (+9.2%), "antibiotic treatment in inpatients" (+5.6%) and its duration (+5.0%), whereas in the CG, a decrease could be observed in all the said indicators (−7.9%, −4.7% and −2.9%, respectively) except the "antibiotic treatment in outpatients" (+0.6%). Nevertheless, the logit loglinear analyses showed no effect of intervention or time period on the process of care. In addition, no significant effect could be observed on the 30-days overall mortality, the CAP-related mortality and the length of hospital stay.. Our study differs from previous investigations in this area in several aspects. We recruited patients not only in hospitals but also in sentinel practices, which allowed us to estimate the effect on the process of care in ...
The Pediatric Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Infants and Children |3 Months GUIDELINES Pocket Card is based on the latest guidelines of the Infectious
Brown and Lerner ask how Bartlett and Mundys review could be interpreted to mean that the ATS guidelines for CAP are appropriate. The Update clearly states that Bartlett and Mundy recommended routine diagnostic testing in CAP, a position that differs from the ATS guidelines. It then stated that on the basis of the pathogens causing CAP (and shown in Table 3 of the Update), the ATS guidelines were appropriate. In fact, the pathogens in the table were almost identical to the pathogens that were reported in the ATS guidelines to cause CAP in hospitalized patients. On the basis of these data, Bartlett and Mundy recommended empirical therapy (when necessary) for hospitalized patients that is identical to that recommended in the ATS guidelines [2]. This was the only point being made in the Update. However, in another paper not discussed in the Update, Bartlett and Mundy specifically stated that on the basis of the bacteriology of CAP seen in immunocompetent patients in their hospital, their findings ...
MRSA-methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus-is a serious problem: in the U.S., it kills more people annually than AIDS. Typically, the therapy used to treat MRSA is vancomycin, and strains resistant to vancomycin cant be treated on-label with any commercial antibiotics*. ST398 is a new clone of MRSA that is thought to be associated with agriculture-pigs in particular (hence, my designation of this as the piggy MRSA). In the Netherlands, in the course of a few years, it swept through pigs, and then colonized farmers, and recently has entered hospitals. In the U.S., its started to increase in pigs.. According to the article, two separate cases of community-acquired (i.e., they didnt pick it up at a hospital) ST398 were observed, and they were very persistent. Neither patient had any animal contact, which means that this strain has jumped from the agricultural setting into the broader human community. These strains also had PVL, which is a toxin that may increase the severity of ...
Although most events (89.1% in inpatients, 75% in outpatients) were diagnosed within the first week, more than half of them were recognized in the first 24 hours. Factors associated with their diagnosis included older age (odds ratio [OR],1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.04), nursing home residence (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2-2.9), history of heart failure (OR, 4.3; 95% CI, 3.0-6.3), prior cardiac arrhythmias (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2-2.7), previously diagnosed coronary artery disease (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.04-2.0), arterial hypertension (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-2.1), respiratory rate ≥30 breaths per minute (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.3), blood pH ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia and may be the most important agent in community-acquired pneumonia of unknown etiology.
Men who come to the hospital with pneumonia generally are sicker than women and have a higher risk of dying over the next year, despite aggressive medical care.
The studies reviewed here highlight the substantial clinical and economic burden of CAP in Europe. Many of these studies demonstrate appreciable increases in disease incidence and hospitalisation for CAP. They show that the elderly are disproportionately affected by CAP; moreover, death from CAP increases and HRQOL declines with advancing age. According to the WHO, in 2002 LRTIs outranked infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis as causes of mortality among European adults. The incidence of LRTIs in Europe in 2002 (25.8 million) was second only to diarrhoeal diseases (205.5 million) and was greater than diabetes mellitus (2.0 million) and all malignant neoplasms combined (2.4 million).109. With the increases projected in the elderly population by 2025, it is imperative that therapeutic interventions be developed to address the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains causing CAP. Co-morbidities are more common among the elderly. Consequently, the clinical outcome of ...
What are the potential roles for biomarkers of inflammation in managing CAP? Biomarkers could be helpful in several areas, including: (1) confirming the diagnosis of CAP; (2) identifying the potential causative agent; (3) assessing severity, mortality risk and the potential for complications; and (4) identifying when a patient is better, or conversely identifying those with complications. In addition, biomarkers may be able to identify which severely unwell patients are most likely to benefit from new therapeutic interventions based on immunomodulation, such as activated protein C treatment, but at present this is not possible and will be discussed no further in this editorial.. A significant infection such as CAP should almost always lead to the release of proinflammatory cytokines, which will in turn cause an increase in biomarkers of inflammation. Biomarkers of inflammation would perhaps then be a more reliable indicator of infection than a pyrexia or raised white cell count, and several ...
This topic includes links to society and government-sponsored guidelines from selected countries and regions around the world. We will update these links periodically; newer versions of some guidelines may be available on each societys website. Some
Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Infectious Diseases in Östergötland. ...
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BACKGROUND: Since healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) is heterogeneous, clinical characteristics and outcomes are different from region to region. There can also be differences between HCAP patients hospitalized in secondary or tertiary hospitals. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics of HCAP patients admitted into secondary community hospitals. METHODS: This was a retrospective study conducted in patients with HCAP or community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) hospitalized in two secondary hospitals between March 2009 and January 2011. RESULTS: Of a total of 303 patients, 96 (31.7%) had HCAP. 42 patients (43.7%) resided in a nursing home or long-term care facility, 36 (37.5%) were hospitalized in an acute care hospital for , 2 days within 90 days, ten received outpatient intravenous therapy, and eight attended a hospital clinic or dialysis center. HCAP patients were older. The rates of patients with CURB65 scores of 3 or more (22.9% vs. 9.1%; p = 0.001) and PSI class IV or more ...
Results presented at the Federation of Infections Societies Conference in Cardiff highlighted the dangers posed by particular strains of MRSA which are spread outside of hospitals and can lead to a serious lung condition called necrotising pneumonia.. Professor Kevin Kerr, Consultant Microbiologist/Hon Clinical Professor of Microbiology, Department of Microbiology, Harrogate District Hospital, said:. "MRSA is often thought as a hospital superbug, but we are becoming increasingly aware of strains which are causing infections outside hospital. These strains can behave differently to their hospital-associated cousins and affect previously fit and healthy people including children in whom MRSA used to very uncommon. The emergence of community MRSA underlines just how good bacteria are at evolving to present us with new and difficult problems to solve.". Mark Enright, Professor of Molecular Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, said:. "We have been working on this in San ...
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a prevalent disease and constitutes a substantial socio-economic burden. On the other hand, there is limited data about the cost of CAP in Turkey.. This study investigated direct costs and related factors for hospitalised CAP patients. Direct hospitalisation costs and possible associated factors (age, sex, comorbidity, clinical and laboratory findings, smoking history, antibiotic usage within 3 months, length of hospital stay, ICU stay, PSI, CURB65, treatment success and medication groups such as antibiotics, steroids, immunosupressives) were assessed in a retrospective study of 106 patients admitted to a hospital ward due to CAP.The mean patient age was 60.4 yrs and 35.8% were female. Comorbidities were found in 87% and the most significiant comorbidities were DM, CAD and COPD. Eight (7.5%) patients needed ICU care. Overall CAP treatment success rate was 89.6%. Length of hospital stay (p=0.001, r= 0.78), use of antipseudomonal antibiotic combination ...
Biomarkers. What is Their Benefit in the Identification of Infection, Severity Assessment, and Management of Community-acquired Pneumonia?. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America. 2013 ...
In an interview with host Dr. Bill Rutenberg, Dr. John Jernigan of the CDC says that MRSA is really a problem of transmission. In this segment, he discusses the 5 Cs of transmission, risks and the differences between community-acquired MRSA versus hospital-acquired MRSA.
Kabundji, D M et al. Determining need for hospitalisation: Evaluation of the utility of the CRB-65 score in patients with community-acquired pneumonia presenting to an emergency department. SAMJ, S. Afr. med. j., Nov 2014, vol.104, no.11, p.769-772. ISSN 0256- ...
Improving the outcome of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an ongoing challenge, even in the setting of significant advances in antimicrobial chemotherapy and critical care. Recognition of the underlying involvement of inflammation-mediated organ dysfunction as a determinant of adverse outcomes in CAP has aroused intense interest in the protective potential of adjunctive anti-inflammatory therapies in CAP, particularly the role of corticosteroids (CS). This is the primary topic of the current review which is focused on an evaluation of the latest meta-analyses encompassing both recent and earlier clinical trials, with particular emphasis on the stringent meta-analysis undertaken by Siemieniuk and colleagues (Ann Intern Med 2015;163:519-528 ...
Community-acquired pneumonia: Oral: -Immediate-release: 500 mg orally as a single dose on day 1, followed by 250 mg orally once a day on days 2 to 5
is usually a significant reason behind upper and lower respiratory system infections in human beings worldwide, particularly in children [2], [3]. Up to 40% of community-acquired pneumonia in children admitted to the hospital are attributed to contamination [4]C[7]. Even though … Continue reading →. ...
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in nasal vestibular abscess Marisa A. Earley, MD1 , Mark E. Friedel, MD, MPH1 , Satish Govindaraj, MD2 , Belachew Tessema, MD3 , Jean Anderson Eloy, MD1,4 Background: Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a recognized entity that is increasingly responsible for skin and so tissue infections. However, it is not the usual pathogen isolated in nasal vestibular abscess. dominance in nasal vestibular abscess. Clinicians should obtain cultures, modify antibiotic therapy as warranted, and initiate empiric therapy to include MRSA coverage for nasal C 2011 ARS-AAOA, LLC. vestibular abscess. Methods: We present a series of 13 consecutive patients presenting to a tertiary care center with nasal vestibular abscess over a 2.5-year period. Key Words: Results: All abscesses were cultured and 100% (13/13) grew S. aureus. Of the S. aureus isolates, 92% (12/13) were MRSA. Antibiotic susceptibilities ...
Background. A 1400-bed tertiary medical center in northern Taiwan was used to conduct an epidemiological study of children hospitalized with community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infection during a 5-year period.. Methods. Nineteen previously healthy children with predominantly skin and soft-tissue CA-MRSA infections were enrolled into the study. Seventeen CA-MRSA isolates were examined for antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular typing.. Results. A comparison of our results with the reported resistance rates among CA-MRSA isolates from other countries showed uniformly high macrolide resistance (100%). Of the 17 MRSA isolates in our study, all had the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin-constitutive phenotype and the ermB gene. Moreover, on the basis of molecular typing results, 11 (65%) of 17 CA-MRSA isolates were genetically related (as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis), and multilocus sequence typing revealed a sequence type of 59 in all ...
Virulent community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus-aureus (CA-MRSA) strains have spread rapidly in the United States. To characterize the degree to which CA-MRSA strains are imported into and transmitted in pediatric intensive care units (PICU), we performed a retrospective study of children admitted to The Johns Hopkins Hospital PICU, March 1, 2007-May 31, 2008. We found that 72 (6%) of 1,674 PICU patients were colonized with MRSA. MRSA-colonized patients were more likely to be younger (median age 3 years vs. 5 years; p = 0.02) and African American (p&lt;0.001) and to have been hospitalized within 12 months (p&lt;0.001) than were noncolonized patients. MRSA isolates from 66 (92%) colonized patients were fingerprinted; 40 (61%) were genotypically CA-MRSA strains. CA-MRSA strains were isolated from 50% of patients who became colonized with MRSA and caused the only hospital-acquired MRSA catheter-associated bloodstream infection in the cohort. Epidemic CA-MRSA strains are becoming
We found that most MRSA infections in the HNELHD are now acquired in the community, and that young people, Indigenous Australians, and residents of aged care facilities are disproportionally affected by CA-MRSA infections (Box 6). Fewer than half the patients with MRSA isolates had been hospitalised during the preceding 12 months, and more than one-third of S. aureus isolates from residents of aged care facilities were MRSA (Box 2).. The prevalence of multi-resistant MRSA decreased significantly across the study period, and non-multi-resistant MRSA phenotypes predominated in both community and health care settings. EMRSA-15-like strains predominated in CA-MRSA isolates from people in aged care facilities, and the highest proportion of non-multi-resistant phenotypes was for CA-MRSA isolates from patients in major metropolitan areas.. Our findings reflect progress in reducing HO-MRSA rates, with MRSA isolation rates declining in the two largest hospitals. Reduced HO-MRSA rates have been documented ...
King and colleagues (1) cite clindamycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and linezolid as alternatives to vancomycin for outpatient treatment of localized skin and soft-tissue infections due to MRSA. However, they point out the uncertain efficacy of these agents in MRSA infections and the problem of inducible clindamycin resistance. Missing from this list of alternatives, and from the susceptibility data included in the paper and in the Editors Notes, are the tetracyclines, of which minocycline is the most potent against staphylococci and with which there is the most clinical experience in treating MRSA infections (2) ...
In this study demographic, clinical, paraclinical, microbiological, and therapeutic features of patients with community-acquired acute bacterial meningitis admitted to a referral center for infectious diseases in Iran, have been evaluated. Medical records of adult (| 18 years) individuals with confirmed diagnosis of community-acquired bacterial meningitis during a 4-year period were retrospectively reviewed. All required data were obtained from patients medical charts. Available findings about antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated bacteria from CSF and/or blood were also collected. Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method was used to determine their antimicrobial susceptibility profile. Details of medical management including antibiotic regimen, duration, patients outcome, and possible sequelae of meningitis were recorded. The most commonly isolated microorganism from CSF or blood of patients was Streptococcus pneumonia (33.33%) followed by Neisseria meningitidis (27.78%) and Haemophilus influenza (16.67%
FRIDAY, Sept. 8, 2017 (HealthDay News) - Three cases of community-acquired pneumonia involving Chlamydia caviae after exposure to ill guinea pigs have been described, according to a research letter published online Sept. 6 in the New England Journal of Medicine.. Bart P. Ramakers, M.D., Ph.D., from Bernhoven in the Netherlands, and colleagues described three unrelated cases of infection in otherwise healthy adults in their early 30s who had respiratory failure caused by severe community-acquired pneumonia after exposure to ill guinea pigs.. The researchers found that the three cases appeared over a period of about three years and occurred in individuals from different families, at different hospitals, and in different geographic areas. All three patients had chlamydia DNA detected in specimens obtained from the respiratory tract, serum, or both; the species was identified as C. caviae. There were no other causes of community-acquired pneumonia detected. All three of the patients recovered after ...
Am old enough to understand the difference between the Bay of Pigs - and roasting a pig at a epicurian feast. Been thru the hippy, yippie and yuppie years - always remaining who I am. Very much believe in "Sing your own song - weave your own tapestry" Am young enough to still know the thrill of new discoveries, the beauty of the evening, to celebrate the joy of another tommorow. Survived these many decades with a severe medical problems. Sorting out the maze of now having two lymphomas and all their nasty little companions, but I continue. Besides, being a simple iconoclastic eclectic, have been called many things. An incurable romanticist - with a strong touch of reality. Thinker, intellectual (God, how I hate that term) - been told I am a lion with the heart of the poet. Know how to wage war and conquer my foes - but would rather be known as one who brings hope and life. To bring hope into anothers life is the ultimate of joys. Life should be about bringing hope, peace, vision... a sense of ...
Pneumonol Alergol Pol. 2016;84(2):95-103. doi: 10.5603/PiAP.2016.0007.. Prospective, population-based surveillance of the burden of Streptococcus pneumoniae in community-acquired pneumonia in older adults, Chrzanów County, Poland, 2010 to 2012.. Harat R, Alexander R1, Gray S, Gutterman EM, Pluta J, Pride M, Shite S, Fijolek J, Kozub J.. Author information. Abstract. INTRODUCTION:. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae is a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality among older adults. This study estimated incidences of CAP, chest x-ray-confirmed CAP (CXR+CAP), S pneumonia- positive CAP, S pneumonia-positive CXR+CAP, and S. pneumoniae serotype distribution among 46,000 at-risk adults aged ≥ 50 years residing in Chrzanów County, Poland.. MATERIAL AND METHODS:. From January 2010 to January 2012, all facilities providing ambulatory and inpatient care enrolled all consenting resident patients with suspicion of CAP. Chest x-rays, urine, blood, and sputum samples ...
Among new users of NSAIDs, we found that PPIs were not associated with the risk of HCAP. Similar results were obtained across all sites except Nova Scotia, where formulary restrictions introduced strong confounding by indication. We also observed no association between H2RAs and HCAP.. The potential association between use of gastric acid-suppressing medications and pneumonia has been examined extensively.3 ,6 ,7 ,19-25 Eom and colleagues3 meta-analysed data across eight observational studies and found that PPI use was associated with a 27% increased risk of either hospital-acquired or community-acquired pneumonia (aOR=1.27, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.46). This increased risk was predominantly due to an increased risk of community-acquired pneumonia (five studies: aOR=1.34, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.57). Importantly, a strong temporal relationship was observed, with a duration of exposure ,7 days being associated with a three-fold increase in the risk of pneumonia (aOR=3.95, 95% CI 2.86 to 5.45). These apparent ...
Objective To describe carers perceptions of the development and presentation of community-acquired pneumonia or empyema in their children. Design Case series. Setting Seven hospitals with paediatric inpatient units in South Wales, UK. Participants Carers of 79 children aged 6 months to 16 years assessed in hospital between October 2008 and September 2009 with radiographic, community-acquired pneumonia or empyema. Methods Carers were recruited in hospital and participated in a structured face-to-face or telephone interview about the history and presenting features of their childrens illnesses. Responses to open questions were initially coded very finely and then grouped into common themes. Cases were classified into two age groups: 3 or more years and under 3 years. Results The reported median duration of illness from onset until the index hospital presentation was 4 days (IQR 2-9 days). Pain in the torso was reported in 84% of cases aged 3 or more years and was the most common cause for carer ...
AHRQs new Community-Acquired Pneumonia Clinical Decision Support Implementation Toolkit helps clinicians in emergency departments, primary care and other ambulatory settings implement and adopt a clinical decision support (CDS) alert for identifying and managing patients with community-acquired pneumonia.
To determine mortality and factors that might predict outcome in severe community-acquired pneumococcal pneumonia treated by a standard protocol. Prospective, nonconcurrent study. Respiratory intensiv
The pro-atherosclerotic metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is a risk factor for incident cardiovascular events and a potentially modifiable mediator of chronic inflammation through broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment by changing the microbiome. Whether TMAO is associated with adverse clinical outcomes in acute inflammatory community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients is unknown.; A total of 317 CAP patients from a previous Swiss multicenter trial were prospectively followed for a median of 6.1years. TMAO plasma levels were measured by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We used Cox regression models to investigate associations between baseline TMAO levels and all-cause mortality.; Six-year mortality was 45.1%, and 18.9% of the patients had coronary artery disease (CAD). Median admission TMAO (μmolL(-1)) levels were significantly higher in non-survivors compared to survivors (4.1 [interquartile range (IQR), 2.2-7.2] vs. 2.5 [IQR, 1.5-4.1]; p,0.001). A ...
This one-year prospective observational study found that community-acquired ARDS patients had better short- and long-term mortality rates than hospital-acquired and ICU-acquired ARDS patients. Community-acquired ARDS patients had less underlying moderate to severe liver disease than hospital-acquired and ICU-acquired ARDS patients. The community-acquired ARDS patients had more ICU-free days than hospital-acquired or ICU-acquired ARDS patients and the ICU-acquired ARDS patients had fewer ventilator-free days than community-acquired or hospital-acquired ARDS patients.. The incidence of ARDS varies widely. Differences in demographics, healthcare systems, and definitions may account for different incidences of ARDS in different areas or countries. In adult population-based studies, the incidence of ARDS by the American-European consensus (AECC) definition ranged from 5-7.2 cases/100,000/year in Europe to 33.8/100,000/year in USA [11, 19-21]. For ICU patients, the reported incidence of ALI/ARDS by ...
Genus and species should be expanded and italicized in the title or subtitle and an initial capital letter should be used for the genus but not the species name, just as in the text. (See also , Nomenclature, Organisms and Pathogens, Biological Nomenclature.)Elimination of a Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infection in a Nurse With Atopic Dermatitis |
Genus and species should be expanded and italicized in the title or subtitle and an initial capital letter should be used for the genus but not the species name, just as in the text. (See also , Nomenclature, Organisms and Pathogens, Biological Nomenclature.)Elimination of a Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infection in a Nurse With Atopic Dermatitis |
SALDIAS P, Fernando; YANEZ V, Jorge; SALDIAS H, Velia y DIAZ P, Orlando. Community-acquired pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pyogenes: Report of one case. Rev. méd. Chile [online]. 2008, vol.136, n.12, pp.1564-1569. ISSN 0034-9887. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0034-98872008001200009.. During the past two decades there has been a resurgence ofinvasive group A streptococcal (GAS) infection, specially pneumonia and bacteremia. We report a 35 year-old female previously subjected to a thyroidectomy for a thyroid cáncer, that five days after operation, presented with a severe community-acquired pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pyogenes (Lancefield Group A Streptococcus) that was complicated by acute respiratory failure and septic shock. She was treated with a combination of 3 g/day of cefotaxime and 1.8 g/day of clindamycin with a good clinical response and discharged from the hospital in good conditions. Although this microorganism is an uncommon cause of community-acquired pneumonia, previously ...
SALDIAS P, Fernando; YANEZ V, Jorge; SALDIAS H, Velia y DIAZ P, Orlando. Community-acquired pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pyogenes: Report of one case. Rev. méd. Chile [online]. 2008, vol.136, n.12, pp.1564-1569. ISSN 0034-9887. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0034-98872008001200009.. During the past two decades there has been a resurgence ofinvasive group A streptococcal (GAS) infection, specially pneumonia and bacteremia. We report a 35 year-old female previously subjected to a thyroidectomy for a thyroid cáncer, that five days after operation, presented with a severe community-acquired pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pyogenes (Lancefield Group A Streptococcus) that was complicated by acute respiratory failure and septic shock. She was treated with a combination of 3 g/day of cefotaxime and 1.8 g/day of clindamycin with a good clinical response and discharged from the hospital in good conditions. Although this microorganism is an uncommon cause of community-acquired pneumonia, previously ...
Several medical-specialty professional societies have suggested that combination therapy with a β-lactam plus a macrolide or doxycycline or monotherapy with a "respiratory quinolone" (i.e., levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, or gemifloxacin) are optimal first-line therapy for patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia. These recommendations are based predominantly on retrospective studies that suggest improved rates of morbidity and mortality and hospital length of stay among patients treated in such a fashion. Well-designed, prospective, randomized studies confirming this tenet of therapy have not been published, although numerous prospective studies have provided indirect confirmation. The biological rationale for such a differential response (i.e., favoring combination therapy or fluoroquinolone therapy) includes the immunomodulatory effects of macrolides or more-optimal treatment of primary infection or coinfection with atypical pathogens. Well-designed, prospective, ...
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common medical condition, with an incidence of 11.6/1000 adults per year.1 It is one of the leading infectious causes of death worldwide2-4 and accounts for substantial use of healthcare resources.5 About 30% of patients with CAP require hospital admission6 and up to one-fifth require intensive care admission.7-9 The estimated costs for treating pneumonia exceeded $9 billion per year in the mid-1990s in the USA and exceed £441 million per year in the UK.10 11. The management of CAP is challenging as the outcome depends on multiple factors, such as patient characteristics, care setting, type and virulence of the infective agent, appropriate assessment and nature of healthcare intervention, such as antibiotic administration, and intensive care support, and so on. Thus, clinical determinants of outcomes in CAP have been the subject of considerable research focus over the past few decades.12-15 Several severity scores have been developed and validated widely, ...
This Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI) calculator diagnoses community acquired pneumonia and stratifies mortality and morbidity risk through physical and laboratory findings.
Objective - To improve the aetiological diagnosis in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) increased efforts were made to obtain expectorated sputum specimens from patients with CAP. Design - A prospective, clinical study. Patients were encouraged to cough spontaneously and to expectorate a sputum specimen. If unsuccessful, they were asked to inhale nebulized hypertonic saline to induce secretion and cough. Setting - One primary health care centre in Örebro, Sweden. Subjects - Patients attending the Health Centre with acute symptoms of CAP. Main outcome measures - Availability and quality of sputum specimen from patients with CAP in primary care. Results - 177 patients were included, 63% were women and the mean age was 51years. 28% were smokers and 46% showed infiltrates on chest X-ray. Sputum specimens were obtained from 125 patients. Fifty-nine were expectorated spontaneously and 66 were induced. Ninety-one of the specimens were found to be acceptable, whereas 34 were discarded. Potential ...
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Aetiology and Clinical Presentation of Mild Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia. Beović, B.; Bonač, B.; Keše, D.; Avšič-Županc, T.; Kreft, S.; Lesničar, G.; Gorišek-Reberšek, J.; Rezar, L.; Letonja, S. // European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases;Oct2003, Vol. 22 Issue 10, p584 A prospective study was initiated to analyse the bacterial aetiology and clinical picture of mild community-acquired pneumonia in Slovenia using the previously described Pneumonia Severity Index. Radiographically confirmed cases of pneumonia in patients treated with oral antibiotics in seven... ...
OBJECTIVES: Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs), including pneumonia and acute exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), are am
Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections are caused primarily by a single strain-USA300-of an evolving bacterium that has spread with
臺大位居世界頂尖大學之列,為永久珍藏及向國際展現本校豐碩的研究成果及學術能量,圖書館整合機構典藏(NTUR)與學術庫(AH)不同功能平台,成為臺大學術典藏NTU scholars。期能整合研究能量、促進交流合作、保存學術產出、推廣研究成果。. To permanently archive and promote researcher profiles and scholarly works, Library integrates the services of "NTU Repository" with "Academic Hub" to form NTU Scholars.. ...
Papers. Kennedy, A. D., et al. "Epidemic community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Recent clonal expansion and diversification." PNAS 105:4, 1327-1332 (January 29, 2008).. Images. ...
Mandell, L., Wunderink, R., Anzueto, A., Bartlett, J., Campbell, D., Dean, N., Dowell, S., File, T., Musher, D., Niederman, M., Torres, A., Whitney, C. (2007). Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society Consensus Guidelines on the Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 44(2), s27-72. doi:10.1086/511159. Retrieved March 22, 2018, from: https://www.thoracic.org/statements/resources/mtpi/idsaats-cap. ...
The inferred construction allowed the juxtaposition of operating sites with those described for human (liver and macrophage) arginase, revealing a important degree of similarity, chiefly at the catalytic center (da Silva et al. Eukaryot Chamber 12:70В-77 3 Visceralizing Proteins in Leishmania Infection The using software is endeavour version. Infectious Disease Society of America/American Thoracic Society Consensus Guidelines on the direction of community-acquired pneumonia in adults 100mg trazodone with visa medicine urology. The participants either received the Span of PURPLE Crying materials, an 11-page booklet and DVD developed near the National Center on Shaken Spoil Syndrome, or the lead wrong forbidding material, two brochures and a DVD to infant security, during a customary dick fettle angel of mercy attack within 2 weeks after discharge. Occasionally 18 F-FDG-PET/CT has been performed follow- ing a biopsy to assess residual tumor, but the shade aplomb of post-biopsy passionate changes ...
This blog post will tie in nicely with what I blogged on earlier today about composite endpoints. Read that post first before reading this. Today I received my e-table of contents from JAMA and read a study on the of Effect of Corticosteroids on Treatment Failure Among Hospitalized Patients With Severe Community-Acquired Pneumonia and High Inflammatory…
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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a type of bacteria. Bacteria that cant be killed by the antibiotic methicillin and other similar medicines are called methicillin-resistant. Community-acquired means that you didnt get the infection in a hospital or other healthcare setting. MRSA infections are sometimes very hard to treat.
You force prepare to turn a few conflicting medicines to windfall the ones that work superb for you. Medicines are collected in the public, sneakily, and casual sectors in urban and georgic areas. Chest 125:41S-50S; examine 51S 1 Macrolides in Severe Community-Acquired Pneumonia and Sepsis 17 Tamaoki J, Kadota J, and Takizawa H (2004) Clinical implications of the immunomodulatory effects of macrolides purchase 160mg kamagra super visa erectile dysfunction information. Children can be outr‚ and can acquire into medicines or error them repayment for sweets A chief creator of preventable poisoning suitable children less than life-span six is medicines found in the home. To paint the town red its 10th anniversary, Medicines on Children has worked with nurses from the childrens alms-giving WellChild and Acuteness Hill University to produce 10 brand-new instructional films to pinch parents/carers with giving medicines to their children. But that should be a consoling persuasion buy cheap dapoxetine ...
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Looking for online definition of Pneumonia Severity Index in the Medical Dictionary? Pneumonia Severity Index explanation free. What is Pneumonia Severity Index? Meaning of Pneumonia Severity Index medical term. What does Pneumonia Severity Index mean?
Infections caused by community-acquired (CA)-methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been reported worldwide. We assessed whether any common genetic markers existed among 117 CA-MRSA isolates from the United States, France, Switzerland, Australia, New Zealand, and Western Samoa by performing polymerase chain reaction for 24 virulence factors and the methicillin-resistance determinant. The genetic background of the strain was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). The CA-MRSA strains shared a type IV SCCmec cassette and the Panton-Valentine leukocidin locus, whereas the distribution of the other toxin genes was quite specific to the strains from each continent. PFGE and MLST analysis indicated distinct genetic backgrounds associated with each geographic origin, although predominantly restricted to the agr3 background. Within each continent, the genetic background of CA-MRSA strains did not correspond to that of the hospital-acquired
Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) USA300 has spread rapidly across North America, and CA-MRSA is also increasing in Australia. However, the dominant Australian CA-MRSA strain, ST93-IV [2B] appears distantly related to USA300 despite strikingly similar clinical and epidemiological profiles. Here, we compared the virulence of a recent Australian ST93 isolate (JKD6159) to other MRSA, including USA300, and found that JKD6159 was the most virulent in a mouse skin infection model. We fully sequenced the genome of JKD6159 and confirmed that JKD6159 is a distinct clone with 7616 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distinguishing this strain from all other S. aureus genomes. Despite its high virulence there were surprisingly few virulence determinants. However, genes encoding a-hemolysin, Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and a-type phenol soluble modulins were present. Genome comparisons revealed 32 additional CDS in JKD6159 but none appeared to encode new ...
Adgate JL, Goldstein BD, McKenzie LM. 2014. Potential public health hazards, exposures and health effects from unconventional natural gas development. Environ Sci Technol 48(15):8307-8320.. Bell IR, Baldwin CM, Schwartz GE. 1998. Illness from low levels of environmental chemicals: relevance to chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia. Am J Med 105(3A):74S-82S.. Bhattacharyya N. 2009. Contemporary assessment of the disease burden of sinusitis. Am J Rhinol Allergy 23(4):392-395.. Burch RC, Loder S, Loder E, Smitherman TA. 2015. The prevalence and burden of migraine and severe headache in the United States: updated statistics from government health surveillance studies. Headache 55(1):21-34.. Casey JA, Curriero FC, Cosgrove SE, Nachman KE, Schwartz BS. 2013. High-density livestock operations, crop field application of manure, and risk of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in Pennsylvania. JAMA Intern Med 173(21):1980-1990.. Casey JA, Savitz DA, Rasmussen SG, ...
To the Editor: We report the appearance of erythromycin and inducible clindamycin resistance in the south-west Pacific strain of non-multiresistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, which has recently appeared in eastern Australia. Infections occur predominantly in Polynesian people and are usually community-acquired. Most strains belong to Western Samoan phage patterns (WSPP1 or WSPP2) and pulsotype A when typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.1,2 These strains are resistant to all β-lactams, but are usually susceptible to erythromycin, clindamycin, gentamicin, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin. Although most of these antibiotics would not be recommended for therapy,3 clindamycin has been recommended for non-parenteral treatment of soft-tissue and bone infections, as it is efficacious in treating similar infections caused by methicillin-susceptible S. aureus.4. ...
The incidence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections is increasing in the United States, and it is possible that municipal wastewater could be a reservoir of this microorganism. To date, no U.S. studies have evaluated the occurrence of MRSA in wastewater.,We examined the occurrence of MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) at U.S. wastewater treatment plants.,We collected wastewater samples from two Mid-Atlantic and two Midwest wastewater treatment plants between October 2009 and October 2010. Samples were analyzed for MRSA and MSSA using membrane filtration. Isolates were confirmed using biochemical tests and PCR (polymerase chain reaction). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by Sensititre® microbroth dilution. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) screening, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed to further characterize the strains. Data were ...
Although most reports describing patients infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus enterocolitis have been published in Japan, this concept remains a matter of debate and diagnostic criteria have not yet been defined. The general status of a 74-year-old Japanese man referred to our hospital (day 1) with severe community-acquired pneumococcal pneumonia gradually improved with antibiotic therapy. Thereafter, up to 4 L/day of acute watery diarrhea that started on day 19 was refractory to metronidazole but responded immediately to oral vancomycin. Gram staining stool samples was positive for abundant fecal leukocytes from which dominant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (104 CFU/mL) were isolated, suggesting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus enterocolitis. High fever with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia was evident at day 30, and suppurative right hip arthritis developed around day 71. All methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains
OBJECTIVES: The objective of our study was to define the characteristics of patients admitted to the emergency department (ED) presenting with a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included all patients admitted to the ED between January 2003 and December 2004 in whom a staphylococcal infection was documented. The risk factors associated with carriage of MRSA, the diagnosis made in the ED, and the treatment administered were established from the patients medical files. The sites from which the bacteria were isolated, the spectrum of resistance of the staphylococci to different antibiotics, and the presence or absence of the gene coding for Panton-Valentin leukocidin for certain S aureus isolates were determined from the reports issued by the bacteriologic department. Two groups of patients were compared: those with an infection caused by MRSA and those with an infection due to methicillin-susceptible S aureus (MSSA). RESULTS: A total of ...

Community Acquired Infections Pipeline Highlights - 2018Community Acquired Infections Pipeline Highlights - 2018

... provides most up-to-date information on key pipeline products in the global Community... ... The latest report Community Acquired Infections Pipeline Highlights - 2018, ... 1. Community Acquired Infections Pipeline by Stages. 2. Community Acquired Infections Pipeline by Drug Class. 3. Community ... Table 5: Community Acquired Infections Discovery Stage, 2018. List of Figures. Figures 1: Community Acquired Infections ...
more infohttps://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/4516435/community-acquired-infections-pipeline-highlights

Browsing  by Subject community-acquired infectionsBrowsing by Subject "community-acquired infections"

Evaluation of Empiric Management of Pediatric Patients Hospitalized with Community-Acquired Pneumonia  Clauss, Christie PharmD ... "community-acquired infections". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W. X. Y. Z. * 0-9 ...
more infohttps://dspace.sunyconnect.suny.edu/browse?value=community-acquired+infections&type=subject

Reduced kidney function linked to an increased risk of community-acquired infections | EurekAlert! Science NewsReduced kidney function linked to an increased risk of community-acquired infections | EurekAlert! Science News

The relative proportion of lower respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and sepsis became increasingly higher ... individuals with poor kidney function had an increased risk of developing community-acquired infections. ... In a new study, individuals with poor kidney function had an increased risk of developing community-acquired infections. *The ... Reduced kidney function linked to an increased risk of community-acquired infections. American Society of Nephrology ...
more infohttps://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2017-08/ason-rkf081017.php

Candida krusei Empyema Thoracis: A Community-Acquired Infection Requiring a High Index of SuspicionCandida krusei Empyema Thoracis: A Community-Acquired Infection Requiring a High Index of Suspicion

... Hazim Bukamur, Waseem ... as it may present as a community-acquired infection [2].. 2. Case Presentation. A 74-year-old female with a history of ... which required a high index of suspicion since the presentation was with a community-acquired infection. Candida empyema ... as it may be due to a community-acquired infection. Furthermore, there is a need for improved communication between clinicians ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2018/8039803/

Problems associated with high prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria in patients with community-acquired infections.  -...Problems associated with high prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria in patients with community-acquired infections. -...

Problems associated with high prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria in patients with community-acquired infections.. ... Kitasato Institute for Life Sciences and Graduate School of Infection Control Sciences, Kitasato University, 5-9-1 Shirokane, ... Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology*. *Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology. *Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14691647?dopt=Abstract

Eurosurveillance | Community-acquired infections due to Staphylococcus argenteus lineage isolates harbouring the Panton...Eurosurveillance | Community-acquired infections due to Staphylococcus argenteus lineage isolates harbouring the Panton...

These two sporadic cases were community-acquired, and identified in France in 2014. Both had an epidemiological link with ... argenteus can acquire important virulence factors and be responsible for severe infections. ... We describe two cases of human infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex (CC) 75, also called Staphylococcus ... Community-acquired infections due to Staphylococcus argenteus lineage isolates harbouring the Panton-Valentine leucocidin, ...
more infohttp://www.eurosurveillance.org/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES2015.20.23.21154

Cytokines and Chemokines as Biomarkers of Community-Acquired Bacterial InfectionCytokines and Chemokines as Biomarkers of Community-Acquired Bacterial Infection

The serum MCP-1 and MIP-1β levels of the patients with community-acquired bacterial infection correlated with each other (. ; ... and patients with a viral infection (20 of 26; 76.9%), whereas all patients with the community-acquired bacterial infections ... patients with a viral infection (23 of 26; 88.5%), and patients with community-acquired bacterial infections (21 of 21; 100%). ... 21 patients with community-acquired bacterial infections, 26 patients with viral infections, and 10 healthy subjects (control ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2013/190145/

Community acquired infections in secondary care : Acute Respiratory Infections - oiCommunity acquired infections in secondary care : Acute Respiratory Infections - oi

In patients admitted to hospital with community acquired pneumonia (CAP), assessment of initial pneumonia severity is important ...
more infohttp://oxfordindex.oup.com/view/10.1093/med/9780199588084.003.0002

Health Care-Associated Bloodstream Infections in Adults: A Reason To Change the Accepted Definition of Community-Acquired...Health Care-Associated Bloodstream Infections in Adults: A Reason To Change the Accepted Definition of Community-Acquired...

Health Care-Associated Bloodstream Infections in Adults: A Reason To Change the Accepted Definition of Community-Acquired ... Health Care-Associated Bloodstream Infections in Adults: A Reason To Change the Accepted Definition of Community-Acquired ... Lamm: Department of Infection Control, Nash General Hospital, 2460 Curtis Ellis Drive, Rocky Mount, NC 27804. ... Review: Femoral and subclavian or internal jugular venous catheters do not differ for bloodstream infections Annals of Internal ...
more infohttps://annals.org/aim/article-abstract/715796/health-care-associated-bloodstream-infections-adults-reason-change-accepted-definition

Researchers Investigate Higher Incidence of Community-Acquired MRSA Infections Among Toddlers | Infection Control TodayResearchers Investigate Higher Incidence of Community-Acquired MRSA Infections Among Toddlers | Infection Control Today

... to examine the clinical profile of children with MRSA infections seen at Mercy Childrens Hospital in Toledo, Ohio, and to ... A six-fold increase in pediatric MRSA infections, prompted Alexis C Mccullough, of the the University of Toledo College of ... Infectious Diseases & Conditions,Infections. Researchers Investigate Higher Incidence of Community-Acquired MRSA Infections ... Chart review of 63 patients with MRSA infections revealed that 58 (92 percent) were community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA). All CA- ...
more infohttps://www.infectioncontroltoday.com/infections/researchers-investigate-higher-incidence-community-acquired-mrsa-infections-among

Procalcitonin, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein in community-acquired infections and...Procalcitonin, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein in community-acquired infections and...

Plasma and serum samples were obtained on admission from patients with suspected community-acquired infections and sepsis. ... Of 194 included patients, 106 had either infection without systemic inflammatory response syndrome or sepsis. Infected patients ... IL-6 and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein appear to be superior to procalcitonin as diagnostic markers for infection and ... IL-6 and C-reactive protein to identify patients with infection and sepsis. ...
more infohttps://ccforum.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/cc4866

Community Acquired InfectionCommunity Acquired Infection

... acquired in the community, which finally resulted in a poor prognosis. The importance of the tomographic image is emphasized, ... Background: In the USA, up to 2 million health-care-associated infections (HAIs) per year are reported, of which 80,000 are ... An epidemiological study of health-care-associated infections and their antimicrobial sensitivity pattern in the Al-Qassim ... The common site reported in the present study is catheter-associated urinary tract infection which was significantly higher (CA ...
more infohttp://www.caijournal.com/showstats.asp?issn=2225-6482

Table - Severe Community-Acquired Bloodstream Infection with Acinetobacter ursingii in Person who Injects Drugs - Volume 22,...Table - Severe Community-Acquired Bloodstream Infection with Acinetobacter ursingii in Person who Injects Drugs - Volume 22,...

The infection was successfully treated with meropenem. Species identification was performed by using matrix-assisted laser ... We report a community-acquired bloodstream infection with Acinteobacter ursingii in an HIV-negative woman who injected drugs. ... Severe Community-Acquired Bloodstream Infection with Acinetobacter ursingii in Person who Injects Drugs Helmut J.F. Salzer, ... Severe Community-Acquired Bloodstream Infection with Acinetobacter ursingii in Person who Injects Drugs. ...
more infohttps://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/22/1/15-1298-t1

Severe Community-Acquired Bloodstream Infection with Acinetobacter ursingii in Person who Injects Drugs - Volume 22, Number 1...Severe Community-Acquired Bloodstream Infection with Acinetobacter ursingii in Person who Injects Drugs - Volume 22, Number 1...

The infection was successfully treated with meropenem. Species identification was performed by using matrix-assisted laser ... We report a community-acquired bloodstream infection with Acinteobacter ursingii in an HIV-negative woman who injected drugs. ... Most patients infected have community-acquired pneumonia caused by A. baumannii (1). We report a case of community-acquired ... Severe Community-Acquired Bloodstream Infection with Acinetobacter ursingii in Person who Injects Drugs On This Page ...
more infohttps://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/22/1/15-1298_article

Statins Tied to Lower Community-Acquired Staph Infection Risk | Physicians Weekly for Medical News, Journals & ArticlesStatins Tied to Lower Community-Acquired Staph Infection Risk | Physician's Weekly for Medical News, Journals & Articles

Statins Tied to Lower Community-Acquired Staph Infection Risk by Physicians Weekly , Oct 11, 2017 , 0 comments ... 11, 2017 (HealthDay News) - Statin use is associated with a decreased risk of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus ...
more infohttps://www.physiciansweekly.com/statins-tied-to-lower-community-acquired-staph-infection-risk/

Diagnosis of Community-Acquired Pertussis Infection: Comparison of Both Culture and Fluorescent-Antibody Assays with PCR...Diagnosis of Community-Acquired Pertussis Infection: Comparison of Both Culture and Fluorescent-Antibody Assays with PCR...

Diagnosis of Community-Acquired Pertussis Infection: Comparison of Both Culture and Fluorescent-Antibody Assays with PCR ... Diagnosis of Community-Acquired Pertussis Infection: Comparison of Both Culture and Fluorescent-Antibody Assays with PCR ... Diagnosis of Community-Acquired Pertussis Infection: Comparison of Both Culture and Fluorescent-Antibody Assays with PCR ... Diagnosis of Community-Acquired Pertussis Infection: Comparison of Both Culture and Fluorescent-Antibody Assays with PCR ...
more infohttps://jcm.asm.org/content/40/8/2908?ijkey=1d44418370004bc1bb233e50a25d1f28e461629c&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Clinical Update on the Use of Moxifloxacin in the Treatment of Community-Acquired Complicated Intraabdominal InfectionsClinical Update on the Use of Moxifloxacin in the Treatment of Community-Acquired Complicated Intraabdominal Infections

... ... Abstract: Abstract Background: Community-acquired complicated intraabdominal infections (cIAIs) present problems for clinicians ... "Clinical Update on the Use of Moxifloxacin in the Treatment of Community-Acquired Complicated Intraabdominal Infections." ... Results: The Surgical Infection Society and the Infectious Disease Society of America guidelines recommend a variety of single ...
more infohttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/handle/2027.42/85118

European Commission approves ZINFORO™ (ceftaroline fosamil) for adult patients with serious skin infections or community...European Commission approves ZINFORO™ (ceftaroline fosamil) for adult patients with serious skin infections or community...

... for adult patients with serious skin infections or community acquired pneumonia ... Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) is an acute infection of the lungs (pneumonia) in a patient who has not been exposed to a ... for the treatment of adult patients with complicated Skin and Soft Tissue Infections (cSSTI) or Community Acquired Pneumonia ( ... for adult patients with serious skin infections or community acquired pneumonia ...
more infohttps://www.astrazeneca.com/media-centre/press-releases/2012/European-Commission-approves-ZINFORO-ceftaroline-fosamil-for-adult-patients-with-serious-skin-infections-or-community-acquired-pneumonia-28082012.html

Community-Acquired Pneumonia and Infection with Respiratory Syncitial Virus | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of...Community-Acquired Pneumonia and Infection with Respiratory Syncitial Virus | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of...

Community-Acquired Pneumonia and Infection with Respiratory Syncitial Virus Michael H. Zaroukian, MD, PhD; Isabel Leader, BS ... Zaroukian MH, Leader I. Community-Acquired Pneumonia and Infection with Respiratory Syncitial Virus. Ann Intern Med. 1988;109: ... suggesting that it may be an underrecognized cause of community-acquired pneumonia in hospitalized adults. We studied the ... To the Editor: Respiratory syncytial virus infection is not generally recognized as a cause of pneumonia requiring the ...
more infohttp://annals.org/aim/article-abstract/702604/community-acquired-pneumonia-infection-respiratory-syncitial-virus

Epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of community-acquired invasive bacterial infections in children aged 2-29 months in...Epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of community-acquired invasive bacterial infections in children aged 2-29 months in...

Epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of community-acquired invasive bacterial infections in children aged 2-29 months in ... The incidence of community-acquired bacteremia (CAB) in Africa is several-fold higher than in industrialized countries. We ... Pneumococcal infection was more frequent than NTS infections in the hot dry season. Respiratory symptoms and signs, ... Bacterial infections continue to cause significant morbidity in rural Africa. Although vaccines could greatly reduce the ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16874169?dopt=Abstract

A comparative genomic analysis between methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains of hospital acquired and community...A comparative genomic analysis between methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains of hospital acquired and community...

... clustering ST6-t701 referred to food and CA-MRSA infections in community; clustering ST59-t437 showed the heterogeneity for ... Among the patients strains, sixteen were recognized as community-acquired (CA), compared with 24 for hospital-acquired (HA). ... infection. However, few reports referred to patients MRSA infections in Yunnan province, southwest China. In this study, we ... provoking different clinical diseases in both community and hospital. Phylogenetic tree, incorporating 24 isolates from ...
more infohttps://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12879-020-4866-6

Premier Announces Nations Top Healthcare Providers; Hospitals Awarded for Work in Preventing Community-Acquired Pneumonia |...Premier Announces Nation's Top Healthcare Providers; Hospitals Awarded for Work in Preventing Community-Acquired Pneumonia |...

Infection Control Today is part of the Global Exhibitions Division of Informa PLC ... For community acquired pneumonia (CAP), Autora Sinai Medical Center (WI), Henry Ford Hospital (MI), Good Samaritan Hospital (OH ... Premier Announces Nations Top Healthcare Providers; Hospitals Awarded for Work in Preventing Community-Acquired Pneumonia. May ... community acquired pneumonia (CAP), and acute myocardial infarction (AMI).. ...
more infohttps://www.infectioncontroltoday.com/epidemiology-surveillance/premier-announces-nations-top-healthcare-providers-hospitals-awarded-work

Section 2. Clinical Syndromes. Community-Acquired Infections | Harrisons Principles of Internal Medicine, 18e | AccessPharmacy...Section 2. Clinical Syndromes. Community-Acquired Infections | Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 18e | AccessPharmacy...

Community-Acquired Infections." Harrisons Principles of Internal Medicine, 18e Longo DL, Fauci AS, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, ... Community-Acquired Infections. In: Longo DL, Fauci AS, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Jameson J, Loscalzo J. Longo D.L., Fauci A.S., ... Clostridium Difficile Infection, Including Pseudomembranous Colitis * Chapter 130. Sexually Transmitted Infections: Overview ...
more infohttps://accesspharmacy.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=331§ionid=40726867

Ceftaroline fosamil for treating skin and skin structure infections or community-acquired pneumonia in patients with renal...Ceftaroline fosamil for treating skin and skin structure infections or community-acquired pneumonia in patients with renal...

Ceftaroline fosamil for treating skin and skin structure infections or community-acquired pneumonia in patients with renal ... or community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) patients with renal insufficiency. There were 985 ABSSSI patients and 344 CABP ... the clinical effectiveness of ceftaroline fosamil in the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infection (ABSSSI ...
more infohttps://insights.ovid.com/excp/201501000/01337336-201501000-00016

The increasing importance of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections | The Medical Journal of...The increasing importance of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections | The Medical Journal of...

We found that most MRSA infections in the HNELHD are now acquired in the community, and that young people, Indigenous ... The increasing importance of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections. Jason W Agostino, John ... origin of MRSA infections (community- or health care-associated); demographic factors associated with community-associated MRSA ... Community-associated (CA): neither HO- or HACO-MRSA infection.. Antibiogram phenotypes *AUS-2/3-like: resistant to at least two ...
more infohttps://www.mja.com.au/journal/2017/207/9/increasing-importance-community-acquired-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus
  • Herein, we evaluated the relationships (at phylogenetic and genetic population structure levels), as well as the molecular toxigenic and antibiotic resistance profiles of a set of isolates established from a case of community acquired-CDI. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To describe the distribution of organisms and of antibiotic susceptibility among isolates from blood cultures at a tertiary academic hospital during a 1-year period, stratifying by place of infection acquisition. (journals.co.za)
  • The hospital-acquired isolates were stratified by ward (emergency, general medical or general surgical ward or intensive care unit (ICU)) to determine organism frequency and susceptibility patterns by hospital ward. (journals.co.za)
  • The majority of community-acquired Enterobacteriaceae were highly susceptible to antibiotics (gentamicin 95.6%, ceftriaxone 96.1% and ciprofloxacin 92.2%), whereas 64.6% of healthcare-associated isolates were susceptible to gentamicin, 58.5% to ceftriaxone and 70% to ciprofloxacin. (journals.co.za)
  • Results: The Surgical Infection Society and the Infectious Disease Society of America guidelines recommend a variety of single and combined antimicrobial therapies, including fluoroquinolone therapy, for prophylactic and definitive treatment of cIAIs with different severities. (umich.edu)
  • The implications The focus of infection control measures should shift to the community setting, including enhanced surveillance and better targeted antimicrobial therapy. (mja.com.au)
  • The latest report Community Acquired Infections Pipeline Highlights - 2018, provides most up-to-date information on key pipeline products in the global Community Acquired Infections market. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • The results indicated that omadacycline is well-tolerated and has the potential to be an effective treatment in patients with complicated skin and skin structure infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • As part of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine trial, we investigated children aged 2-29 months who presented with signs suggestive of invasive bacterial infections. (nih.gov)
  • The incidence of invasive bacterial infections in all subjects was 1009 (95% CI, 903-1124) cases per 100,000 person-years. (nih.gov)
  • Although vaccines could greatly reduce the pneumococcal burden, a high index of suspicion and appropriate use of antimicrobials are needed to manage other causes of invasive bacterial infections. (nih.gov)
  • Routinely used biomarkers of bacterial etiology of infection, such as C-reactive protein and procalcitonin, have limited usefulness for evaluation of infections since their expression is enhanced by a number of different conditions. (hindawi.com)
  • In the patients with bacterial infections, IL-1Ra and IL-8 demonstrated positive correlation with C-reactive protein, whereas, IL-1Ra, TNF- α , and MCP-1 correlated with procalcitonin. (hindawi.com)
  • While use of the acellular pertussis vaccine may reduce reactogenicity from pertussis vaccination, ( 2 ) waning protection after the last routine childhood dose of vaccine ( 13 ) has resulted in a reservoir of susceptible adolescents and adults capable of developing pertussis infection and passing it on to under- or unvaccinated infants. (asm.org)
  • In general, pertussis PCR has been found to be as or more sensitive than culture, although the reported sensitivity of various pertussis PCR assays versus serologic evidence of infection has ranged from 21 to 61% ( 11 , 19 , 21 ). (asm.org)
  • This was done with 225 nasopharyngeal swab specimens collected in community clinic settings. (asm.org)
  • This in turn may be useful to identify patients at increased risk of infection and inform discussions about prevention strategies, such as vaccination, and health service planning. (eurekalert.org)