Communication Aids for Disabled: Equipment that provides mentally or physically disabled persons with a means of communication. The aids include display boards, typewriters, cathode ray tubes, computers, and speech synthesizers. The output of such aids includes written words, artificial speech, language signs, Morse code, and pictures.Tape Recording: Recording of information on magnetic or punched paper tape.Patient Simulation: The use of persons coached to feign symptoms or conditions of real diseases in a life-like manner in order to teach or evaluate medical personnel.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Animal Communication: Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.Communication Disorders: Disorders of verbal and nonverbal communication caused by receptive or expressive LANGUAGE DISORDERS, cognitive dysfunction (e.g., MENTAL RETARDATION), psychiatric conditions, and HEARING DISORDERS.Health Communication: The transfer of information from experts in the medical and public health fields to patients and the public. The study and use of communication strategies to inform and influence individual and community decisions that enhance health.Hearing Aids: Wearable sound-amplifying devices that are intended to compensate for impaired hearing. These generic devices include air-conduction hearing aids and bone-conduction hearing aids. (UMDNS, 1999)Wheelchairs: Chairs mounted on wheels and designed to be propelled by the occupant.Sensory Aids: Devices that help people with impaired sensory responses.Durable Medical Equipment: Devices which are very resistant to wear and may be used over a long period of time. They include items such as wheelchairs, hospital beds, artificial limbs, etc.New MexicoSelf-Help Devices: Devices, not affixed to the body, designed to help persons having musculoskeletal or neuromuscular disabilities to perform activities involving movement.Tongue: A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.Brain-Computer Interfaces: Instrumentation consisting of hardware and software that communicates with the BRAIN. The hardware component of the interface records brain signals, while the software component analyzes the signals and converts them into a command that controls a device or sends a feedback signal to the brain.Quadriplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in all four limbs which may result from BRAIN DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or rarely MUSCULAR DISEASES. The locked-in syndrome is characterized by quadriplegia in combination with cranial muscle paralysis. Consciousness is spared and the only retained voluntary motor activity may be limited eye movements. This condition is usually caused by a lesion in the upper BRAIN STEM which injures the descending cortico-spinal and cortico-bulbar tracts.Tongue Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TONGUE.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Tongue DiseasesElectroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Communication Methods, Total: Utilization of all available receptive and expressive modes for the purpose of achieving communication with the hearing impaired, such as gestures, postures, facial expression, types of voice, formal speech and non-speech systems, and simultaneous communication.Speech-Language Pathology: The study of speech or language disorders and their diagnosis and correction.Down Syndrome: A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Tacrine: A cholinesterase inhibitor that crosses the blood-brain barrier. Tacrine has been used to counter the effects of muscle relaxants, as a respiratory stimulant, and in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other central nervous system disorders.Central Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord.Demeclocycline: A TETRACYCLINE analog having a 7-chloro and a 6-methyl. Because it is excreted more slowly than TETRACYCLINE, it maintains effective blood levels for longer periods of time.Doxapram: A central respiratory stimulant with a brief duration of action. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmocopoeia, 30th ed, p1225)Cholinesterase Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.Respiratory System Agents: Drugs used for their effects on the respiratory system.CholinesterasesHearing Loss: A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears.Hearing: The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.Cellular Phone: Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.Hearing Loss, Sensorineural: Hearing loss resulting from damage to the COCHLEA and the sensorineural elements which lie internally beyond the oval and round windows. These elements include the AUDITORY NERVE and its connections in the BRAINSTEM.Hearing Disorders: Conditions that impair the transmission of auditory impulses and information from the level of the ear to the temporal cortices, including the sensorineural pathways.Hearing Tests: Part of an ear examination that measures the ability of sound to reach the brain.Dissertations, Academic as Topic: Dissertations embodying results of original research and especially substantiating a specific view, e.g., substantial papers written by candidates for an academic degree under the individual direction of a professor or papers written by undergraduates desirous of achieving honors or distinction.Music: Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.Gestures: Movement of a part of the body for the purpose of communication.Speech: Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.Music Therapy: The use of music as an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of neurological, mental, or behavioral disorders.Eyeglasses: A pair of ophthalmic lenses in a frame or mounting which is supported by the nose and ears. The purpose is to aid or improve vision. It does not include goggles or nonprescription sun glasses for which EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES is available.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Artificial Limbs: Prosthetic replacements for arms, legs, and parts thereof.AmputeesSplints: Rigid or flexible appliances used to maintain in position a displaced or movable part or to keep in place and protect an injured part. (Dorland, 28th ed)BooksRefractive Errors: Deviations from the average or standard indices of refraction of the eye through its dioptric or refractive apparatus.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Book SelectionBook Reviews as Topic: Critical analyses of books or other monographic works.Disabled Persons: Persons with physical or mental disabilities that affect or limit their activities of daily living and that may require special accommodations.

Functional communication training using assistive devices: recruiting natural communities of reinforcement. (1/113)

We evaluated the effectiveness of functional communication training (FCT) as an intervention for the problem behavior exhibited by 5 students with severe disabilities both in school and in the community. Following an assessment of the function of their problem behavior, the students were taught to use assistive communication devices in school to request the objects and activities that presumably were maintaining their behavior. Multiple baseline data collected across the students indicated that not only did the students use their devices successfully, but the intervention also reduced their problem behavior. In addition, data from community settings showed generalization to untrained community members. These results replicate other successful efforts to use FCT with individuals having limited communication skills, and demonstrate the value of teaching skills to recruit natural communities of reinforcement in order to generalize intervention effects to meaningful nontraining environments.  (+info)

Empowering the deaf. Let the deaf be deaf. (2/113)

Deafness is often regarded as just a one and only phenomenon. Accordingly, deaf people are pictured as a unified body of people who share a single problem. From a medical point of view, we find it usual to work with a classification of deafness in which pathologies attributable to an inner ear disorder are segregated from pathologies attributable to an outer/middle ear disorder. Medical intervention is thus concerned more with the origin, degree, type of loss, onset, and structural pathology of deafness than with communicative disability and the implications there may be for the patient (mainly dependency, denial of abnormal hearing behaviour, low self esteem, rejection of the prosthetic help, and the breakdown of social relationships). In this paper, we argue that hearing loss is a very complex phenomenon, which has many and serious consequences for people and involves many factors and issues that should be carefully examined. The immediate consequence of deafness is a breakdown in communication whereby the communicative function needs to be either initiated or restored. In that sense, empowering strategies--aimed at promoting not only a more traditional psychological empowerment but also a community one--should primarily focus on the removal of communication barriers.  (+info)

Using the picture exchange communication system (PECS) with children with autism: assessment of PECS acquisition, speech, social-communicative behavior, and problem behavior. (3/113)

The picture exchange communication system (PECS) is an augmentative communication system frequently used with children with autism (Bondy & Frost, 1994; Siegel, 2000; Yamall, 2000). Despite its common clinical use, no well-controlled empirical investigations have been conducted to test the effectiveness of PECS. Using a multiple baseline design, the present study examined the acquisition of PECS with 3 children with autism. In addition, the study examined the effects of PECS training on the emergence of speech in play and academic settings. Ancillary measures of social-communicative behaviors and problem behaviors were recorded. Results indicated that all 3 children met the learning criterion for PECS and showed concomitant increases in verbal speech. Ancillary gains were associated with increases in social-communicative behaviors and decreases in problem behaviors. The results are discussed in terms of the provision of empirical support for PECS as well as the concomitant positive side effects of its use.  (+info)

Predictors of successful self control during brain-computer communication. (4/113)

OBJECTIVES: Direct brain-computer communication uses self regulation of brain potentials to select letters, words, or symbols from a computer menu to re-establish communication in severely paralysed patients. However, not all healthy subjects, or all paralysed patients acquire the skill to self regulate their brain potentials, and predictors of successful learning have not been found yet. Predictors are particularly important, because only successful self regulation will in the end lead to efficient brain-computer communication. This study investigates the question whether initial performance in the self regulation of slow cortical potentials of the brain (SCPs) may be positively correlated to later performance and could thus be used as a predictor. METHODS: Five severely paralysed patients diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis were trained to produce SCP amplitudes of negative and positive polarity by means of visual feedback and operant conditioning strategies. Performance was measured as percentage of correct SCP amplitude shifts. To determine the relation between initial and later performance in SCP self regulation, Spearman's rank correlations were calculated between maximum and mean performance at the beginning of training (runs 1-30) and mean performance at two later time points (runs 64-93 and 162-191). RESULTS: Spearman's rank correlations revealed a significant relation between maximum and mean performance in runs 1-30 and mean performance in runs 64-93 (r= 0.9 and 1.0) and maximum and mean performance in runs 1-30 and mean performance in runs 162-191 (r=1.0 and 1.0). CONCLUSIONS: Initial performance in the self regulation of SCP is positively correlated with later performance in severely paralysed patients, and thus represents a useful predictor for efficient brain-computer communication.  (+info)

The effects of speech output technology in the learning of graphic symbols. (5/113)

The effects of auditory stimuli in the form of synthetic speech output on the learning of graphic symbols were evaluated. Three adults with severe to profound mental retardation and communication impairments were taught to point to lexigrams when presented with words under two conditions. In the first condition, participants used a voice output communication aid to receive synthetic speech as antecedent and consequent stimuli. In the second condition, with a nonelectronic communications board, participants did not receive synthetic speech. A parallel treatments design was used to evaluate the effects of the synthetic speech output as an added component of the augmentative and alternative communication system. The 3 participants reached criterion when not provided with the auditory stimuli. Although 2 participants also reached criterion when not provided with the auditory stimuli, the addition of auditory stimuli resulted in more efficient learning and a decreased error rate. Maintenance results, however, indicated no differences between conditions. Finding suggest that auditory stimuli in the form of synthetic speech contribute to the efficient acquisition of graphic communication symbols.  (+info)

Everyone here speaks TXT: deaf people using SMS in Australia and the rest of the world. (6/113)

This article examines the extent to which Short Message Service (SMS) messages are breaking down communication barriers among deaf people and between deaf and hearing people. It is predicted that deaf texters will use SMS to increase the bonds between themselves in deaf communities, creating new opportunities to develop relationships, understanding, and intimacy with those not physically present. The most exciting question raised by this article is whether those kinds of relationships, understanding, and intimacy will develop to the same extent with hearing colleagues, friends, and intimates.  (+info)

Patients with disabilities and complex communication needs. The GP consultation. (7/113)

BACKGROUND: People with complex communication needs vary in terms of their underlying disability and the methods and strategies they use to communicate. OBJECTIVE: This article describes the varied communication profiles that a general practitioner is likely to encounter in patients with disabilities, and the various types of augmentative and alternative forms of communication that might be used in such consultations. DISCUSSION: This article provides strategies to facilitate doctor-patient communication involving patients with complex communication needs, some of which are illustrated in a case study of a young woman with an intellectual disability.  (+info)

Test-retest reliability of fMRI during nonverbal semantic decisions in moderate-severe nonfluent aphasia patients. (8/113)

Cortical reorganization in poststroke aphasia is not well understood. Few studies have investigated neural mechanisms underlying language recovery in severe aphasia patients, who are typically viewed as having a poor prognosis for language recovery. Although test-retest reliability is routinely demonstrated during collection of language data in single-subject aphasia research, this is rarely examined in fMRI studies investigating the underlying neural mechanisms in aphasia recovery. The purpose of this study was to acquire fMRI test-retest data examining semantic decisions both within and between two aphasia patients. Functional MRI was utilized to image individuals with chronic, moderate-severe nonfluent aphasia during nonverbal, yes/no button-box semantic judgments of iconic sentences presented in the Computer-assisted Visual Communication (C-ViC) program. We investigated the critical issue of intra-subject reliability by exploring similarities and differences in regions of activation during participants' performance of identical tasks twice on the same day. Each participant demonstrated high intra-subject reliability, with response decrements typical of task familiarity. Differences between participants included greater left hemisphere perilesional activation in the individual with better response to C-ViC training. This study provides fMRI reliability in chronic nonfluent aphasia, and adds to evidence supporting differences in individual cortical reorganization in aphasia recovery.  (+info)

  • In this paper assistive technology is limited to FM systems, a system which assists individuals with auditory receptive communication. (
  • Accelerating Adoption of Assistive Technology to Reduce Physical Strain among Family Caregivers of the Chronically Disabled Elderly Living at Home. (
  • The ILO-Irish Aid Partnership Programme supports the development and reform of disability-related laws and policies and their effective implementation, and the inclusion of women and men with disabilities in mainstream programmes and services on vocational training, employment, entrepreneurship development and micro-finance. (
  • Many people have difficulty speaking or understanding what is being said, and this communication disability can be a huge barrier affecting every aspect of life. (
  • For persons identified as having a disability or aged 60 and over, this level contains items on level of participation in education, employment and social and community activities, use of personal computers and Internet, need and receipt of assistance with various activities, and use of aids to carry out activities. (
  • After many years of hard work by disability-rights advocates, President Obama signed into law the 21st Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act . (
  • Disabled Rights: American Disability Policy and the Fight for Equality by Jacqueline Vaughn Switzer, 2003, BR 14882 (4 volumes), RC 56788 , DB 56788 (Download Only from BARD). (
  • This non-renewable $5,000 scholarship will be paid to the recipient's Financial Aid Office by the Seattle Foundation on behalf of the DisAbility Employee Resource Group (ERG) at Microsoft. (
  • In addition to logistical social and structural barriers, people with disabilities face widespread economic inequity, cultural isolation, and discrimination in education, employment and a broad range of societal activities in ways that are often specific to a person's disability, and are generally not a factor for non-disabled individuals. (
  • A postsecondary student with a disability who is in need of auxiliary aids is obligated to provide notice of the nature of the disabling condition to the college and to assist it in identifying appropriate and effective auxiliary aids. (
  • Disability Awareness in Action (DAA) is an international human rights network, run for and by disabled people. (
  • Find the services of a trained mediator specialising in all area of disability to assist with workplace and family disputes, disabled access issues, healthcare and housing as well as all areas and issues where a person with a disability can be assisted with communication, conversation and help getting their concerns understood. (
  • Stay Safe East's experience shows that change can happen, if agencies recognise the particular forms that violence against disabled women may take, and if agencies focus not on vulnerability but on disabled women as victims of gender and disability based abuse. (
  • Threats to 'out' someone as disabled e.g. mental health, HIV, epilepsy, learning disability are also frequently used, and given the stigma attached to some impairments, are also powerful. (
  • Retrieved 2020-08-10, from - Reference Category Number: DW#159-8142. (
  • 3. Phonak Naída M, Datasheet (2019) Technical Data, retrieved from , accessed 13 January, 2020. (
  • This invention was made with government support under NINCDS Contract N01-NS-2-2305 awarded by the National Institute of Neurological and Communication Disorders and Stroke. (
  • The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) is pleased to share our new five-year Strategic Plan for 2017-2021. (
  • By prioritizing research investment in these areas, the Institute strives to improve the quality of life for people with communication disorders. (
  • We are already using recent advances in science and technology to discover how changes to the molecular, cellular, and systemic pathways can cause communication disorders. (
  • The NIDCD hopes to build on these advances by supporting research that will lead to better ways to identify those who are at risk for developing certain communication disorders, with a goal of preventing a disorder from occurring or at least lessening its effects. (
  • The NIDCD also continues to support research to develop better treatments for people with communication disorders. (
  • The objectives in this Strategic Plan have been identified through discussions among outside experts in each of the Institute's mission areas, along with input from NIDCD staff members, the National Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NDCD) Advisory Council, representatives of the research and advocacy communities, and members of the public. (
  • For at least 10 years, Indiana has been cutting back aid payments to developmentally disabled adults just because those people also get food stamps. (
  • You think that disabled adults who need assistance to live on their own should be restricted to just over $7 per day for food? (
  • Tell Indiana to stop cutting the aid of developmentally disabled adults who receive food stamps NOW! (
  • According to a damning recent AP article, your state and your organization have been cutting back aid payments to developmentally disabled adults just because those people also get food stamps. (
  • Nearly 15 percent of American adults (37.5 million) aged 18 and over report some trouble hearing, making this one of the most prevalent disabling conditions in the U.S. Hearing loss can be hereditary, or it can result from disease, trauma, medications, or long-term exposure to damaging noise. (
  • However, of adults aged 70 and older with hearing loss who could benefit from wearing hearing aids, fewer than 30 percent have ever used them. (
  • Of adults aged 20 to 69 who could benefit from hearing aids, the proportion that has used them is even lower (only about 16 percent). (
  • Supporting children with communication aids in transition: the perspective of children and adults involved with the Communication Aids Project (CAP). (
  • Investigated facilitated communication with 10 adults with autism, and specifically examined the effects of facilitator influence and level of assistance as a function of facilitator knowledge of experimental stimuli. (
  • Carmel Hourigan, senior manager at Disabled Living, said: "Kidz to Adultz Scotland is a valuable opportunity for children and young adults, as well as their families, carers and professionals to find out more about the products and services available to them. (
  • In addition, law enforcement must provide communication services that are effective and easy for the disabled person to understand. (
  • The following pictures illustrate how removing the barriers to services and opportunities help disabled people obtain decent work and a better life. (
  • The limitation on liability under subsection (a) shall not apply to any person to the extent such person relies on third party applications, services, software, hardware, or equipment to comply with the requirements of this Act (or of the provisions of the Communications Act of 1934 that are amended or added by this Act). (
  • Whether through fostering, adoption, residential care or short breaks for disabled children, to running local children's centres, nurseries, family support and youth services. (
  • This Conference welcomes the introduction of Direct Payments for disabled and older people which has taken place over the past few years, along with the recent pilots of Individual Budgets which increase choice and control for disabled and older people over the services they receive. (
  • Personal assistance services include assistance in performing tasks that range from assistance in reading, communication, and performing manual tasks (e.g., turning pages) to assistance in bathing, eating, toileting, personal hygiene, and dressing. (
  • shall take such steps as are necessary to ensure that no handicapped student is denied the benefits of, excluded from participation in, or otherwise subjected to discrimination under the education program or activity operated by the recipient because of the absence of educational auxiliary aids for students with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills. (
  • ReSound donates hearing instruments and audiologists to mission trips throughout the US to provide hearing aids to Americans that cannot afford them. (
  • A vast array of hearing aid technology is available to provide additional features, such as the telecoil needed to pick up the hearing loop wireless signal. (
  • Hearing aids provide amplification and improve audiometry scores by 15-20 decibels (dB), a measure of sound intensity. (
  • If students are being evaluated to determine their eligibility under Section 504 or the ADA, the recipient must provide auxiliary aids in the interim. (
  • Unlike elementary or secondary schools, colleges may ask the student, in response to a request for auxiliary aids, to provide supporting diagnostic test results and professional prescriptions for auxiliary aids. (
  • At the 2015 International CES, Siemens is unveiling smart hearing aids - their latest in wearable hearing technology. (
  • While Siemens' new smart hearing aids pair with virtually any iOS or Android mobile device for a custom-tailored listening experience, a smartphone is not required to make use of the new technology. (
  • ReSound, the technology leader in hearing aid solutions, is helping hearing impaired Americans hear again via the Help America Hear charity. (
  • Although the development of microelectronic components has enabled new digital hearing aid technology to replace earlier devices based on analog circuits, the underlying damage to the inner ear remains a limitation when the user is confronted by multiple speakers or background noise. (
  • For a voter who is blind or has vision loss, ballot overlays, large type on the ballot, information technology, or recorded text and telephone voting systems can be an acceptable form of effective communication. (
  • One solution to this problem is to move the hearing aid user closer to the person speaking and farther from the noise sources. (
  • For a voter with impaired dexterity, such as a person with a muscular disorder, an auxiliary aid and service could take the form of a stylus or ballot marking instrument with a knob that can be more readily grasped. (
  • It also protects a person from being treated less favourably because they are linked or associated with a disabled person. (
  • and using a computer program and specially developed formulas to integrate, compare, and assess the results so as to arrive at a communication device best suited for the client's needs. (
  • The use of noninvasive respiratory aids can facilitate and simplify home management, decrease expense and prepare patients and families for decision making regarding tracheostomy if and when this becomes necessary. (
  • Loan Information for low income singles, families, seniors and disabled. (
  • A site dedicated to providing reviews and advice on mobility, daily living and everyday aids for the elderly as well as articles and news of interest to the older population. (
  • Ruth Bashall is the Director of Stay Safe East , an organization run by disabled people which supports disabled survivors of domestic and sexual violence, hate crime and other abuse, and works for change in policy and strategies at London and national level. (