Communicable diseases, also known as infectious diseases, are medical conditions that result from the infection, transmission, or colonization of pathogenic microorganisms like bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites, which can be spread from one host to another through various modes of transmission.
Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.
Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Restriction of freedom of movement of individuals who have been exposed to infectious or communicable disease in order to prevent its spread; a period of detention of vessels, vehicles, or travelers coming from infected or suspected places; and detention or isolation on account of suspected contagion. It includes government regulations on the detention of animals at frontiers or ports of entrance for the prevention of infectious disease, through a period of isolation before being allowed to enter a country. (From Dorland, 28th ed & Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Management of public health organizations or agencies.
A health professional's obligation to breach patient CONFIDENTIALITY to warn third parties of the danger of their being assaulted or of contracting a serious infection.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
A group of techniques developed to apply scientific methods and tools to solve the problems of DECISION MAKING in complex organizations and systems. Operations research searches for optimal solutions in situations of conflicting GOALS and makes use of mathematical models from which solutions for actual problems may be derived. (From Psychiatric Dictionary, 6th ed)
The composition of a committee; the state or status of being a member of a committee.
The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.
The segregation of patients with communicable or other diseases for a specified time. Isolation may be strict, in which movement and social contacts are limited; modified, where an effort to control specified aspects of care is made in order to prevent cross infection; or reverse, where the patient is secluded in a controlled or germ-free environment in order to protect him or her from cross infection.
Field of medicine concerned with the determination of causes, incidence, and characteristic behavior of disease outbreaks affecting human populations. It includes the interrelationships of host, agent, and environment as related to the distribution and control of disease.
A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.
An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.
The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.
Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Wales" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. It is a country that is part of the United Kingdom, located in Europe. If you have any questions about a specific medical topic, I would be happy to help answer those!
Institutional night care of patients.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.
The science dealing with the establishment and maintenance of health in the individual and the group. It includes the conditions and practices conducive to health. (Webster, 3d ed)
Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.
Aspects of health and disease related to travel.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
I'm afraid there seems to be a misunderstanding - "Africa" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent, consisting of 54 countries with diverse cultures, peoples, languages, and landscapes. If you have any questions related to medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to help answer those for you!
Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.
Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Singapore" is not a medical term or concept, it's a country in Southeast Asia. If you have any questions about medical topics, I'd be happy to try and help!
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but 'England' is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom, known for its rich history, cultural heritage, and contributions to medical science. However, in a medical context, it may refer to the location of a patient, healthcare provider, or research study, but it is not a term with a specific medical meaning.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
Educational programs designed to inform physicians of recent advances in their field.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.
Great Britain is not a medical term, but a geographical name for the largest island in the British Isles, which comprises England, Scotland, and Wales, forming the major part of the United Kingdom.
Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)
I'm sorry for any confusion, but 'Europe' is a geographical continent and not a medical term; therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
An infant during the first month after birth.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.

Infectious complications in 126 patients treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. (1/1873)

The effect of an extensive prophylactic antimicrobial regimen was prospectively assessed in 126 patients after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous PBSC. They received ciprofloxacin (500 mg/12 h), acyclovir (200 mg/6 h), and itraconazole (200 mg/12 h) orally until neutrophil recovery. Febrile patients received i.v. imipenem (500 mg/6 h) to which vancomycin and amikacin were added if fever persisted for 2-3 and 5 days, respectively. Amphotericin B lipid complex was further given on day 7 or 8 of fever. Median times for a neutrophil count of >0.5 x 10(9)/l and a platelet count of >20 x 10(9)/l were 9 and 11 days. Severe neutropenia (<0.1 x 10(9)/l) lasted for a median of 5 days in which 72% of febrile episodes and 50% of cases of bacteremia occurred. Gram-positive bacteria were isolated in 30 of 40 episodes of bacteremia, 25 of which were caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis. Clinical foci were the intravascular catheter in 35 cases, respiratory infection in 11, cellulitis in two, anal abscess in one, and neutropenic enterocolitis in one. The high incidence of febrile episodes (94%) and bacteremias (31%) may be due to the lack of efficacy of antimicrobial prophylaxis and the persistence of a 5-day period of severe neutropenia.  (+info)

Early infection in bone marrow transplantation: quantitative study of clinical factors that affect risk. (2/1873)

Infections remain common life-threatening complications of bone marrow transplantation. To examine clinical factors that affect infection risk, we retrospectively studied patients who received bone marrow transplants (53 autologous and 51 allogeneic). Over a median of 27 hospital days, 44 patients developed documented infections. Both autologous transplantation and hematopoietic growth factor use were associated with less prolonged neutropenia and decreased occurrence of infection (P < or = .05). In a survival regression model, variables independently associated with infection risk were the log10 of the neutrophil count (hazard ratio [HR], 0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.32-0.75), ciprofloxacin prophylaxis (HR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.19-0.95), empirical intravenous antibiotic use (HR, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.03-0.32), and an interaction between neutrophil count and intravenous antibiotic use (HR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.06-3.29). In this model, infection risk increases steeply at low neutrophil counts for patients receiving no antibiotic therapy. Ciprofloxacin prophylaxis and particularly intravenous antibiotic therapy provide substantial protection at low neutrophil counts. These results can be used to model management strategies for transplant recipients.  (+info)

A World Wide Web selected bibliography for pediatric infectious diseases. (3/1873)

A pediatric infectious diseases bibliography of selected medical reference citations has been developed and placed on the World Wide Web (WWW) at http://www.pedid.uthscsa.edu. A regularly updated bibliography of >2,500 selected literature citations representing general reviews and key articles has been organized under a standard outline for individual infectious diseases and related topics that cover the breadth of pediatric infectious diseases. Citations are categorized by infectious disease or clinical syndrome, and access can be achieved by the disease or by syndrome or the name of the pathogen. Abstracts, and in some cases the complete text of articles, may be viewed by use of hypertext links. The bibliography provides medical students, residents, fellows, and clinicians with a constantly available resource of current literature citations in pediatric infectious diseases. The WWW is an emerging educational and clinical resource for the practice of clinical infectious diseases.  (+info)

The effect of antibiotics on mortality from infectious diseases in Sweden and Finland. (4/1873)

A study was carried out to determine whether the preexisting decline in mortality rates from infectious diseases accelerated after the introduction of antibiotic and chemotherapeutic drugs. Linear regression curves showed that in Sweden mortality rates declined faster in septicemia, syphilis, and non-memingococcal meningitis after the introduction of these drugs. By contrast, for the ten other infectious diseases studied, (scarlet fever, erysipelas, acute rheumatic fever, puerperal sepsis, meningococcal infection, bronchitis, pneumonia, tuberculosis, typhoid fever, and acute gastroenteritis) no such accelerated decline in mortality could be detected. The findings suggest that antibiotic and chemotherapeutic drugs have not had the dramatic effect of the mortality of infectious diseases popularly attributed to them.  (+info)

Comparative genomics and host resistance against infectious diseases. (5/1873)

The large size and complexity of the human genome have limited the identification and functional characterization of components of the innate immune system that play a critical role in front-line defense against invading microorganisms. However, advances in genome analysis (including the development of comprehensive sets of informative genetic markers, improved physical mapping methods, and novel techniques for transcript identification) have reduced the obstacles to discovery of novel host resistance genes. Study of the genomic organization and content of widely divergent vertebrate species has shown a remarkable degree of evolutionary conservation and enables meaningful cross-species comparison and analysis of newly discovered genes. Application of comparative genomics to host resistance will rapidly expand our understanding of human immune defense by facilitating the translation of knowledge acquired through the study of model organisms. We review the rationale and resources for comparative genomic analysis and describe three examples of host resistance genes successfully identified by this approach.  (+info)

The validation of interviews for estimating morbidity. (6/1873)

Health interview surveys have been widely used to measure morbidity in developing countries, particularly for infectious diseases. Structured questionnaires using algorithms which derive sign/symptom-based diagnoses seem to be the most reliable but there have been few studies to validate them. The purpose of validation is to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of brief algorithms (combinations of signs/symptoms) which can then be used for the rapid assessment of community health problems. Validation requires a comparison with an external standard such as physician or serological diagnoses. There are several potential pitfalls in assessing validity, such as selection bias, differences in populations and the pattern of diseases in study populations compared to the community. Validation studies conducted in the community may overcome bias caused by case selection. Health centre derived estimates can be adjusted and applied to the community with caution. Further study is needed to validate algorithms for important diseases in different cultural settings. Community-based studies need to be conducted, and the utility of derived algorithms for tracking disease frequency explored further.  (+info)

Pesticides and immunosuppression: the risks to public health. (7/1873)

There is substantial experimental, epidemiological and other evidence that many pesticides in widespread use around the world are immunosuppressive. This poses a potentially serious health risk in populations highly exposed to infectious and parasitic diseases, subject to malnutrition, and inadequately serve by curative health programmes. An expanded programme of research is needed to investigate this potential risk and to design precautionary measures.  (+info)

Deriving meteorological variables across Africa for the study and control of vector-borne disease: a comparison of remote sensing and spatial interpolation of climate. (8/1873)

This paper presents the results of an investigation into the utility of remote sensing (RS) using meteorological satellites sensors and spatial interpolation (SI) of data from meteorological stations, for the prediction of spatial variation in monthly climate across continental Africa in 1990. Information from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) polar-orbiting meteorological satellites was used to estimate land surface temperature (LST) and atmospheric moisture. Cold cloud duration (CCD) data derived from the High Resolution Radiometer (HRR) on-board the European Meteorological Satellite programme's (EUMETSAT) Meteosat satellite series were also used as a RS proxy measurement of rainfall. Temperature, atmospheric moisture and rainfall surfaces were independently derived from SI of measurements from the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) member stations of Africa. These meteorological station data were then used to test the accuracy of each methodology, so that the appropriateness of the two techniques for epidemiological research could be compared. SI was a more accurate predictor of temperature, whereas RS provided a better surrogate for rainfall; both were equally accurate at predicting atmospheric moisture. The implications of these results for mapping short and long-term climate change and hence their potential for the study and control of disease vectors are considered. Taking into account logistic and analytical problems, there were no clear conclusions regarding the optimality of either technique, but there was considerable potential for synergy.  (+info)

Communicable diseases, also known as infectious diseases, are illnesses that can be transmitted from one person to another through various modes of transmission. These modes include:

1. Direct contact: This occurs when an individual comes into physical contact with an infected person, such as touching or shaking hands, or having sexual contact.
2. Indirect contact: This happens when an individual comes into contact with contaminated objects or surfaces, like doorknobs, towels, or utensils.
3. Airborne transmission: Infectious agents can be spread through the air when an infected person coughs, sneezes, talks, or sings, releasing droplets containing the pathogen into the environment. These droplets can then be inhaled by nearby individuals.
4. Droplet transmission: Similar to airborne transmission, but involving larger respiratory droplets that don't remain suspended in the air for long periods and typically travel shorter distances (usually less than 6 feet).
5. Vector-borne transmission: This occurs when an infected animal or insect, such as a mosquito or tick, transmits the disease to a human through a bite or other means.

Examples of communicable diseases include COVID-19, influenza, tuberculosis, measles, hepatitis B, and malaria. Preventive measures for communicable diseases often involve public health initiatives like vaccination programs, hygiene promotion, and vector control strategies.

Communicable disease control is a branch of public health that focuses on preventing and controlling the spread of infectious diseases within a population. The goal is to reduce the incidence and prevalence of communicable diseases through various strategies, such as:

1. Surveillance: Monitoring and tracking the occurrence of communicable diseases in a population to identify trends, outbreaks, and high-risk areas.
2. Prevention: Implementing measures to prevent the transmission of infectious agents, such as vaccination programs, education campaigns, and environmental interventions (e.g., water treatment, food safety).
3. Case management: Identifying, diagnosing, and treating cases of communicable diseases to reduce their duration and severity, as well as to prevent further spread.
4. Contact tracing: Identifying and monitoring individuals who have been in close contact with infected persons to detect and prevent secondary cases.
5. Outbreak response: Coordinating a rapid and effective response to disease outbreaks, including the implementation of control measures, communication with affected communities, and evaluation of interventions.
6. Collaboration: Working closely with healthcare providers, laboratories, policymakers, and other stakeholders to ensure a coordinated and comprehensive approach to communicable disease control.
7. Research: Conducting research to better understand the epidemiology, transmission dynamics, and prevention strategies for communicable diseases.

Effective communicable disease control requires a multidisciplinary approach that combines expertise in medicine, epidemiology, microbiology, public health, social sciences, and healthcare management.

Disease notification is the process by which health care professionals, laboratories, or other relevant individuals or organizations inform public health authorities about cases of specific diseases or conditions that are reportable (also known as notifiable) within a particular jurisdiction. Reportable diseases are those that have been designated by law or regulation as posing a significant risk to public health and for which timely reporting is necessary to enable effective surveillance, control measures, and prevention strategies.

The specific diseases and conditions that must be reported, as well as the procedures for reporting, vary by jurisdiction. Common reportable diseases include infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, measles, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), as well as non-infectious conditions like cancer and lead poisoning.

The purpose of disease notification is to provide public health officials with accurate and up-to-date information about the occurrence and spread of diseases in a population. This information can help inform policy decisions, guide resource allocation, and support the development and implementation of evidence-based interventions to protect and promote the health of communities.

Quarantine is a public health practice used to protect the population from the spread of communicable diseases. It involves separating and restricting the movement of individuals who have been exposed to an infectious agent, but are not yet showing symptoms, for a period of time to determine if they become sick and to prevent transmission during the incubation period. The term "quarantine" comes from the Italian word "quaranta," which means "forty," as it originally referred to the 40-day period that ships were required to be isolated before passengers and crew could go ashore during the Black Death plague epidemic in the 14th century. Nowadays, quarantine is often used in the context of travel restrictions and isolation measures for individuals who may have been exposed to diseases such as COVID-19, Ebola, or tuberculosis.

Population surveillance in a public health and medical context refers to the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of health-related data for a defined population over time. It aims to monitor the health status, identify emerging health threats or trends, and evaluate the impact of interventions within that population. This information is used to inform public health policy, prioritize healthcare resources, and guide disease prevention and control efforts. Population surveillance can involve various data sources, such as vital records, disease registries, surveys, and electronic health records.

Emerging communicable diseases are infections whose incidence has increased in the past two decades or threatens to increase in the near future. These diseases can be caused by new microbial agents, or by previously known agents that have newly acquired the ability to cause disease in humans. They may also result from changes in human demographics, behavior, or travel patterns, or from technological or environmental changes. Examples of emerging communicable diseases include COVID-19, Ebola virus disease, Zika virus infection, and West Nile fever.

A disease outbreak is defined as the occurrence of cases of a disease in excess of what would normally be expected in a given time and place. It may affect a small and localized group or a large number of people spread over a wide area, even internationally. An outbreak may be caused by a new agent, a change in the agent's virulence or host susceptibility, or an increase in the size or density of the host population.

Outbreaks can have significant public health and economic impacts, and require prompt investigation and control measures to prevent further spread of the disease. The investigation typically involves identifying the source of the outbreak, determining the mode of transmission, and implementing measures to interrupt the chain of infection. This may include vaccination, isolation or quarantine, and education of the public about the risks and prevention strategies.

Examples of disease outbreaks include foodborne illnesses linked to contaminated food or water, respiratory infections spread through coughing and sneezing, and mosquito-borne diseases such as Zika virus and West Nile virus. Outbreaks can also occur in healthcare settings, such as hospitals and nursing homes, where vulnerable populations may be at increased risk of infection.

Public Health Administration refers to the leadership, management, and coordination of public health services and initiatives at the local, state, or national level. It involves overseeing and managing the development, implementation, and evaluation of policies, programs, and services aimed at improving the health and well-being of populations. This may include addressing issues such as infectious disease control, chronic disease prevention, environmental health, emergency preparedness and response, and health promotion and education.

Public Health Administration requires a strong understanding of public health principles, leadership and management skills, and the ability to work collaboratively with a variety of stakeholders, including community members, healthcare providers, policymakers, and other organizations. The ultimate goal of Public Health Administration is to ensure that public health resources are used effectively and efficiently to improve the health outcomes of populations and reduce health disparities.

The "duty to warn" is a legal and ethical obligation that healthcare professionals have to inform their patients or others who may be at risk of harm from the actions or behaviors of their patient. This duty arises from the principle of non-maleficence, which requires doctors to avoid causing harm to their patients.

In the context of medical practice, the duty to warn typically applies when a patient has a mental illness or condition that makes them a danger to themselves or others. For example, if a psychiatrist determines that their patient poses a serious threat of violence to a specific individual, they may have a legal and ethical obligation to warn that person or take other steps to protect them from harm.

The specifics of the duty to warn can vary depending on the jurisdiction and the circumstances involved. In some cases, healthcare professionals may be required to report certain types of threats or behaviors to law enforcement authorities. Ultimately, the goal of the duty to warn is to prevent harm and promote the safety and well-being of patients and others who may be at risk.

Public health is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "the art and science of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts of society." It focuses on improving the health and well-being of entire communities, populations, and societies, rather than individual patients. This is achieved through various strategies, including education, prevention, surveillance of diseases, and promotion of healthy behaviors and environments. Public health also addresses broader determinants of health, such as access to healthcare, housing, food, and income, which have a significant impact on the overall health of populations.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Operations Research" is not a medical term. It is a discipline that deals with the application of advanced analytical methods to help make better decisions and solve complex problems in various fields, including business, industry, and government. In a broader sense, Operations Research can be used in healthcare management and policy to optimize resource allocation, improve patient outcomes, and streamline operational processes. However, it is not a medical concept or procedure.

Committee membership, in a medical context, refers to the role of an individual serving on a committee that is responsible for making decisions or providing guidance related to medical issues or healthcare delivery. This could include committees within a hospital or healthcare organization, professional medical societies, or governmental bodies. Committee members may be involved in developing policies, guidelines, or standards; overseeing research or quality improvement initiatives; or addressing ethical or regulatory concerns. Membership on such committees is often composed of medical professionals with relevant expertise and experience.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Mediterranean Region" is not a term with a specific medical definition. The Mediterranean Region typically refers to the geographical area surrounding the Mediterranean Sea, including countries in Southern Europe, North Africa, and Western Asia. However, in a medical context, it might refer to the study of diseases or health characteristics typical of certain populations in this region. For example, the "Mediterranean diet" is a popular term in nutrition and medicine, referring to the traditional eating habits in Mediterranean countries, which are associated with numerous health benefits. If you're looking for medical information related to a specific aspect of the Mediterranean Region or its population, please provide more context so I can give you a more accurate response.

Patient isolation, in a medical context, refers to the practice of separating individuals who are infected or colonized with a potentially transmissible pathogen from those who are not infected, to prevent the spread of illness. This separation may be physical, through the use of private rooms and dedicated medical equipment, or it may involve administrative measures such as cohorting patients together based on their infectious status.

The goal of patient isolation is to protect both the individual patient and the broader community from acquiring or transmitting infections. The specific criteria for implementing isolation, including the duration and level of precautions required, are typically determined by healthcare professionals based on guidelines established by public health authorities and professional organizations. These guidelines take into account factors such as the mode of transmission, the severity of illness, and the availability of effective treatments or preventive measures.

Epidemiology is the study of how often and why diseases occur in different groups of people and places. It is a key discipline in public health and informs policy decisions and evidence-based practices by identifying risk factors for disease and targets for preventive healthcare. Epidemiologists use various study designs, including observational studies, experiments, and surveys, to collect and analyze data on the distribution and determinants of diseases in populations. They seek to understand the causes of health outcomes and develop strategies to control or prevent adverse health events. The ultimate goal of epidemiology is to improve population health and eliminate health disparities.

The World Health Organization (WHO) is not a medical condition or term, but rather a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for international public health. Here's a brief description:

The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that acts as the global authority on public health issues. Established in 1948, WHO's primary role is to coordinate and collaborate with its member states to promote health, prevent diseases, and ensure universal access to healthcare services. WHO is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, and has regional offices around the world. It plays a crucial role in setting global health standards, monitoring disease outbreaks, and providing guidance on various public health concerns, including infectious diseases, non-communicable diseases, mental health, environmental health, and maternal, newborn, child, and adolescent health.

The term "developing countries" is a socio-economic classification used to describe nations that are in the process of industrialization and modernization. This term is often used interchangeably with "low and middle-income countries" or "Global South." The World Bank defines developing countries as those with a gross national income (GNI) per capita of less than US $12,695.

In the context of healthcare, developing countries face unique challenges including limited access to quality medical care, lack of resources and infrastructure, high burden of infectious diseases, and a shortage of trained healthcare professionals. These factors contribute to significant disparities in health outcomes between developing and developed nations.

Public health practice is a multidisciplinary approach that aims to prevent disease, promote health, and protect communities from harmful environmental and social conditions through evidence-based strategies, programs, policies, and interventions. It involves the application of epidemiological, biostatistical, social, environmental, and behavioral sciences to improve the health of populations, reduce health disparities, and ensure equity in health outcomes. Public health practice includes a wide range of activities such as disease surveillance, outbreak investigation, health promotion, community engagement, program planning and evaluation, policy analysis and development, and research translation. It is a collaborative and systems-based approach that involves partnerships with various stakeholders, including communities, healthcare providers, policymakers, and other organizations to achieve population-level health goals.

Infectious disease transmission refers to the spread of an infectious agent or pathogen from an infected person, animal, or contaminated object to another susceptible host. This can occur through various routes, including:

1. Contact transmission: Direct contact with an infected person or animal, such as through touching, kissing, or sexual contact.
2. Droplet transmission: Inhalation of respiratory droplets containing the pathogen, which are generated when an infected person coughs, sneezes, talks, or breathes heavily.
3. Airborne transmission: Inhalation of smaller particles called aerosols that can remain suspended in the air for longer periods and travel farther distances than droplets.
4. Fecal-oral transmission: Consuming food or water contaminated with fecal matter containing the pathogen, often through poor hygiene practices.
5. Vector-borne transmission: Transmission via an intermediate vector, such as a mosquito or tick, that becomes infected after feeding on an infected host and then transmits the pathogen to another host during a subsequent blood meal.
6. Vehicle-borne transmission: Consuming food or water contaminated with the pathogen through vehicles like soil, water, or fomites (inanimate objects).

Preventing infectious disease transmission is crucial in controlling outbreaks and epidemics. Measures include good personal hygiene, vaccination, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), safe food handling practices, and environmental disinfection.

Decontamination is the process of removing, inactivating or destroying harmful contaminants from a person, object, environment or substance. In a medical context, decontamination typically refers to the removal of pathogens, toxic chemicals, or radioactive substances from patients, equipment, or surfaces in order to prevent infection or illness.

There are different methods and techniques for decontamination depending on the type and extent of contamination. For example, mechanical cleaning (such as washing with soap and water), chemical disinfection (using antimicrobial agents), radiation sterilization (using ionizing radiation), and heat sterilization (using steam or dry heat) are some common methods used in medical settings to decontaminate surfaces, equipment, and supplies.

Decontamination is an important process in healthcare settings, such as hospitals and clinics, as well as in emergency response situations involving hazardous materials or bioterrorism incidents. Proper decontamination procedures can help prevent the spread of infectious diseases, reduce the risk of chemical or radiation exposure, and protect the health and safety of patients, healthcare workers, and the public.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "International Cooperation" is not a medical term. It refers to the collaboration and exchange of resources and information between countries or international organizations in various fields, including politics, economics, culture, environment, and security, among others. In the context of healthcare and medicine, international cooperation can involve joint research projects, sharing of data and clinical trial results, collaborative efforts to combat global health issues (such as infectious diseases or chronic conditions), capacity building in low-resource settings, and standardizing medical practices and guidelines across countries.

Health Priorities are key areas of focus in healthcare that receive the greatest attention, resources, and efforts due to their significant impact on overall population health. These priorities are typically determined by evaluating various health issues and factors such as prevalence, severity, mortality rates, and social determinants of health. By addressing health priorities, healthcare systems and public health organizations aim to improve community health, reduce health disparities, and enhance the quality of life for individuals. Examples of health priorities may include chronic diseases (such as diabetes or heart disease), mental health, infectious diseases, maternal and child health, injury prevention, and health promotion through healthy lifestyles.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Wales" is not a medical term. It is a country that is part of the United Kingdom, located in Western Europe. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help answer those!

'Night care' in a medical context typically refers to healthcare or support services provided to individuals during nighttime hours, usually between evening and early morning. This can include a range of services such as:

1. Monitoring vital signs and overall health status.
2. Administering medications.
3. Assisting with personal care needs like bathing, dressing, and using the bathroom.
4. Providing safety supervision to prevent falls or other accidents.
5. Offering comfort and companionship.

These services can be provided in various settings including hospitals, nursing homes, assisted living facilities, and private homes. They are often essential for individuals who require around-the-clock care but do not need hospital-level services during the night.

"World Health" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, it is often used in the context of global health, which can be defined as:

"The area of study, research and practice that places a priority on improving health and achieving equity in health for all people worldwide. It emphasizes trans-national health issues, determinants, and solutions; involves many disciplines within and beyond the health sciences and engages stakeholders from across sectors and societies." (World Health Organization)

Therefore, "world health" could refer to the overall health status and health challenges faced by populations around the world. It encompasses a broad range of factors that affect the health of individuals and communities, including social, economic, environmental, and political determinants. The World Health Organization (WHO) plays a key role in monitoring and promoting global health, setting international standards and guidelines, and coordinating responses to global health emergencies.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "organizational policy" is not a medical term. It falls under the broader category of management or administrative terminology.

An organizational policy generally refers to a formal statement or set of guidelines that outline an organization's approved course of action or conduct regarding various matters. These policies guide decision-making and help ensure consistent action across the organization. They can cover a wide range of topics, including (but not limited to) employee behavior, data security, patient care standards, and operational procedures.

In a healthcare setting, organizational policies play a crucial role in maintaining quality of care, ensuring patient safety, and complying with relevant laws and regulations.

Hygiene is the science and practice of maintaining and promoting health and preventing disease through cleanliness in personal and public environments. It includes various measures such as handwashing, bathing, using clean clothes, cleaning and disinfecting surfaces, proper waste disposal, safe food handling, and managing water supplies to prevent the spread of infectious agents like bacteria, viruses, and parasites.

In a medical context, hygiene is crucial in healthcare settings to prevent healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and ensure patient safety. Healthcare professionals are trained in infection control practices, including proper hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), environmental cleaning and disinfection, and safe injection practices.

Overall, maintaining good hygiene is essential for overall health and well-being, reducing the risk of illness and promoting a healthy lifestyle.

I believe there might be a bit of confusion in your question. "History" is a subject that refers to events, ideas, and developments of the past. It's not something that has a medical definition. However, if you're referring to the "21st century" in a historical context, it relates to the period from 2001 to the present. It's an era marked by significant advancements in technology, medicine, and society at large. But again, it doesn't have a medical definition. If you meant something else, please provide more context so I can give a more accurate response.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "travel" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. In general, travel refers to the act of moving or journeying from one place to another, often over long distances. However, in a medical context, it might refer to the recommendation that individuals with certain medical conditions or those who are immunocompromised avoid traveling to areas where they may be at increased risk of exposure to infectious diseases. It's always best to check with a healthcare professional for advice related to specific medical situations and travel.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "History, 20th Century" is a broad and complex topic that refers to the events, developments, and transformations that occurred throughout the world during the 1900s. It is not a medical term or concept. If you're interested in learning more about this historical period, I would recommend consulting a history textbook, reputable online resources, or speaking with a historian. They can provide detailed information about the political, social, economic, and cultural changes that took place during the 20th century.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Africa" actually refers to a continent, not a medical condition or concept. Africa is the second-largest continent in the world, consisting of 54 countries and a wide range of diverse ethnic groups, cultures, languages, and landscapes. It is home to a vast array of wildlife, including many species that are not found anywhere else in the world. If you have any questions about Africa's geography, history, or culture, I would be happy to try to help answer them!

'Infection Control' is a set of practices, procedures, and protocols designed to prevent the spread of infectious agents in healthcare settings. It includes measures to minimize the risk of transmission of pathogens from both recognized and unrecognized sources, such as patients, healthcare workers, visitors, and the environment.

Infection control strategies may include:

* Hand hygiene (handwashing and use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers)
* Use of personal protective equipment (PPE), such as gloves, masks, gowns, and eye protection
* Respiratory etiquette, including covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing
* Environmental cleaning and disinfection
* Isolation precautions for patients with known or suspected infectious diseases
* Immunization of healthcare workers
* Safe injection practices
* Surveillance and reporting of infections and outbreaks

The goal of infection control is to protect patients, healthcare workers, and visitors from acquiring and transmitting infections.

Sentinel surveillance is a type of public health surveillance that is used to monitor the occurrence and spread of specific diseases or health events in a defined population. It is called "sentinel" because it relies on a network of carefully selected healthcare providers, hospitals, or laboratories to report cases of the disease or event of interest.

The main goal of sentinel surveillance is to provide timely and accurate information about the incidence and trends of a particular health problem in order to inform public health action. This type of surveillance is often used when it is not feasible or practical to monitor an entire population, such as in the case of rare diseases or emerging infectious diseases.

Sentinel surveillance systems typically require well-defined criteria for case identification and reporting, as well as standardized data collection and analysis methods. They may also involve active monitoring and follow-up of cases to better understand the epidemiology of the disease or event. Overall, sentinel surveillance is an important tool for detecting and responding to public health threats in a timely and effective manner.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Singapore" is not a medical term or concept. It is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia. If you have any questions related to medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

In epidemiology, the incidence of a disease is defined as the number of new cases of that disease within a specific population over a certain period of time. It is typically expressed as a rate, with the number of new cases in the numerator and the size of the population at risk in the denominator. Incidence provides information about the risk of developing a disease during a given time period and can be used to compare disease rates between different populations or to monitor trends in disease occurrence over time.

Measles, also known as rubeola, is a highly infectious viral disease that primarily affects the respiratory system. It is caused by the measles virus, which belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae and the genus Morbillivirus. The virus is transmitted through direct contact with infected individuals or through airborne droplets released during coughing and sneezing.

The classic symptoms of measles include:

1. Fever: A high fever (often greater than 104°F or 40°C) usually appears before the onset of the rash, lasting for about 4-7 days.
2. Cough: A persistent cough is common and may become severe.
3. Runny nose: A runny or blocked nose is often present during the early stages of the illness.
4. Red eyes (conjunctivitis): Inflammation of the conjunctiva, the mucous membrane that covers the inner surface of the eyelids and the white part of the eye, can cause redness and irritation.
5. Koplik's spots: These are small, irregular, bluish-white spots with a red base that appear on the inside lining of the cheeks, usually 1-2 days before the rash appears. They are considered pathognomonic for measles, meaning their presence confirms the diagnosis.
6. Rash: The characteristic measles rash typically starts on the face and behind the ears, then spreads downward to the neck, trunk, arms, and legs. It consists of flat red spots that may merge together, forming irregular patches. The rash usually lasts for 5-7 days before fading.

Complications from measles can be severe and include pneumonia, encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), and ear infections. In rare cases, measles can lead to serious long-term complications or even death, particularly in young children, pregnant women, and individuals with weakened immune systems.

Vaccination is an effective way to prevent measles. The measles vaccine is typically administered as part of the Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR) vaccine, which provides immunity against all three diseases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "seasons" is not a term that has a medical definition. Seasons refer to the four divisions of the year (spring, summer, autumn or fall, and winter) based on the position of the earth in its orbit around the sun. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

Emigration is the process of leaving one's country of origin or habitual residence to settle in another country. It involves giving up the rights and privileges associated with citizenship in the country of origin and acquiring new rights and responsibilities as a citizen or resident of the destination country. Emigrants are people who choose to leave their native land to live elsewhere, often driven by factors such as economic opportunities, political instability, or conflict.

Immigration, on the other hand, is the process of entering and settling in a new country with the intention of becoming a permanent resident or citizen. Immigrants are individuals who come from another country to live in a new place, often seeking better job opportunities, education, or quality of life. They must comply with the immigration laws and regulations of the host country and may be required to undergo medical examinations, background checks, and other screening processes before being granted permission to enter and reside in the country.

In summary, emigration refers to leaving one's home country, while immigration refers to entering and settling in a new country.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "England" is not a medical term or concept. It is one of the four constituent countries that make up the United Kingdom, along with Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. England is located in the southern part of Great Britain, which is the largest island of the British Isles.

If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you!

The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is a federal government agency responsible for protecting public health by ensuring the safety, efficacy, and security of human and veterinary drugs, biological products, medical devices, our country's food supply, cosmetics, and products that emit radiation. The FDA also provides guidance on the proper use of these products, and enforces laws and regulations related to them. It is part of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).

Epidemiologic methods are systematic approaches used to investigate and understand the distribution, determinants, and outcomes of health-related events or diseases in a population. These methods are applied to study the patterns of disease occurrence and transmission, identify risk factors and causes, and evaluate interventions for prevention and control. The core components of epidemiologic methods include:

1. Descriptive Epidemiology: This involves the systematic collection and analysis of data on the who, what, when, and where of health events to describe their distribution in a population. It includes measures such as incidence, prevalence, mortality, and morbidity rates, as well as geographic and temporal patterns.

2. Analytical Epidemiology: This involves the use of statistical methods to examine associations between potential risk factors and health outcomes. It includes observational studies (cohort, case-control, cross-sectional) and experimental studies (randomized controlled trials). The goal is to identify causal relationships and quantify the strength of associations.

3. Experimental Epidemiology: This involves the design and implementation of interventions or experiments to test hypotheses about disease prevention and control. It includes randomized controlled trials, community trials, and other experimental study designs.

4. Surveillance and Monitoring: This involves ongoing systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health-related data for early detection, tracking, and response to health events or diseases.

5. Ethical Considerations: Epidemiologic studies must adhere to ethical principles such as respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. This includes obtaining informed consent, ensuring confidentiality, and minimizing harm to study participants.

Overall, epidemiologic methods provide a framework for investigating and understanding the complex interplay between host, agent, and environmental factors that contribute to the occurrence of health-related events or diseases in populations.

Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It primarily affects the lungs but can also involve other organs and tissues in the body. The infection is usually spread through the air when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks.

The symptoms of pulmonary TB include persistent cough, chest pain, coughing up blood, fatigue, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, chest X-ray, and microbiological tests such as sputum smear microscopy and culture. In some cases, molecular tests like polymerase chain reaction (PCR) may be used for rapid diagnosis.

Treatment usually consists of a standard six-month course of multiple antibiotics, including isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide. In some cases, longer treatment durations or different drug regimens might be necessary due to drug resistance or other factors. Preventive measures include vaccination with the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine and early detection and treatment of infected individuals to prevent transmission.

Health policy refers to a set of decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific healthcare goals within a population. It is formulated by governmental and non-governmental organizations with the objective of providing guidance and direction for the management and delivery of healthcare services. Health policies address various aspects of healthcare, including access, financing, quality, and equity. They can be designed to promote health, prevent disease, and provide treatment and rehabilitation services to individuals who are sick or injured. Effective health policies require careful consideration of scientific evidence, ethical principles, and societal values to ensure that they meet the needs of the population while being fiscally responsible.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Continuing medical education (CME) refers to the process of ongoing learning and professional development that healthcare professionals engage in throughout their careers. The goal of CME is to enhance knowledge, skills, and performance in order to provide better patient care and improve health outcomes.

CME activities may include a variety of formats such as conferences, seminars, workshops, online courses, journal clubs, and self-study programs. These activities are designed to address specific learning needs and objectives related to clinical practice, research, or healthcare management.

Healthcare professionals are required to complete a certain number of CME credits on a regular basis in order to maintain their licensure, certification, or membership in professional organizations. The content and quality of CME activities are typically overseen by accreditation bodies such as the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) in the United States.

Overall, continuing medical education is an essential component of maintaining competence and staying up-to-date with the latest developments in healthcare.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

The "cause of death" is a medical determination of the disease, injury, or event that directly results in a person's death. This information is typically documented on a death certificate and may be used for public health surveillance, research, and legal purposes. The cause of death is usually determined by a physician based on their clinical judgment and any available medical evidence, such as laboratory test results, autopsy findings, or eyewitness accounts. In some cases, the cause of death may be uncertain or unknown, and the death may be classified as "natural," "accidental," "homicide," or "suicide" based on the available information.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Great Britain" is not a medical concept or condition. It is a geographical and political term referring to the largest island in the British Isles, on which the majority of England, Scotland, and Wales are located. It's also used to refer to the political union of these three countries, which is called the United Kingdom. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition.

"Health personnel" is a broad term that refers to individuals who are involved in maintaining, promoting, and restoring the health of populations or individuals. This can include a wide range of professionals such as:

1. Healthcare providers: These are medical doctors, nurses, midwives, dentists, pharmacists, allied health professionals (like physical therapists, occupational therapists, speech therapists, dietitians, etc.), and other healthcare workers who provide direct patient care.

2. Public health professionals: These are individuals who work in public health agencies, non-governmental organizations, or academia to promote health, prevent diseases, and protect populations from health hazards. They include epidemiologists, biostatisticians, health educators, environmental health specialists, and health services researchers.

3. Health managers and administrators: These are professionals who oversee the operations, finances, and strategic planning of healthcare organizations, such as hospitals, clinics, or public health departments. They may include hospital CEOs, medical directors, practice managers, and healthcare consultants.

4. Health support staff: This group includes various personnel who provide essential services to healthcare organizations, such as medical records technicians, billing specialists, receptionists, and maintenance workers.

5. Health researchers and academics: These are professionals involved in conducting research, teaching, and disseminating knowledge related to health sciences, medicine, public health, or healthcare management in universities, research institutions, or think tanks.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines "health worker" as "a person who contributes to the promotion, protection, or improvement of health through prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, palliation, health promotion, and health education." This definition encompasses a wide range of professionals working in various capacities to improve health outcomes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Europe" is a geographical and political designation, rather than a medical one. It refers to the continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Europe is made up of approximately 50 countries, depending on how one defines a "country."

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I'd be happy to help answer them!

Diarrhea is a condition in which an individual experiences loose, watery stools frequently, often exceeding three times a day. It can be acute, lasting for several days, or chronic, persisting for weeks or even months. Diarrhea can result from various factors, including viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections, food intolerances, medications, and underlying medical conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome. Dehydration is a potential complication of diarrhea, particularly in severe cases or in vulnerable populations like young children and the elderly.

Research, in the context of medicine, is a systematic and rigorous process of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting information in order to increase our understanding, develop new knowledge, or evaluate current practices and interventions. It can involve various methodologies such as observational studies, experiments, surveys, or literature reviews. The goal of medical research is to advance health care by identifying new treatments, improving diagnostic techniques, and developing prevention strategies. Medical research is typically conducted by teams of researchers including clinicians, scientists, and other healthcare professionals. It is subject to ethical guidelines and regulations to ensure that it is conducted responsibly and with the best interests of patients in mind.

Influenza, also known as the flu, is a highly contagious viral infection that attacks the respiratory system of humans. It is caused by influenza viruses A, B, or C and is characterized by the sudden onset of fever, chills, headache, muscle pain, sore throat, cough, runny nose, and fatigue. Influenza can lead to complications such as pneumonia, bronchitis, and ear infections, and can be particularly dangerous for young children, older adults, pregnant women, and people with weakened immune systems or chronic medical conditions. The virus is spread through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks, and can also survive on surfaces for a period of time. Influenza viruses are constantly changing, which makes it necessary to get vaccinated annually to protect against the most recent and prevalent strains.

The "delivery of health care" refers to the process of providing medical services, treatments, and interventions to individuals in order to maintain, restore, or improve their health. This encompasses a wide range of activities, including:

1. Preventive care: Routine check-ups, screenings, immunizations, and counseling aimed at preventing illnesses or identifying them at an early stage.
2. Diagnostic services: Tests and procedures used to identify and understand medical conditions, such as laboratory tests, imaging studies, and biopsies.
3. Treatment interventions: Medical, surgical, or therapeutic treatments provided to manage acute or chronic health issues, including medications, surgeries, physical therapy, and psychotherapy.
4. Acute care services: Short-term medical interventions focused on addressing immediate health concerns, such as hospitalizations for infections, injuries, or complications from medical conditions.
5. Chronic care management: Long-term care and support provided to individuals with ongoing medical needs, such as those living with chronic diseases like diabetes, heart disease, or cancer.
6. Rehabilitation services: Programs designed to help patients recover from illnesses, injuries, or surgeries, focusing on restoring physical, cognitive, and emotional function.
7. End-of-life care: Palliative and hospice care provided to individuals facing terminal illnesses, with an emphasis on comfort, dignity, and quality of life.
8. Public health initiatives: Population-level interventions aimed at improving community health, such as disease prevention programs, health education campaigns, and environmental modifications.

The delivery of health care involves a complex network of healthcare professionals, institutions, and systems working together to ensure that patients receive the best possible care. This includes primary care physicians, specialists, nurses, allied health professionals, hospitals, clinics, long-term care facilities, and public health organizations. Effective communication, coordination, and collaboration among these stakeholders are essential for high-quality, patient-centered care.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

"Age distribution" is a term used to describe the number of individuals within a population or sample that fall into different age categories. It is often presented in the form of a graph, table, or chart, and can provide important information about the demographic structure of a population.

The age distribution of a population can be influenced by a variety of factors, including birth rates, mortality rates, migration patterns, and aging. Public health officials and researchers use age distribution data to inform policies and programs related to healthcare, social services, and other areas that affect the well-being of populations.

For example, an age distribution graph might show a larger number of individuals in the younger age categories, indicating a population with a high birth rate. Alternatively, it might show a larger number of individuals in the older age categories, indicating a population with a high life expectancy or an aging population. Understanding the age distribution of a population can help policymakers plan for future needs and allocate resources more effectively.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

Data collection in the medical context refers to the systematic gathering of information relevant to a specific research question or clinical situation. This process involves identifying and recording data elements, such as demographic characteristics, medical history, physical examination findings, laboratory results, and imaging studies, from various sources including patient interviews, medical records, and diagnostic tests. The data collected is used to support clinical decision-making, inform research hypotheses, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. It is essential that data collection is performed in a standardized and unbiased manner to ensure the validity and reliability of the results.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Urban Population" is not a medical term. It is a demographic term used to describe the portion of a country's population that lives in areas classified as urban. The United Nations defines an urban area as a city, town, or other agglomeration with a population of 20,000 or more. However, the specific definition can vary by country and organization.

In contrast, medical terms typically refer to conditions, diseases, symptoms, treatments, or healthcare-related concepts. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to help if I can!

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection is a viral illness that progressively attacks and weakens the immune system, making individuals more susceptible to other infections and diseases. The virus primarily infects CD4+ T cells, a type of white blood cell essential for fighting off infections. Over time, as the number of these immune cells declines, the body becomes increasingly vulnerable to opportunistic infections and cancers.

HIV infection has three stages:

1. Acute HIV infection: This is the initial stage that occurs within 2-4 weeks after exposure to the virus. During this period, individuals may experience flu-like symptoms such as fever, fatigue, rash, swollen glands, and muscle aches. The virus replicates rapidly, and the viral load in the body is very high.
2. Chronic HIV infection (Clinical latency): This stage follows the acute infection and can last several years if left untreated. Although individuals may not show any symptoms during this phase, the virus continues to replicate at low levels, and the immune system gradually weakens. The viral load remains relatively stable, but the number of CD4+ T cells declines over time.
3. AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome): This is the most advanced stage of HIV infection, characterized by a severely damaged immune system and numerous opportunistic infections or cancers. At this stage, the CD4+ T cell count drops below 200 cells/mm3 of blood.

It's important to note that with proper antiretroviral therapy (ART), individuals with HIV infection can effectively manage the virus, maintain a healthy immune system, and significantly reduce the risk of transmission to others. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for improving long-term health outcomes and reducing the spread of HIV.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

A chronic disease is a long-term medical condition that often progresses slowly over a period of years and requires ongoing management and care. These diseases are typically not fully curable, but symptoms can be managed to improve quality of life. Common chronic diseases include heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). They are often associated with advanced age, although they can also affect children and younger adults. Chronic diseases can have significant impacts on individuals' physical, emotional, and social well-being, as well as on healthcare systems and society at large.

Socioeconomic factors are a range of interconnected conditions and influences that affect the opportunities and resources a person or group has to maintain and improve their health and well-being. These factors include:

1. Economic stability: This includes employment status, job security, income level, and poverty status. Lower income and lack of employment are associated with poorer health outcomes.
2. Education: Higher levels of education are generally associated with better health outcomes. Education can affect a person's ability to access and understand health information, as well as their ability to navigate the healthcare system.
3. Social and community context: This includes factors such as social support networks, discrimination, and community safety. Strong social supports and positive community connections are associated with better health outcomes, while discrimination and lack of safety can negatively impact health.
4. Healthcare access and quality: Access to affordable, high-quality healthcare is an important socioeconomic factor that can significantly impact a person's health. Factors such as insurance status, availability of providers, and cultural competency of healthcare systems can all affect healthcare access and quality.
5. Neighborhood and built environment: The physical conditions in which people live, work, and play can also impact their health. Factors such as housing quality, transportation options, availability of healthy foods, and exposure to environmental hazards can all influence health outcomes.

Socioeconomic factors are often interrelated and can have a cumulative effect on health outcomes. For example, someone who lives in a low-income neighborhood with limited access to healthy foods and safe parks may also face challenges related to employment, education, and healthcare access that further impact their health. Addressing socioeconomic factors is an important part of promoting health equity and reducing health disparities.

I'm happy to help, but it seems there might be some confusion in your question. "Interviews" is a broad topic that isn't typically a medical term or subject. However, interviews can certainly be a part of medical settings and procedures, such as job interviews for healthcare positions, patient interviews during medical consultations, or research interviews in clinical studies.

In the context of medical education, an interview might refer to the process by which medical schools evaluate applicants for admission, known as the medical school interview. This is a critical component of the application process and typically involves one-on-one conversations between the applicant and an admissions committee member or a series of multiple mini-interviews (MMIs) with various evaluators.

If you could provide more context or clarify what you mean by "Interviews as Topic" in a medical setting, I'd be happy to help further!

"Sex distribution" is a term used to describe the number of males and females in a study population or sample. It can be presented as a simple count, a percentage, or a ratio. This information is often used in research to identify any differences in health outcomes, disease prevalence, or response to treatment between males and females. Additionally, understanding sex distribution can help researchers ensure that their studies are representative of the general population and can inform the design of future studies.

A registry in the context of medicine is a collection or database of standardized information about individuals who share a certain condition or attribute, such as a disease, treatment, exposure, or demographic group. These registries are used for various purposes, including:

* Monitoring and tracking the natural history of diseases and conditions
* Evaluating the safety and effectiveness of medical treatments and interventions
* Conducting research and generating hypotheses for further study
* Providing information to patients, clinicians, and researchers
* Informing public health policy and decision-making

Registries can be established for a wide range of purposes, including disease-specific registries (such as cancer or diabetes registries), procedure-specific registries (such as joint replacement or cardiac surgery registries), and population-based registries (such as birth defects or cancer registries). Data collected in registries may include demographic information, clinical data, laboratory results, treatment details, and outcomes.

Registries can be maintained by a variety of organizations, including hospitals, clinics, academic medical centers, professional societies, government agencies, and industry. Participation in registries is often voluntary, although some registries may require informed consent from participants. Data collected in registries are typically de-identified to protect the privacy of individuals.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

"Health Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices" (HKAP) is a term used in public health to refer to the knowledge, beliefs, assumptions, and behaviors that individuals possess or engage in that are related to health. Here's a brief definition of each component:

1. Health Knowledge: Refers to the factual information and understanding that individuals have about various health-related topics, such as anatomy, physiology, disease processes, and healthy behaviors.
2. Attitudes: Represent the positive or negative evaluations, feelings, or dispositions that people hold towards certain health issues, practices, or services. These attitudes can influence their willingness to adopt and maintain healthy behaviors.
3. Practices: Encompass the specific actions or habits that individuals engage in related to their health, such as dietary choices, exercise routines, hygiene practices, and use of healthcare services.

HKAP is a multidimensional concept that helps public health professionals understand and address various factors influencing individual and community health outcomes. By assessing and addressing knowledge gaps, negative attitudes, or unhealthy practices, interventions can be designed to promote positive behavior change and improve overall health status.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

A non-communicable disease (NCD) is a disease that is not transmissible directly from one person to another. NCDs include ... List of countries by risk of death from non-communicable disease Chronic disease Global health The INCTR Challenge Fund project ... Most are non-infectious, although there are some non-communicable infectious diseases, such as parasitic diseases in which the ... "Noncommunicable diseases". World Health Organization. Retrieved April 5, 2016. "Non-Communicable Diseases Deemed Development ...
... , also known as Montebello State Hospital or Montebello State Chronic Disease ... "The Montebello State Hospital for Communicable Diseases - Viral Infections Blog Articles". www.viralinfections.info. Retrieved ... Sydenham Hospital for Communicable Diseases" (PDF). Maryland Historical Trust. Retrieved April 1, 2016. "Sydenham Hospital ... of Sydenham Hospital are held at the National Library of Medicine and showcase nature and treatment of communicable diseases in ...
The Control of Communicable Diseases Manual (CCDM) compiles comprehensive scientific data about communicable diseases, which ... reporting of communicable diseases, outbreak response in bioterrorism, communicable disease control in humanitarian emergencies ... In the seventh edition (1950) leprosy became Hansen's disease and cat-scratch disease was added as a probable viral disease ( ... disease, rickettsialpox. The title was changed to "Control of Communicable Disease Manual" in 1995 (16th edition) to remove any ...
The main goal of the NICD is to be the national organ for South Africa for public health surveillance of communicable disease. ... The NICD serves as a resource of knowledge and expertise of communicable diseases to the South African Government, Southern ... The National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD) is the national public health institute of South Africa, providing ... The institution assists in the planning of policies and programmes to support and respond to communicable diseases. ...
... , also known as Fever Hospital, is a hospital in Nallakunta, ... India, which treats diseases such as diphtheria, diarrhea, measles, mumps, cholera, and hepatitis. The hospital is affiliated ...
... genetic diseases and other non-communicable diseases of public health significance in India. Official website (Coordinates on ... The National Institute for Implementation Research in Non Communicable Diseases, Jodhpur came into existence on 07th December ... The areas of research are Cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory diseases, environmental health, nutritional disorders, ...
This is a list of countries by risk of premature death from non-communicable disease such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, ... disease registers and notifications systems. Non-communicable disease List of countries by life expectancy "GHO , ... disease registers and notifications systems for selected specific causes of death. Causes of death for populations without ... diabetes, or chronic respiratory disease between ages 30 and 70 as published by the World Health Organization in 2008. ...
Malawi is perturbed by a heavy double burden of disease from both communicable and non-communicable diseases. This is evidenced ... Malawi's rankings: Malawi still faces a major burden of disease both from communicable and non-communicable diseases. There is ... Digestive diseases (4.34%) Other infectious diseases (4.29%) Other non-communicable disease (3.99%). As of 2018 the estimated ... The shift in the burden of disease has led to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) becoming the leading cause of death globally, ...
... have a member suffering from a non-communicable disease. Diabetes is a group of chronic metabolic diseases that affect the ... A non-communicable disease is a medical condition that is not transmissible and not infectious. It is caused by individual and ... Non-communicable diseases have accounted for 19-46% of mortality from the top five refugee-producing countries in 2015. Reports ... "Non-Communicable Disease Error processing SSI file". www.cdc.gov. 2017-04-21. Retrieved 2018-04-07. Wagner J, Berthold SM, ...
In 1974, he joined Health Canada as chief, communicable disease epidemiology, and in 1975 initiated Canada Diseases Weekly ... priority infectious diseases and epidemiology training; promoting a non-communicable diseases agenda; and guiding the regional ... Communicable Disease Control as a Caribbean Health Priority. Bull Pan Am Health Org. 1994, 28: 73-6. White F, Miner K, Monteil ... Non-Communicable Diseases. Document for 120th Meeting of PAHO Executive Committee. CE120/18 Washington DC 1998 Diabetes in the ...
Communicable Disease Intelligence. 21 (9): 117-120. PMID 9145563. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 26 ... No animal or person in Victoria has ever contracted the disease, Dr Carnie said. Nine Victorian flying foxes have been found ... "Under no circumstances should people handle flying foxes on their property as some diseases they carry, such as Australian bat ... Veterinarians are urged to consider ABLV as a differential diagnosis in cases of progressive generalized neurological disease.[ ...
"Infectious diseases in England and Wales: January to March 1999". Communicable Disease Report. CDR Supplement. 9 (4): S1-20. ... Mamastroviruses also cause diseases of the nervous system. These diseases most commonly occur in cattle, mink and humans. In ... Symptoms of this disease include diarrhea and weight loss. Necropsies show swollen and discolored kidneys and there is evidence ... A study of intestinal disease in the UK, published in 1999, determined incidence as 3.8/1000 patient years in the community (95 ...
Alpers, Michael P (December 2005). "The epidemiology of kuru in the period 1987 to 1995". Communicable Diseases Intelligence. ... eating a human brain will give you a disease similar to Mad Cow' In the popular video game Day Z, the disease exists and will ... Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, and Scrapie to Nonhuman Primates". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 142 (2): 205-208. doi:10.1093 ... such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and Alzheimer's disease. Kuru was first described in official reports by Australian officers ...
Communicable Diseases Intelligence. 31 (1): 118-24. PMID 17503652. Knowledge Guide Archived 6 February 2010 at the Wayback ... a compound linked with increased heart disease. Another study found that type 2 diabetes mellitus and kidney disease also ... Shin JY, Xun P, Nakamura Y, He K (July 2013). "Egg consumption in relation to risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes: a ... Li, Y; Zhou, C; Zhou, X; Li, L (2013). "Egg consumption and risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes: a meta-analysis". ...
Communicable Disease Surveillance and Control (1999-03-26). "WHO Infection Control Guidelines for Transmissible Spongiform ... Communicable Diseases (CDS). World Health Organization. pp. 29-32. Retrieved 2002-02-05. Immerse in sodium hydroxide (NaOH)20 ... However, prions, such as those associated with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and some toxins released by certain bacteria, such as ... for Successful Decontamination of Category A Medical Waste Generated from Care of Patients with Serious Communicable Diseases ...
Communicable Diseases Intelligence. 32 (2): 263-266. PMID 18767428. Retrieved 7 April 2015. "Barmah Forest Virus Disease". ... Diseases and disorders in Australia, Insect-borne diseases). ... This disease was named after the Barmah Forest in the northern ... Although there is no specific treatment for infection with the Barmah Forest virus, the disease is non-fatal and most infected ... Naish, S.; Mengersen, K.; Hu, W.; Tong, S. (2013). "Forecasting the future risk of Barmah Forest virus disease under climate ...
"Acute hepatitis B virus infection in children and teachers, England and Wales 1985-90". Communicable Disease Report. 1 (17): 75 ... Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 88: 18-35, 200-216. doi:10.1097/00005053-193807000-00003. S2CID 143703500. Schuler, A. L ...
Communicable Diseases Intelligence. 44. doi:10.33321/cdi.2020.44.77. PMID 32981492. Rowley AH (July 2020). "Diagnosing SARS-CoV ... August 2020). "Coronavirus disease 2019-related Kawasaki-like disease in an adult: a case report". JAAD Case Reports. 6 (8): ... A suggestion that research into the biology of the disease might benefit from considering cases of Kawasaki disease and of the ... But current evidence suggest that MIS-C and Kawasaki disease represent two distinct disease entities A possible role of the ...
"Department of Health , Communicable Disease Service , About Communicable Disease Services (CDS)". www.nj.gov. Retrieved March 8 ... Cancer Epidemiology Services Communicable Disease Service - The service works to prevent communicable diseases from spreading ... According to the department, around 1,500 New Jersey resident died in 2014 from kidney disease, making kidney disease the ninth ... "Kidney Disease is Ninth Leading Cause of Death in New Jersey". By Lauren Wanko. NJTV News. March 24, 2017. New Jersey portal ...
McCoy, Oliver R. (1963). "War Department Provisions for Malaria Control". In Hoff, Ebbe Curtis (ed.). Communicable Diseases: ...
"Communicable Disease Centre , Infopedia". eresources.nlb.gov.sg. Retrieved 7 March 2019. "Communicable Disease Centre comes ... The centre became a branch of Tan Tock Seng Hospital (TTSH) in 1985, was renamed the Communicable Disease Centre (CDC), and ... Neo, Xiaobin (17 December 2018). "Farewell, Black Lion of Moulmein: Old compound of Communicable Disease Centre closes". The ... "The Origins of Singapore's Communicable Disease Centre: Hanging Fire". Kyoto Review of Southeast Asia. 31 October 2019. ...
"Water-related Diseases." Communicable Diseases 2001. World Health Organization. 31 Oct 2008 <"WHO , Water-related Diseases". ... Hawker, Jeremy (2012). "3.56". Communicable disease control and health protection handbook (3rd ed.). Chichester, UK: Wiley- ... Symptoms are similar to those of many other infectious diseases. Typhus is a different disease. While no vaccine is available ... "Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever." Public Health Notifiable Disease Management Guidelines. Disease Control and Prevention. Alberta ...
Communicable Diseases - Malaria. Preventive medicine in World War II. Vol. VI. Washington, D.C.: Office of the Surgeon General ...
Communicable Diseases Intelligence. 20: 504. Pope, L. (2014). Some Touch of Pity. Sid Harta Publishers. Richards 2012, pp. 107- ... The species is vulnerable to diseases that may kill large numbers within a camp, and the sudden incidence of premature births ... often due to disease or tick paralysis (their own and/or that of the mother). Bat caregivers are not only specially trained in ... in colonies is likely to significantly impact the re-population of the group; the cause of these disorders or diseases in ...
Communicable Diseases Intelligence. Blackwell Publishing. 31 (1): 118-24. PMID 17503652. "Eggs and Egg Products". foodsafety. ... Clinical Infectious Diseases. 38: S244-S252. doi:10.1086/381576. PMID 15095196. Little, C.L; Surman-Lee, S; Greenwood, M; ...
Canada Communicable Disease Report. 44 (5): 98-101. doi:10.14745/ccdr.v44i05a01. PMC 6449094. PMID 31007618. "Government of ...
Henry, B.; Gadient, S. (2017). "Canada's pandemic vaccine strategy". Canada Communicable Disease Report. 43 (7/8): 164-167. doi ... Henry, B. (2018). "Canadian Pandemic Influenza Preparedness: Health sector planning guidance". Canada Communicable Disease ... where she led the Emergency Services Unit and the Communicable Disease Liaison Unit. In this capacity she was operational lead ... She continued to work with the WHO in 2001, moving to Uganda to support their efforts to tackle the Ebola virus disease. Henry ...
Canada Communicable Disease Report. 44 (2): 37-42. doi:10.14745/ccdr.v44i02a01. PMC 5933854. PMID 29770097. Nordic Medico- ... Sexually transmitted disease surveillance 2020 published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) showed that, ... "Gonorrhea - CDC Fact Sheet (Detailed Version)". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 17 November 2015. Archived ... "Sexually transmitted disease surveillance 2020". U.S. Centers for Diease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 2023-07-07. This ...
Canada Communicable Disease Report. 32 (ACS-8). Archived from the original on 17 January 2013. Huff JC (January 1988). " ... The disease is usually more severe in adults than in children. Chickenpox is an airborne disease which easily spreads via human ... It protects about 70-90 percent of people from disease with a greater benefit for severe disease. Routine immunization of ... Australasian Subgroup in Paediatric Infectious Diseases of the Australasian Society for Infectious Diseases". The Medical ...
Canada Communicable Disease Report. 44 (5): 98-101. doi:10.14745/ccdr.v44i05a01. PMC 6449094. PMID 31007618. "GOVERNMENT OF ... Canada Communicable Disease Report. 44 (1): 1-5. doi:10.14745/ccdr.v44i01a01. PMC 5937070. PMID 29770090. "LESSONS LEARNED ...
Here you can learn more about some communicable diseases that may be spread to crewmembers from passengers, what to do when ... Aircrew may be exposed to communicable diseases from sick travelers. ... Why might aircrew be concerned about communicable diseases?. Communicable diseases may be spread to crewmembers or to ... Communicable diseases are illnesses that spread from one person to another or from an animal to a person, or from a surface or ...
A non-communicable disease (NCD) is a disease that is not transmissible directly from one person to another. NCDs include ... List of countries by risk of death from non-communicable disease Chronic disease Global health The INCTR Challenge Fund project ... Most are non-infectious, although there are some non-communicable infectious diseases, such as parasitic diseases in which the ... "Noncommunicable diseases". World Health Organization. Retrieved April 5, 2016. "Non-Communicable Diseases Deemed Development ...
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Reportable Communicable Diseases. Reportable Communicable Diseases. Vision: Minimize the effect of communicable disease in ... Sexually Transmitted Diseases/Infections. Healthcare Professionals are required to report specific communicable diseases to the ... The public health nurse is responsible for monitoring the communicable diseases in our county. ... If you have questions about reporting or specific diseases, please contact our office at (765) 659-6385 ext. 1301. ...
... or infectious diseases, are caused by microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi that can be spread, ... Communicable and non-communicable diseases in Africa in 2021/22. This report is one of the first major products of the newly ... The report presents national trends in communicable and non-communicable disease burden and control in the WHO African region. ... disease incidence due to HIV, tuberculosis and four major noncommunicable diseases (cardiovas- cular diseases, cancers, ...
Botulism poisoning is a rare but serious illness caused by a toxin that attacks the bodys nerves. Learn what to do if you or someone else shows symptoms.
Disease Control. Communicable Diseases. Student Health Services is responsible for the monitoring and reporting of communicable ... A communicable disease is an infectious disease transmissible (as from person to person) by direct contact with an affected ... Diseases We Monitor. The following are examples of the communicable disease we are currently monitoring: ... It is the responsibility of all staff and faculty to report any case of a communicable disease on campus to Student Health ...
CDI is available from: The Editor Communicable Diseases Intelligence AIDS and Communicable Diseases Branch Department of Human ... Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1995;1(1):36. doi:10.3201/eid0101.950109.. APA. Longbottom, H. (1995). Communicable Diseases ... Communicable Diseases Intelligence. Volume 1, Number 1-January 1995. Article Views: 338. Data is collected weekly and does not ... Communicable Diseases Intelligence (CDI) is a fortnightly publication of the Australian Department of Human Services and Health ...
Communicable Disease Service, New Jersey Department of Health ... Diseases & Health. Topics A-Z List * Disease. Reporting * When ... Communicable Disease Forums The Regional Epidemiology Program (REP) hosts Communicable Disease Forums as an opportunity to ... CDRSS (Communicable Disease Reporting and Surveillance System). Communicable Disease Forums. Daycares, Schools, and Higher ... These meetings are open to everyone working on communicable diseases and outbreaks, including communicable disease ...
Hepatitis A is a disease of the liver caused by a virus. ... Diseases & Health. Topics A-Z List * Disease. Reporting * When ... Hepatitis A is a disease of the liver caused by a virus. Anyone can get hepatitis A. Some people at high-risk include men who ... CDC Manual for the Surveillance of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases-Chapter 3 Hepatitis A (CDC has revised the post-exposure ...
However, the early warning system for disease outbreaks established in the Darfur region has proved to be effective in the ... The countrys commitment to establishing one integrated diseases surveillance system throughout the country is a step towards ... integrated disease surveillance and response, event-based and community-based surveillance, and entry point surveillance; ... strengthening disease mapping and forecasting; capacity-building for epidemiology field officers; expanding indicator-based ...
SCC considers a communicable disease to be any condition that is reportable in North Carolina as a communicable disease or ... Communicable Disease Policy. Approved By and Date:. Board of Trustees. 02-27-2020. ... Communicable Disease Procedures. Approved By and Date:. Executive Leadership Team. 05-12-2020. ... 1. Persons who know or who have reason to believe they are infected with a communicable disease have an obligation to conduct ...
... Communicable Diseases Overview. UW-Whitewater recognizes that certain communicable diseases have ... Communicable diseases are illnesses that spread from one person to another or from an animal to a person. It is important to ... INFORMATION FOR SPECIFIC COMMUNICABLE DISEASES. COVID-19. * https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/index.html *As of August ... from our campus and region and consults with our local health departments in order to be prepared for any communicable disease ...
Communicable Diseases. * Our standard of practice for communicable disease management throughout the district is to continually ... This policy will be revised as directed by local, state and federal health officials responding to communicable disease trends ... Code §97.7 "Diseases Requiring Exclusion from School"; and consult with Denton County Public Health (DCPH) to develop and ... Like all other communicable illnesses, we will collaborate with DCPH on areas where classroom transmission is identified or ...
Center for Global Non-Communicable Disease Research and Training (GlobalNCD) Close Main Menu ... Our mission is to conduct high-quality research and training for the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases in low ... The Johns Hopkins Center for Global Non-Communicable Disease Research and Training consists of faculty, fellows, and students ... Back to Center for Global Non-Communicable Disease Research and Training (GlobalNCD) Main Menu ...
Prevention of Communicable Disease in Schools (pdf) Oregon Dept of Education School Health Services Manual. ... Reducing the spread of disease. Infection prevention and control measures aim to reduce the spread of disease to vulnerable ...
You are Here: Home Page , Communicable Disease Annual Reports and Related Information , 2016 Communicable Disease Annual ... 2016 Communicable Disease Annual Reports. New York Statewide. *Reported Cases by Disease and County (PDF) ... Rate per 100,000 Population by Disease and County (PDF). New York State Exclusive of New York City. *Reported Cases by Age ...
Acute Communicable Disease Control HOU Publications * Los Angeles County Department of Public Health - Reportable Diseases, ... Acute Communicable Disease Control. 313 N. Figueroa Street, #212. Los Angeles, CA 90012. Phone: (213) 240-7941. Fax: (213) 482- ... Disease Reports and Special Studies Frequently Used Links ACDC Manual (B73) Epidemiologic Case History Forms ...
Acute Communicable Disease Control Relapsing Fever This is a multisystem disease caused by the spirochetes Borrelia (B.) ... Acute Communicable Disease Control. 313 N. Figueroa Street, #212. Los Angeles, CA 90012. Phone: (213) 240-7941. Fax: (213) 482- ... The disease occurs primarily in the western U.S. The pathogen is transmitted by soft ticks, which feed mainly at night and can ... Disease Reports and Special Studies Frequently Used Links ACDC Manual (B73) Epidemiologic Case History Forms ...
Communicable Disease Surveillance and Control Functions. *Conducts surveillance for over 80 diseases and disease syndromes ... Reduces communicable disease transmission.. *Investigates reports of disease outbreaks and implement control measures to stop ... You are here: HSA Home » HSA Divisions » Public Health » Communicable Disease Control ... Proactively educates and addresses concerns and inquiries of the news media about communicable diseases. ...
We conduct epidemiological investigations of selected mandated reportable and communicable diseases including tuberculosis (TB ... and our health officer to control and prevent the occurrence and spread of communicable diseases. ... Educational information and materials on the disease process, transmission, and prevention are available to the community. ... Communicable Disease Prevention / Public Health Nursing. * * Communicable Disease Prevention / Public Health Nursing ...
In Oregon, RSV is not a mandatory reporting disease. Test results reported via this surveillance project are based upon 23 ...
... while also prohibiting discrimination against persons with a reportable communicable disease.. A communicable disease is any ... Home / Human Resources / Faculty & Staff Handbook / Human Resources Policies / Communicable Disease. *Human Resources Policies ... a communicable disease is an illness due to a specific infectious agent or its toxic products that. arises through transmission ... Communicable Disease. Policy Statement. Cape Fear Community College is committed to maintaining environmentally healthy and ...
... Under the Indiana Administrative Code 410 IAC 1-2.5, physicians, hospitals and labs have to report certain ... The Health Department is allowed to release information to the public and media about the specific diseases reported and number ... hen reviewed to determine things such as disease trends and outbreaks, risk factors, and the effectiveness of various vaccines ... a href="http://duboiscountyin.org/departments/health_department/communicable_disease.php">Your Link Name,/a,. ...
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Communicable Disease Investigations. *Conducts investigations and surveillance of communicable diseases within Wayne-County ( ... The Wayne County Department of Health, Veterans & Community Wellness Communicable Disease (CD) Section gets reports of diseases ... Communicable Diseases. Click here to edit your link text. ... For disease specific information please see Pubic Information ... Sexually Transmitted Disease Control. *Provides surveillance and control of sexually transmitted diseases including syphilis, ...
... with rising morbidity and mortality due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The WHO (2014), based on Global Status Report on ... Rajasthan Priorities: Non-Communicable Diseases, Seshadri In a hurry? Download the full summary PDF. ... with rising morbidity and mortality due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The WHO (2014), based on Global Status Report on ... due to NCDs have gradually exceeded those due to communicable, maternal, neonatal and nutritional diseases since 2003. It is ...
San Diego COVID-19 Cases Still High But Other Communicable Diseases Are Down By Tarryn Mento / Health Reporter ... "I think the most important reason for the drop in diagnosed communicable diseases in 2020 compared to 2019 is the fact that ... Coronavirus cases continue to mount in San Diego County while 30 other reported communicable diseases waned the first half of ... San Diego COVID-19 Cases Still High But Other Communicable Disease Are Down ...
  • NCDs include many environmental diseases covering a broad category of avoidable and unavoidable human health conditions caused by external factors, such as sunlight, nutrition, pollution, and lifestyle choices. (wikipedia.org)
  • The burden of non-communicable diseases in developing countries has increased however, with an estimated 80% of the four main types of NCDs - cardiovascular diseases, cancers, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes - now occurring in low- and middle-income countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Communicable Diseases (NCDs) (2015-2020)is in synchrony with the Key Result Areas 7 and 8 of the National Health Plan (2011-2020). (who.int)
  • India is currently undergoing an epidemiological transition, with rising morbidity and mortality due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs). (copenhagenconsensus.com)
  • This is confirmed by the Global Burden of Disease study (2016), which found that Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) due to NCDs have gradually exceeded those due to communicable, maternal, neonatal and nutritional diseases since 2003. (copenhagenconsensus.com)
  • Evidence suggests that, in Australia, the migrant population are disproportionately affected by the increasing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). (edu.au)
  • The major NCDs include diabetes, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and mental health. (edu.au)
  • The current state of primary healthcare is ill-equipped to handle the increase of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), with the shortage of GPs and the 9-minute consultation model putting patients at risk. (politicshome.com)
  • Patients today are presenting with increasingly complex concerns, predominantly non-communicable diseases (NCDs). (politicshome.com)
  • Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the major cause of death worldwide and have economic, psychological, and social impacts . (bvsalud.org)
  • Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) pose a substantial global health challenge, resulting in an annual death toll of over 15 million individuals aged 30 to 69. (bvsalud.org)
  • CDI also publishes timely reports of communicable disease outbreaks and other articles dealing with a wide range of subjects relevant to the surveillance and control of communicable diseases in Australia. (cdc.gov)
  • These meetings are open to everyone working on communicable diseases and outbreaks, including communicable disease investigators, public health nurses, epidemiologists, health officers, infection preventionists, and registered environmental health specialists. (nj.gov)
  • However, the early warning system for disease outbreaks established in the Darfur region has proved to be effective in the timely detection and monitoring of potential health threats. (who.int)
  • Investigates reports of disease outbreaks and implement control measures to stop the spread in the community. (santacruzhealth.org)
  • hen reviewed to determine things such as disease trends and outbreaks, risk factors, and the effectiveness of various vaccines and medications. (duboiscountyin.org)
  • Hotlines are used to report immediately notifiable diseases, communicable disease outbreaks, and any other urgent communicable disease matter occurring outside of our normal business hours. (wycokck.org)
  • It has fortnightly teleconferences and other meetings to exchange information on emerging communicable disease activity and to coordinate surveillance and control activities. (cdc.gov)
  • Conducts surveillance for over 80 diseases and disease syndromes including Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Tuberculosis . (santacruzhealth.org)
  • We conduct epidemiological investigations of selected mandated reportable and communicable diseases including tuberculosis (TB), salmonellosis, pertussis, hepatitis, and meningitis. (cityofpasadena.net)
  • Tuberculosis disease case management, treatment, and testing. (wycokck.org)
  • A communicable disease is an infectious disease transmissible (as from person to person) by direct contact with an affected individual or the individual's discharges. (grossmont.edu)
  • This initiative aims to help every healthcare worker gain confidence to apply infection prevention and control principles in their work setting to protect themselves, their patients and the community from infectious disease threats. (nj.gov)
  • The infectious disease researcher said UCSD usually diagnoses up to 700 new cases of hep C a year but that and testing has dropped by a third, noting a similar slump in emergency department visits. (kpbs.org)
  • See previous GT Alerts, " New York Employers Must Activate Airborne Infectious Disease Exposure Prevention Plans Under NY HERO Act " and " New York State Publishes HERO Act Model and Industry Plans for Returning to Work . (gtlaw.com)
  • Leptospirosis is an infectious disease of humans and animals that is caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira . (medscape.com)
  • In 2018, the WHO Independent High-Level Commission on Noncommunicable Diseases developed and published Time to Deliver , a report on the insufficient worldwide progress that has been made in fighting noncommunicable diseases. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The New Jersey Department of Health (NJDOH) Communicable Disease Service (CDS) is collaborating with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Project Firstline, a national initiative designed to provide trainings and additional education and tools regarding infection prevention and control practices to frontline healthcare workers. (nj.gov)
  • Our mission is to conduct high-quality research and training for the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), with an aim to build local capacity through partnerships with local institutions and communities. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Infection prevention and control measures aim to reduce the spread of disease to vulnerable individuals in both the general community and in healthcare facilities. (oregon.gov)
  • For all the interventions discussed it is assumed that all of them will be delivered through the existing primary health care network but located at the Primary Health Center (PHC) rather than the Sub-center as in the current National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke (NPCDCS) design. (copenhagenconsensus.com)
  • As of December 2008, 26 countries from southern Europe, the Balkans, North Africa and the Middle-East are members of EpiSouth and several international organisations and institutions collaborate: the European Commission (EC), the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), the Italian Ministry of Work, Health and Social Policies and the World Health Organization (WHO). (eurosurveillance.org)
  • There are many aspects to communicable disease prevention and control, all with the aim of preventing the spread of communicable diseases in the population. (folkhalsomyndigheten.se)
  • Each issue of CDI incorporates reports from Australia's national communicable diseases surveillance systems, including the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, the CDI Laboratory Reporting Schemes, and the Australian Sentinel General Practitioner Surveillance Network. (cdc.gov)
  • In consideration of these developments, the CECC announced that, effective May 1, COVID-19 would be reclassified as a Category 4 notifiable communicable disease. (gov.tw)
  • The notifiable diseases must be reported in accordance with Swedish law. (folkhalsomyndigheten.se)
  • The Public Health Agency of Sweden conducts several other forms of surveillance, in addition to analysing the reported cases of notifiable diseases. (folkhalsomyndigheten.se)
  • Recently published items have reported, for example, the first identification of endemically acquired hepatitis E in the Northern Territory of Australia, an outbreak of influenza in a nursing home, the epidemiology of hepatitis A in South Australia, the epidemiology of Barmah Forest virus disease in Western Australia, and the outbreak of respiratory disease in humans and horses due to a previously unrecognized paramyxovirus. (cdc.gov)
  • The Regional Epidemiology Program (REP) hosts Communicable Disease Forums as an opportunity to exchange information on communicable diseases and outbreak investigations throughout the State - between the Communicable Disease Service, local health departments, hospitals, and other public health partners. (nj.gov)
  • As defined, a communicable disease is an illness due to a specific infectious agent or its toxic products that arises through transmission of that agent or its products from an infected person, animal or reservoir, to a susceptible host, through an intermediate plant or animal host, vector, or the inanimate environment (Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2001). (cfcc.edu)
  • Services - Epidemiology (NCDHSS), any reportable communicable disease or condition must be evaluated and assessed by a medical physician to protect the health and safety of the College. (cfcc.edu)
  • Dr. Eric McDonald, medical director of the county's Epidemiology and Immunization Services Branch, said a decline in highly contagious diseases like pertussis and mumps aligns with the timing of stay-home orders. (kpbs.org)
  • The Epidemiology of Chronic Diseases and Multimorbidity. (lu.se)
  • The Epidemiology of Chronic Diseases Cohort ( EpiDoC ). (lu.se)
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • When specific recommendations aren't available, aircrew should follow the routine infection control guidance for cabin crew and consult with their employer's occupational health program to protect themselves and others from communicable diseases while they are working. (cdc.gov)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. (cdc.gov)
  • The report presents national trends in communicable and non-communicable disease burden and control in the WHO African region. (who.int)
  • The Network comprises representatives of the Australian Department of Human Services and Health, the State and Territory health authorities, and other organizations involved in communicable disease surveillance and control from throughout the country. (cdc.gov)
  • The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. (cdc.gov)
  • Additional information on seasonal flu is available on the websites of the Center for Disease Control and TexasFlu.org . (lisd.net)
  • In addition, our Public Health Nurses work in partnership with our epidemiologist, and our health officer to control and prevent the occurrence and spread of communicable diseases. (cityofpasadena.net)
  • Institute (ANSI), the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), and/or the Centers or Disease Control (CDC). (cfcc.edu)
  • The patient information is confidentially sent to the Indiana State Department of Health and sometimes on to the Centers for Disease Control. (duboiscountyin.org)
  • Provides surveillance and control of sexually transmitted diseases including syphilis, gonorrhea and chlamydia. (waynecounty.com)
  • The Disease Control and Prevention's goal is to protect our community from spreading communicable diseases through education, treatment, and promoting safe prevention practices. (wycokck.org)
  • A. The Taiwan Centers for Disease Control will continue to deploy multiple mechanisms to monitor the COVID-19 situation at home and abroad as well as the trends in variants and provide relevant information to the public in weekly press conferences. (gov.tw)
  • To help track and control the spread of communicable diseases, schools and childcare providers are required by the State of Michigan ( Michigan Legislature Public Health Code (Excerpt) Act 368 of 1978 ) to report communicable diseases to local health departments. (barryeatonhealth.org)
  • For information on specific communicable diseases, please visit the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's website . (barryeatonhealth.org)
  • Saving Lives, Protecting People Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • These pages contain a short presentation of the work conducted by the Public Health Agency of Sweden within the different fields of communicable disease control. (folkhalsomyndigheten.se)
  • To see the current recommendations, visit the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website -- www.cdc.gov/vaccines/ . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Rob Weyant. (medscape.com)
  • Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. (cdc.gov)
  • Interventions targeting the main risk factors could have a significant impact on reducing the burden of disease worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • The epidemiological profile for Papua New Guinea (PNG) is such that there is a very high burden of malnutriton , stunting, micronutrient and vitamin deficiencies and persistent challenges of communicable diseases on the one hand and increasing levels of obesity, high blood pressure and diabetes on the other. (who.int)
  • The Global Burden of Disease database estimates the absolute number of people dying in India due to CVD was 1.13 million in 2010, and the proportion of Years of Life Lost (YLL) due to CVD was 9.8% (IHME 2017). (copenhagenconsensus.com)
  • Global Burden of Disease (2017) estimates that CVD causes 333.5/100000 and YLDs at 247/100000 for Rajasthan, about 20% of which could be averted with the suggested regimen. (copenhagenconsensus.com)
  • This study aims to determine overall burden of non-communicable diseases and associated risk factors among the migrants living in Australia, in particularly those living in NSW and Victoria. (edu.au)
  • The WHO's World Health Report 2002 identified five important risk factors for non-communicable disease in the top ten leading risks to health. (wikipedia.org)
  • The public health nurse is responsible for monitoring the communicable diseases in our county. (in.gov)
  • Healthcare Professionals are required to report specific communicable diseases to the Clinton County Health Department. (in.gov)
  • Student Health Services is responsible for the monitoring and reporting of communicable diseases on our campus. (grossmont.edu)
  • It is the responsibility of all staff and faculty to report any case of a communicable disease on campus to Student Health Services as soon as possible. (grossmont.edu)
  • Communicable Diseases Intelligence (CDI) is a fortnightly publication of the Australian Department of Human Services and Health and the Communicable Diseases Network of Australia and New Zealand. (cdc.gov)
  • Stanly Community College actively promotes the good health, safety and well-being of students and employees to such extent or degree as possible while prohibiting discrimination against persons afflicted with communicable diseases. (stanly.edu)
  • SCC considers a communicable disease to be any condition that is reportable in North Carolina as a communicable disease or communicable condition which represents a significant threat to the public health. (stanly.edu)
  • The country's commitment to establishing one integrated diseases surveillance system throughout the country is a step towards building an effective public health system for surveillance, preparedness and response to epidemic and pandemic-prone diseases. (who.int)
  • UW-Whitewater recognizes that certain communicable diseases have serious implications on the health and safety of a university community. (uww.edu)
  • The university monitors health data from our campus and region and consults with our local health departments in order to be prepared for any communicable disease that may impact our campus. (uww.edu)
  • This policy will be revised as directed by local, state and federal health officials responding to communicable disease trends such as influenza. (lisd.net)
  • The College adheres to local, State, and Federal requirements and operates in accordance with these requirements and recommendations from public health officials during communicable disease emergencies. (cfcc.edu)
  • Students who suspect, or have reason to believe, that they have a communicable disease are expected to seek expert medical advice about their health circumstances and are obligated, legally and ethically, to conduct themselves responsibly for the protection of themselves and others. (cfcc.edu)
  • Students who know that they are infected with a communicable disease are encouraged to contact the Dean of Student Affairs, so that the College can assist in the appropriate response to their health and/or educational needs and can make any reasonable accommodations, if necessary. (cfcc.edu)
  • Under the Indiana Administrative Code 410 IAC 1-2.5 , physicians, hospitals and labs have to report certain diseases to the local health department in the county where the patient lives. (duboiscountyin.org)
  • The Health Department is allowed to release information to the public and media about the specific diseases reported and number of cases reported. (duboiscountyin.org)
  • The Wayne County Department of Health, Veterans & Community Wellness Communicable Disease (CD) Section gets reports of diseases such as meningitis, E. coli, and West Nile virus. (waynecounty.com)
  • Health care providers, labs and hospitals are required to report these diseases to us. (waynecounty.com)
  • The project is coordinated by the Italian national public health institute and three work packages (WPs) Cross-border epidemic intelligence, vaccine preventable diseases and migrants and Cross-border emerging zoonoses are operated by the national institutes of France, Bulgaria and Greece. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • 3) Where a person in charge of a laboratory knows or suspects, as a result of analysis, examination or tests of or on a specimen, that an animal or another person is suffering from or has died from a communicable disease listed in Schedule B, he shall, within 7 days and in accordance with section 4, make a report to the medical health officer. (gov.bc.ca)
  • 3 In addition to the requirements of section 2, the administrator or other person in charge of a hospital shall, within 7 days, make a report to the medical health officer respecting a patient admitted to the hospital who is suffering from a reportable communicable disease or from rheumatic fever. (gov.bc.ca)
  • The potential for AIV to cause severe disease in humans or mutate to spread easily among humans is closely monitored by animal and human health authorities. (qld.gov.au)
  • The South Dakota Department of Health delivers a wide range of public health programs to prevent disease, promote health and ensure access to health care. (sd.gov)
  • The South Dakota Department of Health is investigating 14 confirmed cases of Legionnaires' disease that have been reported in people who reside or traveled to Sioux Falls. (sd.gov)
  • The Communicable Disease Division (CDD) of the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene provides reference and specialized testing services in support of public health and ensures statewide access to laboratory expertise and capabilities in the disciplines of Bacteriology, Mycobacteriology, Virology, Parasitology, Molecular Microbiology, and Serology. (wisc.edu)
  • Beginning on May 1st, 2016, The Greene County Public Health Department will initiate a Communicable Disease Awareness & Treatment Initiative providing useful information to both the 'At Risk' communities and Healthcare Providers in Greene County. (greenegovernment.com)
  • The ECDC Communicable Disease Threats Report (CDTR) is a weekly bulletin for epidemiologists and health professionals on active public health threats. (europa.eu)
  • Mr Yousaf said: "This is a significant step which cements Scotland's role as a global champion in tackling non-communicable diseases, and highlights the important contribution we can make when it comes to tackling health emergencies across the world. (thecomet.net)
  • This designation, first announced Sept. 6, 2021, requires all employers to implement workplace safety plans under the New York Health and Essential Rights (NY HERO) Act governing the establishment of procedures for prevention and exposure to any diseases so designated by the governor. (gtlaw.com)
  • For more information and updates on the developing situation, visit GT's Health Emergency Preparedness Task Force: Coronavirus Disease 2019 and Business Continuity Amid COVID-19 page . (gtlaw.com)
  • In addition to the reclassification of the disease, the Executive Yuan has approved the dissolution of the CECC on the same day, and the Ministry of Health and Welfare will organize regular cross-agency epidemic prevention liaison meetings to ensure the continued operation of COVID-19 preparation and response work. (gov.tw)
  • The Provincial Health Officer issued a statement on June 17, advising employers to start shifting from COVID-19 safety plans to communicable disease prevention. (awcbc.org)
  • Implementing measures as directed by the Provincial Health Officer (PHO) or a Medical Health Officer to deal with communicable diseases in the workplace or region. (awcbc.org)
  • For example, Argentina presented on the elimination of hepatitis C . Brazil presented on the new inter-ministerial mechanism that brings together nine ministers for the elimination of diseases linked to social determinants [of health]. (medscape.com)
  • One of the most important tasks of the Public Health Agency of Sweden is to continuously follow the epidemiological situation concerning communicable diseases, especially those included in the Communicable Diseases Act. (folkhalsomyndigheten.se)
  • The Public Health Agency of Sweden uses different types of syndromic surveillance to supplement traditional disease surveillance. (folkhalsomyndigheten.se)
  • This study aims to assess disease service availability at primary health units in Ethiopia during the pandemic . (bvsalud.org)
  • Most communicable and noncommunicable disease diagnoses and treatments were fully accessible at primary hospitals , except for cervical cancer (56.3%) and mental health (62.5%) services. (bvsalud.org)
  • Hepatitis A is a disease of the liver caused by a virus. (nj.gov)
  • This issue covers the period 4 June - 10 June 2017 and includes updates on hepatitis A, measles, Ebola virus disease, MERS, influenza A(H7N9), yellow fever, Legionnaires' disease and West Nile fever. (europa.eu)
  • South Africa also has a high incidence of TB and Hepatitis B yet none of these recruits were tested for any of these communicable diseases. (migrationwatchuk.org)
  • On Sept. 30, 2021, New York Gov. Hochul issued an order extending until Oct. 31, 2021, the designation of COVID-19 as a "highly contagious communicable disease. (gtlaw.com)
  • Communicable diseases are illnesses that spread from one person to another or from an animal to a person, or from a surface or a food. (cdc.gov)
  • Referred to as a "lifestyle" disease, because the majority of these diseases are preventable illnesses, the most common causes for non-communicable diseases (NCD) include tobacco use (smoking), hazardous alcohol use, poor diets (high consumption of sugar, salt, saturated fats, and trans fatty acids) and physical inactivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like all other communicable illnesses, we will collaborate with DCPH on areas where classroom transmission is identified or absence rates related to COVID illness are increasing and make adjustments to our mitigation efforts with their input. (lisd.net)
  • The county reported reductions in vector-borne illnesses , which are already low each year, and enteric diseases as well. (kpbs.org)
  • If you have questions about reporting or specific diseases, please contact our office at (765) 659-6385 ext. 1301. (in.gov)
  • These five, brief videos review the basics of disease investigation and reporting. (nj.gov)
  • In Oregon, RSV is not a mandatory reporting disease. (oregon.gov)
  • Five electronic bulletins were published, two trainings for 63 participants performed, national epidemic intelligence systems were evaluated, a preliminary survey on vaccine-preventable diseases and migrants performed, and a list of priorities for emerging zoonoses in the Mediterranean area was selected. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Communicable diseases may be spread to crewmembers or to passengers during air travel due to close proximity. (cdc.gov)
  • Communicable, or infectious diseases, are caused by microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi that can be spread, directly or indirectly, from one person to another. (who.int)
  • It is important that all students, faculty, staff and community members work together to reduce the spread of infectious diseases by engaging in prevention, intervention and collaborative partnerships. (uww.edu)
  • Fortunately, none of the bacteria that cause meningitis are as contagious as diseases like the common cold or the flu, and they are not spread by casual contact or by simply breathing the air where a person with meningitis has been. (lisd.net)
  • The purpose of this policy is to prevent and protect all students, faculty, staff and visitors from the spread of a communicable disease, while also prohibiting discrimination against persons with a reportable communicable disease. (cfcc.edu)
  • The WHO predicts that by 2030 non-communicable diseases - such as heart attacks, strokes and cancers - will be the primary cause of death across sub-Saharan Africa, with around 3.8 million premature deaths. (thecomet.net)
  • There, he had presented his agency's strategy to eliminate more than 30 communicable diseases in the Americas by 2030. (medscape.com)
  • Let's start with the initiative to eliminate more than 30 communicable diseases and related conditions by 2030. (medscape.com)
  • I think we're going to achieve a lot by 2030 because the goals are different for each one of these diseases. (medscape.com)
  • Most are non-infectious, although there are some non-communicable infectious diseases, such as parasitic diseases in which the parasite's life cycle does not include direct host-to-host transmission. (wikipedia.org)
  • I think the most important reason for the drop in diagnosed communicable diseases in 2020 compared to 2019 is the fact that people are not presenting to care, and therefore don't get diagnosed at an early stage," Hoenigl said in an email. (kpbs.org)
  • When communicable illness presents itself, it can negatively impact the mission and objectives in negative ways. (aarbf.org)
  • This issue of the ECDC Communicable Disease Threats Report (CDTR) covers the period 16-22 May 2021and includes updates on COVID-19, influenza, measles, Salmonella Braenderup, Ebola virus disease and cholera. (europa.eu)
  • The latter are conditions that predispose individuals to cardiovascular, respiratory and multi-system diseases, including cancer. (who.int)
  • cardiovascular diseases, cancer and diabetes which share common behavioral risk factors (tobacco, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and the harmful use of alcohol). (who.int)
  • The target population for this intervention are people aged between 30-69 years assessed as being at high risk and those with existing cardiovascular disease. (copenhagenconsensus.com)
  • Chronic non-communicable diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, chronic obstructive and pulmonary diseases, are the major causes of death and disability in Australia. (edu.au)
  • Avian influenza, or 'bird flu', is an infectious viral disease caused by influenza type A viruses. (qld.gov.au)
  • Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is associated with severe disease and mortality in birds. (qld.gov.au)
  • Viruses that cause only mild disease are called low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI). (qld.gov.au)
  • BEDHD also provides consultation to schools and childcare providers about managing communicable diseases. (barryeatonhealth.org)
  • Childcare and communicable diseases. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Coronavirus cases continue to mount in San Diego County while 30 other reported communicable diseases waned the first half of this year, according to a monthly county report. (kpbs.org)
  • Sentinel surveillance means that only a selection of medical doctors or clinics report on the incidence of a disease or sample patients for surveillance purposes. (folkhalsomyndigheten.se)
  • This Communicable Disease Plan outlines the prevention, response, recovery, and mitigation policies along with procedures to lower the impact of a communicable disease on our programs. (aarbf.org)
  • To help employers prepare for this transition, WorkSafeBC has developed a Communicable Disease Prevention Guide that outlines the steps employers must take to prevent communicable disease in the workplace. (awcbc.org)
  • It has been estimated that if the primary risk factors were eliminated, 80% of the cases of heart disease, stroke and type 2 diabetes and 40% of cancers could be prevented. (wikipedia.org)
  • A variety of disease-producing bacteria and viruses are carried in the mouth, nose, throat and respiratory tract. (who.int)
  • Six studies focused on obesity , two evaluated nonalcoholic fatty liver disease , two studied cancer , and none addressed chronic respiratory diseases . (bvsalud.org)
  • Specific guidance is available for several diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • WorkSafeBC has released new information and guidance for employers on the transition from COVID-19 safety plans to communicable disease prevention. (awcbc.org)
  • Human infection of H5 or H7 subtypes are more commonly associated with severe disease and mortality. (qld.gov.au)
  • The very high incidence of serious communicable diseases in many of the countries of recruitment is such as to require the urgent introduction of screening for medical staff recruited overseas. (migrationwatchuk.org)
  • developing standard operating procedures, manuals, protocols and national guidelines for operational issues in disease preparedness, surveillance and response. (who.int)