Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Night Care: Institutional night care of patients.Communicable DiseasesCenters for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.): An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.Disease Notification: Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Quarantine: Restriction of freedom of movement of individuals who have been exposed to infectious or communicable disease in order to prevent its spread; a period of detention of vessels, vehicles, or travelers coming from infected or suspected places; and detention or isolation on account of suspected contagion. It includes government regulations on the detention of animals at frontiers or ports of entrance for the prevention of infectious disease, through a period of isolation before being allowed to enter a country. (From Dorland, 28th ed & Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Duty to Warn: A health professional's obligation to breach patient CONFIDENTIALITY to warn third parties of the danger of their being assaulted or of contracting a serious infection.Operations Research: A group of techniques developed to apply scientific methods and tools to solve the problems of DECISION MAKING in complex organizations and systems. Operations research searches for optimal solutions in situations of conflicting GOALS and makes use of mathematical models from which solutions for actual problems may be derived. (From Psychiatric Dictionary, 6th ed)Committee Membership: The composition of a committee; the state or status of being a member of a committee.Epidemiology: Field of medicine concerned with the determination of causes, incidence, and characteristic behavior of disease outbreaks affecting human populations. It includes the interrelationships of host, agent, and environment as related to the distribution and control of disease.Patient Isolation: The segregation of patients with communicable or other diseases for a specified time. Isolation may be strict, in which movement and social contacts are limited; modified, where an effort to control specified aspects of care is made in order to prevent cross infection; or reverse, where the patient is secluded in a controlled or germ-free environment in order to protect him or her from cross infection.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Mediterranean Region: The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Disease Transmission, Infectious: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.United States Dept. of Health and Human Services: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Equipment Safety: Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Device Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.United States Social Security Administration: An independent agency within the Executive Branch of the United States Government. It administers a national social insurance program whereby employees, employers, and the self-employed pay contributions into pooled trust funds. Part of the contributions go into a separate hospital insurance trust fund for workers at age 65 to provide help with medical expenses. Other programs include the supplemental social security income program for the aged, blind, and disabled and the Old Age Survivors and Disability Insurance Program. It became an independent agency March 31, 1995. It had previously been part of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, later the Department of Health and Human Services. (From United States Government Manual, 1994-95)Sri LankaRubella Syndrome, Congenital: Transplacental infection of the fetus with rubella usually in the first trimester of pregnancy, as a consequence of maternal infection, resulting in various developmental abnormalities in the newborn infant. They include cardiac and ocular lesions, deafness, microcephaly, mental retardation, and generalized growth retardation. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Rubella: An acute infectious disease caused by the RUBELLA VIRUS. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Tetanus: A disease caused by tetanospasmin, a powerful protein toxin produced by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI. Tetanus usually occurs after an acute injury, such as a puncture wound or laceration. Generalized tetanus, the most common form, is characterized by tetanic muscular contractions and hyperreflexia. Localized tetanus presents itself as a mild condition with manifestations restricted to muscles near the wound. It may progress to the generalized form.Rubella virus: The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.Asia, Southeastern: The geographical area of Asia comprising BORNEO; BRUNEI; CAMBODIA; INDONESIA; LAOS; MALAYSIA; the MEKONG VALLEY; MYANMAR (formerly Burma), the PHILIPPINES; SINGAPORE; THAILAND; and VIETNAM.Surge Capacity: A health care system's ability to rapidly mobilize to meet an increased demand, to rapidly expand beyond normal services levels to meet the increased demand in the event of large-scale DISASTERS or public health emergencies.Mekong Valley: The geographic area of the Mekong Valley in general or when the specific country or countries are not indicated. Usually includes Cambodia, Indochina, and Laos.Southwestern United States: The geographic area of the southwestern region of the United States. The states usually included in this region are Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, and Utah.LaosLos AngelesInfection Control Practitioners: Physicians or other qualified individuals responsible for implementing and overseeing the policies and procedures followed by a health care facility to reduce the risk of infection to patients and staff.CaliforniaPublic Health Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.Nurses, Public Health: Nurses whose goal is to improve health and quality of life in a population or community through the prevention and treatment of disease and other physical and mental health conditions, the surveillance of cases and health indicators, and the promotion of healthy behaviors through public education and awareness.Area Health Education Centers: Education centers authorized by the Comprehensive Health Manpower Training Act, 1971, for the training of health personnel in areas where health needs are the greatest. May be used for centers other than those established by the United States act.American Public Health Association: Professional organization concerned with issues affecting personal and environmental health, including federal and state funding for health programs, programs related to chronic and infectious diseases, and professional education in public health.Tropical Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.Military Medicine: The practice of medicine as applied to special circumstances associated with military operations.Textbooks as Topic: Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.Miniaturization: The design or construction of objects greatly reduced in scale.European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Capitalism: A political and economic system characterized by individual rights, by private or corporate ownership of capital goods, and by prices, production, and the distribution of goods that are determined mainly by competition in a free market. (From Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)

International travel and vaccinations. (1/1608)

With the increase in global travel, no disease is beyond the reach of any population. Traveling patients should be advised to follow food and water precautions and encouraged to receive the recommended immunizations. Travel medicine plays a vital role not only in limiting the morbidity of travel-related illnesses but also in limiting the spread of diseases. This article addresses the common issues related to travel, reviews the care of the immunocompromised traveler, and updates the available vaccinations and prophylactic regimens available to limit sickness abroad.  (+info)

Eradication: lessons from the past. (2/1608)

The declaration in 1980 that smallpox had been eradicated reawakened interest in disease eradication as a public health strategy. The smallpox programme's success derived, in part, from lessons learned from the preceding costly failure of the malaria eradication campaign. In turn, the smallpox programme offered important lessons with respect to other prospective disease control programmes, and these have been effectively applied in the two current global eradication initiatives, those against poliomyelitis and dracunculiasis. Taking this theme a step further, there are those who would now focus on the development of an inventory of diseases which might, one by one, be targeted either for eradication or elimination. This approach, while interesting, fails to recognize many of the important lessons learned and their broad implications for contemporary disease control programmes worldwide.  (+info)

The principles of disease elimination and eradication. (3/1608)

The Dahlem Workshop discussed the hierarchy of possible public health interventions in dealing with infectious diseases, which were defined as control, elimination of disease, elimination of infections, eradication, and extinction. The indicators of eradicability were the availability of effective interventions and practical diagnostic tools and the essential need for humans in the life-cycle of the agent. Since health resources are limited, decisions have to be made as to whether their use for an elimination or eradication programme is preferable to their use elsewhere. The costs and benefits of global eradication programmes concern direct effects on morbidity and mortality and consequent effects on the health care system. The success of any disease eradication initiative depends strongly on the level of societal and political commitment, with a key role for the World Health Assembly. Eradication and ongoing programmes constitute potentially complementary approaches to public health. Elimination and eradication are the ultimate goals of public health, evolving naturally from disease control. The basic question is whether these goals are to be achieved in the present or some future generation.  (+info)

Disease eradication and health systems development. (4/1608)

This article provides a framework for the design of future eradication programmes so that the greatest benefit accrues to health systems development from the implementation of such programmes. The framework focuses on weak and fragile health systems and assumes that eradication leads to the cessation of the intervention required to eradicate the disease. Five major components of health systems are identified and key elements which are of particular relevance to eradication initiatives are defined. The dearth of documentation which can provide "lessons learned" in this area is illustrated with a brief review of the literature. Opportunities and threats, which can be addressed during the design of eradication programmes, are described and a number of recommendations are outlined. It is emphasized that this framework pertains to eradication programmes but may be useful in attempts to coordinate vertical and horizontal disease control activities for maximum mutual benefits.  (+info)

Health seeking behaviour and the control of sexually transmitted disease. (5/1608)

What people do when they have symptoms or suspicion of a sexually transmitted disease (STD) has major implications for transmission and, consequently, for disease control. Delays in seeking and obtaining diagnosis and treatment can allow for continued transmission and the greater probability of adverse sequelae. An understanding of health seeking behaviour is therefore important if STD control programmes are to be effective. However, taboos and stigma related to sex and STD in most cultures mean that gaining a true picture is difficult and requires considerable cultural sensitivity. At the moment relatively little is known about who people turn to for advice, or about how symptoms are perceived, recognized or related to decisions to seek help. It is argued that such knowledge would assist programme planners in the development of more accessible and effective services, that studies of health seeking behaviour need to include a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods, and that studies should include data collection about people who do not present to health care facilities as well as those who do. A pilot protocol for studying STD-related health seeking behaviour in developing countries is briefly presented.  (+info)

Health policy development in wartime: establishing the Baito health system in Tigray, Ethiopia. (6/1608)

This paper documents health experiences and the public health activities of the Tigray People's Liberation Front (TPLF). The paper provides background data about Tigray and the emergence of its struggle for a democratic Ethiopia. The origins of the armed struggle are described, as well as the impact of the conflict on local health systems and health status. The health-related activities and public health strategies of the TPLF are described and critiqued in some detail, particular attention is focused on the development of the baito system, the emergent local government structures kindled by the TPLF as a means of promoting local democracy, accountability, and social and economic development. Important issues arise from this brief case-study, such as how emerging health systems operating in wartime can ensure that not only are basic curative services maintained, but preventive and public health services are developed. Documenting the experiences of Tigray helps identify constraints and possibilities for assisting health systems to adapt and cope with ongoing conflict, and raises possibilities that in their aftermath they leave something which can be built upon and further developed. It appears that promoting effective local government may be an important means of promoting primary health care.  (+info)

The progress of the Polio Eradication Initiative: what prospects for eradicating measles? (7/1608)

Although various attempts have been made to eradicate infectious diseases, only smallpox has been eradicated to date. Polio is targeted for eradication in 2000 and already planning has begun for the eradication of measles. However, before we commit to a measles eradication effort, we must examine the lessons to be learned from polio eradication. Of particular importance is the debate over whether resources should be invested in 'horizontal' or 'vertical' programmes. The outcome of these debates will have a very deep and lasting impact on global health development in years to come. Collaboration between targeted programmes and the primary health care sector through polio and measles eradication efforts will help bring about the necessary balance between goal-oriented programmes, which are subject to quality control and can be evaluated by measurable outcomes, and broader efforts to build up sustainable health infrastructure.  (+info)

Commentary: Emerging and other communicable diseases. (8/1608)

There is an increasing need for integrated, sustainable; and cost-effective approaches to the management of infectious diseases. For example, an emerging disease in one country may already be endemic in another country but nearing elimination in a third. A coordinated approach by WHO towards infectious diseases is therefore needed that will facilitate more effective support of on-going efforts for the prevention and control of endemic diseases, intensify efforts against those diseases targeted for eradication and elimination, and result in better preparedness and response to new and re-emerging diseases. In order to meet these challenges, WHO has created a new Programme on Communicable Diseases (CDS), which will replace the former Division of Emerging and other Communicable Diseases (EMC). The new Programme will better integrate surveillance, prevention, control, and research over the whole spectrum of communicable diseases. CDS will function as focal point for global data and information exchange on infectious diseases, and inter alia, will reinforce laboratory-based surveillance of bacterial, viral, and zoonotic diseases to ensure early detection of threats to international public health. Changes in susceptibility to infectious disease, increased opportunities for infection, and the ability of microbes to adapt rapidly will continue to challenge WHO to improve prevention and control of infectious diseases in the future by establishing strong partnerships with both the private and public sectors.  (+info)

  • The costs for the isolation care of patients of various communicable diseases to be paid by the central competent authority regulated by Paragraph 3, Article 44 of the Act, refer to medical costs approved and paid in accordance with the service payment items and payment schedules for medical costs of the National Health Insurance, and meals in the isolation care institutions. (gov.tw)
  • Addressing the Roundtable on strengthening national capacities and policies, the President of the Board, Professor Hamid Ghodse, highlighted the importance of the availability of internationally controlled drugs in the treatment of non-communicable diseases and for the relief of associated pain. (idpc.net)
  • Indicating that even though integrated effort is being conducted to control the prevalence of malaria in the region, Dr Emanuel said that compared to that of last year the number of people infected by the disease is increasing and that was due to the heavy rainfall in the months of February and March. (shabait.com)
  • Malaria Consortium was founded in 2003 by a small team of people with a vision - to build the capacity of malaria-endemic countries worldwide to deal with a common and treatable disease that was devastating the lives of poor and vulnerable communities. (malariaconsortium.org)
  • Despite some success in reducing cases and deaths over the last 20 years, significant challenges remain for national malaria control programs in the control and elimination of this vector-borne parasite. (harvard.edu)
  • Dr. Buckee's team is working with country-level control programs and researchers to develop methods to target interventions as malaria transmission is controlled and elimination becomes a priority. (harvard.edu)
  • The group also works with National Malaria Control Programs in Bangladesh, Guyana, Mynamar and Thailand to develop analytical pipelines and risk mapping tools to aid their decision making for malaria control and elimination. (harvard.edu)
  • Disrupting Mosquito Reproduction and Parasite Development for Malaria Control. (harvard.edu)
  • In particular, how people perceive their risk of malaria depends on the clinical incidence of the disease, which is nonlinearly related to infection prevalence. (harvard.edu)
  • For instance, the occurrence section for smallpox is less than a line long, since this disease is officially present only in the freezers of laboratories at the CDC in the United States and the Vector Institute in Russia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The various food and beverages, animals, or animal remains likely to be vectors of communicable diseases mentioned in Article 23 of the Act, refer to those that are decided by competent authorities through investigations or laboratory testing likely to transmit diseases to humans. (gov.tw)
  • The distribution and population size of disease vectors can be heavily affected by local climate. (who.int)
  • Strengthened the implementation of tobacco control law in restaurants and hotels in the municipality of Kabul. (who.int)
  • Trained more than 75 police officers on tobacco control law. (who.int)
  • Support the implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. (who.int)
  • Wipfli and Samet incisively describe the many challenges that the global non-communicable disease (NCD) movement faces, and the lessons tobacco control can offer it. (bmj.com)
  • 1 Notably though, while global tobacco control offers one of the few proven strategies for NCD control, its successes have not been spread equally around the world. (bmj.com)
  • An inverse gradient of tobacco control success is emerging between wealth and tobacco burden (within and between countries). (bmj.com)
  • 2 3 This picture should spur action in both tobacco control and NCD civil society to promote a human rights-based approach that preferentially emphasises equity, access and implementation of both evidence-based treatments and policies. (bmj.com)
  • Tobacco control advocates should move beyond the stale debate around the cost-effectiveness of individual treatment versus population-based tobacco control measures. (bmj.com)
  • Mozambique is the 181st Party to join the global tobacco control treaty, the WHO FCTC. (fctc.org)
  • We provide school inspection, education, tobacco control and licensing services to schools and child care facilities. (vch.ca)