The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is not a medical term or concept, but a regional organization that consists of post-Soviet states, and therefore, it does not have a medical definition.
"Eastern Europe," in a geomedical context, often refers to a region including countries that were once part of the Soviet Union or influenced by its culture and healthcare system, such as Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and sometimes including countries in the Balkan Peninsula and Baltic states."
USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) cannot be provided as a medical definition, as it is not a medical term; it refers to a former political state that existed from 1922 until 1991 and was dissolved into multiple independent countries.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Tajikistan" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition; it is the name of a country located in Central Asia, officially known as the Republic of Tajikistan.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Azerbaijan" is not a medical concept or condition that has a defined meaning within the medical field. It is the name of a country located in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. If you have any questions related to geography, history, or culture, I would be happy to try and help with those instead!
An island group and constitutional monarchy in the southwest central Pacific Ocean. The capital is Apia. The islands were jointly administered by England, the United States, and Germany 1889-99, with the chief islands of Savai'i and Upolu recognized as German until 1919. Western Samoa gained independence in 1962 and assumed its present formal name in 1997.
A localized infection of mucous membranes or skin caused by toxigenic strains of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE. It is characterized by the presence of a pseudomembrane at the site of infection. DIPHTHERIA TOXIN, produced by C. diphtheriae, can cause myocarditis, polyneuritis, and other systemic toxic effects.
The collective name for islands of the Pacific Ocean east of the Philippines, including the Mariana, PALAU, Caroline, Marshall, and Kiribati Islands. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p761 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p350)
I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Virginia" is not a medical concept or condition that has a defined meaning within the medical field. It is primarily used as a proper noun to refer to a state in the United States, a historical figure, or other non-medical uses.
A combined vaccine used to prevent infection with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid. This is used in place of DTP vaccine (DIPHTHERIA-TETANUS-PERTUSSIS VACCINE) when PERTUSSIS VACCINE is contraindicated.
An island in Micronesia, east of the Philippines, the largest and southernmost of the Marianas. Its capital is Agana. It was discovered by Magellan in 1521 and occupied by Spain in 1565. They ceded it to the United States in 1898. It is an unincorporated territory of the United States, administered by the Department of the Interior since 1950. The derivation of the name Guam is in dispute. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p471)
A group of islands of SAMOA, in the southwest central Pacific. Its capital is Pago Pago. The islands were ruled by native chiefs until about 1869. An object of American interest beginning in 1839, Pago Pago and trading and extraterritorial rights were granted to the United States in 1878. The United States, Germany, and England administered the islands jointly 1889-99, but in 1899 they were granted to the United States by treaty. The Department of the Interior has administered American Samoa since 1951. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p44)
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Massachusetts" is a geographical location and not a medical term or concept. It is a state located in the northeastern region of the United States. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like me to define, please let me know!
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.

Life expectancy in Central and Eastern European countries and newly independent states of the former Soviet Union: changes by gender. (1/25)

AIM: To examine changes in life expectancy at birth for countries in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and the Newly Independent States of the former Soviet Union (NIS) for the period 1989-1996. Differences in the change by gender were examined and several factors which likely bear on the changes were discussed. Methods. Data from the WHO Health for All European Data Base were used to determine changes in life expectancy and selected economic factors for CEE and NIS countries. RESULTS: Changes in life expectancy varied by gender in both CEE and the NIS, with the difference increasing for the two groups during the period with the largest increase occurring in the NIS. Both male and female life expectancy declined, with male life expectancy dropping at a more rapid rate. In 1994, the year in which most, but not all countries, reached a low point, life expectancy for males had declined below 60 years for two countries. CONCLUSIONS: The most striking point about the decline in life expectancies was the short period in which the declines occurred, especially in the NIS. It is not possible to determine the exact cause for the changes, but there are likely multiple reasons. It is not completely clear why the decline in life expectancy was greater for males, although the linkage between economic and behavioral and lifestyle factors appear to have some association. Further research is necessary to determine why effects by gender vary so greatly and whether the negative outcomes are a short-term anomaly or will persist.  (+info)

Occupational cancer in the European part of the Commonwealth of Independent States. (2/25)

Precise information on the number of workers currently exposed to carcinogens in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is lacking. However, the large number of workers employed in high-risk industries such as the chemical and metal industries suggests that the number of workers potentially exposed to carcinogens may be large. In the CIS, women account for almost 50% of the industrial work force. Although no precise data are available on the number of cancers caused by occupational exposures, indirect evidence suggests that the magnitude of the problem is comparable to that observed in Western Europe, representing some 20,000 cases per year. The large number of women employed in the past and at present in industries that create potential exposure to carcinogens is a special characteristic of the CIS. In recent years an increasing amount of high-quality research has been conducted on occupational cancer in the CIS; there is, however, room for further improvement. International training programs should be established, and funds from international research and development programs should be devoted to this area. In recent years, following privatization of many large-scale industries, access to employment and exposure data is becoming increasingly difficult.  (+info)

The changing epidemiology of diphtheria in the vaccine era. (3/25)

The epidemic of diphtheria in the Newly Independent States (NIS) of the former Soviet Union has drawn attention to our incomplete understanding of the epidemiology of diphtheria. Many unanswered questions remain concerning the reasons for a resurgence of diphtheria and for the shift in the age of patients and concerning the mechanisms for acquisition of immunity in adults through natural infection under unfavorable living conditions. Other unanswered questions relate to the precise role of socioeconomic factors and hygiene conditions in the initiation, buildup, and spread of the epidemic. Important characteristics of the NIS epidemic can be used to help predict the spread of future diphtheria epidemics. These characteristics include a high proportion of infected adults, a progressive spread of disease from urban centers to rural areas, and transition from initial amplification of disease in groups with high rates of close contacts in focalized, well-distinguished outbreaks to a more generalized epidemic.  (+info)

Successful control of epidemic diphtheria in the states of the Former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: lessons learned. (4/25)

Epidemic diphtheria reemerged in the Russian Federation in 1990 and spread to all Newly Independent States (NIS) and Baltic States by the end of 1994. Factors contributing to the epidemic included increased susceptibility of both children and adults, socioeconomic instability, population movement, deteriorating health infrastructure, initial shortages of vaccine, and delays in implementing control measures. In 1995, aggressive control strategies were implemented, and since then, all affected countries have reported decreases of diphtheria; however, continued efforts by national health authorities and international assistance are still needed. The legacy of this epidemic includes a reexamination of the global diphtheria control strategy, new laboratory techniques for diphtheria diagnosis and analysis, and a model for future public health emergencies in the successful collaboration of multiple international partners. The reemergence of diphtheria warns of an immediate threat of other epidemics in the NIS and Baltic States and a longer-term potential for the reemergence of vaccine-preventable diseases elsewhere. Continued investment in improved vaccines, control strategies, training, and laboratory techniques is needed.  (+info)

Diphtheria surveillance and control in the Former Soviet Union and the Newly Independent States. (5/25)

The Newly Independent States (NIS) inherited a common approach to diphtheria control from the Soviet Union and maintained a centralized system of surveillance and control managed by Soviet-trained epidemiologists with a shared professional culture. This system had controlled a diphtheria resurgence in the 1980s. In response to the epidemic of the 1990s, NIS health authorities responded with a set of control measures based on the Soviet-era experience. These measures included intensified childhood vaccination, aggressive case investigation, widespread diphtheria screening in institutions, and vaccination of adults in high-risk occupation groups. These measures proved insufficient due to high levels of susceptibility among adults, excessive contraindications to childhood vaccination, and insufficient resources in many countries. After these initial delays in implementing effective measures in some countries, most of the NIS health authorities rapidly and successfully implemented mass immunization of the population against diphtheria once the strategy was adopted and sufficient vaccine was available.  (+info)

Immunogenicity of tetanus-diphtheria toxoids (Td) among Ukrainian adults: implications for diphtheria control in the Newly Independent States of the Former Soviet Union. (6/25)

After 30 years of control, epidemic diphtheria returned to the Soviet Union in 1990. To develop control strategies, the immunogenicity of the tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (Td) vaccine was assessed. Workers who were 18-67 years old received two Td immunizations separated by 30 days. A neutralization assay determined diphtheria antitoxin (DAT) on enrollment and on days 7, 30, 60, and 425. On enrollment, 43.0% of 488 workers had DAT <0.1 IU/mL. After one dose, 88.5% had DAT >/=0.1 IU/mL, after two doses, 92.2% had >/=0.1 IU/mL and >90% of participants <30 or >/=50 years of age attained >/=1.0 IU/mL; however, only 78.4% of those who were 30-39 years old and 51.8% of those who were 40-49 years old achieved >/=1.0 IU/mL after two doses. To control the epidemic in Ukraine, one Td dose should be administered to virtually the entire population (persons 30-49 years old require three doses of Td for optimal individual protection and to maximize population immunity).  (+info)

Epidemic diphtheria in the Newly Independent States of the Former Soviet Union: implications for diphtheria control in the United States. (7/25)

The re-emergence of diphtheria in the Newly Independent States of the former Soviet Union in the 1990s raised global awareness of the potential for resurgent disease in countries with long-standing immunization programs. In the United States, the large population of susceptible adults and the possibility of a reintroduction of toxigenic strains of diphtheria create a setting in which diphtheria could spread. In addition, at least one focus of continued circulation of endemic toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae has been identified. Few physicians now have expertise in the diagnosis and treatment of persons with diphtheria, and laboratory capacity is lacking throughout the country. These concerns highlight the importance of maintaining high levels of age-appropriate diphtheria toxoid vaccination, surveillance, accessible and reliable laboratory testing, and training of health care providers. Although the risk of resurgence of diphtheria in the United States is low, public health authorities must ensure that the capacity to recognize, diagnose, and control diphtheria is maintained.  (+info)

Implications of the diphtheria epidemic in the Former Soviet Union for immunization programs. (8/25)

The massive diphtheria epidemic in the former Soviet Union provides important lessons for all diphtheria immunization programs: It is important to achieve a high level of childhood immunization, maintain immunity against diphtheria in older age groups, and use anti-epidemic measures, including immunization, to control epidemics in the early phase. The immunization coverage among children should be at least 90%. Further studies are needed to elaborate the most effective strategy to maintain immunity against diphtheria in adults (periodic booster doses, immunization of selected age groups in health care settings, use of Td [tetanus-diphtheria toxoids with reduced diphtheria toxoid content] vaccine instead of monovalent tetanus toxoid whenever tetanus toxoid is indicated [e.g., in treatment of wounds or in school-based immunization programs]). Efforts should be undertaken to monitor diphtheria immunity in different groups by conducting age-specific serologic studies.  (+info)

The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is not a medical term, but rather a political and geographical term. It refers to a regional organization that was established in 1991, following the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The CIS comprises 10 post-Soviet states: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan.

Therefore, there is no medical definition associated with the term "Commonwealth of Independent States." However, it is important to note that public health and healthcare systems in CIS countries have undergone significant changes since the collapse of the Soviet Union, with varying degrees of success and challenges.

Eastern Europe is a geographical and political region of the European continent. The exact definition of Eastern Europe varies, but it generally includes the countries in Central and Eastern Europe that were part of the Soviet Union or aligned with the Soviet Union during the Cold War. These countries include:

* Belarus
* Bulgaria
* Czech Republic
* Hungary
* Moldova
* Poland
* Romania
* Russia (European portion)
* Slovakia
* Ukraine

Some definitions of Eastern Europe also include the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania), which were part of the Soviet Union but are now independent countries. Other definitions may also include Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Serbia, and Slovenia, which were part of the Eastern Bloc but not part of the Soviet Union.

It is important to note that the term "Eastern Europe" can be seen as problematic and outdated, as it is often associated with negative stereotypes and historical connotations from the Cold War era. Many people prefer to use more specific terms, such as "Central Europe," "Eastern Bloc," or "Soviet Union," to describe the region.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the abbreviation "USSR" stands for the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, which was a socialist state in Eastern Europe and northern and central Asia that existed from 1922 until its dissolution in 1991. It was not a medical term or concept. If you have any questions related to medicine, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Tajikistan" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in Central Asia. Tajikistan is a sovereign state, bordered by Afghanistan to the south, Uzbekistan to the west, Kyrgyzstan to the north, and China to the east. The capital city of Tajikistan is Dushanbe. If you have any questions about medical topics or terminology, I would be happy to help answer those for you.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Azerbaijan" is a country's name and not a medical term or condition. It is located in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. If you have any questions about Azerbaijani culture, history, or geography, I would be happy to try to help answer them, but for medical information, it would be best to consult a reliable health or medical resource.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Independent State of Samoa" is the name of a country, specifically the nation-state located in the central South Pacific Ocean, formerly known as Western Samoa. It is not a medical term or concept. The Independent State of Samoa consists of two main islands, Upolu and Savai'i, along with several smaller islands. Its capital city is Apia.

If you have any medical questions or terms that need defining, I would be happy to help!

Diphtheria is a serious bacterial infection caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It typically affects the respiratory system, including the nose, throat, and windpipe (trachea), causing a thick gray or white membrane to form over the lining of these areas. This can lead to breathing difficulties, heart complications, and neurological problems if left untreated.

The bacteria can also produce a powerful toxin that can cause damage to other organs in the body. Diphtheria is usually spread through respiratory droplets from an infected person's cough or sneeze, or by contact with contaminated objects or surfaces. The disease is preventable through vaccination.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Micronesia" is not a medical term. It is a geographical term that refers to a group of islands in the Pacific Ocean, which includes countries such as the Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, and the Marshall Islands. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Virginia" is not a medical term or condition. It is a geographical location, specifically the name of a state in the United States. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

The Diphtheria-Tetanus vaccine, also known as the DT vaccine or Td vaccine (if diphtheria toxoid is not included), is a combination vaccine that protects against two potentially serious bacterial infections: diphtheria and tetanus.

Diphtheria is a respiratory infection that can cause breathing difficulties, heart problems, and nerve damage. Tetanus, also known as lockjaw, is a bacterial infection that affects the nervous system and causes muscle stiffness and spasms, particularly in the jaw and neck.

The vaccine contains small amounts of inactivated toxins (toxoids) from the bacteria that cause diphtheria and tetanus. When the vaccine is administered, it stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies that provide protection against these diseases.

In addition to protecting against diphtheria and tetanus, some formulations of the vaccine may also include protection against pertussis (whooping cough), polio, or hepatitis B. The DTaP vaccine is a similar combination vaccine that includes protection against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis, but uses acellular pertussis components instead of the whole-cell pertussis component used in the DT vaccine.

The Diphtheria-Tetanus vaccine is typically given as a series of shots in childhood, with booster shots recommended every 10 years to maintain immunity. It is an important part of routine childhood vaccination and is also recommended for adults who have not received the full series of shots or whose protection has waned over time.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Guam" is not a medical term. It is a territorial island in the Pacific Ocean and is an organized, unincorporated territory of the United States. Guam is known for its unique Chamorro culture, beautiful beaches, and historical sites. If you have any questions about medical terms or topics, I'd be happy to help with those instead!

American Samoa is a territorial possession of the United States located in the South Pacific Ocean, approximately 1,600 miles southwest of Hawaii. It consists of five main islands and two coral atolls, with a total land area of about 77 square miles. The population is approximately 55,000 people, most of whom are of Samoan descent.

The main islands are Tutuila, Ta'u, Olosega, Ofu, and Aunu'u. The capital and largest city is Pago Pago, located on Tutuila. American Samoa is known for its beautiful beaches, tropical climate, and rich cultural heritage.

As a territorial possession of the United States, American Samoa is governed by a governor and lieutenant governor, elected every four years by the residents. The territory also sends a non-voting delegate to the U.S. House of Representatives. While American Samoans are U.S. nationals, they are not U.S. citizens unless they are born in the United States or have been naturalized.

In medical terms, American Samoa has unique health challenges and disparities due to its remote location, limited resources, and cultural factors. Common health issues include non-communicable diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer, as well as infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and dengue fever. Access to healthcare services can be limited, particularly in rural areas, and there is a shortage of healthcare professionals. The territory also faces challenges related to mental health, substance abuse, and environmental health hazards such as contaminated water sources and poor sanitation.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Massachusetts" is not a medical term. It is the name of a state located in the northeastern region of the United States. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Australia" is not a medical term or concept. It is the world's largest island and smallest continent, located in the Southern Hemisphere, surrounded by the Pacific and Indian Oceans. It is composed of many diverse ecosystems, including deserts, rainforests, and coastal areas, and is home to a wide variety of unique plant and animal species.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer them for you!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Health services accessibility refers to the degree to which individuals and populations are able to obtain needed health services in a timely manner. It includes factors such as physical access (e.g., distance, transportation), affordability (e.g., cost of services, insurance coverage), availability (e.g., supply of providers, hours of operation), and acceptability (e.g., cultural competence, language concordance).

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), accessibility is one of the key components of health system performance, along with responsiveness and fair financing. Improving accessibility to health services is essential for achieving universal health coverage and ensuring that everyone has access to quality healthcare without facing financial hardship. Factors that affect health services accessibility can vary widely between and within countries, and addressing these disparities requires a multifaceted approach that includes policy interventions, infrastructure development, and community engagement.

There are nine full member states of the Commonwealth of Independent States, including Moldova, that is undergoing a process of ... following a Commonwealth of Independent States heads of states meeting which adopted the Convention on the Standards of ... at a meeting of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) Council of Heads of State in Moscow, the presidents of 12 ... and Freedoms in the Member States of the Commonwealth of Independent States. The CIS-EMO has been sending election observers to ...
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The 1996 Commonwealth of Independent States Cup was the fourth edition of the competition between the champions of former ... Commonwealth of Independent States Cup, 1996 in Russian football, 1995-96 in Ukrainian football, 1995-96 in European football, ... 1996 Commonwealth of Independent States Cup at RSSSF (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, ...
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The 2004 Commonwealth of Independent States Cup was the twelfth edition of the competition between the champions of former ... Commonwealth of Independent States Cup, 2004 in Russian football, FC Dynamo Kyiv matches, 2003-04 in European football, January ...
The 2005 Commonwealth of Independent States Cup was the thirteenth edition of the competition between the champions of former ... Commonwealth of Independent States Cup, 2005 in Russian football, 2004-05 in Ukrainian football, 2004-05 in European football, ...
... was the 24th annual Commonwealth of Independent States Cup since its establishment ... Commonwealth of Independent States Cup, January 2016 sports events in Russia). ... "Commonwealth Cup-2016 calendar". The Russian Football Union. 22 December 2015. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. ...
The 2007 Commonwealth of Independent States Cup was the fifteenth edition of the competition and took place in Moscow beginning ... Commonwealth of Independent States Cup, 2007 in Russian football, 2006-07 in Ukrainian football, 2006-07 in European football, ...
The 2008 Commonwealth of Independent States Cup was the sixteenth edition of the competition between the champions of former ... Commonwealth of Independent States Cup, January 2008 sports events in Russia). ...
The 2003 Commonwealth of Independent States Cup was the eleventh edition of the competition between the champions of former ... Commonwealth of Independent States Cup, 2003 in Russian football, 2002-03 in Ukrainian football, 2002-03 in European football, ...
The 2001 Commonwealth of Independent States Cup was the ninth edition of the competition between the champions of former ... Commonwealth of Independent States Cup, 2001 in Russian football, 2000-01 in Ukrainian football, 2000-01 in European football, ...
The 2002 Commonwealth of Independent States Cup was the tenth edition of the competition between the champions of former ... Commonwealth of Independent States Cup, 2002 in Russian football, 2001-02 in Ukrainian football, 2001-02 in European football, ...
... was the 22nd annual Commonwealth of Independent States Cup since its establishment ... Commonwealth of Independent States Cup, January 2014 sports events in Russia, February 2014 sports events in Russia). ...
... was the eighteenth edition of the competition between the champions of former ... Commonwealth of Independent States Cup 2010 at rsssf 2010 CIS Cup at kick-off.by (Articles with short description, Short ... Commonwealth of Independent States Cup, 2010 in Russian football, 2009-10 in Ukrainian football, 2009-10 in European football, ...
The 1995 Commonwealth of Independent States Cup was the third edition of the competition between the champions of former ... 1995 Commonwealth of Independent States Cup at RSSSF (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, All ... Commonwealth of Independent States Cup, 1995 in Russian football, 1994-95 in Ukrainian football, 1994-95 in European football, ...
The 1994 Commonwealth of Independent States Cup was the second edition of the competition between the champions of former ... Commonwealth of Independent States Cup, 1994 in Russian football, 1993-94 in European football, January 1994 sports events in ... 1994 Commonwealth of Independent States Cup at RSSSF (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, All ...
... was the 23rd annual Commonwealth of Independent States Cup since its establishment ... Commonwealth of Independent States Cup, January 2015 sports events in Russia). ...
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The 2006 Commonwealth of Independent States Cup was the fourteenth edition of the competition between the champions of former ... Commonwealth of Independent States Cup, 2006 in Russian football, 2005-06 in Ukrainian football, 2005-06 in European football, ...
The 1999 Commonwealth of Independent States Cup was the seventh edition of the competition between the champions of former ... Commonwealth of Independent States Cup, 1999 in Russian football, 1998-99 in Ukrainian football, 1998-99 in European football, ... New formula adopted for Commonwealth Cup 1999 CIS Cup at rsssf.com 1999 CIS Cup at football.by 1999 CIS Cup at kick-off.by ( ...
The 1993 Commonwealth of Independent States Cup was the first edition of the competition between the champions of former ... www.refworld.org «Sport Express Football» № 3 (43), 25 January 2000, page 9 1993 Commonwealth of Independent States Cup at ... Commonwealth of Independent States Cup, 1993 in Russian football, 1992-93 in European football, January 1993 sports events in ...
The 19th Commonwealth of Independent States Cup was the nineteenth edition of the competition between the champions of former ... Russian Football Union Official web-site (in Russian) Commonwealth of Independent States Cup 2011 at rsssf 2011 CIS Cup at kick ... "Inter Baku won the Commonwealth Cup". Archived from the original on 2016-12-01. Retrieved 2016-12-01. ... Commonwealth of Independent States Cup). ...
... was the 21st annual Commonwealth of Independent States Cup since its establishment ... Commonwealth of Independent States Cup, January 2013 sports events in Russia). ...
The 1997 Commonwealth of Independent States Cup was the fifth edition of the competition between the champions of former ... 1997 Commonwealth of Independent States Cup at RSSSF (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, All ... Commonwealth of Independent States Cup, 1997 in Russian football, 1996-97 in Ukrainian football, 1996-97 in European football, ...
The 1998 Commonwealth of Independent States Cup was the sixth edition of the competition between the champions of former ... 1998 Commonwealth of Independent States Cup at RSSSF (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, All ... Commonwealth of Independent States Cup, 1998 in Russian football, 1997-98 in Ukrainian football, 1997-98 in European football, ...
Commonwealth of Independent States Economic integration Eurasian Union Free trade areas in Europe Post-Soviet states Trade bloc ... The Commonwealth of Independent States Free Trade Zone Agreement, proposed since the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991, was ... Commonwealth of Independent States Free Trade Area (CISFTA) is a free-trade area among Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Uzbekistan, ... Commonwealth of Independent States, Treaties of Russia, Treaties of Ukraine, Treaties of Belarus, Treaties of Kazakhstan, ...
Estonia's 20-man squad to play in the 2014 Commonwealth of Independent States Cup. Coach: Martin Reim Tajikistan 20 man squad ... Coach: Igor Kovalevich Kazakhstan 25 man squad to play in the 2014 Commonwealth of Independent States Cup. Coach: Saulius ... Coach: Makhmadjon Khabibulloev Ukraine 23 man squad to play in the 2014 Commonwealth of Independent States Cup. Coach: Serhiy ... Coach: Anarbek Ormonbekov Russia 23 man squad to play in the 2014 Commonwealth of Independent States Cup. Coach: Nikolai ...
... the Commonwealth of Independent States does not have a unified bandy team, as many of the member states of the commonwealth ... The Commonwealth of Independent States national bandy team was the new name for the Soviet Union national bandy team after the ... Sport in the Commonwealth of Independent States, Bandy in Russia). ... There was also an equally short-lived youth team for the Commonwealth, taking part in the 1992 Bandy World Championship Y-23. " ...
There are nine full member states of the Commonwealth of Independent States, including Moldova, that is undergoing a process of ... following a Commonwealth of Independent States heads of states meeting which adopted the Convention on the Standards of ... at a meeting of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) Council of Heads of State in Moscow, the presidents of 12 ... and Freedoms in the Member States of the Commonwealth of Independent States. The CIS-EMO has been sending election observers to ...
The Federal Agency for the Commonwealth of Independent States Affairs, Compatriots Living Abroad, and International ... Federal Agency for the Commonwealth of Independent States Affairs, Compatriots Living Abroad, and International Humanitarian ... Federal Agency for the Commonwealth of Independent States Affairs, Compatriots Living Abroad, and International Humanitarian ... but mostly in the Commonwealth of Independent States). History[edit]. The agency was created from its predecessor agency by ...
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Commonwealth of Independent States Summit. August 1 − 2, 2001 Working trip, 5 events ... CIS heads of state had an informal meeting August 2, 2001, 13:30 The Teahouses Tourist Centre, Sochi ... Vladimir Putin addressed a news conference to summarise the informal CIS summit and his bilateral meetings with Commonwealth ...
The reforms initiated within the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) have many common elements, including a revised ... The reforms initiated within the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) have many common elements, including a revised ... cost recovery measures and the mix of state- and privately-funded students. Institutional restructuring can be necessary for ...
This hearing discussed the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the creation of a series of succeeding states. The hearing ... The New Commonwealth of Independent States: Problems, Perspectives, and U.S. Policy Implications ... Acting Deputy Assistant Secretary of State Dan Bischof testified about the state of U.S. support for Moldova. He emphasized ... Kara-Murza himself is a permanent resident of the United States. Yet despite these circumstances, the United States Department ...
The Commonwealth of Independent States Economies: Perspectives and Challenges. $21.99. The year 2016 marks the 25th anniversary ... of the official inauguration of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), a free association of sovereign states comprised ... Although this loose association of states may not exist as a fixed-entity on the globe, it is believed that this bloc of ...
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The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is a regional intergovernmental organization, a free association of sovereign ... The headquarters of the Commonwealth of Independent States is located in the city of Minsk. The department of the CIS Executive ... On December 8, 1991 in Minsk the Agreement on the Establishment of the Commonwealth of Independent States was signed by the ... Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrovs video address to mark the 30th anniversary of the Commonwealth of Independent States, Moscow, ...
by Andrea , May 20, 2015 , CSME, markets in Africa, Recent Trends in Trade, tools for importers, Trade and Development. Asia is the largest and most populated continent on Earth. It currently holds 60% of the worlds population. Today, there are 525 million middle class consumers; by 2030 that number is expected to rise to 3.2 billion, more than 8 times the expected size of the U.S ...
The current challenges to agriculture have raised the need to find new solutions to support farmers and other market players in improving production efficiency, fostering sustainability and empowering the rural population. According to research carried out by the World Bank, around 75% of the Worlds poor are involved in agriculture, which has a fundamental role in the […]. ...
This is the documentation for Template:Country data Commonwealth of Independent States. It is automatically generated by ... Batakan:Country data Commonwealth of Independent States. 79 ka mga pinulongan *Afrikaans ... Template:Country data Commonwealth of Independent States. is an internal data container not intended to be transcluded directly ... Ginkuha tikang ha "https://war.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Batakan:Country_data_Commonwealth_of_Independent_States&oldid= ...
... Gaman-Golutvina O. V., В кн. : Elites: New Comparative Perspectives ... This paper deals with the process of elite recruitment in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The analysis of CIS ... Political Elites in the Commonwealth of Independent States: Recruitment and Rotation Tendencies ... This book discusses international migration in the newly independent states after the collapse of the Soviet Union, which ...
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Moldova leaves the Commonwealth of Independent States - Russia warms up. by Aiyana Emerson ... The Community of Independent States, or Ivy, is a community formed by most of the Soviet republics of the former Soviet Union, ... Moldova has announced that the country is leaving the Ivy, or Community of Independent States. Moldovan online newspapers ... After Russia, the founding state of Ivy, brutally attacked another founding state - Ukraine, annexing its territories and ...
... the Commonwealth of Independent States, and the Baltic States (1997: Munich, Germany) , Delange, François M , Robertson, A , ... the Commonwealth of Independent States, and the Baltic States : proceedings of a conference held in Munich, Germany, 3-6 ... Results of search for su:{Commonwealth of Independent States.} Refine your search. *. Availability. * Limit to currently ... Cancer registration techniques in the New Independent States of the former Soviet Union / R. A. Winkelmann ... [et al.] by ...
Bongdalu.biz cập nhật ltd Commonwealth of Independent States trực tiếp đêm nay, rạng sáng mai chính xác. ... đá Commonwealth of Independent States 2016 hôm nay và ngày mai mới nhất. ... Lịch thi đấu Commonwealth of Independent States hôm nay. Xem ltd bd Commonwealth of Independent States tuần này sớm nhất tại ... đá Commonwealth of Independent States hôm nay và ngày mai NHANH NHẤT. Lịch thi đấu Commonwealth of Independent States được cập ...
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Power Market Outlook 2022 - 2031. This market report offers an ... and Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 2021 31. MAP 3: Solar resource potential of the CIS states 2021 47. MAP 4: Solar ... Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Power Market Outlook 2022÷2031 - Single User. ... Overview of Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) legal and regulatory framework for RES generation by countries ...
The Commonwealth Secretary-General, the Rt Hon Patricia Scotland KC, has expressed desire for the need to ramp up global ... The Commonwealth is a voluntary association of 56 independent and equal sovereign states. Its combined population is 2.5 ... the Commonwealth Blue Charter, the Commonwealth Sustainable Energy Transition Agenda and the Commonwealth Living Lands Charter ... The Commonwealth admitted Gabon and Togo as its 55th and 56th members respectively at the Commonwealth Heads of Government ...
The national penal laws of all countries of the Commonwealth contain legal norms on the regime of special conditions, the ... The peculiarities of the procedure for the introduction of the special conditions regime in almost all states coincide: in some ... in establishing the special conditions regime in the penal institutions of ten participants of the Commonwealth of Independent ... Regime of special conditions in the penal institutions of the Commonwealth of Independent States. Siryakov A. N. ...
Commonwealth of Independent States. *Includes Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, ...
Commonwealth of Independent States. Northern European Union Region. Southern European Union Region. Central European Region. ... OS Independent:OS Independent family. OS Independent:OS Independent family:OS Independent ...
Commonwealth of Independent States. *Includes Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, ...
Commonwealth of Independent States. Northern European Union Region. Southern European Union Region. Central European Region. ... It was separate to an independent compane on July 4, 2018. The current main products are industrial grade motherboard products ...
Commonwealth of Independent States. *Includes Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, ...
Commonwealth of Independent States. CISP. Working Party on Communication Infrastructures and Services Policy ... Group of Eight leading industrialized countries (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, United Kingdom, United States ... United States of America). The European Union, who is represented by the rotating Council presidency and the European Central ... the United Kingdom and the United States) which consult and co-operate on economic, monetary and financial matters. ...
Commonwealth of Independent States .......... (association). ................ (World) [1000094]. member of .... United Nations ...
... including the Baltic States and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), have some of the highest rates in the world. High ... Suicide in Eastern Europe, the Commonwealth of Independent States, and the Baltic Countries: Social and Public Health ... the Commonwealth of Independent States, and the Baltic Countries: Social and Public Health Determinants. IIASA Research Report ... to discuss the evidence base for social and public health determinants of suicide in the Baltic States, the CIS, and Eastern ...
Commonwealth of Independent States (association). ................ Commonwealth of Nations (association). ................ ...
  • Data for Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands are presented separately from data for the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • In 1998, 45 States, New York City, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands provided NCHS, via the Vital Statistics Cooperative Program, electronic data files of fetal-death data coded according to NCHS specifications. (cdc.gov)
  • The Commonwealth Secretary-General, the Rt Hon Patricia Scotland KC, has expressed desire for the need to ramp up global support for greater climate finance commitments at the Africa Climate Summit, taking place from 4to 6 September in Nairobi, Kenya. (allafrica.com)
  • On December 8, 1991 in Minsk the Agreement on the Establishment of the Commonwealth of Independent States was signed by the heads of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. (kaf1.net)
  • Ukraine and Turkmenistan have not ratified the CIS Charter, as a result of which these two countries de-jure were not considered as CIS member states, but only as founding-states or participating states. (kaf1.net)
  • Russia's war of aggression against Ukraine also influences the background of Moldova's departure, because according to Grossu, being in the ivy cannot protect its member states from attacks. (saptar.com)
  • After Russia, the founding state of Ivy, brutally attacked another founding state - Ukraine, annexing its territories and killing its citizens, this organization could no longer be called a community. (saptar.com)
  • While they were away, Volkov became a foreigner, his native Ukraine emerging as an independent nation. (chicagotribune.com)
  • The prevalence, burden and risk factors associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Commonwealth of Independent States (Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan): results of the CORE study. (medscape.com)
  • The CIS charter stated that all the members were sovereign and independent nations and thereby effectively abolished the Soviet Union. (wikipedia.org)
  • The year 2016 marks the 25th anniversary of the official inauguration of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), a free association of sovereign states comprised by Russia and 11 other republics that were formerly part of the Soviet Union. (businessexpertpress.com)
  • The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is a regional intergovernmental organization, a free association of sovereign states, focused on cooperation on political, economic, environmental, humanitarian, cultural and other issues between a number of former Soviet Republics. (kaf1.net)
  • The Charter states that the Commonwealth was formed on the basis of sovereign equality of all its members and that the Member States were independent and equal subjects under international law. (kaf1.net)
  • Being in the Ivy did not protect member states from military attacks, war and illegal occupation of sovereign territories. (saptar.com)
  • Moldova is an independent country, recognized and respected by friends and neighbors, and free to make sovereign decisions. (saptar.com)
  • The Commonwealth is a voluntary association of 56 independent and equal sovereign states. (allafrica.com)
  • COVID-19 is one of about 120 diseases and conditions that must be reported to state, local, and territorial health departments. (cdc.gov)
  • Eligible applicants include state, local, and territorial health departments or their Bona Fide Agents. (cdc.gov)
  • A WCO Online National Workshop on Transit for the State Revenue Committee of the Republic of Kazakhstan was delivered from 24 to 26 November 2020. (wcoomd.org)
  • Decision of Council of Heads of Government of the Commonwealth of Independent States 'About the Actions plan on realization of the third stage (2016 - 2020) of Strategy. (cis-legislation.com)
  • According to the Strategy of economic development of the Commonwealth of Independent States for the period till 2020 (further - Strategy) the Plan is aimed at realization of scientific and technical and educational capacity of the State Parties of the CIS, development of innovative socially oriented economy, development of new infrastructure projects, development of nuclear power, use of alternative and renewable types of fuel and energy, and also high-technology transport systems. (cis-legislation.com)
  • It was separate to an independent compane on July 4, 2018. (intel.com)
  • In 2018, the government focused on central public administration reform, reducing the number of state agencies that could inspect businesses and limiting their discretion for inspection. (state.gov)
  • The Commonwealth Secretariat supports member countries to build democratic and inclusive institutions, strengthen governance and promote justice and human rights. (allafrica.com)
  • No data are included for American Samoa or the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. (cdc.gov)
  • On 21 December 1991, the leaders of eight additional former Soviet Republics (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan) signed the Alma-Ata Protocol which can either be interpreted as expanding the CIS to these states or the proper foundation or foundation date of the CIS, thus bringing the number of participating countries to 11. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Community of Independent States, or Ivy, is a community formed by most of the Soviet republics of the former Soviet Union, established in 1991. (saptar.com)
  • Independent Award for foreign fiction, 1991. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The Commonwealth spans the globe and includes both advanced economies and developing countries. (allafrica.com)
  • Its top governmental body is a council composed of the member republics' heads of state (i.e., presidents) and of government (prime ministers), who are assisted by committees of republic cabinet ministers in key areas such as economics and defense. (kaf1.net)
  • The CIS performs its activities on the basis of the Charter , adopted by the Council of Heads of States on 22 January 1993, which stipulates the goals and principles of the Commonwealth, and rights and obligations of the countries. (kaf1.net)
  • In 1994 the ASA Executive Council approved plans to help acousticians from the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and Eastern Europe (EU). (acousticalsociety.org)
  • Rossotrudnichestvo operates in Central Asia , Latin America and Eastern Europe (but mostly in the Commonwealth of Independent States ). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is a regional intergovernmental organization in Eurasia. (wikipedia.org)
  • At this point, 12 of the 15 former Soviet Republics participated in the CIS, the three non-participants being the Baltic states, which were occupied by the Soviet Union. (wikipedia.org)
  • The witnesses covered the particular challenges of securing peaceful independence from the "commonwealth of former Soviet Republics" and the democratization process. (csce.gov)
  • The Charter also states that the CIS serves the development and strengthening of friendship, inter-ethnic accord, trust, mutual understanding, and cooperation between States. (kaf1.net)
  • 2. To provide to the governments of the State Parties of the CIS, bodies of industry cooperation of the CIS accomplishment of the specified Plan. (cis-legislation.com)
  • The National Center for Health Statistics acknowledges the essential role of the vital registration offices of all States and territories in maintaining the system through which vital statistics data are obtained and for their cooperation in providing the information on which this publication is based. (cdc.gov)
  • Press releases Key Socio-Economic Indicators of the Countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States in January - August 2019. (cisstat.org)
  • Report "Socio-Economic Situation of the Countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States in January - August 2019" is published (in Russian). (cisstat.org)
  • Although this loose association of states may not exist as a fixed-entity on the globe, it is believed that this bloc of countries will continue to build upon the various separate regions in the former Soviet space in the coming decade. (businessexpertpress.com)
  • While suicide is a major public health problem worldwide, the countries of the former Soviet Union, including the Baltic States and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), have some of the highest rates in the world. (iiasa.ac.at)
  • The abstract contains statistical materials characterizing foreign trade of Commonwealth of Independent States as a whole and by countries-major trading partners, main commodity groups and the most important goods. (cisstat.org)
  • The publication is intended for managers, economists, businessmen of the Commonwealth countries, and foreign specialists. (cisstat.org)
  • The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the WHO Regional Office for Europe have convened a two-day workshop on the implementation of efficient screening programmes, attended by cancer screening professionals and decision-makers from the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and eastern European countries. (who.int)
  • This manual is particularly relevant to primary health care providers in the countries of eastern Europe, the Baltic States, and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). (cdc.gov)
  • Yasemin Bedir, currently executive vice president for Processors & Community Institutions for the U.S., will lead the newly created Turkey & Commonwealth of Independent States (Turkey & CIS)division reporting to Dosis. (mastercard.com)
  • It is further outlineed in the presser that the Secretary-General is scheduled to meet with various Heads of State from the region as well as world leaders in Nairobi, including the United Nations Secretary-General António Guterres, to advocate actions that will unlock billions in climate finance to support vulnerable nations, as well as improve access to those funds. (allafrica.com)
  • Discussions will feed into the first ever Commonwealth Environment and Climate Ministers' Meeting, to take place in the margins of the United Nations General Assembly meetings in New York on 21 September. (allafrica.com)
  • Thirty-three of its members are small states, many of which are island nations. (allafrica.com)
  • The objective is to improve working relationships between the United Nations and the specialized agencies1 in the interest of Member States. (who.int)
  • We reiterate the commitments made by our heads of State and Governments at major United Nations conferences and summits, at their follow-up processes and in the Millennium Declaration with respect to the promotion of international and national environments that will foster a society for all ages. (who.int)
  • A geopolitical organization of African nations with a mission to integrate vital interests, promote international relations, political stability, and economic development among member states. (bvsalud.org)
  • The Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania), which had been illegally occupied by the Soviet Union, chose not to participate. (wikipedia.org)
  • From September 14 to 15, 2010, suicidologists and other scholars and professionals with expertise in suicide and suicide prevention gathered in Tallinn, Estonia, to discuss the evidence base for social and public health determinants of suicide in the Baltic States, the CIS, and Eastern Europe. (iiasa.ac.at)
  • Eight of the nine CIS member states participate in the CIS Free Trade Area. (wikipedia.org)
  • assisting citizens of member states in free communication, contacts and movement in the Commonwealth and etc. (kaf1.net)
  • Health and governance in European cities : a compendium of trends and responsibilities for public health in 46 member states of the WHO European Region / by Geoff Green. (who.int)
  • The request resulted in the donation of $13,000 from ASA members which, when added to the $20,000 donated by the Society itself, enabled ASA to assist acousticians in the Commonwealth of Independent States and Eastern Europe with 20 student grants and ASA member dues for 16 acousticians. (acousticalsociety.org)
  • Particularly since the demise of most of the world's empires , a number of international-generally regionally based-economic blocs have been developed to promote trade between member states. (fact-archive.com)
  • Results of search for 'su:{Commonwealth of Independent States. (who.int)
  • Moldova has announced that the country is leaving the Ivy, or Community of Independent States. (saptar.com)
  • Programs included student grants and distribution of subscriptions to the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America (JASA) to 60 universities and institutes through the Commonwealth of Independent States and Eastern Europe in collaboration with the International Science Foundation. (acousticalsociety.org)
  • The Commonwealth admitted Gabon and Togo as its 55th and 56th members respectively at the Commonwealth Heads of Government meeting in Kigali, Rwanda in June 2022. (allafrica.com)
  • Line-level data is based on reporting from states, territories, and other jurisdictions. (cdc.gov)
  • Finally, there are differences in how states and territories report cases. (cdc.gov)
  • Aggregate count data provide case and death totals, reported through 60 U.S.-affiliated jurisdictions, at the state and county level. (cdc.gov)
  • In statistical tabulations, United States refers only to the aggregate of the 50 States (including New York City) and the District of Columbia. (cdc.gov)
  • Division for Arab States and Europe. (who.int)
  • However, the reports or certificates of most States conform closely in content and arrangement to the standard. (cdc.gov)
  • However, there are still some legal and institutional challenges that are creating obstacles to the effective enforcement of state anti-corruption policies. (lu.se)
  • The adoption of the law of the Republic of Uzbekistan "On Combating Corruption" - № LRU-419 dated January 3, 2017, has become an important factor in combining the efforts and interest of state bodies and civil society institutions for starting joint work in corruption eradication. (lu.se)
  • This hearing discussed the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the creation of a series of succeeding states. (csce.gov)
  • This is the documentation for Template:Country data Commonwealth of Independent States . (wikipedia.org)
  • METHODS: We analyzed cross-sectional survey data from N = 237 women following their FP counselling in 120 public health facilities (District Hospitals and Community Health Centers) sampled across the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. (bvsalud.org)
  • The agency was created from its predecessor agency by Presidential decree , signed by Russian President Dmitry Medvedev on 6 September 2008, with the aim of maintaining Russia's influence in the Commonwealth of Independent States , and to foster friendly ties for the advancement of Russia's political and economic interests in foreign states. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, corruption-related ratings and indices, indirectly and directly, affect the foreign direct investment (FDI) and business attractiveness of developing states (Woo & Heo, 2009). (lu.se)
  • By the time we ring in 2015, all of America's 50 states and the District of Columbia will have finally adopted the 2003 Revisions of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth , generally known as the standard birth certificate. (cdc.gov)
  • He landed in the barren steppes of a land called the Commonwealth of Independent States, a place that nobody on Earth-or even in the heavens-had dreamt of when he blasted off. (chicagotribune.com)
  • In 2003, the first year of implementation of the new national standards, only two states implemented the new birth certificate. (cdc.gov)