Radial Artery: The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.Radial Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.Radial Neuropathy: Disease involving the RADIAL NERVE. Clinical features include weakness of elbow extension, elbow flexion, supination of the forearm, wrist and finger extension, and thumb abduction. Sensation may be impaired over regions of the dorsal forearm. Common sites of compression or traumatic injury include the AXILLA and radial groove of the HUMERUS.Keratotomy, Radial: A procedure to surgically correct REFRACTIVE ERRORS by cutting radial slits into the CORNEA to change its refractive properties.Radius FracturesRadius: The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.Elbow Joint: A hinge joint connecting the FOREARM to the ARM.Ulna: The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.Ulnar Artery: The larger of the two terminal branches of the brachial artery, beginning about one centimeter distal to the bend of the elbow. Like the RADIAL ARTERY, its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to their locations in the forearm, wrist, and hand.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.DislocationsWrist Joint: The joint that is formed by the distal end of the RADIUS, the articular disc of the distal radioulnar joint, and the proximal row of CARPAL BONES; (SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; triquetral bone).Catheterization, Peripheral: Insertion of a catheter into a peripheral artery, vein, or airway for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Wrist Injuries: Injuries to the wrist or the wrist joint.Fractures, Comminuted: A fracture in which the bone is splintered or crushed. (Dorland, 27th ed)Forearm: Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.Pronation: Applies to movements of the forearm in turning the palm backward or downward. When referring to the foot, a combination of eversion and abduction movements in the tarsal and metatarsal joints (turning the foot up and in toward the midline of the body).Fracture Fixation, Internal: The use of internal devices (metal plates, nails, rods, etc.) to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment.Supination: Applies to movements of the forearm in turning the palm forward or upward. When referring to the foot, a combination of adduction and inversion movements of the foot.Tissue and Organ Harvesting: The procedure of removing TISSUES, organs, or specimens from DONORS for reuse, such as TRANSPLANTATION.Spasm: An involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles. Spasms may involve SKELETAL MUSCLE or SMOOTH MUSCLE.Anisotropy: A physical property showing different values in relation to the direction in or along which the measurement is made. The physical property may be with regard to thermal or electric conductivity or light refraction. In crystallography, it describes crystals whose index of refraction varies with the direction of the incident light. It is also called acolotropy and colotropy. The opposite of anisotropy is isotropy wherein the same values characterize the object when measured along axes in all directions.Mammary Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles and mammary gland.Nerve Compression Syndromes: Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.Ependymoglial Cells: The macroglial cells of EPENDYMA. They are characterized by bipolar cell body shape and processes that contact BASAL LAMINA around blood vessels and/or the PIA MATER and the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Humeral FracturesNeurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Neocortex: The largest portion of the CEREBRAL CORTEX in which the NEURONS are arranged in six layers in the mammalian brain: molecular, external granular, external pyramidal, internal granular, internal pyramidal and multiform layers.Axoneme: A bundle of MICROTUBULES and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS forming the core of each CILIUM or FLAGELLUM. In most eukaryotic cilia or flagella, an axoneme shaft has 20 microtubules arranged in nine doublets and two singlets.Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Ulna Fractures: Fractures of the larger bone of the forearm.Telencephalon: The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Fracture Fixation: The use of metallic devices inserted into or through bone to hold a fracture in a set position and alignment while it heals.Chlamydomonas: A genus GREEN ALGAE in the order VOLVOCIDA. It consists of solitary biflagellated organisms common in fresh water and damp soil.Bone Wires: Steel wires, often threaded through the skin, soft tissues, and bone, used to fix broken bones. Kirschner wires or apparatus also includes the application of traction to the healing bones through the wires.Diffusion Tensor Imaging: The use of diffusion ANISOTROPY data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging results to construct images based on the direction of the faster diffusing molecules.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Arthroplasty, Replacement, Elbow: Replacement of the ELBOW JOINT.Thumb: The first digit on the radial side of the hand which in humans lies opposite the other four.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Nestin: A type VI intermediate filament protein expressed mostly in nerve cells where it is associated with the survival, renewal and mitogen-stimulated proliferation of neural progenitor cells.Monteggia's Fracture: Fracture in the proximal half of the shaft of the ulna, with dislocation of the head of the radius.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Wrist: The region of the upper limb between the metacarpus and the FOREARM.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Free Tissue Flaps: A mass of tissue that has been cut away from its surrounding areas to be used in TISSUE TRANSPLANTATION.Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.Nerve Tissue ProteinsVascular Patency: The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.Brachial Artery: The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.Surgical Flaps: Tongues of skin and subcutaneous tissue, sometimes including muscle, cut away from the underlying parts but often still attached at one end. They retain their own microvasculature which is also transferred to the new site. They are often used in plastic surgery for filling a defect in a neighboring region.Fracture Healing: The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Pulse: The rhythmical expansion and contraction of an ARTERY produced by waves of pressure caused by the ejection of BLOOD from the left ventricle of the HEART as it contracts.Neural Stem Cells: Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.Fractures, Malunited: Union of the fragments of a fractured bone in a faulty or abnormal position. If two bones parallel to one another unite by osseous tissue, the result is a crossunion. (From Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 4th ed)Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Brachial Plexus: The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Collateral Ligaments: A number of ligaments on either side of, and serving as a radius of movement of, a joint having a hingelike movement. They occur at the elbow, knee, wrist, metacarpo- and metatarsophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, and distal interphalangeal joints of the hands and feet. (Stedman, 25th ed)Carpal Bones: The eight bones of the wrist: SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; TRIQUETRUM BONE; PISIFORM BONE; TRAPEZIUM BONE; TRAPEZOID BONE; CAPITATE BONE; and HAMATE BONE.Bone Plates: Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical: Surgical shunt allowing direct passage of blood from an artery to a vein. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Mice, Neurologic Mutants: Mice which carry mutant genes for neurologic defects or abnormalities.Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Median Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.Ulnar Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.Dissection: The separation and isolation of tissues for surgical purposes, or for the analysis or study of their structures.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.External Fixators: External devices which hold wires or pins that are placed through one or both cortices of bone in order to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment. These devices allow easy access to wounds, adjustment during the course of healing, and more functional use of the limbs involved.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Metacarpus: The region of the HAND between the WRIST and the FINGERS.Dyneins: A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Nephelometry and Turbidimetry: Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.Intermediate Filament Proteins: Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.Saphenous Vein: The vein which drains the foot and leg.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Blood Pressure Determination: Techniques for measuring blood pressure.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Sesamoid Bones: Nodular bones which lie within a tendon and slide over another bony surface. The PATELLA (kneecap) is a sesamoid bone.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Sensory Thresholds: The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Xylem: Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.High-Energy Shock Waves: High-amplitude compression waves, across which density, pressure, and particle velocity change drastically. The mechanical force from these shock waves can be used for mechanically disrupting tissues and deposits.Photoplethysmography: Plethysmographic determination in which the intensity of light reflected from the skin surface and the red cells below is measured to determine the blood volume of the respective area. There are two types, transmission and reflectance.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Thoracic Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles, mammary gland and the axillary aspect of the chest wall.Ependyma: A thin membrane that lines the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES and the central canal of the SPINAL CORD.Hospitals, Low-Volume: Hospitals with a much lower than average utilization by physicians and smaller number of procedures.Forearm Injuries: Injuries to the part of the upper limb of the body between the wrist and elbow.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Joint Loose Bodies: Fibrous, bony, cartilaginous and osteocartilaginous fragments in a synovial joint. Major causes are osteochondritis dissecans, synovial chondromatosis, osteophytes, fractured articular surfaces and damaged menisci.Holothuria: A genus of large SEA CUCUMBERS in the family Holothuriidae possessing thick body walls, a warty body surface, and microscopic ossicles.Elbow: Region of the body immediately surrounding and including the ELBOW JOINT.Embalming: Process of preserving a dead body to protect it from decay.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Osteotomy: The surgical cutting of a bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)Motion Perception: The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.Psychophysics: The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Casts, Surgical: Dressings made of fiberglass, plastic, or bandage impregnated with plaster of paris used for immobilization of various parts of the body in cases of fractures, dislocations, and infected wounds. In comparison with plaster casts, casts made of fiberglass or plastic are lightweight, radiolucent, able to withstand moisture, and less rigid.Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Reconstructive Surgical Procedures: Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Phantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal: Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Pulsatile Flow: Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.Compliance: Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (LUNG COMPLIANCE) or bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure.Electroporation: A technique in which electric pulses of intensity in kilovolts per centimeter and of microsecond-to-millisecond duration cause a temporary loss of the semipermeability of CELL MEMBRANES, thus leading to ion leakage, escape of metabolites, and increased uptake by cells of drugs, molecular probes, and DNA.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Hospitals, High-Volume: Hospitals with a much higher than average utilization by physicians and a large number of procedures.Neuronal Migration Disorders: Disorders resulting from defects in migration of neuronal cells during neurogenesis. Developing nerve cells either fail to migrate or they migrate to incorrect positions resulting in formation of heterotopias, lissencephaly, or other malformations and dysfunctions of the nervous system.Arthroplasty, Replacement: Partial or total replacement of a joint.Humerus: Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Learning Curve: The course of learning of an individual or a group. It is a measure of performance plotted over time.Corpus Callosum: Broad plate of dense myelinated fibers that reciprocally interconnect regions of the cortex in all lobes with corresponding regions of the opposite hemisphere. The corpus callosum is located deep in the longitudinal fissure.Pinus sylvestris: A plant species of the genus PINUS which is the source of pinosylvin. It is sometimes called Scotch pine or Scots pine, which is also a common name for other species of this genus.Hand Strength: Force exerted when gripping or grasping.Graft Occlusion, Vascular: Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts.Prosencephalon: The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Hand Deformities, Congenital: Alterations or deviations from normal shape or size which result in a disfigurement of the hand occurring at or before birth.Fingers: Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Adventitia: The outermost covering of organs, blood vessels, and other such structures in the body.Median Neuropathy: Disease involving the median nerve, from its origin at the BRACHIAL PLEXUS to its termination in the hand. Clinical features include weakness of wrist and finger flexion, forearm pronation, thenar abduction, and loss of sensation over the lateral palm, first three fingers, and radial half of the ring finger. Common sites of injury include the elbow, where the nerve passes through the two heads of the pronator teres muscle (pronator syndrome) and in the carpal tunnel (CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME).Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Nervous System Malformations: Structural abnormalities of the central or peripheral nervous system resulting primarily from defects of embryogenesis.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Fluoroscopy: Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.Systole: Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.Ligaments, Articular: Fibrous cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE that attach bones to each other and hold together the many types of joints in the body. Articular ligaments are strong, elastic, and allow movement in only specific directions, depending on the individual joint.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Optic Flow: The continuous visual field seen by a subject through space and time.Space Perception: The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.Volar Plate: A thick, fibrocartilaginous ligament at the metacarpophalageal joint.Tectorial Membrane: A membrane, attached to the bony SPIRAL LAMINA, overlying and coupling with the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI in the inner ear. It is a glycoprotein-rich keratin-like layer containing fibrils embedded in a dense amorphous substance.Bone Nails: Rods of bone, metal, or other material used for fixation of the fragments or ends of fractured bones.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Joint Prosthesis: Prostheses used to partially or totally replace a human or animal joint. (from UMDNS, 1999)Form Perception: The sensory discrimination of a pattern shape or outline.Transplant Donor Site: The body location or part from which tissue is taken for TRANSPLANTATION.Splints: Rigid or flexible appliances used to maintain in position a displaced or movable part or to keep in place and protect an injured part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Lateral Ventricles: Cavity in each of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES derived from the cavity of the embryonic NEURAL TUBE. They are separated from each other by the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM, and each communicates with the THIRD VENTRICLE by the foramen of Monro, through which also the choroid plexuses (CHOROID PLEXUS) of the lateral ventricles become continuous with that of the third ventricle.Nitroglycerin: A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.Musculocutaneous Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. The fibers of the musculocutaneous nerve originate in the lower cervical spinal cord (usually C5 to C7), travel via the lateral cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to the upper arm, elbow, and forearm.Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Radiography, Interventional: Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are invasive or surgical in nature, and require the expertise of a specially trained radiologist. In general, they are more invasive than diagnostic imaging but less invasive than major surgery. They often involve catheterization, fluoroscopy, or computed tomography. Some examples include percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, percutaneous transthoracic biopsy, balloon angioplasty, and arterial embolization.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: A species of GREEN ALGAE. Delicate, hairlike appendages arise from the flagellar surface in these organisms.Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A family of percutaneous techniques that are used to manage CORONARY OCCLUSION, including standard balloon angioplasty (PERCUTANEOUS TRANSLUMINAL CORONARY ANGIOPLASTY), the placement of intracoronary STENTS, and atheroablative technologies (e.g., ATHERECTOMY; ENDARTERECTOMY; THROMBECTOMY; PERCUTANEOUS TRANSLUMINAL LASER ANGIOPLASTY). PTCA was the dominant form of PCI, before the widespread use of stenting.Elbow Prosthesis: Replacement for an elbow joint.Upper Extremity Deformities, Congenital: Congenital structural abnormalities of the UPPER EXTREMITY.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Bone Diseases, DevelopmentalArtifacts: Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.Manometry: Measurement of the pressure or tension of liquids or gases with a manometer.Torsion Abnormality: An abnormal twisting or rotation of a bodily part or member on its axis.Spatial Behavior: Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.Radiation ProtectionElasticity Imaging Techniques: Non-invasive imaging methods based on the mechanical response of an object to a vibrational or impulsive force. It is used for determining the viscoelastic properties of tissue, and thereby differentiating soft from hard inclusions in tissue such as microcalcifications, and some cancer lesions. Most techniques use ultrasound to create the images - eliciting the response with an ultrasonic radiation force and/or recording displacements of the tissue by Doppler ultrasonography.Hemolytic Plaque Technique: A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)Fourier Analysis: Analysis based on the mathematical function first formulated by Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier in 1807. The function, known as the Fourier transform, describes the sinusoidal pattern of any fluctuating pattern in the physical world in terms of its amplitude and its phase. It has broad applications in biomedicine, e.g., analysis of the x-ray crystallography data pivotal in identifying the double helical nature of DNA and in analysis of other molecules, including viruses, and the modified back-projection algorithm universally used in computerized tomography imaging, etc. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Superior Colliculi: The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.Forelimb: A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)
spiralis - 5-7 radial spines. Ferocactus latispinus is fairly commonly cultivated as an ornamental plant. It blooms at an early ... latispinus - 9-15 radial spines, Devil's Tongue Barrel or Crow's Claw Cactus. Ferocactus latispinus subsp. ... Two subspecies are recognised, differing in their number of radial spines. Ferocactus latispinus subsp. ...
Other geological features on which radial drainage commonly develops are domes and laccoliths. On these features the drainage ... Radial drainage pattern. In a radial drainage system, the streams radiate outwards from a central high point. Volcanos ... The centripetal drainage system is similar to the radial drainage system, with the only exception is that they have streams ... In India the Amarkantak range and Ramgarh crater show the best example of radial drainage pattern. ...
Volcanoes usually display excellent radial drainage. Other geological features on which radial drainage commonly develops are ... The centripetal drainage system is similar to the radial drainage system, with the only exception that radial drainage flows ... In a radial drainage system, the streams radiate outwards from a central high point. ... ISBN 0-07-018780-0 (this author defines dendritic, trellis, rectangular, angular, radial, annular, centripetal and parallel ...
3) "Radial immunodiffusion" (photograph). Edvotek, Inc. 2017. Retrieved 2017-05-15. Immunodiffusion at the US National Library ... The commonly known types are 1. Single diffusion in one dimension (Oudin procedure) 2. Double diffusion in one dimension ( ... Oakley Fulthorpe procedure) 3. Single diffusion in two dimension (radial immunodiffusion) 4. Double diffusion in two dimensions ...
... is commonly known as the bent-nosed clam or bent-nose Macoma. It is commonly misidentified as either Macoma tersa ... This rounded clam has no radial ribs. Archaeological data supports the use of this species by Native Americans such as the ... Macoma nasuta, commonly known as the bent-nosed clam, is a species of bivalve found along the Pacific Ocean coast of North ...
The radial pulse is commonly measured using three fingers. This has a reason: the finger closest to the heart is used to ... Radial pulse: located on the lateral of the wrist (radial artery). It can also be found in the anatomical snuff box. Ulnar ... A thick radial artery which is palpable 7.5-10 cm up the forearm is suggestive of arteriosclerosis. In coarctation of aorta, ... This invasive technique has been commonly used in intensive care since the 1970s. The rate of the pulse is observed and ...
The Scrophulariaceae is a family of flowering plants, commonly known as the figwort family. The plants are annual and perennial ... Flowers have bilateral (zygomorphic) or rarely radial (actinomorphic) symmetry. Members of the Scrophulariaceae have a ...
The pulse is commonly taken at the wrist (radial artery). Alternative sites include the elbow (brachial artery), the neck ( ... Multimodal monitors that simultaneously measure and display the relevant vital parameters are commonly integrated into the ... Monitoring of vital parameters most commonly include at least blood pressure and heart rate, and preferably also pulse oximetry ...
Radial systems are commonly used in rural or suburban areas. Radial systems usually include emergency connections where the ... Distribution networks are divided into two types, radial or network. A radial system is arranged like a tree where each ...
Though comparatively robust, the pars tensa is the region more commonly associated with[vague] perforations. ... The middle fibrous layer, containing radial, circular, and parabolic fibers, encloses the handle of malleus. ...
... radial in structure, surface smooth to hispid or rugose; aperture an interiomarginal, extraumbilical-umbilical arch commonly ... radial, straight or curved; wall calcareous, finely perforate, ...
Injury to Erb's point is commonly sustained at birth or from a fall onto the shoulder. The nerve roots normally involved are C5 ... through the radial nerve); and the deltoid (through the axillary nerve). The effect is called "Erb's palsy". Typically, an ...
In cases with such a difference, radial shortening is commonly performed. In this procedure, the radius (the lateral long bone ... Depending on the surgeon, the procedure may be performed the same way as the radial shortening where a small section is removed ... For instance, some patients have had casting, bone graft, radial shortening, proximal row carpectomy, and wrist fusion, all on ...
The primary aperture is commonly on the interior margin and secondary apertures are commonly along the sutures. Apertures may ... Test walls are composed of optically radial calcite. The Asterigerinacea range from the Cretaceous to Recent, the oldest family ...
It is commonly found in the form of spherules of radial fibers. It was first described for an occurrence in the Christmas ...
Commonly it has radial inflorescence, however it rarely also has terminal inflorescence. It is edible. , Sakai, S.; H. ...
It also has an unusually high radial velocity at 83 km/second. Though older than the Sun, it is similar in many ways; its mass ... In photometric observations of Epsilon, an unusual variable, Lambda Aurigae is commonly used as a comparison star. It is ... Though its proper motion is just 0.02 arcseconds per year, it has a radial velocity of 10.5 miles (16.9 km) per second in ... Discovered in 2007 from radial velocity measurements, it orbits at a distance of 0.24 AU with a period of 36.96 days. HD 43691 ...
Radial inclination - It is the angle between a line drawn from the radial styloid to the medial end of the articular surface of ... Distal radius fractures are common. They represent between 25% and 50% of all broken bones. They occur most commonly in ... depression of the radial styloid, and confirming the position the screws at the radial side of the distal end radius. Meanwhile ... radial styloid). Shortening of radial length more than 4mm is associated with wrist pain. ...
They most commonly occur in children between ages 5-8, because remodeling of bone in this age group causes a decreased ... and the presence of a palpable radial pulse. Limb vascular status is categorized as "normal," "pulseless with a (warm, pink) ... The mostly commonly injured nerve is the median nerve (specifically, the anterior interosseous portion of the median nerve). ... Osteochondral defects, intra-articular loose bodies, and avascular necrosis of the capitulum Instability Most commonly brachial ...
Centrifugal-flow waterjet designs make use of radial flow to create water pressure. Centrifugal designs are not commonly used ... Pressure is developed by both diffusion and radial outflow. Mixed flow designs produce lower volumes of water at high velocity ...
This is the most commonly used measurement system for measuring water supply in houses. The fluid, most commonly water, enters ... A single jet meter consists of a simple impeller with radial vanes, impinged upon by a single jet. They are increasing in ... Rotameters are available for a wide range of liquids but are most commonly used with water or air. They can be made to reliably ... The original Pelton wheels were used for the generation of power and consisted of a radial flow turbine with "reaction cups" ...
Instead of the radial distance, geographers commonly use altitude above or below some reference surface, which may be the sea ... The radial distance is also called the radius or radial coordinate. The polar angle may be called colatitude, zenith angle, ... and commonly designated φ. The azimuth angle (longitude), commonly denoted by λ, is measured in degrees east or west from some ... The unit for radial distance is usually determined by the context. When the system is used for physical three-space, it is ...
Some have two radial cutting edges. Center bits do not cut well in the end grain of wood. The central screw tends to pull out, ... Bits are commonly available in sizes from 8-50 mm (0.3-2.0 in) diameter. Sawtooth bits are available up to 100 mm (4 in) ... A radial cutting edge planes the wood from the base of the hole. In this version, there is minimal or no spiral to remove chips ... Forstner bits have radial cutting edges to plane off the material at the bottom of the hole. The bit in the image has two ...
The common name refers to the cross-shaped pattern revealed when the stem is cut; this pattern results from four radial wedges ... Bignonia capreolata is a vine commonly referred to as crossvine. ...
Dead individuals are commonly found with their empty test devoid of all surface material and bleached white by sunlight. The ... The test consists of calcium carbonate plates arranged in a fivefold radial pattern. In living individuals, the test is covered ... Christian missionaries found symbolism in the fivefold radial pattern and dove-shaped internal structures. "Aristotle's lantern ... bodies of adult sand dollars, like those of other echinoids, display radial symmetry. The petal-like pattern in sand dollars ...
This method is commonly used to separate organelles and membranes found in cells. Organelles generally differ from each other ... 6] the applied centrifugation field is square angular velocity in radians per sec .the radial distance o the particle from the ...
Radial and ulnar CNAPs, SNCVs, and CDPs were consistently recorded in all birds. Variable results might indicate that the ... Surgical procedures of the wing are commonly performed in companion, captive, and wild avian species. To develop a clinically ... Radial and ulnar CNAPs, SNCVs, and CDPs were consistently recorded in all birds. Variable results might indicate that the ... Radial and ulnar CNAPs, SNCVs, and CDPs were consistently recorded in all birds. Variable results might indicate that the ...
Most commonly, they present with a wrist drop. The pattern of clinical involvement i... more ... Radial neuropathies result from injury due to penetrating wounds or fractures of the arm, compression, or ischemia. ... encoded search term (What is radial mononeuropathy?) and What is radial mononeuropathy? What to Read Next on Medscape. Related ... Compression of the radial nerve at the elbow by a ganglion: two case reports. J Med Case Reports. 2009 Jun 5. 3:7258. [Medline] ...
Other geological features on which radial drainage commonly develops are domes and laccoliths. On these features the drainage ... Radial drainage pattern. In a radial drainage system, the streams radiate outwards from a central high point. Volcanos ... The centripetal drainage system is similar to the radial drainage system, with the only exception is that they have streams ... In India the Amarkantak range and Ramgarh crater show the best example of radial drainage pattern. ...
3. Radial Dysplasia s/s include:. a. Short forearm & stiff elbow. b. Short lower leg & normal or varus foot. c. short leg w/ ... Presents/Diagnose: Most commonly on the ulnar side of the hand; African Americans mostly; may be associated with a syndrome in ... Radial Dysplasia. Lower Extremities:. Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip. Congenital Absence of the Tibia or Fibula. Genu ... Radial Dysplasia. Risks: Inherited or sporadic; Thalidomide, intrauterine compression; Associated with Holt-Oram, VATER, ...
Both branches can be compressed commonly by repeatedly twisting your forearm.. Radial tunnel syndrome. The superficial branch ... Radial nerve compression. Near your elbow, the radial nerve branches into the posterior interosseous and superficial nerves. ... The radial nerve becomes more superficial near your wrist. The symptoms are numbness and tingling on the top of the thumb side ... Radial tunnel syndrome symptoms. The superficial branch is a sensory nerve. Its not very deep, so its easily compressed by ...
It is located between the hand and forearm on the radial side (the side with the thumb). It is about the size and shape of a ... Nonetheless, it is the most commonly fractured bone of the wrist. Fractures of the scaphoid often occur during sporting ... The radial styloid process is a conical bump located on the radius, a bone of the lower arm. The radial carpal collateral ... Radial carpal collateral ligament. Radial carpal collateral ligament. Medically reviewed by Healthlines Medical Network on ...
Four Procedures Commonly Used in Refractive Eye Surgery One of the first things pu... ... Free essay on Four Procedures Commonly Used In Refractive Eye Surgery. ... Radial Keratotomy. First studied in Japan by Dr. Sato, radial keratotomy (RK) has been researched for several decades. The ... Four Procedures Commonly Used in Refractive Eye Surgery One of the first things put on in the morning and one of the last ...
Most commonly, radial hypoplasia, brachysyndactyly, or brachydactyly. Type VI - Constriction band syndromes, as follows:. See ... The radial artery is usually absent. The anlage may restrict growth on the radial side such that ulnar dislocation occurs at ... The spectrum of radial longitudinal deficiency: a modified classification. J Hand Surg Am. 1999 Nov. 24(6):1145-55. [Medline]. ... Radial head dislocation may limit elbow function. Function at the wrist is generally good, and the ulnar nerve is usually ...
It is now 25 years since the radial artery (RA) was reintroduced in coronary surgery. It has evolved into being a significant ... LITA-RA Y grafts are also commonly used [7, 14]. They are especially useful for anaortic off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB ... Radial artery and saphenous vein patency more than 5 years after coronary artery bypass surgery: results from the RAPS (Radial ... Revival of the radial artery for coronary artery bypass grafting. Ann Thorac Surg. 1992;54:652-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
We describe fourteen patients who underwent implant removal after failed radial head arthroplasty. Methods: A retrospective ... Conclusions: Implant removal for failed radial head arthroplasty improves range of motion and demonstrates acceptable outcomes ... Failure after radial head arthroplasty is uncommon, but clinically significant. Treatment for failure may involve implant ... Radial head arthroplasty is commonly performed acutely as a treatment for radial head fractures that are not amenable to ...
what is the most commonly measured pulse rate?. radial pulse. which thermometers usually have digital readouts and are handheld ...
Most commonly, electric motors are of a radial flux type. To a far lesser extent, some electric motors are implemented as ... Such a configuration is referred to herein as "radial gap.". With reference now to FIG. 3 A, a flux switch 352 in a commutated ... 6A-6C, 7A-7C, 8A-8C, 9A-9B, and 10 illustrate radial gap configurations. Other exemplary embodiments, including but not limited ... 2B illustrates an exemplary radial gap configuration in accordance with an exemplary embodiment; ...
Finally, a radial network tensile crack is observed because of the composition and thermal property differences in the ... Blasting and mechanical rock fragmentation methods are commonly used for such construction. The blasting method can cause ... The crack morphology presented a radial network. 1. Introduction. Many underground construction developments have been built in ... and finally presenting as a radial network tension crack.(3)The microwave damage effects differed under different microwave ...
The radial artery is commonly used for coronary grafting. Lack of awareness of this variant of the radial artery, as seen in ... The radial artery runs along the lateral part of the front of the forearm by the side of the superficial branch of the radial ... However, the radial artery crossed the ulnar artery and median nerve in the arm, in contrast to our case, in which the radial ... Thus, the radial and ulnar arteries arise at the same level. In this case, the proximal origin of the radial artery fails to ...
Commonly a concern with the elbow. Nothing seen overtly on radiographic imaging including CT sometimes. MRI/NM will usually ... Adults: radial head fx. Children: supracondylar fx. Children dont lie or fake guarding their extremities, err on side of ... Subclavian to as much radial/ulnar arteries as is able to be visualized, includes axillary and brachial. Common femoral vein/ ...
Computed Tomography (CT) scans are commonly used in the workup of radial head fractures. Associated lesions are common and can ... "Failure of metal radial head replacement". JBJS-Br. vol. 92. 2010. pp. 661-7. (A metal radial head replacement was removed in ... The Mason classification is most commonly used. Radial head fractures are classified based on number of fragments and ... The radial head will be painful to palpation. Pressure on the radial head, while the forearm is rotated may accentuate this ...
Isolated radial head dislocation in an adult: case report and review of the literature. J R Coll Surg Edinb. 1997 Jun. 42(3): ... Dislocations occur more commonly in adults, since the same force in children more often results in a supracondylar fracture of ... Isolated radial head dislocation in an adult: case report and review of the literature. J R Coll Surg Edinb. 1997 Jun. 42(3): ... Isolated radial head dislocation in an adult: case report and review of the literature. J R Coll Surg Edinb. 1997 Jun. 42(3): ...
Radial growth goes up during a pulse of stripping, presumably due to reduced cambial carbon sink, with no change in roots. ... Generally: is there a way to make the software accept longer HTML addies? I commonly cant link because the address is too long ... Generally: is there a way to make the software accept longer HTML addies? I commonly cant link because the address is too long ... My reading of the literature is that nobody knows, but temp and moisture availability are the strong determinants in radial ...
Radial basis neural network optimization using fruit fly - M. Tech. CSE Anurag Rana - Masterarbeit - Informatik - Künstliche ... They are commonly used in networks trained with back propagation. The networks referred to in this work are generally back ... radial Preis (Buch) US$ 48,90 Preis (eBook) US$ 30,99 Arbeit zitieren. M. Tech. CSE Anurag Rana (Autor), 2014, Radial basis ... 2.3.3 Radial Basis Net. 2.4 Learning Methods. 2.4.1 Supervised Learning. 2.4.2 Unsupervised learning. 2.5 Neural Network ...
spiralis - 5-7 radial spines. Ferocactus latispinus is fairly commonly cultivated as an ornamental plant. It blooms at an early ... latispinus - 9-15 radial spines, Devils Tongue Barrel or Crows Claw Cactus. Ferocactus latispinus subsp. ... Two subspecies are recognised, differing in their number of radial spines. Ferocactus latispinus subsp. ...
In particular, it is commonly used in support vector machine classification. The RBF kernel on two samples x and x, ... Gaussian function Kernel (statistics) Polynomial kernel Radial basis function Radial basis function network Chang, Yin-Wen; ... In machine learning, the (Gaussian) radial basis function kernel, or RBF kernel, is a popular kernel function used in various ...
Life histories commonly involve alternation of a very small polyp, the scyphistoma, with a medusa, which develops from… ... cnidarian: Annotated classification: Suborder Trachymedusae Smooth bell margin; gonads on radial canals arising from the ... history of logic: Developments in the 13th and early 14th centuries: …Tractatus more commonly known as Summulae logicales (" ... Anatosaurus, (genus Anatosaurus), bipedal duck-billed dinosaurs (hadrosaurs) of the Late Cretaceous Period, commonly found as ...
Though comparatively robust, the pars tensa is the region more commonly associated with[vague] perforations. ... The middle fibrous layer, containing radial, circular, and parabolic fibers, encloses the handle of malleus. ...
Radial view is used to accommodate the higher concentrations. Includes trace elements Mn, Fe, and Al that are commonly in high ... Detection limits are commonly a magnitude lower than in radial view mode. ... Radial - Generally used for elements in appreciable concentrations or when ICP is run in robust conditions. Detection limits ... Metals that are commonly found in higher concentrations. ...
Commonly recommended medications include beta blockers, calcium channel blockers and tricyclic antidepressants.. PULSE NO ... Raynauds phenomenon in radial forearm free-tissue transfer. (Original Article). Variation in nonchronic therapy classes was ... Benoff has for many years investigated whether calcium channel blockers commonly prescribed for high blood pressure and heart ...
UlnarSurgicalFractureFracturesFailed radial headPalsyStyloidKeratotomySpinesTunnel syndromeDorsalTangentialComplicationsSensoryEntrapmentPosteriorRadiusTendinopathySynovitisSyndromeNervesSymptomsAnomaliesThumbMedialLigamentVariationHeadSpiral grooveNeckTendonCompressionAcuteOptimizationAxialOccursMedian nervePatientsMethodsAggregates
- With the axillary approach, radial and ulnar compound nerve action potentials (CNAP), sensory nerve conduction velocities (SNCVs), and cord dorsum potentials (CDPs) were recorded after distal sensory nerve stimulation. (elsevier.com)
- Radial and ulnar CNAPs, SNCVs, and CDPs were consistently recorded in all birds. (elsevier.com)
- Radial neuropathies can occur from surgical procedures such as humeral nailing performed to stabilize an acute humeral fracture. (medscape.com)
- Bishop J, Ring D. Management of radial nerve palsy associated with humeral shaft fracture: a decision analysis model. (medscape.com)
- The radial head is an important stabilizer of the elbow joint, and instability may develop after radial head fracture. (scirp.org)
- In addition, radial head arthroplasty is often undertaken to treat the late sequelae of radial head fracture including nonunion, malunion, and/or post-traumatic arthritis. (scirp.org)
- A direct impact may also cause the radial head to fracture. (renalandurologynews.com)
- Radial head fractures can be isolated or as part of a more complex elbow fracture pattern. (renalandurologynews.com)
- Plain radiographs are usually sufficient to diagnose a radial head fracture (Figure 1). (renalandurologynews.com)
- Non-displaced fractures are often not readily visible but a posterior fat pad sign is pathognomonic for a haemarthrosis and an indirect sign of a non-displaced radial head fracture. (renalandurologynews.com)
- Anteroposterior radiograph of a minimally displaced radial head fracture. (renalandurologynews.com)
- 3D computed tomography showing a displaced radial head fracture with an associated coronoid fracture. (renalandurologynews.com)
- A mechanical block to motion, as well as displacement of the fracture fragments, are indications for surgery in isolated radial head fractures. (renalandurologynews.com)
- In these cases the radial head fracture should be evaluated for stability of the fragment and it may be indicated to fix a radial head fracture, even if there is minimal displacement. (renalandurologynews.com)
- Depending on the type of fracture, radial head fractures can be approached through an open or an arthroscopic technique. (renalandurologynews.com)
- The patient also had a nondisplaced radial head fracture. (medscape.com)
- Dislocations occur more commonly in adults, since the same force in children more often results in a supracondylar fracture of the distal humerus. (medscape.com)
- Tip or small anterolateral fractures may occur in association with "terrible triad" injuries of the elbow, with concomitant radial head fracture and posterolateral instability. (renalandurologynews.com)
- Elbow fracture-dislocations with a concomitant radial head fracture should be assumed to have a coronoid fracture until proven otherwise. (renalandurologynews.com)
- The use of allograft radial head as a replacement is indicated when the fracture extends into the radial neck. (livestrong.com)
- A fall onto an outstretched hand can lead to a scaphoid fracture, which is the most commonly fractured carpal bone. (aafp.org)
- In women, the incidence of distal radial fracture increases with age from 40 years. (physio-pedia.com)
- Before 40 years, the incidence of distal radial fracture is much higher in men. (physio-pedia.com)
- Dorsal displacement, dorsal angulation, dorsal comminution and radial shortening may all be used to describe the presentation of the fracture. (physio-pedia.com)
- This type of fracture commonly occurs when someone punches a hard surface with a closed fist in which the little finger knuckle makes contact first. (emoryhealthcare.org)
- A fracture of the distal end of the radius, the end of the bone near the wrist, is the most commonly broken bone of the wrist. (emoryhealthcare.org)
- Distal radial fracture treatment options vary depending on the severity of the fracture. (emoryhealthcare.org)
- Radial neuropathies result from injury due to penetrating wounds or fractures of the arm, compression, or ischemia. (medscape.com)
- The management of humeral shaft fractures with associated radial nerve palsy: a review of 117 cases. (medscape.com)
- Radial nerve palsy associated with humeral shaft fractures. (medscape.com)
- Iatrogenic radial nerve palsy after operative management of humeral shaft fractures. (medscape.com)
- Radial head fractures are common and are the most common elbow fractures. (renalandurologynews.com)
- Computed Tomography (CT) scans are commonly used in the workup of radial head fractures. (renalandurologynews.com)
- Radial head fractures are classified based on number of fragments and displacement. (renalandurologynews.com)
- This chapter will focus on the approach to patients with traumatic orthopedic injuries, commonly fractures and dislocations. (saem.org)
- Primary treatment of radial head fractures can be non-operative if there is minimal displacement of the fragments. (livestrong.com)
- In more complicated fractures with more displacement and more bone fragments, screws and plates cannot adequately stabilize the elbow, and a replacement of the radial head may be indicated. (livestrong.com)
- Radial head fractures can occur along with other injuries to the soft tissues and bone of the wrist, forearm and elbow. (livestrong.com)
- Replacement of the radial head is usually reserved for severe fractures that are displaced or cannot be repaired with screws and/or plates. (livestrong.com)
- The AAOS Comprehensive Review says that for fractures of the radial head involving three or more fragments, radial head replacement should be considered as the surgical treatment. (livestrong.com)
- The majority of distal radial fractures are closed injuries in which the overlying skin remains intact . (physio-pedia.com)
- Distal radial fractures are one of the most common fractures of the upper extremity in adults, accounting for a sixth of all fractures in the emergency department. (physio-pedia.com)
- Distal radial fractures in younger adults are usually the result of a high-energy trauma such as a motor vehicle accident, fall from height or athletic participation . (physio-pedia.com)
- Distal radial fractures can be classified based on their clinical appearance and typical deformity. (physio-pedia.com)
- We describe fourteen patients who underwent implant removal after failed radial head arthroplasty. (scirp.org)
- Implant removal for failed radial head arthroplasty improves range of motion and demonstrates acceptable outcomes at intermediate-term follow up. (scirp.org)
- Treatment for failed radial head arthroplasty may entail either revision or removal of the implant. (scirp.org)
- To our knowledge, the outcome after failed radial head arthroplasty has not been described in the literature. (scirp.org)
- Therefore, the goal of this study was to describe the clinical outcome after implant removal for failed radial head arthroplasty. (scirp.org)
- The terms Saturday night palsy and honeymooner's palsy refer to the concept of placing one's arm over another chair, with the resultant pressure causing injury to the radial nerve. (medscape.com)
- What Are Some Radial Nerve Palsy Exercises? (reference.com)
- Radial nerve palsy has many causes including injuries, lead poisoning, pinching of the nerve, improper uses of crutches and pressure to the upper arm, as noted by the United States National Institutes of health's MedlinePlus. (reference.com)
- According to MedicineNet, the underlying medical symptoms of facial nerve paralysis, commonly known as Bell's palsy, are treated with steroid medications. (reference.com)
- The radial styloid process is a conical bump located on the radius, a bone of the lower arm. (healthline.com)
- The radial carpal collateral ligament connects the scaphoid bone and the radial styloid process. (healthline.com)
- Typically, patients will have intense pain over the lateral epicondyle that radiates distally and radially towards the radial styloid and thumb. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- Interestingly, it has been the experience of this author that the epicenter of painful stimulus can be located by taking 80% of the transepicondylar distance (the distance between the medial and lateral humeral epicondyles) and applying pressure at this distance from the lateral epicondyle pointing towards the radial styloid. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- Radial Keratotomy. (avsabonline.org)
- First studied in Japan by Dr. Sato, radial keratotomy (RK) has been researched for several decades. (avsabonline.org)
- In ore embodiment, the invention relates to methods and materials for improving the results obtainable in keratorefractive surgeries, such as radial keratotomy, by altering the course of healing of the surgical incisions. (google.ca)
- Radial Keratotomy , or RK as it is often called, is one of the oldest forms of refractive surgery. (preventblindness.org)
- Two subspecies are recognised, differing in their number of radial spines. (wikipedia.org)
- latispinus - 9-15 radial spines, Devil's Tongue Barrel or Crow's Claw Cactus. (wikipedia.org)
- spiralis - 5-7 radial spines. (wikipedia.org)
- Radial spines number 35 to 40 and form a dense network mostly concealing the globular bodies. (huntington.org)
- Radial tunnel syndrome happens when the radial nerve is squeezed where it passes through a tunnel near the elbow. (eorthopod.com)
- The symptoms of radial tunnel syndrome are very similar to the symptoms of tennis elbow ( lateral epicondylitis ). (eorthopod.com)
- There are very few helpful tests for radial tunnel syndrome, which can make it hard to diagnose. (eorthopod.com)
- Constant twisting movements of the arm, common in assembly work, can also pinch the radial nerve and lead to radial tunnel syndrome. (eorthopod.com)
- What does radial tunnel syndrome feel like? (eorthopod.com)
- The symptoms of radial tunnel syndrome are tenderness and pain on the outside of the elbow. (eorthopod.com)
- As in tennis elbow, pain from radial tunnel syndrome often starts near the lateral epicondyle . (eorthopod.com)
- One difference between radial tunnel syndrome and tennis elbow is the exact location of the pain. (eorthopod.com)
- In radial tunnel syndrome, the pain is centered about two inches further down the arm, over the spot where the radial nerve goes under the supinator muscle. (eorthopod.com)
- Radial tunnel syndrome may also cause a more achy type of pain or fatigue in the muscles of the forearm. (eorthopod.com)
- How will my doctor know I have radial tunnel syndrome? (eorthopod.com)
- The diagnosis of radial tunnel syndrome can be difficult. (eorthopod.com)
- Pinpointing the source of the pain will be most helpful in determining whether you have radial tunnel syndrome or tennis elbow. (eorthopod.com)
- Interestingly, compression of the posterior interossesous nerve (PIN) within the radial tunnel can cause two contrasting syndromes known as PIN syndrome and radial tunnel syndrome (RTS). (clinicaladvisor.com)
- Patients that present with symptoms of radial tunnel syndrome (RTS) can be difficult to evaluate. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- Skin sensation is not changed because the sensory portion of the radial nerve branches off above the elbow and does not enter the radial tunnel. (eorthopod.com)
- The radial nerve carries both motor and sensory nerve fibers from the brachial plexus into the distal forearm and hand. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- The posterior interosseous nerve also passes through several tight spots in your forearm near your elbow, including the radial tunnel. (healthline.com)
- Closed posterior dislocations are not commonly associated with neurovascular injury. (medscape.com)
- The radial nerve is a nerve in the human body that supplies the posterior portion of the upper limb. (wikipedia.org)
- The radial nerve originates as a terminal branch of the posterior cord of the brachial plexus . (wikipedia.org)
- The radial nerve originates from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus with root values of C5 to C8 and T1. (wikipedia.org)
- Above the radial sulcus, the radial nerve gives off posterior cutaneous nerve of the arm which supplies the skin at the back of the arm. (wikipedia.org)
- In the radial sulcus, it gives off lower lateral cutaneous nerve of the arm and posterior cutaneous nerve of the forearm . (wikipedia.org)
- The deep branch of the radial nerve (also known as posterior interosseous nerve by some authors) ) pierces the supinator muscle, winds around the radius under the cover of supinator to reach posterior of forearm where it again pierces supinator and after which it is known as the posterior interosseous nerve . (wikipedia.org)
- Of note, several genetic conditions with radial deficiency present also haematologic abnormalities (Diamond-Blackfan anaemia, Fanconi anaemia, TAR syndrome), some of which can be suspected with simple blood tests (although normal findings do not exclude the diagnosis). (cdc.gov)
- For example, Duane-radial ray syndrome is characterized by this eye disorder in conjunction with abnormalities of bones in the arms and hands. (medlineplus.gov)
- Less commonly, isolated Duane retraction syndrome can run in families. (medlineplus.gov)
- During its winding path there are multiple areas of compression that may impinge upon the radial nerve causing distinct symptoms depending on the point of compression. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- Once the practitioner suspects RTS, the most specific test used to identify its presence is the administration of a local corticosteroid into the radial tunnel with relief of symptoms. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- Nonhand anomalies were recorded in 23% of the children with congenital anomalies of the upper limb, most commonly in the lower limbs. (medscape.com)
- A study by Goldfarb et al of congenital upper limb anomalies in a group of Midwestern US patients found that of 480 extremities with a malformation, 62% had anomalies of the hand plate alone, with radial polydactyly (15%), symbrachydactyly (13%), and cleft hand (11%) being the most common of these. (medscape.com)
- Radial deficiencies are commonly associated with other anomalies such as in the VATER/VACTERL association, as well as several genetic syndromes. (cdc.gov)
- Krishnan KG, Schackert G. An analysis of results after selective tendon transfers through the interosseous membrane to provide selective finger and thumb extension in chronic irreparable radial nerve lesions. (medscape.com)
- It is located between the hand and forearm on the radial side (the side with the thumb). (healthline.com)
- A artéria radial se encontrava medialmente ao nervo mediano no braço e, então, no nível do epicôndilo medial, ela cruzava do lado medial para o lado lateral do antebraço, na superfície dos músculos flexores. (scielo.br)
- Radial nerve gives out muscular branches to supply the long head, medial head, and lateral head of triceps brachii muscles before and during its course in the radial sulcus. (wikipedia.org)
- On the front are added the medial and lateral condyles, the coronoid fossa, the radial fossa, and the capitulum. (hubpages.com)
- Missing ring analysis shows that tree radial growth at the uppermost treeline location is more sensitive to climate variation than that at other elevations, and poor tree radial growth is particularly linked to the occurrence of serious drought events. (jove.com)
- To test tree growth-sensitivity to temperature under different ambient CO 2 concentrations, we determined stem radial growth rates as they relate to variation in temperature during the last deglacial period, and compare these to modern tree growth rates as they relate to spatial variation in temperature across the modern species distributional. (usda.gov)
- Failure after radial head arthroplasty is uncommon, but clinically significant. (scirp.org)
- More commonly, metallic implants are used for radial head replacement. (scirp.org)
- Following Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval at our institution, a Current Procedure Terminology search was performed using the code 24,164 (implant removal, radial head). (scirp.org)
- Patients who underwent a removal of radial head arthroplasty from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 2014 were identified. (scirp.org)
- Patients who underwent revision radial head arthroplasty (i.e., replacement after removal) or who had follow up of less than 3 months were excluded. (scirp.org)
- The radial head will be painful to palpation. (renalandurologynews.com)
- Pressure on the radial head, while the forearm is rotated may accentuate this pain. (renalandurologynews.com)
- These fragments may be small and be initially believed to be a fragment from the radial head. (renalandurologynews.com)
- In a study of outcomes in the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (JBJS) of radial head arthroplasty by Dr. Ruby Grewal of St Joseph's Health Care of Ontario, Canada, it was found that most patients recover in six months with slightly more recovery over the next 18 months. (livestrong.com)
- Patients reported high satisfaction at both three months and two years post-operatively after radial head replacement. (livestrong.com)
- It is commonly believed that the radial nerve also provided motor innervation to the long head of the triceps. (wikipedia.org)
- However, a study conducted in 2004 found out that axillary nerve innervates the long head of triceps in 20 cadavers without any supply from radial nerve. (wikipedia.org)
- Probable component of the axonemal radial spoke head (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
- Distance (mm) from subcutaneous fascia to radial head measured by ultrasound. (humankinetics.com)
- The radial head in supination was significantly deeper than either pronation or midprone, indicating a smaller cam effect in supination. (humankinetics.com)
- The authors recommend that the effect of radial-head position and its relationship to the area of tendon pathology be considered clinically in the rehabilitation of patients suffering from lateral epicondylalgia. (humankinetics.com)
- At the elbow, an enlarged radial head often impedes forearm rotation. (pediatriconcall.com)
- Excision of the radial head may prove to be beneficial. (pediatriconcall.com)
- This article concludes that open reduction should be attempted unless dysmorphism of the radial head restricts it. (ingentaconnect.com)
- In acute necrotizing encephalopathy, axonal injury without demyelination, noted on biopsied brain tissue, was suggested by a decreased apparent diffusion coefficient, unchanged fractional anisotropy and decreased axial and radial diffusivity. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Whereas in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, an increased apparent diffusion coefficient, decreased fractional anisotropy, unchanged axial diffusivity and markedly increased radial diffusivity compatible with active inflammatory demyelination, were noted consistent with tissue biopsy neuropathology. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- This research presents the optimization of radial basis function (RBF) neural network by means of aFOA and establishment of network model, adopting it with the combination of the evaluation of the mean impact value (MIV) to select variables. (hausarbeiten.de)
- In addition, a radial movement optimization based maximum power point tracking control algorithm is designed, developed, and validated using the proposed system architecture under five different partial shading conditions. (mdpi.com)
- Recent studies have demonstrated that by an analytical approach to directional diffusivity derived parameters, the axial diffusivity and the radial diffusivity, one can assess the extent of axonal or myelin injury in the CNS white matter. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Spherical Radial Ball Bearing This kind of bearings can carry great radial load and a little axial load but is seldomly used to. (seekpart.com)
- Shobha N, Taly AB, Sinha S, Venkatesh T. Radial neuropathy due to occupational lead exposure: Phenotypic and electrophysiological characteristics of five patients. (medscape.com)
- Background The safety associated with radial access may translate into mortality benefit in higher-risk patients, such as those with STEMI. (onlinejacc.org)
- The radial approach may be preferred in STEMI patients when the operator has considerable radial experience. (onlinejacc.org)