Prostate: A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Prostatic Hyperplasia: Increase in constituent cells in the PROSTATE, leading to enlargement of the organ (hypertrophy) and adverse impact on the lower urinary tract function. This can be caused by increased rate of cell proliferation, reduced rate of cell death, or both.Androgens: Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Receptors, Androgen: Proteins, generally found in the CYTOPLASM, that specifically bind ANDROGENS and mediate their cellular actions. The complex of the androgen and receptor migrates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it induces transcription of specific segments of DNA.Prostatectomy: Complete or partial surgical removal of the prostate. Three primary approaches are commonly employed: suprapubic - removal through an incision above the pubis and through the urinary bladder; retropubic - as for suprapubic but without entering the urinary bladder; and transurethral (TRANSURETHRAL RESECTION OF PROSTATE).Androgen Antagonists: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of androgens.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Transurethral Resection of Prostate: Removal of all or part of the PROSTATE, often using a cystoscope and/or resectoscope passed through the URETHRA.Orchiectomy: The surgical removal of one or both testicles.Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A premalignant change arising in the prostatic epithelium, regarded as the most important and most likely precursor of prostatic adenocarcinoma. The neoplasia takes the form of an intra-acinar or ductal proliferation of secretory cells with unequivocal nuclear anaplasia, which corresponds to nuclear grade 2 and 3 invasive prostate cancer.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent: Certain tumors that 1, arise in organs that are normally dependent on specific hormones and 2, are stimulated or caused to regress by manipulation of the endocrine environment.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Prostatic Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PROSTATE or its component tissues.Dihydrotestosterone: A potent androgenic metabolite of TESTOSTERONE. It is produced by the action of the enzyme 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Tosyl CompoundsDigital Rectal Examination: A physical examination in which the qualified health care worker inserts a lubricated, gloved finger of one hand into the RECTUM and may use the other hand to press on the lower ABDOMEN or pelvic area to palpate for abnormalities in the lower rectum, and nearby organs or tissues. The method is commonly used to check the lower rectum, the PROSTATE gland in men, and the UTERUS and OVARIES in women.Finasteride: An orally active 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE inhibitor. It is used as a surgical alternative for treatment of benign PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Neoplasm Grading: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.Androgen Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and inhibit the activation of ANDROGEN RECEPTORS.Prostatitis: Infiltration of inflammatory cells into the parenchyma of PROSTATE. The subtypes are classified by their varied laboratory analysis, clinical presentation and response to treatment.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Brachytherapy: A collective term for interstitial, intracavity, and surface radiotherapy. It uses small sealed or partly-sealed sources that may be placed on or near the body surface or within a natural body cavity or implanted directly into the tissues.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE. They are commonly used to reduce the production of DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE.Seminal Vesicles: A saclike, glandular diverticulum on each ductus deferens in male vertebrates. It is united with the excretory duct and serves for temporary storage of semen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)AnilidesNeoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Castration: Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.Watchful Waiting: Clinical management approach wherein immediate therapy is not provided but there is a period of observation during which periodic tests monitor patient and the progression of the illness. (Driffield T, Smith PC Med Decis Making. 2007 Mar-Apr;27(2):178-88)Flutamide: An antiandrogen with about the same potency as cyproterone in rodent and canine species.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal: Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Metribolone: A synthetic non-aromatizable androgen and anabolic steroid. It binds strongly to the androgen receptor and has therefore also been used as an affinity label for this receptor in the prostate and in prostatic tumors.Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Azasteroids: Steroidal compounds in which one or more carbon atoms in the steroid ring system have been substituted with nitrogen atoms.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Glutamate Carboxypeptidase II: A metallocarboxypeptidase that is predominantly expressed as a membrane-bound enzyme. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of an unsubstituted, C-terminal glutamyl residue, typically from PTEROYLPOLYGLUTAMIC ACIDS. It was formerly classified as EC 126.96.36.199.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.3-Oxo-5-alpha-Steroid 4-Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of TESTOSTERONE to 5-ALPHA DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE.Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE which can grow in the presence of low or residual amount of androgen hormones such as TESTOSTERONE.Cholestenone 5 alpha-Reductase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of 3-oxo-delta4 steroids into their corresponding 5alpha form. It plays an important role in the conversion of TESTOSTERONE into DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE and PROGESTERONE into DIHYDROPROGESTERONE.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Testosterone Congeners: Steroidal compounds related to TESTOSTERONE, the major mammalian male sex hormone. Testosterone congeners include important testosterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with androgenic activities.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.PTEN Phosphohydrolase: A lipid phosphatase that acts on phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate to regulate various SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. It modulates CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL MIGRATION; and APOPTOSIS. Mutations in PTEN are associated with COWDEN DISEASE and PROTEUS SYNDROME as well as NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.Androgen-Binding Protein: Carrier proteins produced in the Sertoli cells of the testis, secreted into the seminiferous tubules, and transported via the efferent ducts to the epididymis. They participate in the transport of androgens. Androgen-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as SEX HORMONE-BINDING GLOBULIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Radiotherapy, Conformal: Radiotherapy where there is improved dose homogeneity within the tumor and reduced dosage to uninvolved structures. The precise shaping of dose distribution is achieved via the use of computer-controlled multileaf collimators.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Cell Growth Processes: Processes required for CELL ENLARGEMENT and CELL PROLIFERATION.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Prostatic Secretory Proteins: Proteins secreted by the prostate gland. The major secretory proteins from the human prostate gland include PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN, prostate-specific acid phosphatase, prostate-specific membrane antigen, and prostate-specific protein-94.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Anticarcinogenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.Racemases and Epimerases: Enzymes that catalyze inversion of the configuration around an asymmetric carbon in a substrate having one (racemase) or more (epimerase) center(s) of asymmetry. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.1.Rectum: The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation, and duration of irradiation in radiotherapy.Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated: CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY that combines several intensity-modulated beams to provide improved dose homogeneity and highly conformal dose distributions.Estramustine: A nitrogen mustard linked to estradiol, usually as phosphate; used to treat prostatic neoplasms; also has radiation protective properties.Androstenols: Unsaturated androstanes which are substituted with one or more hydroxyl groups in any position in the ring system.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Taxoids: A group of diterpenoid CYCLODECANES named for the taxanes that were discovered in the TAXUS tree. The action on MICROTUBULES has made some of them useful as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.Early Detection of Cancer: Methods to identify and characterize cancer in the early stages of disease and predict tumor behavior.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Phenylthiohydantoin: Thiohydantoin benzene derivative.Radiotherapy Dosage: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Gene Fusion: The GENETIC RECOMBINATION of the parts of two or more GENES resulting in a gene with different or additional regulatory regions, or a new chimeric gene product. ONCOGENE FUSION includes an ONCOGENE as at least one of the fusion partners and such gene fusions are often detected in neoplastic cells and are transcribed into ONCOGENE FUSION PROTEINS. ARTIFICIAL GENE FUSION is carried out in vitro by RECOMBINANT DNA technology.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Radiotherapy, Image-Guided: The use of pre-treatment imaging modalities to position the patient, delineate the target, and align the beam of radiation to achieve optimal accuracy and reduce radiation damage to surrounding non-target tissues.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Nomograms: Graphical representation of a statistical model containing scales for calculating the prognostic weight of a value for each individual variable. Nomograms are instruments that can be used to predict outcomes using specific clinical parameters. They use ALGORITHMS that incorporate several variables to calculate the predicted probability that a patient will achieve a particular clinical endpoint.Tissue Array Analysis: The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Image-Guided Biopsy: Conducting a biopsy procedure with the aid of a MEDICAL IMAGING modality.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Leuprolide: A potent synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE that regulates the synthesis and release of pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Nitriles: Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Goserelin: A synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE. Goserelin is used in treatments of malignant NEOPLASMS of the prostate, uterine fibromas, and metastatic breast cancer.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Erectile Dysfunction: The inability in the male to have a PENILE ERECTION due to psychological or organ dysfunction.Kallikreins: Proteolytic enzymes from the serine endopeptidase family found in normal blood and urine. Specifically, Kallikreins are potent vasodilators and hypotensives and increase vascular permeability and affect smooth muscle. They act as infertility agents in men. Three forms are recognized, PLASMA KALLIKREIN (EC 188.8.131.52), TISSUE KALLIKREIN (EC 184.108.40.206), and PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN (EC 220.127.116.11).Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Glutathione S-Transferase pi: A glutathione transferase that catalyzes the conjugation of electrophilic substrates to GLUTATHIONE. This enzyme has been shown to provide cellular protection against redox-mediated damage by FREE RADICALS.Urogenital System: All the organs involved in reproduction and the formation and release of URINE. It includes the kidneys, ureters, BLADDER; URETHRA, and the organs of reproduction - ovaries, UTERUS; FALLOPIAN TUBES; VAGINA; and CLITORIS in women and the testes; SEMINAL VESICLES; PROSTATE; seminal ducts; and PENIS in men.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Urology: A surgical specialty concerned with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases of the urinary tract in both sexes, and the genital tract in the male. Common urological problems include urinary obstruction, URINARY INCONTINENCE, infections, and UROGENITAL NEOPLASMS.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.United StatesCell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Radiotherapy: The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Urination Disorders: Abnormalities in the process of URINE voiding, including bladder control, frequency of URINATION, as well as the volume and composition of URINE.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Androstane-3,17-diol: The unspecified form of the steroid, normally a major metabolite of TESTOSTERONE with androgenic activity. It has been implicated as a regulator of gonadotropin secretion.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Urinary Retention: Inability to empty the URINARY BLADDER with voiding (URINATION).RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Clusterin: A highly conserved heterodimeric glycoprotein that is differentially expressed during many severe physiological disturbance states such as CANCER; APOPTOSIS; and various NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS. Clusterin is ubiquitously expressed and appears to function as a secreted MOLECULAR CHAPERONE.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Radiotherapy, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or programs used in accurate computations for providing radiation dosage treatment to patients.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Genitalia, Male: The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.SEER Program: A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)Oncogene Proteins, Fusion: The GENETIC TRANSLATION products of the fusion between an ONCOGENE and another gene. The latter may be of viral or cellular origin.Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase: A microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 17-alpha-hydroxylation of progesterone or pregnenolone and subsequent cleavage of the residual two carbons at C17 in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP17 gene, generates precursors for glucocorticoid, androgen, and estrogen synthesis. Defects in CYP17 gene cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL) and abnormal sexual differentiation.Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3: One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Interventional: Minimally invasive procedures guided with the aid of magnetic resonance imaging to visualize tissue structures.Fiducial Markers: Materials used as reference points for imaging studies.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Member 25: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype with specificity for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR LIGAND SUPERFAMILY MEMBER 15. It is found in tissues containing LYMPHOCYTES and may play a role in regulating lymphocyte homeostasis and APOPTOSIS. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Cyproterone Acetate: An agent with anti-androgen and progestational properties. It shows competitive binding with dihydrotestosterone at androgen receptor sites.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Carotenoids: The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Mice, Inbred C57BLLymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Biopsy, Large-Core Needle: The use of needles usually larger than 14-gauge to remove tissue samples large enough to retain cellular architecture for pathology examination.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Oncogene Fusion: The GENETIC RECOMBINATION of the parts of two or more GENES, including an ONCOGENE as at least one of the fusion partners. Such gene fusions are often detected in neoplastic cells and are transcribed into ONCOGENE FUSION PROTEINS.Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Selenium: An element with the atomic symbol Se, atomic number 34, and atomic weight 78.96. It is an essential micronutrient for mammals and other animals but is toxic in large amounts. Selenium protects intracellular structures against oxidative damage. It is an essential component of GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE.Molecular Targeted Therapy: Treatments with drugs which interact with or block synthesis of specific cellular components characteristic of the individual's disease in order to stop or interrupt the specific biochemical dysfunction involved in progression of the disease.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
In 2012, several of their colleagues were affected by prostate cancer and they were shocked to learn that prostate cancer kills ... "Cancer mortality for common cancers". www.cancerresearchuk.org. Cancer Research UK. 15 September 2014. Retrieved 24 April 2015 ... "Prostate cancer research 'lagging'". bbc.co.uk/news/. BBC News. 1 January 2013. Retrieved 24 April 2015. Prosser, David (2 ... is an award-winning craft beer brand and social enterprise, which gives all profits to the charity Prostate Cancer UK. Two ...
Laser vaporization of the prostate: common treatment. Transurethral microwave therapy (TUMT): similar to laser ablation, but ... Trans-urethral resection of the prostate (TURP): the gold standard. Transurethral incision of the prostate (TUIP): rarely ... However some of the newer methods for reducing the size of an enlarged prostate, have not been around long enough to fully ... This involves removing (part of) the prostate through the urethra. However, after this endoscopic surgery the ejaculations are ...
Common Questions About Chronic Prostatitis. Am Fam Physician. 2016 Feb 15;93(4):290-6. PMID 26926816 Nickel JC; Downey J; Young ... "Prostatitis: Benign Prostate Disease: Merck Manual Professional". Archived from the original on 28 April 2010. Retrieved 2010- ... Prostatitis at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Prostate, urethra, and seminal vesicles. The arteries of the pelvis. Male pelvic organs ... Diagnosis is through tests of semen, expressed prostatic secretion (EPS) or prostate tissue that reveal inflammation in the ...
Enlarged prostate is the most common cause of incontinence in men after the age of 40; sometimes prostate cancer may also be ... It is common with prostate cancer treatments. Both women and men can become incontinent from neurologic injury, congenital ... It is a common and distressing problem, which may have a large impact on quality of life. It is twice as common in women as in ... The most common types of urinary incontinence in women are stress urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. Women ...
Cryptorchidism is common, and carries with it a 50% risk of germ cell malignancy. If the testes are located intrascrotally, ... The prostate is typically small or impalpable. Müllerian remnants are rare, but have been reported. The gonads in individuals ... The urethra typically opens into a common channel with the vagina (i.e. urogenital sinus). Grade 5, the form of PAIS with the ... Pubertal undervirilization is common, including gynecomastia, decreased secondary terminal hair, and / or a high pitched voice ...
... may be a complication of prostate biopsy. Often, the prostate gland is very tender to palpation through the ... Common bacteria are Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Serratia, and ... penetration of the prostate is not as important as for category II because the intense inflammation disrupts the prostate-blood ... A prostate massage should never be done in a patient with suspected acute prostatitis, since it may induce sepsis. Since ...
Lymph nodes can be sampled through the same incision, although this procedure is not common place in the U.S. at this time. ... When the cancer is small and confined to the prostate, radical perineal prostatectomy achieves the same rate of cure as the ... Radical perineal prostatectomy is a surgical procedure wherein the prostate gland is removed through an incision in the area ... between the anus and the scrotum (perineum). It is typically performed to remove early prostate cancer. Radical perineal ...
It is also a marker for mouse prostate stem cells. In addition, mast cells, melanocytes in the skin, and interstitial cells of ... Common lymphoid progenitors (CLP) express low surface levels of CD117. CD117 also identifies the earliest thymocyte progenitors ... Leong KG, Wang BE, Johnson L, Gao WQ (October 2008). "Generation of a prostate from a single adult stem cell". Nature. 456 ( ... To be specific, hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), multipotent progenitors (MPP), and common myeloid progenitors (CMP) express ...
Concerns about overdiagnosis are common for breast and prostate cancer. Whether the test is acceptable to the patients:If a ... Follow up procedures used to diagnose prostate cancer (prostate biopsy) may cause side effects, including bleeding and ... recommends against prostate-specific antigen (PSA) based screening for prostate cancer finding, "there is a very small ... "Comparative Effectiveness of Alternative Prostate-Specific Antigen-Based Prostate Cancer Screening Strategies: Model Estimates ...
"Strategy Might Thwart Resistance to a Common Prostate Cancer Treatment". healthday.com. January 7, 2015. Retrieved November 16 ... "Winning the Prostate Cancer War". menshealth.com. April 26, 2017. Retrieved November 16, 2017. "Samuel Denmeade". pcf.org. ... "Prostate cancer testosterone". jhu.edu. Retrieved November 16, 2017. "Samuel Denmeade". scholar.google.com. Retrieved November ... As a clinical oncologist Denmeade has been the lead investigator on clinical trials testing new hormone therapies for prostate ...
The two most common cancers are prostate cancer and breast cancer. The measles immunisation rate of 86% for one year olds is ... Pamporidis proposed a 2% special tax (1% for employers and 1% for employees) to finance a "mini-NHS". The three most common ...
Relation of parity with common carotid intima-media thickness among women of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP). Stroke ... prostate, and brain structures . Clinical MR reference parameters currently in use were derived from small, nonrepresentative ... Gallstone diseases are very common and 30% of all adults suffer from hepatic steatosis. The prevalence of arterial hypertension ... The West Pomeranian population indicate a high prevalence of common risk factors and diseases. Especially overweight and ...
... kidney and prostate. The use in prostate and renal cryoablation are the most common. Although sometimes applied in cryosurgery ... Prostate cryoablation is moderately effective but, as with any prostate removal process, also can result in impotence. Prostate ... The most common heart operations in which cryosurgery may be used in this way are mitral valve repairs and coronary artery ... The most common application of cryoablation is to ablate solid tumors found in the lung, liver, breast, ...
It is a common form of cancer occurring in the lung and prostate gland. Adenocarcinoma ("adeno" = "gland", "carcinoma" = cancer ... Acinar adenocarcinomas are the most common form of prostate gland malignancy. Travis, William D; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Muller- ... Randolph TL, Amin MB, Ro JY, Ayala AG (June 1997). "Histologic variants of adenocarcinoma and other carcinomas of prostate: ... although it is the second most common form in Eastern parts of Europe (after squamous cell carcinoma). Adenocarcinomas are ...
In males, it also supplies the prostate and the seminal vesicles. The branches to the prostate communicate with the ... It frequently arises in common with the middle rectal artery, and is distributed to the fundus of the bladder. ...
This apparent paradox can be resolved by noting that prostate cancer is very common. In autopsies, 80% of 80-year-old men have ... It is recommended that physicians screen for prostate cancer with a digital rectal exam and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ... Relative contraindications of testosterone include elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in men with a high risk of prostate ... Common side effects of testosterone include acne, swelling, and breast enlargement in men. Serious side effects may include ...
He died the next year in Hereford from prostate cancer aged 69. He was married twice, and had four children. In later life he ... He then became an infrequent attender at the House of Commons until his retirement in 1997. He was knighted in 1995. After his ...
Ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast is the most common precancer in women. Bowen's disease is a squamous carcinoma in situ ... High-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia is equivalent to CIS of the prostate. Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) of the ... by Jonathan [email protected], Keith [email protected], Theodore (2008). Common surgical diseases an algorithmic approach to problem solving ( ...
... s are somewhat more common in men who have prostate enlargement. The large prostate presses on the urethra and ... Position Is of Influence in Men with Prostate Enlargement. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". PLoS ONE. 9 (7): e101320. ...
They are more common in women than men. In women, they are the most common form of bacterial infection. Up to 10% of women have ... Other risk factors include diabetes, being uncircumcised, and having a large prostate. In children UTIs are associated with ... It is the most common cause of infection in this population, as well as the most common cause of hospitalization. Additionally ... The most common symptoms are burning with urination and having to urinate frequently (or an urge to urinate) in the absence of ...
Prostate: The most common form of carcinoma of the prostate is adenocarcinoma. Colon and rectum: Nearly all malignancies of the ... A history of cigarette smoking is the most common cause of large cell carcinoma. The term carcinoma has also come to encompass ... The UICC/AJCC TNM systems are most often used.[clarification needed] For some common tumors, however, classical staging methods ... Media related to Carcinoma at Wikimedia Commons Biology portal Medicine portal. ...
Loss of NKX3A protein expression is a common finding in human prostate carcinomas and prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. In ... Prostate cancer predominantly occurs in the peripheral zone of the human prostate, with fewer than 10% of cases found in the ... NKX3-1 is an androgen-regulated, prostate-specific homeobox gene whose expression is predominantly localized to prostate ... "Stabilization of the prostate-specific tumor suppressor NKX3.1 by the oncogenic protein kinase Pim-1 in prostate cancer cells ...
"Unnecessary imaging for the staging of low-risk prostate cancer is common". Urology. 77 (2): 274-8. doi:10.1016/j.urology. ... "Unnecessary Imaging for the Staging of Low-Risk Prostate Cancer Is Common". Ambulatory & Office Urology. Carlucci, John R.; ... He is a board-certified urologist specializing in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. Born and raised in the ... At the time of the interview, the gender rating for insurance premiums was common practice among health insurers, with ...
Osteomyelitis is also common (12-60% of cases). Other recurring sites of dissemination are the genitourinary tract (kidney, ... prostate, epididymis; collectively ca. 25% of cases) and the brain (3-10% of cases). An uncommon but very dangerous type of ... The skin is the most common organ affected, being the site of lesions in approximately 60% of cases. The signature image of ... Armstrong, CW; Jenkins, SR; Kaufman, L; Kerkering, TM; Rouse, BS; Miller GB, Jr (1987). "Common-source outbreak of ...
"Common sequence variants on 2p15 and Xp11.22 confer susceptibility to prostate cancer". Nature Genetics. 40 (3): 281-283. doi: ... Sequence variants of the chromosomal region Xp11.22 are also predicted to confer susceptibility to prostate cancer in humans. ...
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License and the GFDL; additional terms may apply. See ... Prostate - Rete testis - Scrotum - Seminal vesicles - Seminiferous tubules - Sertoli cell - Spermatic cord - Testicles (testes) ...
Prostatitis is an inflammation of the prostate gland, a common condition in adult males. Often caused by infection, prostatitis ... Besides pain when urinating, caused by prostate swelling, stimulation of nerves in the prostate gland may cause pain inthe ... Because the normal prostate secretions make up part of the semen, prostatitis may lower fertility by severely lowering the ... Even though it may be difficult for drugs to actually get into the inflamed prostate, most patients do quickly get better. If ...
... low comprehension of common terms used in prostate cancer treatment discussions [133,134]. Attention should also be paid to how ... Explain the diagnosis and treatment of benign prostate conditions and prostate cancer. ... reduction in prostate cancer risk was seen primarily for less fatal subtypes of prostate cancer that are often not treated [100 ... level of 3 or 4 ng/mL in men at high risk of prostate cancer (e.g., black race, first-degree relative with prostate cancer).. ...
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Prostate Cancer, Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Symptoms, BPH Prostate ... it was concluded that increased estradiol levels led to an enlarged prostate due to a rapid accumulation of cAMP, a common ... Have your prostate massaged regularly to keep its size in check. A prostate massage is performed by sticking two gloved fingers ... James Balch, noted prostate specialist, points out that men who have prostate problems, like BPH, typically always are ...
... helping reduce your risk of developing prostate cancer, a new study shows. ... Prostate Cancer Symptoms, PSA Test, Treatments. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men. Learn the signs and symptoms ... Common Eye Problems and Infections. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. All. Quizzes Diet and Nutrition Quiz. Heart Disease Quiz. ... Prostate Illustrion Browse through our medical image collection to see illustrations of human anatomy and physiology See Images ...
An international team of medical researchers has now found evidence linking prostate cancer to a common sexually transmitted ... Can a Common STD Cause Prostate Cancer?. By Marc Lallanilla 2014-05-20T19:10:41Z. Health ... Prostate cancer is the second-most common cancer among men in the United States, according to the American Cancer Society, and ... An international team of medical researchers has now found evidence linking prostate cancer to a common sexually transmitted ...
Listed are three common dog prostate problems: enlargement, inflammation and cancer. They should be taken seriously for they, ... Known as benign prostatic hyperplasia or BPH, this is the most common prostate ailment for non-neutered dogs. It is part of the ... Warning Signs of Prostate Problems As can be the case, the visible symptoms of prostate problems in dogs may be similar to ... Dog Prostate Cancer. Although relatively uncommon, dog prostate cancer can affect older dogs. It can strike neutered dogs as ...
... for prostate cancer may raise the risk for Alzheimers disease and says further research is needed. ... Popular in: Prostate / Prostate Cancer. * What are the most common causes of pelvic pain in men? ... Fast facts about prostate cancer *Other than skin cancer, prostate cancer is the most common cancer in American men ... "Common therapy for prostate cancer may raise risk of Alzheimers." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 8 Dec. 2015. Web. ...
Errors in clinical staging for localized prostate cancer appear to be common -- with widespread confusion about the use of ... Errors in clinical staging for localized prostate cancer appear to be common -- with widespread confusion about the use of ... Explain that errors in clinical staging for localized prostate cancer appear to be common -- with apparent widespread confusion ... For those men with prostate cancer found to have been staged incorrectly, the assigned clinical stage was too low 55.1% of the ...
Please explain its causes and treatments.A-Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy found in older men. Usually it is ... A-Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy found in older men. Usually it is discovered during a rectal examination as a ... Other indicators of prostate cancer are unexplained bone pain in the pelvis and lower spine, and bladder problems such as ... A) diseased tissue with no lumps to (B) lesions confined to the prostate capsule to (C) tumors that cover the outside of the ...
Some men with advanced prostate cancer may be more likely than previously thought to develop a more aggressive form of the ... "Aggressive Prostate Cancer Subtype More Common Than Expected was originally published by the National Cancer Institute." ... "The fact that nearly 20% [of men in the study] had this subtype is a surprise," said William Dahut, M.D., head of the Prostate ... That may be why this subtype is more prevalent in men who have received treatment than in men with newly diagnosed prostate ...
... helping reduce your risk of developing prostate cancer, a new study s ... Could Common Heart Meds Lower Prostate Cancer Risk?. FRIDAY, May 3, 2019 -- Good news for men: That blood pressure medication ... "Its known that some drugs concentrate in the prostate. Its possible theres some difference of the drugs to be able to act in ... Researchers found that a beta blocker called atenolol cut mens risk of intermediate-grade prostate cancer about in half, ...
... 25.08.2008. Hair on a mans head offers clues about versatility of ... Hormone therapy, a common treatment for men with advanced prostate cancer, generally keeps the cancer at bay for a year or two ... Further reports about: , Molecule , breast cancer , cancer cells , hormone therapy , prostate cancer , testosterone ... Mens risk from prostate cancer is about equal to womens risk from breast cancer: Each year, about the same number of men get ...
Common,Prostate,Cancer,Treatments,,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news, ... image.bio-medicine.org/img/Study-Compares-3-Common-Prostate-Cancer-Treatments-.gif alt=Study Compares 3 Common Prostate ... Study Compares 3 Common Prostate Cancer Treatments ...TUESDAY Jan. 31 (HealthDay News) -- Experts comparing three leading p... ... "Our analysis is one of the first to examine the quality of life and financial costs of these three very common prostate cancer ...
A new retrospective study of the health records of prostate cancer patients supports an association between androgen ... Common prostate cancer treatment linked to later dementia, researcher says. A new retrospective study of the health records of ... Common treatment for prostate cancer appears to double Alzheimers risk Short-circuiting the need for expensive clinical trials ... That study, published in September in The New England Journal of Medicine, revealed that prostate cancer patients randomized to ...
Do you suffer from prostate problems? Dont allow your doctor to push unnecessary treatments. These natural methods are just as ... While prostate cancer can be dangerous if it progresses beyond the prostate, survival rates for localized prostate cancer are ... Prostate cancer is the leading cancer in men after skin cancer. It is estimated that 1 out of every 6 men have prostate issues ... Is Prostate Cancer Really Dangerous? According to the National Cancer Institute, when cancer is confined to the prostate only, ...
Prostate cancer fears can be put to the rest with one simple dinnertime addition: Eat more mushrooms! And thats not all they ... Its just common mushrooms.. The study finds eating mushrooms twice a week could help cut the chance of prostate cancer by a ... You KNOW many prostate cancers are harmless. You are also well aware that many cases dont even need to be treated. ... Every week, close to 3,500 men are diagnosed with prostate cancer. Thats nearly 175,000 American men every year. ...
... identifying common genetic variants that confer risk of the disease is important. Here we report such a variant on chromosome ... A common variant associated with prostate cancer in European and African populations Nat Genet. 2006 Jun;38(6):652-8. doi: ... With the increasing incidence of prostate cancer, identifying common genetic variants that confer risk of the disease is ... This leads to a greater estimated PAR (16%) that may contribute to higher incidence of prostate cancer in African American men ...
... found that about 17 percent of these cancers belong to a deadlier subtype of metastatic prostate cancer. ... Study of prostate cancer in 202 men, whose cancers had spread and were resistant to standard treatment, ... Deadly Form of Advanced Prostate Cancer is Common, Calls for Distinct Treatment By Elizabeth Fernandez ... About one in 10 prostate cancers has spread beyond the prostate at the time of initial diagnosis and is more difficult to treat ...
... found that about 17 percent of these cancers belong to a deadlier subtype of metastatic prostate cancer. ... Study of prostate cancer in 202 men, whose cancers had spread and were resistant to standard treatment, ... Deadly Form of Advanced Prostate Cancer is Common, Calls for Distinct Treatment By Elizabeth Fernandez on July 09, 2018 ... Home > UCSF News Center > Deadly Form of Advanced Prostate Cancer is Common, Calls for Distinct Treatment ...
Peter Carroll, professor and chair of the UCSF Department of Urology, explains that prostate problems in men over 50 are common ... Understanding, Avoiding, and Managing Common Prostate Problems. 12/22/2018; 57 minutes ... Find out more including a new protocol for prostate cancer he helped pioneer, called active surveillance. Recorded on 10/23/ ...
Prostate problems can be quite common and range from inflammation to cancer. Learn more about common prostate-related ... Prostate Cancer Basics What Are Some Common Prostate Problems? Prostate Problems Can Range From Inflammation to Cancer By ... Prostate cancer develops in the prostate-a small gland that makes seminal fluid and is one of the most common types of cancer ... Prostate problems are fairly common in men of all ages, especially older men. Prostate problems can range from simple ...
To find sequence variants affecting prostate cancer (PCA) susceptibility in an unscreened Romanian population we use a genome- ... Profile of common prostate cancer risk variants in an unscreened Romanian population J Cell Mol Med. 2018 Mar;22(3):1574-1582. ... To find sequence variants affecting prostate cancer (PCA) susceptibility in an unscreened Romanian population we use a genome- ...
Not too long ago, the tumor was the absolute focus of the treatment and it was common to be shoehorned into invasive and ... Prostate cancer treatment has come a long, long way. ... here are a few common myths about prostate cancer that you ... Think you know all there is to know about prostate cancer? Here are a few common myths that you shouldnt buy into. ... Many men experience an enlarged prostate, which is different to prostate cancer, with the main symptom being a frequent urge to ...
A common prostate cancer mutation retargets an epigenetic complex to force prostate cells down a malignant path, creating a ... A common prostate cancer mutation retargets an epigenetic complex to force prostate cells down a malignant path, creating a ... For prostate cancer, study identifies how common mutation makes good cells go bad. ... This, they found, encourages prostate cells transformation into cancer cells, and may provide a new opportunity for prostate ...
We report a case of metastatic carcinoma prostate in which testicular and epididymal metastasis were diagnosed incidentally in ... Carcinoma prostate secondary metastasis to testicle and epididymis is rare. ... Testicular and Epididymal Metastasis from Prostate Carcinoma: A Rare Manifestation of Common Disease December 18, 2017 ... Carcinoma prostate secondary metastasis to testicle and epididymis is rare. We report a case of metastatic carcinoma prostate ...
Localized prostate cancerAntigenRecommended for prostate cancerUrinaryTumorBladderMetastatic prostate cancerTreat prostate cancerTreatmentsSymptoms of prostate2018Cases of prostate cancerUrinationHormone therapy2019ProstatitisStage prostate cancerTestosteroneAggressive prostateUrineResearchersCancerousTypes of prostate cancerSmall-cell neuroendocrine prostate cancerVariantsGenesProgression of prostate cancerDiseasesDisparity in prostate-cancerHormonalBrachytherapyCarcinogenesisSpreadsGrowth of prostateTreatment of prostateDisease2016ProstaticBiopsiesSize of the prostateUltrasoundDepartment of DefeDevelop prostate cancerGeneticCancer treatmentGeneRisk factor for prostate cancerGreater risk of prostate cancerComplications
- Explain that errors in clinical staging for localized prostate cancer appear to be common -- with apparent widespread confusion about the use of findings on transrectal ultrasound and biopsy. (medpagetoday.com)
- But recent research has suggested that the accuracy of staging of localized prostate cancer may vary widely -- and could have less utility in predicting recurrence after prostatectomy than other factors such as biopsy findings. (medpagetoday.com)
- The CaPSURE database included 3,875 men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer between 1995 and 2008. (medpagetoday.com)
- Plasma hormone levels including total testosterone, total estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured in a cohort of 508 patients identified with localized prostate cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
- It is hoped that genomic tests will help stratify patients with localized prostate cancer based on disease aggressiveness. (targetedonc.com)
- In recent years, great strides have been made in prostate cancer treatment, especially for localized prostate cancer. (medindia.net)
- The take-home message from a new study is that "patients with localized prostate cancer should be followed to minimize the health effects of androgen-deprivation therapy on the cardiovascular system," said study author Reina Haque, a researcher with the Kaiser Permanente Southern California Department of Research & Evaluation. (godandprostate.net)
- The findings allow men with localized prostate cancer to consider the positive and negative effects of androgen-deprivation therapy and discuss it with their physicians. (godandprostate.net)
- Rather, they found strong associations for disease recurrence with prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels, Gleason score, and biopsy positivity. (medpagetoday.com)
- And compared to adenocarcinoma prostate tumors, tumors of the t-SCNC subtype are thought to have less hormone signaling and lower prostate-specific antigen . (cancer.gov)
- When a man receives hormone therapy, initially the treatment works well, and his PSA (prostate specific antigen) level goes down," said Edward Messing, M.D., a urologist and an author of the paper. (innovations-report.com)
- Our results indicate that incorporating genetic information and family history in prostate cancer risk models can be particularly useful for identifying younger men that might benefit from prostate-specific antigen screening. (nih.gov)
- The advent of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening test has resulted in diagnosis of prostate cancer at an early stage. (urotoday.com)
- Regular readers of my blog know that I believe that the harms of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening for prostate cancer outweigh the benefits, if benefits exist at all. (blogspot.com)
- A blood sample is usually taken to check how your kidneys are working and to measure a substance called prostate-specific antigen (PSA). (sphealthclinic.com)
- prostate specific antigen ( PSA ), a blood test which measures activity of the prostate gland. (cambridgeurologypartnership.co.uk)
- Prostate cancer is diagnosed using a digital rectal exam or prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test. (advancedurologyinstitute.com)
- In some cases, your doctor will request the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test in order to rule out prostate cancer. (advancedurologyinstitute.com)
- A PSA which stands for Prostate Specific Antigen is a blood test that will reveal the presence in your blood stream of a protein generated by the prostate gland. (myhealthincheck.com)
- One of the first lncRNAs described in prostate cancer was the prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) 9 . (nature.com)
- Urologist Shiv Bhanot describes the symptoms of prostate cancer and explains the PSA test (prostate-specific antigen test). (macmillan.org.uk)
- The prostate produces a thick white fluid that is then liquefied by a special protein known as prostate-specific antigen (PSA). (hse.ie)
- Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS) obtained an exclusive option to license and commercialize PROSTVAC ® , Bavarian Nordic's Phase III prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-targeting cancer immunotherapy in development for the treatment of asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. (genengnews.com)
- However, especially since the introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, hormone treatment for prostate cancer has been applied also for men without metastatic prostate cancer, which means it has been in use for very long periods. (medindia.net)
- PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen) test and Digital Rectal Examination are two tests that allow detection of prostate cancer at early stages. (medindia.net)
- Stiller's doctor recommended a baseline PSA (prostate-specific antigen) blood test when Stiller was 46, even though he had no symptoms, family history or other risk factors. (cityofhope.org)
- PSA tests measure how much of a substance called prostate-specific antigen is being produced by the prostate - high levels can be a sign of prostate cancer. (cityofhope.org)
- This blood test measures the prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels in the blood. (sjhsyr.org)
- The prostate specific antigen levels can be elevated in the presence of prostate cancer. (sjhsyr.org)
- Avistate is a supplement for prostate health that can help reduce urinary tract symptoms (like frequent and painful urination, hesitancy, and urgency) while limiting unwanted sexual side effects. (progressivehealth.com)
- Both prostate cancer and its treatment can cause urinary incontinence. (verywell.com)
- This information shows the various causes of Intermittent prostate-related weak urinary stream , and how common these diseases or conditions are in the general population. (rightdiagnosis.com)
- This is not a direct indication as to how commonly these diseases are the actual cause of Intermittent prostate-related weak urinary stream , but gives a relative idea as to how frequent these diseases are seen overall. (rightdiagnosis.com)
- The following causes of Intermittent prostate-related weak urinary stream are ones for which we do not have any prevalence information. (rightdiagnosis.com)
- The following list of conditions have ' Intermittent prostate-related weak urinary stream ' or similar listed as a symptom in our database. (rightdiagnosis.com)
- Also known as enlarged prostate, BPH is a non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate that typically occurs as men age causing bothersome urinary symptoms such as a frequent need to urinate day and night, weak flow, difficulty starting urination, an urgent need to go, and other symptoms. (standardbanner.com)
- Bladder function deteriorates even further, and some young men with advanced prostate cancer will sometimes experience recurring urinary tract infections, blood in the urine, and the inability to have an erection. (livestrong.com)
- Other problems associated with an enlarged prostate include urinary tract infections, unusual urine color or smell, blood in urine, bladder stones, and bladder or kidney damage. (advancedurologyinstitute.com)
- Urinary problems can warn male urinary system, including many organs, such as lower urinary tract, the bladder, prostate and urethra, they have directly relations to the appearance of urinary symptoms. (justhealthlifestyle.com)
- But if the prostate gets bigger it can press on the urethra and cause urinary symptoms. (hse.ie)
- Male urinary system and prostate: The prostate makes some of the milky fluid (semen) that carries sperm. (emedicinehealth.com)
- Urinary symptoms related to enlarging prostate initially affect the quality of life, and if no complications exist, as mentioned above (urinary infections, bladder stones, bleeding), the decision to treat is optional and is left to the patient. (emedicinehealth.com)
- For example, the prostate often grows and swells with age, compressing the urethra and causing urinary issues. (stpeteurology.com)
- A urinary infection can spread to the prostate and an abnormality of the prostate can interfere with the normal excretion of urine. (faqs.org)
- In addition to the somewhat embarrassing inconveniences caused by prostate enlargement, the urinary bladder may not drain properly and can eventually lose its own muscle tone needed for emptying. (faqs.org)
- Cancer of the prostate also may occur in older men, causing obstruction or the urinary flow or contributing to infection of the urinary tract. (faqs.org)
- If medical treatment does not reduce a patient's urinary symptoms, a TURP may be considered following a careful examination of the prostate/bladder through a cystoscope. (wikipedia.org)
- Bladder neck stenosis Urinary incontinence due to injury of external sphincter system which may be prevented by taking the Verumontanum of the prostate as a distal limiting boundary during TURP Retrograde ejaculation due to injury of preprostatic (internal) sphincter system. (wikipedia.org)
- To understand how frequently t-SCNC develops after hormone treatment, Dr. Aggarwal and his colleagues analyzed metastatic tumor samples from 202 men with castrate-resistant prostate cancer who had received treatment at multiple institutions. (cancer.gov)
- He also found, surprisingly, that the receptor actually acts as a tumor suppressor in epithelial cells known as basal cells in the prostate. (innovations-report.com)
- Earlier lab studies and animal tests have found mushroom compounds can block tumor growth, especially in prostate cancer. (healthiertalk.com)
- Not too long ago, the tumor was the absolute focus of the treatment and it was common to be shoehorned into invasive and radical treatments without exploring other options first. (xtend-life.com)
- The team also identified that for small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas to develop in the prostate, two tumor suppressor genes, TP53 and RB1, which are known for protecting normal cells from transforming into cancer cells, had to be simultaneously inactivated when PARCB was introduced. (ucla.edu)
- While surgical ADT castration - works well with immunotherapy, we determined that some androgen receptor antagonists could reduce the T-cell response against prostate cancer, leading to early tumor relapse," said Dr. Fu, who holds the Mary Nell and Ralph B. Rogers Professorship in Immunology and also is a member of the Harold C. Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center at UT Southwestern. (technologynetworks.com)
- We conclude that the A allele of rs1447295 is associated with a higher risk of prostate cancer regardless of tumor aggressiveness, suggesting that such a variant, or a variant in linkage disequilibrium with it, plays a role early in prostate carcinogenesis. (garvan.org.au)
- Our previous work suggested that there was no significant association between plasma steroid hormone levels and prostate cancer tumor grade at diagnosis. (aacrjournals.org)
- This lncRNA was over expressed in the tumor areas when compared to adjacent normal prostate tissue. (nature.com)
- Other indicators of prostate cancer are unexplained bone pain in the pelvis and lower spine, and bladder problems such as painful urination, dribbling and straining to void, which might indicate an obstruction. (chicagotribune.com)
- The prostate encircles the urethra, the tube carrying urine from the bladder to the outside of the body. (lovetoknow.com)
- Your vet may also have X-rays taken to check the prostate size and to rule out bladder stones. (lovetoknow.com)
- If the prostate obstructs the bladder opening, it will slow down the passage of urine. (sphealthclinic.com)
- In this condition the prostate enlarges, and as it does so it may compress the urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder through the penis) causing problems urinating. (cambridgeurologypartnership.co.uk)
- Alpha blockers: These drugs work by relaxing the smooth muscle of the prostate and bladder neck to improve urine flow and reduce bladder outlet obstruction. (cambridgeurologypartnership.co.uk)
- The most common symptoms experienced with prostate cancer include difficulty in starting and stopping urination, increased frequency of urination, pain during urination, diminished urine stream, and the feeling of bladder fullness after urination. (livestrong.com)
- The need to urinate will be urgent because the increased pressure placed on the bladder and urethra by the enlarged prostate make holding urine more difficult. (advancedurologyinstitute.com)
- The prostate wraps around a tube (the urethra) that carries urine from the bladder out through the tip of the penis. (emedicinehealth.com)
- Men with early prostate cancer are unlikely to have any symptoms, as these only occur when the cancer is large enough to put pressure on the urethra (the tube that drains urine from the bladder). (cancernz.org.nz)
- At that point in life, the prostate may have become so enlarged that it presses on the urethra and obstructs the flow of urine from the neighboring bladder. (faqs.org)
- It is important to provide hormonal therapy in metastatic prostate cancer, because these hormonal treatments prolong survival," Aggarwal said. (ucsf.edu)
- We describe a 65-year-old male who presented with blurred vision and was found to have abducent nerve involvement and high-grade metastatic prostate cancer. (urotoday.com)
- The present case had an unusual clinical presentation of metastatic prostate cancer. (urotoday.com)
- Localized radiation therapy (XRT) is the standard treatment for non-metastatic prostate cancer, and although proven effective for increasing survival rates, fatigue is often a side effect during and after treatment. (healthcanal.com)
- Young men with metastatic prostate cancer may experience fatigue, malaise, and weight loss. (livestrong.com)
- Hormone treatment of prostate cancer can reduce pain from metastatic prostate cancer. (medindia.net)
- The new findings raise the possibility that under some conditions, some treatments designed to treat prostate cancer could instead remove one of the body's natural brakes on the spread of the disease in the body. (innovations-report.com)
- Medical ADTs have been used for a half century to treat prostate cancer, and promising clinical results for cancer immunotherapy have led to attempts to combine it and other standard-of-care therapies with immunotherapy to treat the disease," said senior author and principal investigator. (technologynetworks.com)
- Permanent prostate brachytherapy involves placing many radioactive seeds within the prostate to treat prostate cancer. (mayoclinic.org)
- Prostate brachytherapy (brak-e-THER-uh-pee) is a form of radiation therapy used to treat prostate cancer. (mayoclinic.org)
- Prostate brachytherapy is used to treat prostate cancer. (mayoclinic.org)
- A new compound that targets hard-to-treat prostate cancer cells may pave the way for a new, more successful treatment in the future, a new study reports. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Newswise - PHILADELPHIA-A common hormone therapy to treat prostate cancer may double a man's risk of dementia, regardless of his age, Penn Medicine researchers reported in a study published online today in JAMA Oncology. (newswise.com)
- 3 The most recent update, from May of this year, focused on a number of dietary supplements that show some promise in helping treat prostate cancer. (chiroeco.com)
- If the cancer has spread beyond the prostate, treatment options significantly change, so most doctors that treat prostate cancer use a variety of nomograms to predict the probability of spread. (wikipedia.org)
- Learn the signs and symptoms of prostate cancer, along with causes and treatments. (medicinenet.com)
- Potent hormone therapies like abiraterone (Zytiga) and enzalutamide (Xtandi) can be effective treatments for men with castrate-resistant prostate cancer . (cancer.gov)
- Understanding the effects of the androgen receptor gives physicians a toehold in efforts to develop more effective treatments for men with prostate cancer. (innovations-report.com)
- Chang's findings are most relevant for patients with advanced prostate cancer, who typically receive hormone therapy after other treatments such as surgery or radiation. (innovations-report.com)
- They also collected Medicare reimbursement records to determine the total cost per patient per year for each of the three prostate cancer treatments over time. (bio-medicine.org)
- A recent study from the Journal of the American Medical Association in October, 2013 has showed some surprising facts about radiation treatments for prostate cancer. (progressivehealth.com)
- The study showed that while many men receive as many as 10 radiation sessions for prostate cancer, there is no added value in receiving additional treatments. (progressivehealth.com)
- Treatments targeting specific mutations in prostate cancer are not yet available in standard practice, which relies on hormonal treatment and chemotherapy as the mainstays of treatment. (ucsf.edu)
- Erectile dysfunction can be a result of prostate cancer or its treatment, including surgery, radiation, or hormone treatments. (verywell.com)
- Other treatments may be needed first, but neutering can reduce the risk of recurrence for prostate disease. (lovetoknow.com)
- Treatments for advanced prostate cancer that suppress testosterone, a hormone (also called an androgen) that drives the malignant cells to grow and spread, are collectively referred to as androgen deprivation therapies, or ADT. (harvard.edu)
- Researchers using mouse models found that many medical androgen deprivation therapies (ADTs) - the most commonly used nonsurgical treatments for prostate cancer - may suppress responses patients' adaptive immune, preventing immunotherapies from working if both treatments are used but not sequenced properly. (technologynetworks.com)
- Therapeutically, blocking androgen production has been one of the most commonly used treatments of advanced prostate cancer and is often successful until castration resistant growth is acquired ( 2 , 11 , 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- There is some good news on this front: a research letter published this week in the Annals of Internal Medicine reported that among men aged 40 to 64 years who received health insurance from Aetna between 2009 and 2015, substantially fewer are receiving PSA screening, prostate biopsies, and prostate cancer treatments. (blogspot.com)
- The first head-to-head comparison of docetaxel and abiraterone acetate for high-risk prostate cancer patients starting long-term hormone therapy found benefit with both treatments when added to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). (cancercommons.org)
- Cyclic peptoids specifically seek targets that current prostate cancer treatments cannot. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Current prostate cancer treatments target hormonal signals that encourage the growth of prostate cancer. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- MyHealthInCheck.com is your premiere destination for any medical questions you may have about the symptoms, causes, and treatments of the most common health conditions. (myhealthincheck.com)
- Treatments include removing the prostate, hormone therapy and radiotherapy (using radiation to kill the cancerous cells). (hse.ie)
- Scientists at the University of Pittsburgh School of Dental Medicine have found that men receiving hormone treatments for prostate cancer are much more likely to show gum disease than men who do not receive hormone treatments for prostate cancer. (medindia.net)
- However, men with advanced prostate cancer still face a complicated set of treatment decisions largely because treatments for advanced prostate cancer have remained only partly effective and associated with serious side effects. (medindia.net)
- The study found the men with early stage prostate cancer who did not already have heart disease, but who received hormone-depleting treatments had an 81 percent higher risk for heart failure. (godandprostate.net)
- What Are the Symptoms of Prostate Cancer in Young Men? (livestrong.com)
- When symptoms of prostate cancer are present, they are similar to those of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis, and can vary greatly from patient to patient. (livestrong.com)
- What are the most common symptoms of prostate cancer? (myhealthincheck.com)
- The symptoms of prostate cancer can differ from person to person. (epnet.com)
- Healthy Living to a Fruitful Life: What are the Common Symptoms of Prostate Disease? (blogspot.com)
- It's important to recognize common symptoms of prostate disease in order to obtain proper treatment before it leads to other complications. (blogspot.com)
- The American Cancer Society estimates that 29,430 men will die from prostate cancer in 2018, making it second only to lung cancer as a cause of cancer death among U.S. men. (ucsf.edu)
- Binding of TMPRSS2-ERG to BAF Chromatin Remodeling Complexes Mediates Prostate Oncogenesis, Molecular Cell (2018). (medicalxpress.com)
- Published March 9, 2018 at 556×313 in Prostate Cancer Treatment: Common Side Effects Of Cryotherapy . (prostatecancer911.com)
- Radiation treatment is used in some cases of prostate cancer after the cancer has spread to the bones. (progressivehealth.com)
- The Journal of the American Medical Association study indicated that radiation treatment is overused in many cases of prostate cancer. (progressivehealth.com)
- Further, the researchers estimate that the risky DNA may contribute to 32% of the cases of prostate cancer in white Americans, but 68% of the cases in African Americans. (harvard.edu)
- The American Cancer Society estimates that 220,800 new cases of prostate cancer will be diagnosed this year. (healthcanal.com)
- More advanced cases of prostate cancer may be treated with chemotherapy. (reference.com)
- 1 In 2015, more than 28,000 men died from prostate cancer, and more than 183,000 new cases of prostate cancer were reported. (chiroeco.com)
- This is very common in men as they get older and may cause difficulties with urination. (columbia-stmarys.org)
- Enlarged prostate (BPH): Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a frequent problem in older men and is characterized by the frequent urge to urinate (especially at night) and dribbling after urination. (advancedurologyinstitute.com)
- If the enlargement of the prostate and the urination problems are relatively mild then it is usually left for a period of time to see if the normal reduction in testosterone will result in a decrease in the size of the prostate. (wordpress.com)
- As the testosterone levels decrease the prostate shrinks and the urination problems are solved. (wordpress.com)
- Some symptoms for prostate cancer include frequent urination, weak urine flow, or blood in the urine or semen. (chiroeco.com)
- For men, being vigilant of changes in urination habits can go a long way toward detecting prostate cancer in its early stages. (doverlawfirm.com)
- Hormone therapy, a common treatment for men with advanced prostate cancer, generally keeps the cancer at bay for a year or two. (innovations-report.com)
- With hormone therapy, physicians blunt the effects of male hormones like testosterone to bring the disease in the prostate to a halt. (innovations-report.com)
- Docetaxel is already used for men with prostate cancer once hormone therapy has stopped working. (cancercommons.org)
- Another common method of treating prostate cancer is hormone therapy. (reference.com)
- Treatment of prostate cancer can include surgery, radiation therapy, cryosurgery, hormone therapy chemotherapy, vaccine treatment or bone-directed treatmen. (reference.com)
- A small clinical trial in Melbourne shows promising results for advanced prostate cancer patients like Tony McDonnell, offering a possible reprieve from the side-effects of hormone therapy. (abc.net.au)
- Men diagnosed with prostate cancer face a dizzying array of treatment options: radiation, seed radiation (brachytherapy), freezing (cryotherapy), conventional open surgery (radical prostatectomy), minimally invasive surgery (laparoscopic radical prostatectomy), and, in advanced stages, chemotherapy and hormone therapy. (medindia.net)
- FRIDAY, May 3, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Good news for men: That blood pressure medication you're taking might be doing double duty, helping reduce your risk of developing prostate cancer , a new study shows. (medicinenet.com)
- FRIDAY, May 3, 2019 -- Good news for men: That blood pressure medication you're taking might be doing double duty, helping reduce your risk of developing prostate cancer , a new study shows. (drugs.com)
- Your odds of developing prostatitis, like other prostate conditions, increase as you age. (verywell.com)
- Acute bacterial prostatitis has sudden onset after a bacterial infection and is characterized by chills, fever and pain in addition to other prostate symptoms. (advancedurologyinstitute.com)
- Chronic bacterial prostatitis is a recurrent bacterial infection of the prostate. (advancedurologyinstitute.com)
- Chronic prostatitis (also known as chronic pelvic pain syndrome) is a common problem which causes pain in the groin, lower back and tip of the penis. (advancedurologyinstitute.com)
- The fourth category is prostate infectious diseases, including acute prostatitis, prostate abscess, chronic bacterial prostatitis, chronic non-bacterial prostatitis, non-specific granulomatous prostatitis, chronic prostatitis and other diseases. (justhealthlifestyle.com)
- Among them, the most common is chronic prostatitis. (justhealthlifestyle.com)
- Men under the age of 50 are most likely to suffer from prostatitis, or an inflamed or irritated prostate, and men over the age of 50 are more likely to have BPH or prostate cancer. (chiroeco.com)
- The analysis, conducted among almost 4,000 men with clinical T1 or T2 stage prostate cancer, the cancer staging assignment was incorrect in 35.4% of cases, according to Adam C. Reese, MD, and colleagues from the University of California, San Francisco. (medpagetoday.com)
- There is no medical cure for advanced-stage prostate cancer. (progressivehealth.com)
- If you have early-stage prostate cancer that's less likely to spread beyond the prostate, brachytherapy may be the only treatment used. (mayoclinic.org)
- In the new study, researchers assessed outcomes for more than 7,600 men with early stage prostate cancer. (godandprostate.net)
- Surgical removal of the prostate, or prostatectomy, is a common treatment either for early stage prostate cancer or for cancer that has failed to respond to radiation therapy. (wikipedia.org)
- Androgen deprivation therapy or ADT - a common therapy for prostate cancer that lowers levels of the male hormone testosterone - may also increase the risk of developing Alzheimer's later on. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Men being treated with prostate cancer therapies that reduce their testosterone levels are at greater risk of developing dementia within five years, a new study shows. (stanford.edu)
- A new retrospective study of patient medical records suggests that men with prostate cancer who are treated with testosterone-lowering drugs are twice as likely to develop dementia within five years as prostate cancer patients whose testosterone levels are not tampered with. (stanford.edu)
- It results from normal aging and chronic stimulation of the prostate from testosterone. (lovetoknow.com)
- The complex of androgen (testosterone or DHT) and androgen receptor regulates the expression of a variety of genes that are involved in the growth, survival, and differentiation of prostate cells by binding to androgen response elements present in the regulatory regions of these genes ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Some early studies showed that plasma testosterone levels might be correlated with Gleason grade or time to progression after orchiectomy of prostate cancer ( 3, 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors (5ARIs): These drugs work by reducing the size of the prostate by preventing the conversion of testosterone to one of its more active metabolites. (cambridgeurologypartnership.co.uk)
- Many conventional health experts believe the hormone testosterone causes prostate cancer -- but research actually suggests that estrogen may be the more likely culprit. (mercola.com)
- While this process of testosterone-to-estrogen conversion is necessary for proper bone density and quality in men, for instance, it may also contribute to prostate growth and malignancy. (mercola.com)
- Fortunately, testosterone is also antagonist to estrogens like estradiol, which may explain why men with low testosterone are at greater risk of prostate cancer. (mercola.com)
- If the enlargement of the prostate or the symptoms warrant medical intervention it is usual to prescribe either alpha-blockers (can have some nasty side effects) or a testosterone lowering drug. (wordpress.com)
- Testosterone levels decline, while levels of estrogen and a metabolite of testosterone known as DHT increase-and this fuels prostate growth. (betternutrition.com)
- Researchers found that a beta blocker called atenolol cut men's risk of intermediate-grade prostate cancer about in half, compared with men not taking a beta blocker. (medicinenet.com)
- The researchers compared the beta blocker they were taking against whether they had been diagnosed with prostate cancer and, if they had, how advanced their cancer was. (medicinenet.com)
- An international team of medical researchers has now found evidence linking prostate cancer to a common sexually transmitted infection known as trichomoniasis, or simply "trich. (livescience.com)
- Researchers are quick to caution that no cause-and-effect link between T. vaginalis infection and prostate cancer has ever been established. (livescience.com)
- From this large pool of over 5 million patient records, the researchers found around 18,000 prostate cancer patients, including 16,888 whose cancer was not metastatic - that is had not begun to spread. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The researchers noted that errors in staging were more frequent in patients whose prostate abnormalities were detected on ultrasound. (medpagetoday.com)
- Some of the drugs given to many men during their fight against prostate cancer can actually spur some cancer cells to grow, researchers have found. (innovations-report.com)
- The researchers stress that the results are based on laboratory studies and on findings in mice, and it's too soon to know yet whether the findings apply directly to prostate cancer in men. (innovations-report.com)
- The researchers pointed out they were not able to determine how far the disease had progressed in each patient and the study was limited to patients older than 65 whose only diagnosed condition was prostate cancer. (bio-medicine.org)
- The study, which was led by researchers at UC San Francisco and published online July 9 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology , suggests that this prostate cancer subtype, called treatment-emergent small cell neuroendocrine prostate cancer (t-SCNC), might in the future be routinely and more successfully treated with targeted drugs that already are being developed or tested in clinical trials. (ucsf.edu)
- Harvard researchers have identified seven distinct, yet common genetic variations that not only increase the risk of developing prostate cancer, but also may explain why this disease develops more often in African Americans than in white Americans of European descent. (harvard.edu)
- The researchers analyzed DNA from more than 7,500 men, more than half of them with prostate cancer. (harvard.edu)
- Researchers report that a variation in a portion of DNA strongly predicts prostate cancer risk and that this common variation may be responsible for up to 20 percent of prostate cancer cases in white men in the United States. (nih.gov)
- The researchers also confirm that a previous finding of a different variant, marked by SNP rs1447295, is also associated with prostate cancer. (nih.gov)
- Researchers know that other genetic variants, called single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), also are linked to breast and prostate cancer. (breastcancer.org)
- In the study, the researchers essentially added up the information on 102 SNPs associated with breast cancer and 103 SNPs associated with prostate cancer in 277 men diagnosed with breast cancer, 212 men diagnosed with prostate cancer, and 1,313 men who hadn't been diagnosed with either cancer. (breastcancer.org)
- Researchers collected data on 1,597 African Americans with prostate cancer. (blogspot.com)
- Researchers find a new compound that is more able to target stubborn prostate cancer cells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- In this prostate cancer study, researchers demonstrated the effectiveness of a new treatment. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Using data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer and the United Nations World Contraceptive Use report, which spanned 100 countries, researchers analyzed rates of prostate cancer and prostate cancer deaths, as well as oral contraceptive use among women. (mercola.com)
- Last year, researchers discovered a dramatic association between Alzheimer's disease and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), a mainstay of treatment for prostate cancer since the 1940s currently used in over a half million men in the United States. (newswise.com)
- Researchers from the University of York have discovered that a protein in bone marrow acts like a 'magnetic docking station' for prostate cancer cells, helping them grow and spread outside of the prostate. (spectator.co.uk)
- In this month's issue of the Journal of Urology, researchers from the University of Pittsburgh School of Dental Medicine report that prostate cancer patients receiving ADT are three times as likely to show signs of periodontal, or gum disease, as patients who do not receive the therapy. (medindia.net)
- In order to determine the severity of side effects, the researchers administered a green-tea catechin supplement, twice daily, to 97 men with prostate cancer. (chiroeco.com)
- The therapy suppresses production of androgens, male hormones that normally help stimulate the growth of prostate cells, including cancerous ones. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- BPH is a non-cancerous increase in the size and number of cells that make up the prostate. (verywell.com)
- The TMPRSS2-ERG protein pushes prostate cells to become cancerous, but precisely how it does so, and what can be done about it, have been unclear. (broadinstitute.org)
- Using a mix of cell line and organoid models of prostate cancer, the team found that the overexpressed TMPRSS2-ERG protein retargets BAF complexes, forcing them to open up regions of prostate cells' DNA they would otherwise not, turning on normally inactive genes, and driving the cells to turn cancerous. (broadinstitute.org)
- BPH is when your prostate is enlarged, but not cancerous. (columbia-stmarys.org)
- What makes the cells in the prostate become cancerous is unknown. (hse.ie)
- An enlarged prostate is not malignant prostate cancer meaning that it is non-cancerous or benign. (emedicinehealth.com)
- BPH, also called an enlarged prostate, means a non-cancerous increase in the number and size of prostate cells - so basically, it is an unhealthy increase in prostate size. (stpeteurology.com)
- While some types of prostate cancer grow slowly and may need minimal or no treatment, other types are aggressive and can spread quickly. (verywell.com)
- The two main types of prostate cancer are transitional cell carcinoma and prostatic carcinoma. (lovetoknow.com)
- Some types of prostate cancer are very slow to grow and spread, so a doctor may suggest what is known as "watchful waiting," where the patient is kept under surveillance, using treatment options only if the condition worsens. (reference.com)
- Men with this subtype, called treatment-emergent small-cell neuroendocrine prostate cancer (t-SCNC), appear to have shorter survival than men with other subtypes. (cancer.gov)
- A microscopic image of small cell neuroendocrine prostate cancer, with cancer cells expressing diagnostic prostate cancer markers in green and red. (ucla.edu)
- With the increasing incidence of prostate cancer, identifying common genetic variants that confer risk of the disease is important. (nih.gov)
- To find sequence variants affecting prostate cancer (PCA) susceptibility in an unscreened Romanian population we use a genome-wide association study (GWAS). (nih.gov)
- When the genetic variants occur together, they make it five times more likely that a man will develop prostate cancer. (harvard.edu)
- Common genetic variants in prostate cancer risk prediction--results from the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). (nih.gov)
- No association between common chemokine and chemokine receptor gene variants and prostate cancer risk. (garvan.org.au)
- This suggests that these common chemokine and chemokine receptor variants do not play a major, if any, role in susceptibility to prostate cancer. (garvan.org.au)
- A recent study from deCode reported an association between common variants in the region 8q24 and prostate cancer risk. (garvan.org.au)
- We identified a cluster of highly correlated common variants situated within or closely upstream of HOXB13 that were significantly associated with PrCa risk, described by rs117576373 (OR 1.30, P = 2.62×10 −14 ). (prolekare.cz)
- Additional genotyping, conditional regression and haplotype analyses indicated that the newly identified common variants tag a rare, partially correlated coding variant in the HOXB13 gene (G84E, rs138213197), which has been identified recently as a moderate penetrance PrCa susceptibility allele. (prolekare.cz)
- however more than 70 common, low penetrance variants that individually modestly increase risk have been identified to date through GWAS studies , . (prolekare.cz)
- Genetic variants of genes in hormone metabolic pathways may influence plasma androgen levels or prostate cancer aggressiveness. (aacrjournals.org)
- Replication of the 10q11 and Xp11 prostate cancer risk variants: results from a Utah pedigree-based study. (cdc.gov)
- Genetic variants and prostate cancer risk: candidate replication and exploration of viral restriction genes. (cdc.gov)
- Fine-mapping and family-based association analyses of prostate cancer risk variants at Xp11. (cdc.gov)
- Also, if you have a family history of genes that increase the risk of breast cancer, BRCA1 or BRCA2, or a very strong family history of breast cancer, your risk of prostate cancer may be higher. (verywell.com)
- The rs6983267 SNP is located in a segment of DNA that has few known or predicted genes for prostate cancer. (nih.gov)
- But when these genes contain abnormalities or mutations that are passed from generation to generation, the genes don't function normally and breast, ovarian, prostate, and other cancer risk increases. (breastcancer.org)
- Jung Wook Park, the study's first author, and UCLA collaborators explored the potential parallels between the cancer types by transplanting human prostate cells with five genes, known collectively as PARCB, into mice. (ucla.edu)
- We characterized the transcriptome profile of prostate cancer using RNA-Seq data from viewpoints of both differential expression and differential splicing, with an emphasis on kinase genes and their splicing variations. (columbia.edu)
- We performed kinase domain analysis to identify the functionally important candidate kinase gene in prostate cancer, and calculated the expression levels of isoforms to explore the function of isoform switching of kinase genes in prostate cancer. (columbia.edu)
- Our work characterized the expression and splicing profiles of kinase genes in prostate cancer and proposed a hypothetical model on isoform switching of CDK5 and AR phosphorylation in prostate cancer. (columbia.edu)
- Men's risk from prostate cancer is about equal to women's risk from breast cancer: Each year, about the same number of men get prostate cancer as women get breast cancer, and their risk of dying from the diseases is about equal, according to ACS. (innovations-report.com)
- Prepared by Harvard Health Publishing' editors, this 119-page report describes the causes and treatment of prostate diseases and provides practical advice for coping with troubling side effects. (harvard.edu)
- There are several prostate diseases that are common for unneutered dogs. (lovetoknow.com)
- Symptoms of canine prostate cancer can overlap with those of other prostate diseases. (lovetoknow.com)
- Diseases like type 2 diabetes, prostate cancer and heart disease, which are known to have a strong genetic component. (jnj.com)
- But with hormonal changes that come with age, men of all ages usually experience changes in their prostate. (stpeteurology.com)
- As has been written before, several potential side effects accompany hormonal therapy for prostate cancer. (godandprostate.net)
- Hormonal therapy and chemotherapy are often reserved for disease that has spread beyond the prostate. (wikipedia.org)
- While there are clearly still some high-risk prostate cancer patients who will benefit from external beam radiotherapy, for the approximately 80 percent or more of prostate cancer patients diagnosed with low- and intermediate-risk disease, brachytherapy or prostatectomy may be even more preferable options than we've previously assumed for men with low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer. (bio-medicine.org)
- Prostate brachytherapy generally isn't used for advanced prostate cancer that has spread to the lymph nodes or to distant areas of the body. (mayoclinic.org)
- Many side effects of prostate brachytherapy become less noticeable over time. (mayoclinic.org)
- Some serious complications can occur after prostate brachytherapy, but these are rare. (mayoclinic.org)
- Together you can decide whether prostate brachytherapy is the best treatment for you. (mayoclinic.org)
- It also has been suggested that a decrease in the androgen/estrogen ratio with aging could be responsible in part for prostate carcinogenesis ( 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Overall, our data extends current knowledge about epigenetic deregulation and biological significance of miRNAs in prostate carcinogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
- Given the enrichment of miRNA and RBP sites on exosomal lncRNAs, their interplay may suggest a possible function in prostate cancer carcinogenesis. (nature.com)
- However, if prostate cancer spreads to other areas of the body, the survival rate is typically between 1 and 3 years. (progressivehealth.com)
- If a prostate infection spreads through the body, sepsis, shock, and death can result. (lovetoknow.com)
- Prostate cancer tends to grow slowly and can usually be treated successfully, but it can be very serious if it is not found before it spreads. (thirdage.com)
- Professor Norman Maitland, the study's lead author, said: 'We have always known that the two places where prostate cancer spreads are the bones and lymph nodes, but we have not fully understood why these two locations are preferred. (spectator.co.uk)
- If the cancer spreads from the prostate to other parts of the body (metastasis), typically the bones, it cannot be cured and treatment is focused on prolonging life and relieving symptoms . (hse.ie)
- However, the conventional wisdom regarding the treatment of prostate cancer has been evolving and now takes into consideration the crucial role you, as the patient, must play in charting your path to recovery. (xtend-life.com)
- Today there have been huge advancements in the detection and treatment of prostate cancer and the prognosis is much improved. (wordpress.com)
- Consequently, doctors are now seeing the long-term complications of prolonged hormone treatment of prostate cancer. (medindia.net)
- The information about periodontal disease is news and, while it needs confirmation, suggests yet one more reason to tread lightly with hormone treatment of prostate cancer. (medindia.net)
- A MedlinePlus e mail received today from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Library of Medicine discussed the potential heart risk posed by early hormone suppression treatment of prostate cancer. (godandprostate.net)
- Prostate cancer is the second-most common cancer among men in the United States, according to the American Cancer Society, and almost 30,000 American men die each year from the disease. (livescience.com)
- Prostate cancer is one of the slowest-growing and non-lethal forms of cancer, and over-treating the issue may lead to additional problems rather than helping control the disease. (progressivehealth.com)
- Obese men diagnosed with prostate cancer may be more likely to have advanced disease that's more difficult to treat. (verywell.com)
- Canine prostate disease is uncommon in general but is seen more frequently in pets that have not been neutered. (lovetoknow.com)
- Symptoms may be initially vague, but your veterinarian can help determine if your dog is suffering from a canine prostate disease. (lovetoknow.com)
- The most common canine prostate disease is benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) . (lovetoknow.com)
- Most dogs that develop prostatic cysts have some other type of canine prostate disease as well. (lovetoknow.com)
- The National Canine Cancer Foundation reports 0.67% of all dogs with cancer have disease involving the prostate. (lovetoknow.com)
- How Is Canine Prostate Disease Diagnosed? (lovetoknow.com)
- The necessary treatment for canine prostate disease will depend on which specific disease is diagnosed. (lovetoknow.com)
- Building on this finding we may be able to identify men at highest risk for prostate cancer, diagnose the disease earlier, and hopefully prevent it all together. (nih.gov)
- CGEMS allows us to look systematically across the entire human genome and search for common genetic variations that confer risk for prostate cancer, a very common and very complex disease" said Stephen Chanock, M.D., director of NCI's Core Genotyping Facility in the Advanced Technology Center. (nih.gov)
- Association between decile categories for number of risk alleles carried and prostate cancer risk stratified by disease aggressiveness and age of onset. (nih.gov)
- Men with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at increased risk of developing prostate cancer, according to a study. (healthcentral.com)
- There are no early signs of prostate cancer, so getting regular checkups (blood test and exam) can help to catch the disease early, when it is more treatable. (columbia-stmarys.org)
- And misunderstandings about the disease are common. (prostatecanceruk.org)
- So it cannot be said that prostate cancer is just an old man's disease. (prostatecanceruk.org)
- If you're worried about prostate cancer but don't have any symptoms you can find out more about your risk of developing the disease . (prostatecanceruk.org)
- Men with prostate disease used to have an X-ray called an intravenous urogram (IVU), which involved an injection of a dye so that the kidneys show up on X-ray. (sphealthclinic.com)
- Prostate cancer can be a serious disease, but most men diagnosed with prostate cancer do not die from it. (cancer.org)
- The results of two large screening trials 5,6 suggest that the ideal candidates for PSA screening are men who are at high risk of prostate cancer, older men, those with a family history, those who are at high risk of suffering morbidity and mortality from the disease, and men who are in good health and are asymptomatic with a life expectancy of 10-15 years. (targetedonc.com)
- The Prostate Cancer Foundation reports that nearly 100 percent of men diagnosed in the early stages of prostate cancer are disease-free after five years. (reference.com)
- This is the most common prostate disease found in men older than 50. (advancedurologyinstitute.com)
- Do Heart Disease, Diabetes or Prostate Cancer Run in Your Family Tree? (jnj.com)
- Hematuria is another major symptom for prostate disease. (justhealthlifestyle.com)
- Due to prostate disease symptoms often have no specificity, which means that prostate disease is difficult to distinguish only from the symptoms. (justhealthlifestyle.com)
- So when you have these symptoms, you should also check through many other exams to finally determine whether it is really a prostate disease. (justhealthlifestyle.com)
- This disease is a common disease in middle-aged men. (justhealthlifestyle.com)
- This is called benign prostate disease or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). (hse.ie)
- In 2015, approximately 220,800 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer and more than 27,540 died from the disease. (cityofhope.org)
- The statistics around prostate cancer paint a telling picture as to why you should expect to have your older male patients asking you about how they can bolster themselves against this disease. (chiroeco.com)
- What are the statistics regarding prostate cancer, and what's the latest research on this disease that is the source of concern for many of your male patients? (chiroeco.com)
- If you or a loved one has been diagnosed with prostate cancer in Georgia and feel there was a failure to diagnose the disease as early as possible, please request one of the Dover Law Firm's several free resources on cancer, including our in-depth report on prostate cancer , or our free book, I Have Cancer…Should It Have Been Caught Earlier? . (doverlawfirm.com)
- In fact, it is the most common cancer after skin cancer , with about 1-in-6 American men being diagnosed with the disease during his lifetime. (stpeteurology.com)
- After a series of tests, we found out that he was already suffering from prostate disease or Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. (blogspot.com)
- We may mistake some of these symptoms as part of the natural aging process but these are possible early warnings of a prostate disease like prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia or other prostate infections. (blogspot.com)
- The most effective natural approaches to preventing and treating prostate enlargement, heart disease, sexual dysfunction, and more. (betternutrition.com)
- The most common form is coronary heart disease, where plaque starts to occlude the heart arteries and restrict blood flow. (betternutrition.com)
- In the context of prostate disease this usually comprises regular PSA blood tests and prostate biopsies. (wikipedia.org)
- The risk of disease progression and metastasis (spread of the cancer) may be increased, but this increase risk appears to be small if the program of surveillance is followed closely, generally including serial PSA assessments and repeat prostate biopsies every 1-2 years depending on the PSA trends. (wikipedia.org)
- A 2016 systematic review commissioned by Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality found insufficient evidence to assess analytic validity of 18 commercially - or close to - available multigene panels for prostate cancer risk assessment, evidence of modest clinical validity beyond patient age and family history, and no studies of clinical utility (eg, effects on process of care, health outcomes, harms and economic outcomes). (blogspot.com)
- A 2016 article in the journal Oncotarget looked at the side-effect profile for green tea catechins in treating prostate cancer. (chiroeco.com)
- Known as benign prostatic hyperplasia or BPH, this is the most common prostate ailment for non-neutered dogs. (vetinfo.com)
- Benign prostatic hyperplasia ( BPH ) is the technical term for an enlarged prostate. (verywell.com)
- A number of people want to reveal to take care of Hazard-cost-free Prostatic Hyperplasia, notoriously termed as prostate augmentation, and natural and organic different alternatives. (nanaimofarmersmarket.com)
- It may be the uncomplicated the fact is been significantly standard the usage of natural and organic and all of-all-natural and regular Prostate to take care of indications of Guard Prostatic Hyperplasia in Regions from the Traditional western Union and Areas of Persian locations worldwide. (nanaimofarmersmarket.com)
- Acquiring necessary to anxiousness all-natural and organic and standard issues or Diet nutritional supplements quickly made available to the Undamaging Prostatic Hyperplasia, various have satisfying elements from organic and natural and organic and natural common treatment solutions and plants and plants and flowers and blooms and plants and blossoms and blossoms with Prostate phytosterols and phytoestrogens. (nanaimofarmersmarket.com)
- One common condition that is shrouded by misinformation is benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). (standardbanner.com)
- Benign prostatic enlargement only means the prostate has enlarged, but there is no cancer. (advancedurologyinstitute.com)
- Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common cause. (epnet.com)
- This is called benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and is very common in men over 60 years old. (wordpress.com)
- However, it is important to understand that other benign prostate conditions may also elevate PSA, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), which is noncancerous swelling of the prostate. (sjhsyr.org)
- What Should I Know about Enlarged Prostate (Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia, BPH)? (emedicinehealth.com)
- benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer . (stpeteurology.com)
- For men older than 50, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most frequent prostate issue . (stpeteurology.com)
- The all-too-common problem of prostate enlargement, also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), affects almost half of men over the age of 45. (betternutrition.com)
- Transurethral resection of the prostate (commonly known as a TURP, plural TURPs, and rarely as a transurethral prostatic resection, TUPR) is a urological operation. (wikipedia.org)
- This trend has lagged in prostate cancer because most metastasis occurs in bone, and it is more difficult to do biopsies in bone in comparison to other tissues. (ucsf.edu)
- The use of PSA tests , digital rectal examinations (DREs) and prostate biopsies can help to diagnose prostate cancer in men even if you don't have symptoms. (prostatecanceruk.org)
- In 2014, the Evaluation of Genomic Applications in Practice and Prevention Working Group concluded that PCA3 has insufficient supporting evidence to inform decisions to conduct initial or repeat biopsies for prostate cancer in at-risk men. (blogspot.com)
- Although alpha blockers may relieve the symptoms of BPH and improve the flow rate, they do not reduce the size of the prostate. (cambridgeurologypartnership.co.uk)
- This is confirmed by the fact that men whose testicles are removed at a young age never develop the condition while those whose testicles are removed after developing BPH experience shrinkage in the size of the prostate. (advancedurologyinstitute.com)
- The size of the prostate varies with age. (thirdage.com)
- Explain that errors in staging were more frequent in patients whose prostate abnormalities were detected on ultrasound. (medpagetoday.com)
- If you have recently been diagnosed with prostate cancer, here's why you should think twice before considering high intensity focused ultrasound. (healthcentral.com)
- Support for this study came from the National Cancer Institute, the Department of Defense, the Prostate Cancer Foundation, the American Cancer Society, and the Pew Charitable Trusts. (broadinstitute.org)
- The research was supported by the Broad Stem Cell Research Center Stem Cell Training Program and Hal Gaba Fund for Prostate Cancer Research, the UCLA Medical Scientist Training Program, the UCLA Specialized Program of Research Excellence in Prostate Cancer, the National Institutes of Health, the National Cancer Institute, the Prostate Cancer Foundation, the Department of Defense, the American Cancer Society and the W.M. Keck Foundation. (ucla.edu)
- In contrast to national data, studies of equal-access healthcare systems in the U.S. such as the Veterans Health Administration and the Department of Defense found no differences in prostate cancer mortality between Black and White men. (blogspot.com)
- Men with an abnormal BRCA2 gene are 7 times more likely than men without the abnormal gene to develop prostate cancer. (breastcancer.org)
- They say that 1 in 9 men will develop prostate cancer at some point in their lives. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- This includes men with a first-degree relative (father, brother or son) with prostate cancer, those of African-American ancestry (African-American men are 56 percent more likely to develop prostate cancer than Caucasian men, while Asian-American men are least likely), those who test positive for certain genetic factors such as the BRCA2 gene in their family or Lynch syndrome, possible exposure to Agent Orange, and firefighters. (cityofhope.org)
- The research team identified specific genetic mutations and patterns of gene expression that are found in t-SCNC, but are distinct from the more common type of prostate cancer known as adenocarcinoma. (ucsf.edu)
- Thus, taken together with rs6983267, these two genetic changes could account for as much as one quarter of prostate cancer cases in white men. (nih.gov)
- Identification of new regions like 8q24 furthers efforts to uncover the genetic basis of prostate cancer, which may eventually lead to more insights into cancer causation in general," added Gilles Thomas, M.D., Ph.D., lead scientist of CGEMS. (nih.gov)
- In this study, we evaluated the discriminative and predictive ability for prostate cancer risk models incorporating 25 common prostate cancer genetic markers, family history of prostate cancer, and age. (nih.gov)
- The best risk model (C-statistic = 0.642) included individual genetic markers and family history of prostate cancer. (nih.gov)
- SNPs are the most common type of genetic variant. (breastcancer.org)
- We performed a high resolution fine-mapping analysis to comprehensively evaluate the association between common genetic variation across the HOXB genetic locus at 17q21 and PrCa risk. (prolekare.cz)
- UK Genetic Prostate Cancer Study Collaborators None. (ox.ac.uk)
- This is one of the first genetic risk factors found that is responsible for an appreciable fraction of sporadic prostate cancer cases, particularly for the African American population ," says lead author Matthew Freedman, M.D., of Harvard Medical School. (blogspot.com)
- The pattern of gene mutations observed in the study suggests that t-SCNC in these advanced cases of treatment-resistant prostate cancer arises from a pre-existing adenocarcinoma, he said. (ucsf.edu)
- Normal prostate cells, for instance, neither produce nor use ERG, but the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion pushes these cells to produce the factor constantly. (broadinstitute.org)
- This may present an opportunity: a drug that interferes with BAF and TMPRSS2-ERG's interactions, they think, could alter prostate cancer gene expression in powerfully therapeutic ways. (broadinstitute.org)
- SNPs are the most common type of gene variant in which a single unit of DNA may vary from one person to the next. (nih.gov)
- Men with an abnormal BRCA1 gene have a slightly higher risk of prostate cancer. (breastcancer.org)
- The HOXB13 gene has been implicated in prostate cancer (PrCa) susceptibility. (prolekare.cz)
- Among them, we found that gene CDK5 has isoform switching between prostate cancer and benign tissues, which may affect cancer development by changing androgen receptor (AR) phosphorylation. (columbia.edu)
- This gene activity helps the prostate grow during a person's early development, but it does not continue to trigger cell production later in adulthood - that is, unless there are changes that reactive them, which can lead to prostate cancer. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Even though the complications of an enlarged prostate may be serious, BPH is not prostate cancer. (advancedurologyinstitute.com)
- An enlarged prostate is a long-term condition that's not usually serious, but symptoms can be troublesome and may sometimes lead to complications. (spirehealthcare.com)
- Only a small percentage of patients experience complications or regrowth of the prostate tissues to produce a second enlargement problem. (faqs.org)
- Postoperative complications include Bleeding (most common). (wikipedia.org)