Urinary Incontinence: Involuntary loss of URINE, such as leaking of urine. It is a symptom of various underlying pathological processes. Major types of incontinence include URINARY URGE INCONTINENCE and URINARY STRESS INCONTINENCE.Urinary Incontinence, Stress: Involuntary discharge of URINE as a result of physical activities that increase abdominal pressure on the URINARY BLADDER without detrusor contraction or overdistended bladder. The subtypes are classified by the degree of leakage, descent and opening of the bladder neck and URETHRA without bladder contraction, and sphincter deficiency.Urinary Incontinence, Urge: Involuntary discharge of URINE that is associated with an abrupt and strong desire to void. It is usually related to the involuntary contractions of the detrusor muscle of the bladder (detrusor hyperreflexia or detrusor instability).Fecal Incontinence: Failure of voluntary control of the anal sphincters, with involuntary passage of feces and flatus.Incontinence Pads: Absorbent pads used for URINARY INCONTINENCE and usually worn as underpants or pants liners by the ELDERLY.Urodynamics: The mechanical laws of fluid dynamics as they apply to urine transport.Suburethral Slings: Support structures, made from natural or synthetic materials, that are implanted below the URETHRA to treat URINARY STRESS INCONTINENCE.Pelvic Floor: Soft tissue formed mainly by the pelvic diaphragm, which is composed of the two levator ani and two coccygeus muscles. The pelvic diaphragm lies just below the pelvic aperture (outlet) and separates the pelvic cavity from the PERINEUM. It extends between the PUBIC BONE anteriorly and the COCCYX posteriorly.Urinary Tract Infections: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.Urologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the urinary tract or its parts in the male or female. For surgery of the male genitalia, UROLOGIC SURGICAL PROCEDURES, MALE is available.Infection: Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.Child Day Care Centers: Facilities which provide care for pre-school and school-age children.Urethra: A tube that transports URINE from the URINARY BLADDER to the outside of the body in both the sexes. It also has a reproductive function in the male by providing a passage for SPERM.Urinary Bladder: A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.Urinary Bladder, Overactive: Symptom of overactive detrusor muscle of the URINARY BLADDER that contracts with abnormally high frequency and urgency. Overactive bladder is characterized by the frequent feeling of needing to urinate during the day, during the night, or both. URINARY INCONTINENCE may or may not be present.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Uterine Prolapse: Downward displacement of the UTERUS. It is classified in various degrees: in the first degree the UTERINE CERVIX is within the vaginal orifice; in the second degree the cervix is outside the orifice; in the third degree the entire uterus is outside the orifice.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Urinary Sphincter, Artificial: An artifical implanted device, usually in the form of an inflatable silicone cuff, inserted in or around the bladder neck in the surgical treatment of urinary incontinence caused by sphincter weakness. Often it is placed around the bulbous urethra in adult males. The artificial urinary sphincter is considered an alternative to urinary diversion.Anal Canal: The terminal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, beginning from the ampulla of the RECTUM and ending at the anus.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Pessaries: Devices worn in the vagina to provide support to displaced uterus or rectum. Pessaries are used in conditions such as UTERINE PROLAPSE; CYSTOCELE; or RECTOCELE.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Diapers, Adult: Absorbent pads designed to be worn as underpants or pants liners by adults.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Urination: Discharge of URINE, liquid waste processed by the KIDNEY, from the body.Pelvic Organ Prolapse: Abnormal descent of a pelvic organ resulting in the protrusion of the organ beyond its normal anatomical confines. Symptoms often include vaginal discomfort, DYSPAREUNIA; URINARY STRESS INCONTINENCE; and FECAL INCONTINENCE.Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic: Dysfunction of the URINARY BLADDER due to disease of the central or peripheral nervous system pathways involved in the control of URINATION. This is often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, but may also be caused by BRAIN DISEASES or PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Perineum: The body region lying between the genital area and the ANUS on the surface of the trunk, and to the shallow compartment lying deep to this area that is inferior to the PELVIC DIAPHRAGM. The surface area is between the VULVA and the anus in the female, and between the SCROTUM and the anus in the male.Urination Disorders: Abnormalities in the process of URINE voiding, including bladder control, frequency of URINATION, as well as the volume and composition of URINE.Urogenital Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the urinary tract or its organs and on the male or female genitalia.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Urinary Catheterization: Passage of a CATHETER into the URINARY BLADDER or kidney.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Toilet Training: Conditioning to defecate and urinate in culturally acceptable places.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Urinary Tract: The duct which coveys URINE from the pelvis of the KIDNEY through the URETERS, BLADDER, and URETHRA.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Pelvic Floor Disorders: Injury, weakening, or PROLAPSE of the pelvic muscles, surrounding connective tissues or ligaments (PELVIC FLOOR).Phenylpropanolamine: A sympathomimetic that acts mainly by causing release of NOREPINEPHRINE but also has direct agonist activity at some adrenergic receptors. It is most commonly used as a nasal vasoconstrictor and an appetite depressant.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Urinary Retention: Inability to empty the URINARY BLADDER with voiding (URINATION).Community-Acquired Infections: Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.BenzilatesCholinergic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate CHOLINERGIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of ACETYLCHOLINE or cholinergic agonists.Urinary Bladder Diseases: Pathological processes of the URINARY BLADDER.Diurnal Enuresis: Involuntary discharge of URINE during the daytime while one is awake.Biofeedback, Psychology: The therapy technique of providing the status of one's own AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM function (e.g., skin temperature, heartbeats, brain waves) as visual or auditory feedback in order to self-control related conditions (e.g., hypertension, migraine headaches).Constipation: Infrequent or difficult evacuation of FECES. These symptoms are associated with a variety of causes, including low DIETARY FIBER intake, emotional or nervous disturbances, systemic and structural disorders, drug-induced aggravation, and infections.ButylaminesCystocele: A HERNIA-like condition in which the weakened pelvic muscles cause the URINARY BLADDER to drop from its normal position. Fallen urinary bladder is more common in females with the bladder dropping into the VAGINA and less common in males with the bladder dropping into the SCROTUM.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Urology: A surgical specialty concerned with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases of the urinary tract in both sexes, and the genital tract in the male. Common urological problems include urinary obstruction, URINARY INCONTINENCE, infections, and UROGENITAL NEOPLASMS.CresolsVagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Puerperal Disorders: Disorders or diseases associated with PUERPERIUM, the six-to-eight-week period immediately after PARTURITION in humans.Polypropylenes: Propylene or propene polymers. Thermoplastics that can be extruded into fibers, films or solid forms. They are used as a copolymer in plastics, especially polyethylene. The fibers are used for fabrics, filters and surgical sutures.Gynecologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the female genitalia.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Electric Stimulation Therapy: Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.Exercise Therapy: A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.Pudendal Nerve: A nerve which originates in the sacral spinal cord (S2 to S4) and innervates the PERINEUM, the external GENITALIA, the external ANAL SPHINCTER and the external urethral sphincter. It has three major branches: the perineal nerve, inferior anal nerves, and the dorsal nerve of penis or clitoris.Urologic Surgical Procedures, Male: Surgery performed on the male genitalia.Absorbent Pads: Pads made of various materials used for personal hygiene usually for absorbing URINE or FECES. They can be worn as underpants or pants liners by various age groups, from NEWBORNS to the ELDERLY. Absorbent pads can be made of fluff wood pulp and HYDROGEL absorbent covered with viscose rayon, polyester, polypropylene, or POLYETHYLENE coverstock.Episiotomy: An incision of the posterior vaginal wall and a portion of the pudenda which enlarges the vaginal introitus to facilitate delivery and prevent lacerations.Lumbosacral Plexus: The lumbar and sacral plexuses taken together. The fibers of the lumbosacral plexus originate in the lumbar and upper sacral spinal cord (L1 to S3) and innervate the lower extremities.Flatulence: Production or presence of gas in the gastrointestinal tract which may be expelled through the anus.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Defecation: The normal process of elimination of fecal material from the RECTUM.Surgical Mesh: Any woven or knit material of open texture used in surgery for the repair, reconstruction, or substitution of tissue. The mesh is usually a synthetic fabric made of various polymers. It is occasionally made of metal.Nocturnal Enuresis: Involuntary discharge of URINE during sleep at night after expected age of completed development of urinary control.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Aromatherapy: The use of fragrances and essences from plants to affect or alter a person's mood or behavior and to facilitate physical, mental, and emotional well-being. The chemicals comprising essential oils in plants has a host of therapeutic properties and has been used historically in Africa, Asia, and India. Its greatest application is in the field of alternative medicine. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; from Dr. Atiba Vheir, Dove Center, Washington, D.C.)Nursing Assessment: Evaluation of the nature and extent of nursing problems presented by a patient for the purpose of patient care planning.Manometry: Measurement of the pressure or tension of liquids or gases with a manometer.Diagnostic Techniques, Urological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the urinary tract or its organs or demonstration of its physiological processes.Nocturia: Frequent URINATION at night that interrupts sleep. It is often associated with outflow obstruction, DIABETES MELLITUS, or bladder inflammation (CYSTITIS).Delivery, Obstetric: Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.Urethral Diseases: Pathological processes involving the URETHRA.Surgical Tape: A flat, flexible strip of material used to cover or fasten together damaged tissue.Prostatectomy: Complete or partial surgical removal of the prostate. Three primary approaches are commonly employed: suprapubic - removal through an incision above the pubis and through the urinary bladder; retropubic - as for suprapubic but without entering the urinary bladder; and transurethral (TRANSURETHRAL RESECTION OF PROSTATE).Parturition: The process of giving birth to one or more offspring.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Mandelic Acids: Analogs or derivatives of mandelic acid (alpha-hydroxybenzeneacetic acid).Kinesiology, Applied: The study of muscles and the movement of the human body. In holistic medicine it is the balance of movement and the interaction of a person's energy systems. Applied kinesiology is the name given by its inventor, Dr. George Goodheart, to the system of applying muscle testing diagnostically and therapeutically to different aspects of health care. (Thorsons Introductory Guide to Kinesiology, 1992, p13)Muscarinic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous ACETYLCHOLINE or exogenous agonists. Muscarinic antagonists have widespread effects including actions on the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, the heart and blood vessels, secretions of the respiratory tract, GI system, and salivary glands, GI motility, urinary bladder tone, and the central nervous system.Nursing Homes: Facilities which provide nursing supervision and limited medical care to persons who do not require hospitalization.Dyspareunia: Recurrent genital pain occurring during, before, or after SEXUAL INTERCOURSE in either the male or the female.Epispadias: A birth defect due to malformation of the URETHRA in which the urethral opening is above its normal location. In the male, the malformed urethra generally opens on the top or the side of the PENIS, but the urethra can also be open the entire length of the penis. In the female, the malformed urethral opening is often between the CLITORIS and the labia, or in the ABDOMEN.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Lacerations: Torn, ragged, mangled wounds.Episode of Care: An interval of care by a health care facility or provider for a specific medical problem or condition. It may be continuous or it may consist of a series of intervals marked by one or more brief separations from care, and can also identify the sequence of care (e.g., emergency, inpatient, outpatient), thus serving as one measure of health care provided.Multiphasic Screening: The simultaneous use of multiple laboratory procedures for the detection of various diseases. These are usually performed on groups of people.Rectocele: Herniation of the RECTUM into the VAGINA.Erectile Dysfunction: The inability in the male to have a PENILE ERECTION due to psychological or organ dysfunction.Obstetric Labor Complications: Medical problems associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR, such as BREECH PRESENTATION; PREMATURE OBSTETRIC LABOR; HEMORRHAGE; or others. These complications can affect the well-being of the mother, the FETUS, or both.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Homes for the Aged: Geriatric long-term care facilities which provide supervision and assistance in activities of daily living with medical and nursing services when required.Urologic Diseases: Pathological processes of the URINARY TRACT in both males and females.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Rectum: The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.Botulinum Toxins, Type A: A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.Benzhydryl Compounds: Compounds which contain the methyl radical substituted with two benzene rings. Permitted are any substituents, but ring fusion to any of the benzene rings is not allowed.Hydrocephalus, Normal Pressure: A form of compensated hydrocephalus characterized clinically by a slowly progressive gait disorder (see GAIT DISORDERS, NEUROLOGIC), progressive intellectual decline, and URINARY INCONTINENCE. Spinal fluid pressure tends to be in the high normal range. This condition may result from processes which interfere with the absorption of CSF including SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, chronic MENINGITIS, and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp631-3)Urinary Calculi: Low-density crystals or stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT. Their chemical compositions often include CALCIUM OXALATE, magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite), CYSTINE, or URIC ACID.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Prostheses and Implants: Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.Parasympatholytics: Agents that inhibit the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. The major group of drugs used therapeutically for this purpose is the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS.Pelvis: The space or compartment surrounded by the pelvic girdle (bony pelvis). It is subdivided into the greater pelvis and LESSER PELVIS. The pelvic girdle is formed by the PELVIC BONES and SACRUM.NortropanesObstetrical Forceps: Surgical instrument designed to extract the newborn by the head from the maternal passages without injury to it or the mother.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Enuresis: Involuntary discharge of URINE after expected age of completed development of urinary control. This can happen during the daytime (DIURNAL ENURESIS) while one is awake or during sleep (NOCTURNAL ENURESIS). Enuresis can be in children or in adults (as persistent primary enuresis and secondary adult-onset enuresis).Female Urogenital Diseases: Pathological processes of the female URINARY TRACT and the reproductive system (GENITALIA, FEMALE).Prolapse: The protrusion of an organ or part of an organ into a natural or artificial orifice.Perimenopause: The transitional period before and after MENOPAUSE. Perimenopausal symptoms are associated with irregular MENSTRUAL CYCLE and widely fluctuated hormone levels. They may appear 6 years before menopause and subside 2 to 5 years after menopause.Sickness Impact Profile: A quality-of-life scale developed in the United States in 1972 as a measure of health status or dysfunction generated by a disease. It is a behaviorally based questionnaire for patients and addresses activities such as sleep and rest, mobility, recreation, home management, emotional behavior, social interaction, and the like. It measures the patient's perceived health status and is sensitive enough to detect changes or differences in health status occurring over time or between groups. (From Medical Care, vol.xix, no.8, August 1981, p.787-805)Ligaments: Shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue connecting together articular extremities of bones. They are pliant, tough, and inextensile.Dysuria: Painful URINATION. It is often associated with infections of the lower URINARY TRACT.Neuromuscular Agents: Drugs used for their actions on skeletal muscle. Included are agents that act directly on skeletal muscle, those that alter neuromuscular transmission (NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENTS), and drugs that act centrally as skeletal muscle relaxants (MUSCLE RELAXANTS, CENTRAL). Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders are ANTI-DYSKINESIA AGENTS.Cystostomy: Surgical creation of an opening (stoma) in the URINARY BLADDER for drainage.United StatesReproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Standard of Care: The minimum acceptable patient care, based on statutes, court decisions, policies, or professional guidelines.Valsalva Maneuver: Forced expiratory effort against a closed GLOTTIS.Transurethral Resection of Prostate: Removal of all or part of the PROSTATE, often using a cystoscope and/or resectoscope passed through the URETHRA.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of a prosthesis.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Sexual Dysfunction, Physiological: Physiological disturbances in normal sexual performance in either the male or the female.Urological Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of urogenital conditions and diseases such as URINARY INCONTINENCE; PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA; and ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.Physical Therapy Modalities: Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.Hope: Belief in a positive outcome.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Obsessive Behavior: Persistent, unwanted idea or impulse which is considered normal when it does not markedly interfere with mental processes or emotional adjustment.Rectal Prolapse: Protrusion of the rectal mucous membrane through the anus. There are various degrees: incomplete with no displacement of the anal sphincter muscle; complete with displacement of the anal sphincter muscle; complete with no displacement of the anal sphincter muscle but with herniation of the bowel; and internal complete with rectosigmoid or upper rectum intussusception into the lower rectum.Hysterectomy: Excision of the uterus.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Sexuality: The sexual functions, activities, attitudes, and orientations of an individual. Sexuality, male or female, becomes evident at PUBERTY under the influence of gonadal steroids (TESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL), and social effects.Great BritainHysterectomy, Vaginal: Removal of the uterus through the vagina.Orgasm: The climax of sexual excitement in either humans or animals.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Urinary Diversion: Temporary or permanent diversion of the flow of urine through the ureter away from the URINARY BLADDER in the presence of a bladder disease or after cystectomy. There is a variety of techniques: direct anastomosis of ureter and bowel, cutaneous ureterostomy, ileal, jejunal or colon conduit, ureterosigmoidostomy, etc. (From Campbell's Urology, 6th ed, p2654)Shame: An emotional attitude excited by realization of a shortcoming or impropriety.Antidiuretic Agents: Agents that reduce the excretion of URINE, most notably the octapeptide VASOPRESSINS.Symptom Assessment: Evaluation of manifestations of disease.Fascia: Layers of connective tissue of variable thickness. The superficial fascia is found immediately below the skin; the deep fascia invests MUSCLES, nerves, and other organs.Reflex, Abnormal: An abnormal response to a stimulus applied to the sensory components of the nervous system. This may take the form of increased, decreased, or absent reflexes.Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Propantheline: A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in rhinitis, in urinary incontinence, and in the treatment of ulcers. At high doses it has nicotinic effects resulting in neuromuscular blocking.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Vacuum Extraction, Obstetrical: Removal of the fetus from the uterus or vagina at or near the end of pregnancy with a metal traction cup that is attached to the fetus' head. Negative pressure is applied and traction is made on a chain passed through the suction tube. (From Stedman, 26th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Manipulation, Chiropractic: Procedures used by chiropractors to treat neuromusculoskeletal complaints.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Intention to Treat Analysis: Strategy for the analysis of RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS AS TOPIC that compares patients in the groups to which they were originally randomly assigned.Geriatric Assessment: Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.Postpartum Period: In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Lavandula: A plant genus of the LAMIACEAE family.Cystoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the urinary bladder.Bacteriuria: The presence of bacteria in the urine which is normally bacteria-free. These bacteria are from the URINARY TRACT and are not contaminants of the surrounding tissues. Bacteriuria can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Significant bacteriuria is an indicator of urinary tract infection.Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: Symptoms of disorders of the lower urinary tract including frequency, NOCTURIA; urgency, incomplete voiding, and URINARY INCONTINENCE. They are often associated with OVERACTIVE BLADDER; URINARY INCOMPETENCE; and INTERSTITIAL CYSTITIS. Lower urinary tract symptoms in males were traditionally called PROSTATISM.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Accidental Falls: Falls due to slipping or tripping which may result in injury.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Bladder Exstrophy: A birth defect in which the URINARY BLADDER is malformed and exposed, inside out, and protruded through the ABDOMINAL WALL. It is caused by closure defects involving the top front surface of the bladder, as well as the lower abdominal wall; SKIN; MUSCLES; and the pubic bone.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Laparoscopy: A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.Pudendal Neuralgia: Pain associated with a damaged PUDENDAL NERVE. Clinical features may include positional pain with sitting in the perineal and genital areas, sexual dysfunction and FECAL INCONTINENCE and URINARY INCONTINENCE.Urethral Stricture: Narrowing of any part of the URETHRA. It is characterized by decreased urinary stream and often other obstructive voiding symptoms.Surgical Procedures, Minimally Invasive: Procedures that avoid use of open, invasive surgery in favor of closed or local surgery. These generally involve use of laparoscopic devices and remote-control manipulation of instruments with indirect observation of the surgical field through an endoscope or similar device.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Spinal Dysraphism: Congenital defects of closure of one or more vertebral arches, which may be associated with malformations of the spinal cord, nerve roots, congenital fibrous bands, lipomas, and congenital cysts. These malformations range from mild (e.g., SPINA BIFIDA OCCULTA) to severe, including rachischisis where there is complete failure of neural tube and spinal cord fusion, resulting in exposure of the spinal cord at the surface. Spinal dysraphism includes all forms of spina bifida. The open form is called SPINA BIFIDA CYSTICA and the closed form is SPINA BIFIDA OCCULTA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p34)Drinking: The consumption of liquids.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.ThiophenesDefecography: Radiographic examination of the process of defecation after the instillation of a CONTRAST MEDIA into the rectum.Fissure in Ano: A painful linear ulcer at the margin of the anus. It appears as a crack or slit in the mucous membrane of the anus and is very painful and difficult to heal. (Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Suture Techniques: Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Urge incontinence is a form of urinary incontinence characterized by the involuntary loss of urine occurring for no apparent ... OAB causes similar symptoms to some other conditions such as urinary tract infection (UTI), bladder cancer, and benign ... and the common symptoms of OAB (urgency, frequency, and nocturia) may be absent. BPH frequently includes symptoms at the time ... The number of episodes varies depending on sleep, fluid intake, medications, and up to seven is considered normal if consistent ...
The most common types of urinary incontinence in women are stress urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. Women ... Urinary incontinence (UI), also known as involuntary urination, is any uncontrolled leakage of urine. It is a common and ... The disadvantage, however, is that it is very common to get urinary tract infections when using indwelling catheters. ... and 1 percent of 18-year-olds experience episodes of incontinence. It is twice as common in girls as in boys.[citation needed] ...
1999). "Sacral Nerve Stimulation For Treatment Of Refractor Urinary Urge Incontinence". The Journal of Urology. 162 (2): 352- ... to treat fecal incontinence in Madri (Spain). The most common cause for the fecal incontinence was obstetric procedures, ... Fecal incontinence, the involuntary loss of stool and flatus release afflicting mainly elderly people, can also be treated with ... currently no studies into the efficacy of this on an overactive bladder and other associated symptoms of urinary incontinence, ...
... this person is said to have urinary incontinence. This condition is also called leaky bladder. ... When someone is unable to control the ability to urinate and theres an involuntary loss of urine, ... The most common combination is urge and stress incontinence. Incontinence can either be temporary (e.g., caused by infections ... Symptoms and Complications. A typical symptom is involuntary loss or leakage of urine. If you experience repeated episodes of ...
Incontinence can be caused by mechanical, anatomic or medical issues. But what are these? And who is at risk of developing ... The next section on Female Urinary Incontinence Symptoms outlines the signs and symptoms of female urge incontinence. ... One common cause of urge incontinence is inappropriate bladder contractions due to abnormal nerve signals that create bladder ... Urinary tract infections, medicines, or constipation can also produce short-term incontinence. Women who are obese, have ...
7. Transient Urinary: Sudden onset of potentially reversible symptoms. Possible causes: delirium, infections, atrophic ... Predictable involuntary loss of urine with no sensation of urge, voiding, or bladder fullness. 5. Stress: Immediate involuntary ... Will have fewer or no episodes of incontinence. 2. Will not have complications associated with urinary or fecal incontinence. 3 ... SUPPORTIVE DATA: Urinary and fecal incontinence is a common problem in hospitalized patients. Early recognition and protection ...
... and at any age is more than 2 times more common in females than in males. Essential update: Pilot study suggests adipose stem ... cells can aid female stress urinary incontinence Results from a ... ... Urinary incontinence is an underdiagnosed and underreported problem that increases with age-affecting 50-84% of the elderly in ... Often, stress incontinence symptoms precede urge incontinence symptoms in these individuals. Urgency without actual urge- ...
Urinary incontinence is defined as the involuntary loss of urine that can be demonstrated objectively. It is a very common and ... 1) Stress incontinence (urethral) - pelvic floor injury. 2) Urge incontinence (urethral) - detrusor instability 3) Neuropathic ... These symptoms are quite specific for stress incontinence. Volume infusion graphs show a sudden loss of bladder pressure during ... and avoiding letting the bladder get overfilled decrease the incontinence episodes. Medical management follows unsuccessful ...
Urinary incontinence is the involuntary loss of urine. There are two different types of urinary incontinence ... changes and are the major reasons why incontinence is twice as common in women than in men.What is urinary incontinence? ... From the first-time women experience incontinence, they wait over six years to seek medical attention. Pregnancy, childbirth, ... Urinary incontinence affects 25 million people in the United States of those, 75-80 percent are women. ...
... which is defined as an involuntary leakage of urine, is a common problem in the United States.1,2 Symptoms of UI include ... Urge UI (UUI): In UUI, urine leakage is due to involuntary contractions of the bladder. The cause is typically an overactive ... Overall goals of therapy include a reduction in episodes of incontinence and the prevention of complications (e.g., pressure ... Diagnostic tests can help rule out conditions such as urinary tract infection and renal failure. Proper classification is vital ...
Urinary incontinence. To those who suffer from, live with, and care for others experiencing the condition, the meaning is clear ... urge incontinence is by far the most common type, both symptomatically and objectively. Urge incontinence gives rise to more ... Transient incontinence is caused by reversible stressors such as fecal impaction, urinary tract infection, delirium, atrophic ... Ouslander and Johnson1 define urinary incontinence (UI) as the involuntary loss of urine in sufficient amounts with enough ...
Urinary incontinence, sometimes known as leaky bladder, affects millions of Americans. Find out why it happens and how it is ... Urge incontinence. Also known as reflex incontinence or "overactive bladder," this is the second most common type of urinary ... This is bad for wound healing and also promotes fungal infections.. *Urinary tract infections - long-term use of a urinary ... Urinary incontinence is the involuntary leakage of urine. It means a person urinates when they do not want to. Control over the ...
Female Urinary Incontinence is the involuntary loss of urine in the female. There are three types of urinary incontinence in ... Incontinence is a very common problem in women. The prevalence of urinary incontinence in women differs depending on age: * ... Urge incontinence: *Detrusor instability. *Bladder infection. *Calculi. Overflow incontinence: *Hypotonic Bladder. *Bladder ... Duration - If episodic - "How long does each episode last?". *Severity - "How much urine?" ...
This article offers a comprehensive approach to the evaluation and management of urinary incontinence in women. ... a working knowledge of the diagnosis and treatment of the various types of urinary incontinence is fundamental to the care of ... primary care physicians can expect to see an increasing number of patients with urinary incontinence. By obtaining a careful ... Because the prevalence of urinary incontinence increases with age, ...
Urinary incontinence is the involuntary loss of urine and boy, is it common. Probably 50% of older women and 15% of older men ... 2. Urgency urinary incontinence - also called urge incontinence or overactive bladder, this type is the loss of larger amounts ... While the incontinence may not completely disappear, it is likely that the frequency and intensity of symptoms can be reduced ... If you have episodes of involuntary loss of urine, please talk to your healthcare provider. Your healthcare provider should ...
Millions of people experience incontinence or overactive bladder. Keeping track of your urination in a bladder diary can help ... some 10-13 million people in the United States experience urinary incontinence, the involuntary leaking of urine. Incontinence ... Incontinence. How to Manage Pregnancy Incontinence. Incontinence is common during pregnancy, but it can be managed with the ... Types of incontinence include:*Stress Incontinence: Leaking urine during physical activity*Urge Incontinence: Leaking large ...
The most common adverse reactions were mainly associated with the urinary tract and included urinary tract infections and ... Population-Based Survey of Urinary Incontinence, Overactive Bladder, and Other Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Five Countries: ... is a medical condition where involuntary contractions of the bladder can cause an uncontrolled urge to urinate (urgency), ... On average, patients were experiencing more than five urinary incontinence (leakage) episodes per day.[1] ...
Urge incontinence is a form of urinary incontinence characterized by the involuntary loss of urine occurring for no apparent ... OAB causes similar symptoms to some other conditions such as urinary tract infection (UTI), bladder cancer, and benign ... and the common symptoms of OAB (urgency, frequency, and nocturia) may be absent. BPH frequently includes symptoms at the time ... The number of episodes varies depending on sleep, fluid intake, medications, and up to seven is considered normal if consistent ...
Nocturia, urinary urgency and frequency are symptoms. Read about causes, treatment, medications, OTC remedies and diagnosis. ... with symptoms of urge urinary incontinence, urgency, and urinary frequency.. Occasionally antidepressant medications are used ... Common conditions such as urinary tract infection, kidney and bladder stones, or bladder tumors can all cause overactivity of ... urinary frequency, and nocturia (voiding at night). Some patients may also experience urinary incontinence (involuntary loss of ...
being able to control the urge to urinate. Urinary incontinence then is any episode of involuntary loss of urine. ... For instance, stress incontinence is the most common type of urine leakage in women aged 30-50 (1/3 of women in 30s report ... So if you recognize yourself in these symptoms, know you are not alone. And know you can be empowered to do something about it. ... recurrent urinary tract infections. *low estrogen states leading to atrophy. *menopause. *aging ...
... which includes the symptoms with urge incontinence (leaking or involuntary bladder voiding). ... The result is a need to urinate (urinary urgency), which is also called urge incontinence or irritable bladder. ... The use of antisasmodics, also called anticholinergics can reduce bladder urge episodes. These include:. *Tolterodine (Detrol) ... While overactive bladder is most common in older adults, the condition is not a normal result of aging. While one in 11 people ...
... urinary tract infection (UTI); (3) diabetes mellitus; (4) other associated bladder pathologies commonly seen in urge ... A brief and robust measure for evaluating the symptoms and impact of urinary incontinence. Neurourol Urodyn. . 2004;23(4):322- ... Involuntary loss of urine due to increased intraabdominal pressure is a condition mainly affecting females. Approximately 50% ... Subjective improvement was defined as a perceived significant reduction in the leaking episodes, expressed by patient ...
Involuntary leakage associated with urge and also with sneezing, coughing and exertion (stress urinary incontinence) ... Also chronic cough can cause episodes of incontinence. Kidney disease or diabetes can increase risk of urinary incontinence. ... Voiding symptoms- hesitancy, failure to void, poor flow. Postmicturition symptoms- incontinence, incomplete emptying. Quantity ... After lifestyle changes, what is the most common treatment for overactive bladder?. How do they work? ...
Symptoms of urinary frequency (average of ,8 micturitions/24 h) and urge incontinence (,5 incontinence episodes/wk) ,/li,,/ul, ... Detrusor instability urge urinary incontinence (UUI) was more common among older vs younger women (67% vs 56%, respectively; P ... Laboratory Tests ,ul,,li,Rule out possible causes of LUTS ,/li,,/ul,,ul,,ul,,li,Urinary tract infection (UTI) or sexually ... OAB is associated with involuntary detrusor contractions. Detrusor instability can cause symptoms of urgency of the sudden loss ...
urge incontinence, usually with frequency and nocturia,2 in the absence of urinary tract infection (UTI) or other obvious ... Urge incontinence is defined as the complaint of involuntary leakage of urine accompanied by or immediately preceded by urgency ... Childhood urinary symptoms predict adult overactive bladder symptoms. J Urol 2006 Mar;175(3 Pt 1):989-93. ... 16 Lifestyle and behavioral modification such as weight loss has been shown to reduce episodes of urinary incontinence.17 ...
Read about urinary incontinence causes, symptoms, types, treatment, and medications. ... Urinary incontinence is the involuntary loss of urine. ... or urinary tract infection, can cause symptoms similar to urge ... Urinary Incontinence - Experience. Urinary incontinence is a common problem. Please describe your experience with urinary ... Incontinence is the involuntary loss of urine or feces (stool); this article will be limited to discussing urinary incontinence ...
The condition is also called urinary incontinence. Symptoms are often confused with urinary infection though the two conditions ... In this condition, urine produced in the kidney leaks due to involuntary bladder contraction. ... An overactive bladder is a condition causing the frequent urge to urinate. ... Common symptoms of an overactive bladder include the urge to urinate, frequent urination, and urine leakage or loss of control ...
It is characterised by urinary urgency, frequency and nocturia, with or without urge urinary incontinence. These symptoms can ... Overactive bladder syndrome is a symptom-based clinical diagnosis. ... Urgency urinary incontinence. Involuntary loss of urine associated with urgency2. Clinical significance. In Australia, ... Patients are often too embarrassed to discuss symptoms with their GP.. *Pathology such as urinary infection, diabetes, bladder ...
  • Urodynamic and cystoscopic study may be helpful in complex, resistant and recurring cases of urinary incontinence of any cause. (cmaj.ca)
  • However, there are many other medical conditions that can cause urinary incontinence and a thorough evaluation by your doctor will help to determine the underlying cause. (wickedlocal.com)
  • Some common phrases used to describe OAB include, 'When I've got to go, I've got to go,' or 'When I have to go, I have to rush, because I think I will wet myself. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinicians should include as part of their counseling information that acceptable symptom control may require trials of multiple therapeutic options. (contemporaryobgyn.net)
  • Second line therapies are more invasive, and include botulinum toxin, neuromodulation or surgical interventions such as augmentation cystoplasty or urinary diversion. (racgp.org.au)
  • After your doctor knows what has caused the incontinence, your treatment may include exercises, bladder training, medicines, a pessary, or a combination of these. (nkch.org)
  • Other symptoms include pain in the side area, pain or discomfort when having sex and feeling fatigued. (drshailendragoel.com)
  • Common approaches include random digit dialing within a specific geographical region, or mailings of questionnaires to a sample of individuals who are in a pool of registered voters, registered residents, or on the patient panels of a national health systems or large healthcare organizations. (nih.gov)
  • Some of the services provided by the doctor include Cystoscopy Procedure, Blood In Urine (Hematuria) Treatment, Treatment Of Erectile Dysfunction, Treatment of H.I.V, Hydrocele Treatment (Surgical), Incontinence Treatment, Kidney Transplant Treatment, Lithotripsy Procedure, Treatment Of Male Sexual Problems and Men's Health. (lybrate.com)
  • Common metastatic sites include the laser treatment urology and bones. (blogspot.com)