Duodenal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the DUODENUM.Duodenal Diseases: Pathological conditions in the DUODENUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).Duodenal Obstruction: Hindrance of the passage of luminal contents in the DUODENUM. Duodenal obstruction can be partial or complete, and caused by intrinsic or extrinsic factors. Simple obstruction is associated with diminished or stopped flow of luminal contents. Strangulating obstruction is associated with impaired blood flow to the duodenum in addition to obstructed flow of luminal contents.Brunner Glands: The abundant submucosal mucous glands in the DUODENUM. These glands secrete BICARBONATE IONS; GLYCOPROTEINS; and PEPSINOGEN II.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Jejunum: The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Duodenoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the duodenum.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Gastrointestinal Motility: The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Duodenitis: Inflammation of the DUODENUM section of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL). Erosive duodenitis may cause bleeding in the UPPER GI TRACT and PEPTIC ULCER.Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Pylorus: The region of the STOMACH at the junction with the DUODENUM. It is marked by the thickening of circular muscle layers forming the pyloric sphincter to control the opening and closure of the lumen.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Pyloric Antrum: The region between the sharp indentation at the lower third of the STOMACH (incisura angularis) and the junction of the PYLORUS with the DUODENUM. Pyloric antral glands contain mucus-secreting cells and gastrin-secreting endocrine cells (G CELLS).Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Myoelectric Complex, Migrating: A pattern of gastrointestinal muscle contraction and depolarizing myoelectric activity that moves from the stomach to the ILEOCECAL VALVE at regular frequency during the interdigestive period. The complex and its accompanying motor activity periodically cleanse the bowel of interdigestive secretion and debris in preparation for the next meal.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Digestive System: A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Secretin: A peptide hormone of about 27 amino acids from the duodenal mucosa that activates pancreatic secretion and lowers the blood sugar level. (USAN and the USP Dictionary of Drug Names, 1994, p597)Ampulla of Vater: A dilation of the duodenal papilla that is the opening of the juncture of the COMMON BILE DUCT and the MAIN PANCREATIC DUCT, also known as the hepatopancreatic ampulla.Duodenal Ulcer: A PEPTIC ULCER located in the DUODENUM.Pancreaticoduodenectomy: The excision of the head of the pancreas and the encircling loop of the duodenum to which it is connected.Pancreatic Juice: The fluid containing digestive enzymes secreted by the pancreas in response to food in the duodenum.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Epirizole: 4-Methoxy-2-(5-methoxy-3-methylpyrazol-1-yl)-6-methylpyrimidine. A pyrimidinyl pyrazole with antipyretic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activity.Gastric Emptying: The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.Hydrochloric Acid: A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.Abomasum: The fourth stomach of ruminating animals. It is also called the "true" stomach. It is an elongated pear-shaped sac lying on the floor of the abdomen, on the right-hand side, and roughly between the seventh and twelfth ribs. It leads to the beginning of the small intestine. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Motilin: A peptide of about 22-amino acids isolated from the DUODENUM. At low pH it inhibits gastric motor activity, whereas at high pH it has a stimulating effect.Gastrointestinal Transit: Passage of food (sometimes in the form of a test meal) through the gastrointestinal tract as measured in minutes or hours. The rate of passage through the intestine is an indicator of small bowel function.Digestive System Physiological Phenomena: Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Intestinal Secretions: Fluids originating from the epithelial lining of the intestines, adjoining exocrine glands and from organs such as the liver, which empty into the cavity of the intestines.Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Cholecystokinin: A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.Common Bile Duct: The largest bile duct. It is formed by the junction of the CYSTIC DUCT and the COMMON HEPATIC DUCT.Enteropeptidase: A specialized proteolytic enzyme secreted by intestinal cells. It converts TRYPSINOGEN into its active form TRYPSIN by removing the N-terminal peptide. EC 126.96.36.199.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Sphincter of Oddi: The sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla within the duodenal papilla. The COMMON BILE DUCT and main pancreatic duct pass through this sphincter.Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the gastrointestinal tract.Intestinal Fistula: An abnormal anatomical passage between the INTESTINE, and another segment of the intestine or other organs. External intestinal fistula is connected to the SKIN (enterocutaneous fistula). Internal intestinal fistula can be connected to a number of organs, such as STOMACH (gastrocolic fistula), the BILIARY TRACT (cholecystoduodenal fistula), or the URINARY BLADDER of the URINARY TRACT (colovesical fistula). Risk factors include inflammatory processes, cancer, radiation treatment, and surgical misadventures (MEDICAL ERRORS).S100 Calcium Binding Protein G: A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.Gastric Mucosa: Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.Upper Gastrointestinal Tract: The segment of GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the ESOPHAGUS; the STOMACH; and the DUODENUM.Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome: DUODENAL OBSTRUCTION by the superior mesenteric artery (MESENTERIC ARTERY, SUPERIOR) which travels in the root of the MESENTERY and crosses over the DUODENUM. The syndrome is characterized by the dilated proximal duodenum and STOMACH, bloating, ABDOMINAL CRAMPS, and VOMITING. Often it is observed in patient with body casts after spinal surgery.Stomach, RuminantCalbindins: Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer and transport cytoplasmic calcium. Calbindins possess a variable number of EF-HAND MOTIFS which contain calcium-binding sites. Some isoforms are regulated by VITAMIN D.Gastric Outlet Obstruction: The hindering of output from the STOMACH into the SMALL INTESTINE. This obstruction may be of mechanical or functional origin such as EDEMA from PEPTIC ULCER; NEOPLASMS; FOREIGN BODIES; or AGING.Somatostatinoma: A SOMATOSTATIN-secreting tumor derived from the pancreatic delta cells (SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS). It is also found in the INTESTINE. Somatostatinomas are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS; CHOLELITHIASIS; STEATORRHEA; and HYPOCHLORHYDRIA. The majority of somatostatinomas have the potential for METASTASIS.Duodenostomy: Surgical formation of an opening into the DUODENUM.Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome: A syndrome that is characterized by the triad of severe PEPTIC ULCER, hypersecretion of GASTRIC ACID, and GASTRIN-producing tumors of the PANCREAS or other tissue (GASTRINOMA). This syndrome may be sporadic or be associated with MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA TYPE 1.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Intubation, Gastrointestinal: The insertion of a tube into the stomach, intestines, or other portion of the gastrointestinal tract to allow for the passage of food products, etc.Vagotomy: The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.Enteroendocrine Cells: Cells found throughout the lining of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that contain and secrete regulatory PEPTIDE HORMONES and/or BIOGENIC AMINES.Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Gallbladder: A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.Gastrointestinal Contents: The contents included in all or any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Cysteamine: A mercaptoethylamine compound that is endogenously derived from the COENZYME A degradative pathway. The fact that cysteamine is readily transported into LYSOSOMES where it reacts with CYSTINE to form cysteine-cysteamine disulfide and CYSTEINE has led to its use in CYSTINE DEPLETING AGENTS for the treatment of CYSTINOSIS.Choristoma: A mass of histologically normal tissue present in an abnormal location.Barium Sulfate: A compound used as an x-ray contrast medium that occurs in nature as the mineral barite. It is also used in various manufacturing applications and mixed into heavy concrete to serve as a radiation shield.Trimebutine: Proposed spasmolytic with possible local anesthetic action used in gastrointestinal disorders.Stomach Diseases: Pathological processes involving the STOMACH.Melena: The black, tarry, foul-smelling FECES that contain degraded blood.Gastrins: A family of gastrointestinal peptide hormones that excite the secretion of GASTRIC JUICE. They may also occur in the central nervous system where they are presumed to be neurotransmitters.Intestinal Atresia: Congenital obliteration of the lumen of the intestine, with the ILEUM involved in 50% of the cases and the JEJUNUM and DUODENUM following in frequency. It is the most frequent cause of INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION in NEWBORNS. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Gastric Juice: The liquid secretion of the stomach mucosa consisting of hydrochloric acid (GASTRIC ACID); PEPSINOGENS; INTRINSIC FACTOR; GASTRIN; MUCUS; and the bicarbonate ion (BICARBONATES). (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p651)Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Common Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumor or cancer of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Myenteric Plexus: One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the gut. Its neurons project to the circular muscle, to other myenteric ganglia, to submucosal ganglia, or directly to the epithelium, and play an important role in regulating and patterning gut motility. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)Intestinal Polyps: Discrete abnormal tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the INTESTINE. A polyp is attached to the intestinal wall either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.Gastrointestinal Hormones: HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.Gastrinoma: A GASTRIN-secreting neuroendocrine tumor of the non-beta ISLET CELLS, the GASTRIN-SECRETING CELLS. This type of tumor is primarily located in the PANCREAS or the DUODENUM. Majority of gastrinomas are malignant. They metastasize to the LIVER; LYMPH NODES; and BONE but rarely elsewhere. The presence of gastrinoma is one of three requirements to be met for identification of ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME, which sometimes occurs in families with MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA TYPE 1; (MEN 1).Butylscopolammonium Bromide: Antimuscarinic quaternary ammonium derivative of scopolamine used to treat cramps in gastrointestinal, urinary, uterine, and biliary tracts, and to facilitate radiologic visualization of the gastrointestinal tract.Enterocytes: Absorptive cells in the lining of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA. They are differentiated EPITHELIAL CELLS with apical MICROVILLI facing the intestinal lumen. Enterocytes are more abundant in the SMALL INTESTINE than in the LARGE INTESTINE. Their microvilli greatly increase the luminal surface area of the cell by 14- to 40 fold.Jejunal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer in the JEJUNUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).Emetics: Agents that cause vomiting. They may act directly on the gastrointestinal tract, bringing about emesis through local irritant effects, or indirectly, through their effects on the chemoreceptor trigger zone in the postremal area near the medulla.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Cation Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Esophagus: The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Intestinal Perforation: Opening or penetration through the wall of the INTESTINES.Gastric Acid: Hydrochloric acid present in GASTRIC JUICE.Intestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Endoscopy, Digestive System: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the digestive tract.Digestive System Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the digestive system or its parts.Pancreatic Ducts: Ducts that collect PANCREATIC JUICE from the PANCREAS and supply it to the DUODENUM.Pancreatitis: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.Hamartoma: A focal malformation resembling a neoplasm, composed of an overgrowth of mature cells and tissues that normally occur in the affected area.Jejunal Diseases: Pathological development in the JEJUNUM region of the SMALL INTESTINE.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Intestine, Large: A segment of the LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the CECUM; the COLON; and the RECTUM.Organ Sparing Treatments: Techniques, procedures, and therapies carried out on diseased organs in such a way to avoid complete removal of the organ and preserve the remaining organ function.Carcinoid Tumor: A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182)Methazolamide: A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor that is used as a diuretic and in the treatment of glaucoma.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Celiac Disease: A malabsorption syndrome that is precipitated by the ingestion of foods containing GLUTEN, such as wheat, rye, and barley. It is characterized by INFLAMMATION of the SMALL INTESTINE, loss of MICROVILLI structure, failed INTESTINAL ABSORPTION, and MALNUTRITION.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Intestinal Diseases: Pathological processes in any segment of the INTESTINE from DUODENUM to RECTUM.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Hematemesis: Vomiting of blood that is either fresh bright red, or older "coffee-ground" in character. It generally indicates bleeding of the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Pancreatectomy: Surgical removal of the pancreas. (Dorland, 28th ed)Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Peptic Ulcer: Ulcer that occurs in the regions of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT which come into contact with GASTRIC JUICE containing PEPSIN and GASTRIC ACID. It occurs when there are defects in the MUCOSA barrier. The common forms of peptic ulcers are associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI and the consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Jejunostomy: Surgical formation of an opening through the ABDOMINAL WALL into the JEJUNUM, usually for enteral hyperalimentation.Gastrointestinal Diseases: Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Submucous Plexus: One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the enteric nervous system. The submucous (Meissner's) plexus is in the connective tissue of the submucosa. Its neurons innervate the epithelium, blood vessels, endocrine cells, other submucosal ganglia, and myenteric ganglia, and play an important role in regulating ion and water transport. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)Cecum: The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Stomach Ulcer: Ulceration of the GASTRIC MUCOSA due to contact with GASTRIC JUICE. It is often associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI infection or consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.Gastritis: Inflammation of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, a lesion observed in a number of unrelated disorders.Metaplasia: A condition in which there is a change of one adult cell type to another similar adult cell type.DisaccharidasesAnimals, Suckling: Young, unweaned mammals. Refers to nursing animals whether nourished by their biological mother, foster mother, or bottle fed.Iron-Binding Proteins: Proteins that specifically bind to IRON.Laparotomy: Incision into the side of the abdomen between the ribs and pelvis.Enteric Nervous System: Two ganglionated neural plexuses in the gut wall which form one of the three major divisions of the autonomic nervous system. The enteric nervous system innervates the gastrointestinal tract, the pancreas, and the gallbladder. It contains sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. Thus the circuitry can autonomously sense the tension and the chemical environment in the gut and regulate blood vessel tone, motility, secretions, and fluid transport. The system is itself governed by the central nervous system and receives both parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation. (From Kandel, Schwartz, and Jessel, Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p766)Diverticulum: A pouch or sac developed from a tubular or saccular organ, such as the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Secretory Rate: The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Capsule Endoscopy: Non-invasive, endoscopic imaging by use of VIDEO CAPSULE ENDOSCOPES to perform examination of the gastrointestinal tract, especially the small bowel.Tetragastrin: L-Tryptophyl-L-methionyl-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalaninamide. The C-terminal tetrapeptide of gastrin. It is the smallest peptide fragment of gastrin which has the same physiological and pharmacological activity as gastrin.Gastrectomy: Excision of the whole (total gastrectomy) or part (subtotal gastrectomy, partial gastrectomy, gastric resection) of the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Dibenzylchlorethamine: An alpha adrenergic antagonist.Peristalsis: A movement, caused by sequential muscle contraction, that pushes the contents of the intestines or other tubular organs in one direction.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Bile Ducts: The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Adenoma, Villous: An adenoma of the large intestine. It is usually a solitary, sessile, often large, tumor of colonic mucosa composed of mucinous epithelium covering delicate vascular projections. Hypersecretion and malignant changes occur frequently. (Stedman, 25th ed)Enterohepatic Circulation: Recycling through liver by excretion in bile, reabsorption from intestines (INTESTINAL REABSORPTION) into portal circulation, passage back into liver, and re-excretion in bile.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Sphincterotomy, Transhepatic: Surgery of the smooth muscle sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla to relieve blocked biliary or pancreatic ducts.Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: All tumors in the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT arising from mesenchymal cells (MESODERM) except those of smooth muscle cells (LEIOMYOMA) or Schwann cells (SCHWANNOMA).Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Fatty Acids, Volatile: Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.Silage: Fodder converted into succulent feed for livestock through processes of anaerobic fermentation (as in a silo).Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Digestive System Abnormalities: Congenital structural abnormalities of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Foreign Bodies: Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the body.Lymphangiectasis, Intestinal: Dilatation of the intestinal lymphatic system usually caused by an obstruction in the intestinal wall. It may be congenital or acquired and is characterized by DIARRHEA; HYPOPROTEINEMIA; peripheral and/or abdominal EDEMA; and PROTEIN-LOSING ENTEROPATHIES.Colipases: Colipase I and II, consisting of 94-95 and 84-85 amino acid residues, respectively, have been isolated from porcine pancreas. Their role is to prevent the inhibitory effect of bile salts on the lipase-catalyzed intraduodenal hydrolysis of dietary long-chain triglycerides.Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Enterochromaffin Cells: A subtype of enteroendocrine cells found in the gastrointestinal MUCOSA, particularly in the glands of PYLORIC ANTRUM; DUODENUM; and ILEUM. These cells secrete mainly SEROTONIN and some neuropeptides. Their secretory granules stain readily with silver (argentaffin stain).SucraseGastric Fistula: Abnormal passage communicating with the STOMACH.Calophyllum: A plant genus of the family CLUSIACEAE. Members contain costatolide, calanolides and 4-phenylfuranocoumarins (FUROCOUMARINS).Mucous Membrane: An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.Somatostatin: A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.Caco-2 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Cynara scolymus: A plant species of the genus CYNARA, family ASTERACEAE. The flower bud is the familiar artichoke eaten as a vegetable.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Plasma Membrane Calcium-Transporting ATPases: Calcium-transporting ATPases found on the PLASMA MEMBRANE that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM from the CYTOPLASM into the extracellular space. They play a role in maintaining a CALCIUM gradient across plasma membrane.Chloride-Bicarbonate Antiporters: Electroneutral chloride bicarbonate exchangers that allow the exchange of BICARBONATE IONS exchange for CHLORIDE IONS across the cellular membrane. The action of specific antiporters in this class serve important functions such as allowing the efficient exchange of bicarbonate across red blood cell membranes as they passage through capillaries and the reabsorption of bicarbonate ions by the kidney.Biliary Tract: The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Cholestasis: Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Amylases: A group of amylolytic enzymes that cleave starch, glycogen, and related alpha-1,4-glucans. (Stedman, 25th ed) EC 3.2.1.-.Hepcidins: Forms of hepcidin, a cationic amphipathic peptide synthesized in the liver as a prepropeptide which is first processed into prohepcidin and then into the biologically active hepcidin forms, including in human the 20-, 22-, and 25-amino acid residue peptide forms. Hepcidin acts as a homeostatic regulators of iron metabolism and also possesses antimicrobial activity.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Sincalide: An octapeptide hormone present in the intestine and brain. When secreted from the gastric mucosa, it stimulates the release of bile from the gallbladder and digestive enzymes from the pancreas.Nerve Tissue: Differentiated tissue of the central nervous system composed of NERVE CELLS, fibers, DENDRITES, and specialized supporting cells.Opossums: New World marsupials of the family Didelphidae. Opossums are omnivorous, largely nocturnal and arboreal MAMMALS, grow to about three feet in length, including the scaly prehensile tail, and have an abdominal pouch in which the young are carried at birth.Foreign-Body Migration: Migration of a foreign body from its original location to some other location in the body.Aquaporin 5: Aquaporin 5 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed primarily in alveolar, tracheal, and upper bronchial EPITHELIUM. It plays an important role in maintaining water HOMEOSTASIS in the LUNGS and may also regulate release of SALIVA and TEARS in the SALIVARY GLANDS and the LACRIMAL GLAND.Pentagastrin: A synthetic pentapeptide that has effects like gastrin when given parenterally. It stimulates the secretion of gastric acid, pepsin, and intrinsic factor, and has been used as a diagnostic aid.Bethanechol: A slowly hydrolyzing muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Bethanechol is generally used to increase smooth muscle tone, as in the GI tract following abdominal surgery or in urinary retention in the absence of obstruction. It may cause hypotension, HEART RATE changes, and BRONCHIAL SPASM.Gastroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the stomach.Gastroenterostomy: A variety of surgical reconstructive procedures devised to restore gastrointestinal continuity, The two major classes of reconstruction are the Billroth I (gastroduodenostomy) and Billroth II (gastrojejunostomy) procedures.Manometry: Measurement of the pressure or tension of liquids or gases with a manometer.Acids: Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Trematode Infections: Infections caused by infestation with worms of the class Trematoda.Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT4: A subtype of G-protein-coupled SEROTONIN receptors that preferentially couple to GS STIMULATORY G-PROTEINS resulting in increased intracellular CYCLIC AMP. Several isoforms of the receptor exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.
The pancreas and duodenum from behind. Arteries and veins around the pancreas and spleen. Coeliac artery compression syndrome ... Abdominal part of digestive tube and its attachment to the primitive or common mesentery. Human embryo of six weeks. ... spleen and the superior half of both the duodenum and the pancreas. These structures correspond to the embryonic foregut. ( ...
Peptic ulcers are also common in the duodenum. Chronic diseases of malabsorption may affect the small intestine, including the ... or in the common bile duct (choledocholithiasis). Gallstones are a common cause of inflammation of the gallbladder, called ... The most common condition of the oesophagus in Western countries is gastroesophageal reflux disease, which in chronic forms is ... Another common condition is gastric ulceration, peptic ulcers. Ulceration erodes the gastric mucosa, which protects the tissue ...
A duodenum-intestinal anastomosis is carried out, 250 centimetres (98 in) from the ileocecal valve. Therefore, the common ... Payne, JH; DeWind, LT; Commons, RR (August 1963). "Metabolic observations in patients with jejunocolic shunts". American ... Subsequently, the duodenum is transected respecting the pylorus. ... as the common channel is also reduced. The objective of this ...
They consist of two or three short closed tubes opening into a common duct or mouth. These tubes are wavy, and are about one- ... A special tube can be implanted surgically to connect the stomach to the duodenum so as to facilitate the passage of food from ... It is near the bottom of the stomach, proximal to the pyloric sphincter, which separates the stomach and the duodenum. It may ... The canal (Latin: canalis pyloricus) is the opening between the stomach and the duodenum. The pyloric sphincter, or valve, is a ...
The most common cause for obstruction is the presence of gallstones in the common bile duct, a condition called ... In the other 30% it drains into the main pancreatic duct, which drains into the duodenum via the major duodenal papilla. The ... The pancreatic duct joins the common bile duct just prior to the ampulla of Vater, after which both ducts perforate the medial ... An accessory pancreatic duct can be functional or non-functional and may open separately into the second part of the duodenum ...
1. Bile ducts: 2. Intrahepatic bile ducts, 3. Left and right hepatic ducts, 4. Common hepatic duct, 5. Cystic duct, 6. Common ... Duodenum, 20. Jejunum. 21-22. Right and left kidneys.. The front border of the liver has been lifted up (brown arrow). ... These pass through the ampulla of Vater and enter the duodenum. Function. Bile is secreted by the liver into small ducts ... A structure common to most members of the mammal family, the biliary tract is often referred to as a tree because it begins ...
1. Bile ducts: 2. Intrahepatic bile ducts, 3. Left and right hepatic ducts, 4. Common hepatic duct, 5. Cystic duct, 6. Common ... Duodenum, 20. Jejunum. 21-22. Right and left kidneys.. The front border of the liver has been lifted up (brown arrow). ... The cystic duct is the short duct that joins the gallbladder to the common bile duct. It usually lies next to the cystic artery ... 8: Common bile duct. 9: Hepatic artery. 10: Portal vein. 11: Cystic duct. 12: Hepatic duct. 13: Gallbladder ...
The most common cause is a perforated abdominal viscus, generally a perforated peptic ulcer, although any part of the bowel may ... Especially of the anterior aspect of the first part of the duodenum. Perforated peptic ulcer Bowel obstruction Ruptured ... Perforated duodenal ulcer - The most common cause of rupture in the abdomen. ... can force air down duodenum as well as down trachea. When present, pneumoperitoneum can often be seen on projectional ...
Gastric bypass surgery
Some complications are common to all abdominal operations, while some are specific to bariatric surgery. The overall rate of ... All versions of the GBP bypass the duodenum, which is the primary site of absorption of both iron and calcium. Iron replacement ... Low levels of iron and hemoglobin are common in patients who have undergone gastric bypass. One study reported on a female post ... Nutritional deficiencies are common after gastric bypass surgery, and are often not recognized. They include: Secondary ...
The duodenal bulb is the portion of the duodenum which is closest to the stomach. It normally has a length of about 5 ... The gastroduodenal artery, portal vein, and common bile duct lie just behind it. The distal part of the bulb is located ... The peritoneal or abdominal cavity is located anterior to the duodenum. Therefore, if the ulcer grows deep enough, it will ... Duodenal ulcers are more common than gastric ulcers and, unlike gastric ulcers, are caused by increased gastric acid secretion ...
... to give the common bile duct. This duct then enters the duodenum at the ampulla of Vater. Cholestasis can be suspected when ... The two ducts join to form the common hepatic duct, which in turn joins the cystic duct from the gall bladder, ... Cholestasis is a condition where bile cannot flow from the liver to the duodenum. The two basic distinctions are an obstructive ... Jaundice is an uncommon occurrence in intrahepatic (metabolic) cholestasis, but is common in obstructive cholestasis. Pale ...
Ampulla of Vater
A common cause of blockage is a gallstone in the common bile duct. Thomas' sign is the production of silver stools and can be ... The ampulla of Vater is an important landmark halfway along the second part of the duodenum that marks the anatomical ... The cystic duct leaves the gallbladder and joins with the common hepatic duct to form the common bile duct. This duct ... The pancreatic duct delivers substances such as bicarbonate and digestive enzymes to the duodenum. The bile from the ...
There are several common causes of blood loss. Women with menorrhagia (heavy menstrual periods) are at risk of iron-deficiency ... Iron from food is absorbed into the bloodstream in the small intestine, primarily in the duodenum. Iron malabsorption is a less ... The prevalence of iron deficiency as a cause of anemia varies among countries; in the groups in which anemia is most common, ... Other less common causes are intravascular hemolysis and hemoglobinuria. Anemia can result from significant iron deficiency. ...
... duodenum or head of the pancreas. The shared blood supply of the pancreas, duodenum and common bile duct, necessitates en bloc ... damage to the common bile duct, pancreatic leakage, or transection of the duodenum. Due to the rarity of this procedure in the ... usually the common bile duct that drains into the duodenum. Depending on the location and extension of the cholangiocarcinoma, ... the first and second portions of the duodenum, the head of the pancreas, the common bile duct, and the gallbladder. Lymph nodes ...
Uncinate process of pancreas
The uncinate process may split and encircle the duodenum, which is known as an annular pancreas. There is also a common ... This makes the two parts of the pancreas rotate around the duodenum. They then fuse; the dorsal pancreatic bud becomes the body ... but this is less common). Sometimes the pancreas fails to develop normally and there may be congenital defects associated with ... "The duodenum and pancreas." pancreas at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman (Georgetown University). ...
This is particularly common after surgery to remove the ileum. Involvement of the duodenum and jejunum can impair the ... It is less common in Asia and Africa. It has historically been more common in the developed world. Rates have, however, been ... Giant (multinucleate) cells, a common finding in the lesions of Crohn's disease, are less common in the lesions of lichen ... Crohn's is common in parts of the world where helminthic colonisation is rare and uncommon in those areas where most people ...
Bernhard Moritz Carl Ludwig Riedel
Arterial insufficiency ulcer
Endoscopic image of adenocarcinoma of duodenum seen in the post-bulbar duodenum. Endoscopic image of gastric antral vascular ... Endoscopic image of a posterior wall duodenal ulcer with a clean base, which is a common cause of upper GI hemorrhage. ... Deep gastric ulcer Endoscopic still of duodenum of patient with celiac disease showing scalloping of folds. Gastric ulcer in ... but EGD may be helpful in excluding other diseases that mimic these common disorders. The tip of the endoscope should be ...
Self-expandable metallic stent
... duodenum, common bile duct and colon. SEMS are designed to be permanent and, as a result, are often used when the cancer is at ... They are inserted at the time of ERCP, a procedure that uses endoscopy and fluoroscopy to access the common bile duct. The bile ... Enteric and colonic SEMS are inserted in a similar fashion, but in the duodenum and colon respectively. Biliary SEMS are used ... "Fracture of an expandable metallic stent placed for biliary obstruction due to common bile duct carcinoma". J Nippon Med Sch. ...
It is four times more likely to occur in males, and is also more common in the first born. Rarely, infantile pyloric stenosis ... Once the stomach can empty into the duodenum, feeding can begin again. Some vomiting may be expected during the first days ... It is also less common amongst children of mixed race parents. Caucasian male babies with blood type B or O are more likely ... Pyloric stenosis is more common in Caucasians than Hispanics, Blacks, or Asians. The incidence is 2.4 per 1000 live births in ...
The common symptom of graft dysfunction, whether due to infection, rejection, or some other condition, is diarrhea. Intestinal ... In a multivisceral graft, the stomach, duodenum, pancreas, and/or colon may be included in the graft. Multivisceral grafts are ... In the most basic and common graft, an isolated intestinal graft, only sections of the jejunum and ileum are transplanted. ... The jejunum will be separated from the duodenum while preserving the vasculature of the jejunum, ileum, mesentery, and the ...
The most common cause of gastroparesis is diabetes but it can also occur from a blockage at the distal end of stomach, a cancer ... stomach and duodenum. The procedure also allows the physician to obtain biopsy samples. In many cases of bleeding, the surgeon ... The most common is endoscopy. This procedure is performed as an outpatient and utilizes a small flexible camera. The procedure ... Another very common long term problem which is now more appreciated is gastroparesis. Gastroparesis affects millions of ...
The most common site at which Chance fractures occur is the thoracolumbar junction (T12-L2) and midlumbar region in pediatric ... Injuries associated with Chance fractures include contusions and/or lacerations of the pancreas, duodenum, and mesentery. " ... With the advent of both lap and shoulder belts in the 1980s, Chance fractures have become less common especially now that lap- ...
Superior pancreaticoduodenal artery
The superior pancreaticoduodenal artery is an artery that supplies blood to the duodenum and pancreas. It is a branch of the ... gastroduodenal artery, which most commonly arises from the common hepatic artery of the celiac trunk, although there are ... The artery supplies the anterior and posterior sides of the duodenum and head of pancreas, with the anterior branch supply the ... These branches then travel around the head of the pancreas and duodenum, eventually joining with the anterior and posterior ...
The hormone cholecystokinin is secreted by the duodenum, and it controls the rate at which the stomach is emptied. This ... For example, most of the Middle Eastern countries, eating while sitting on the floor is most common, and it is believed to be ... Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, ...
Common brand names include Eltroxin, Euthyrox, Letrox, Levaxin, Lévothyrox, L-thyroxine, Thyrax, and Thyrax Duotab in Europe; ... Poor compliance in taking the medicine is the most common cause of elevated TSH levels in people receiving appropriate doses of ... Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, ...
Apparato digestive, le encyclopedia libere
North-Western Europeans are most at risk for carrying one of the most common mutant forms of A1AT, the Z mutation (Glu342Lys on ... Trypsin, a type of peptidase, is a digestive enzyme active in the duodenum and elsewhere. The term alpha-1 refers to the ... The serum levels of some of the common genotypes are: PiMM: 100% (normal) PiMS: 80% of normal serum level of A1AT PiSS: 60% of ...
Category:Medicin infobox template uisin GraySubject or GrayPage
Dvanajstnik - Wikipedija, prosta enciklopedija
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
A common SNP in the BDNF gene is rs6265. This point mutation in the coding sequence, a guanine to adenine switch at ... Common SNPs in BDNF gene. BDNF has several known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), including, but not limited to, ... Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, ... "The common BDNF polymorphism may be a modifier of disease severity in Rett syndrome". Neurology. 72 (14): 1242-47. doi:10.1212 ...
Jaundice - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jaundice is common in newly born babies. It usually starts the second day after birth. ... caused by a blockage in the pathway where bilirubin is made in the liver cells and where bile goes into the duodenum ... Jaundice is the most common of all liver problems. The yellow colour of the skin and mucous membranes happens because of an ... Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License and the GFDL; additional terms may apply. See ...
Human digestive system
A common gum disease in the mouth is gingivitis which is caused by bacteria in plaque. The most common viral infection of the ... The production of CCK (by endocrine cells of the duodenum) is stimulated by the presence of fat in the duodenum. ... Ulcerative coliltis is the most common of the IBDs Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common of the functional ... Bile is collected and delivered through the common hepatic duct. This duct joins with the cystic duct to connect in a common ...
Beta polipeptid luteinizirajućeg hormona
Organi za varenje: Želudac: gastrin • grelin • Duodenum: CCK • GIP • sekretin • motilin • VIP • Ileum: enteroglukagon •peptid ... Jiang M, Pakarinen P, Zhang FP, et al. (1999). "A common polymorphic allele of the human luteinizing hormone beta-subunit gene ... Tekst je dostupan pod Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike licencom; dodatni uslovi se mogu primijeniti. Za detalje ...
Insulin-like growth factor 2
Whippleho choroba - Wikipédia
Typický je nález zhrubnutej riasy descendentného duodena, sliznica s "bielymi granulami" na povrchu, čo robí dojem „posypu ... Text je dostupný za podmienok Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License 3.0 Unported; prípadne za ďalších podmienok. ... žiadne iné znaky a biopsia z duodena je negatívna. ...
We're Only in It for the Money - Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, ... The main role of transferrin is to deliver iron from absorption centers in the duodenum and white blood cell macrophages to all ... "Iron Deficiency Anemia: A Common and Curable Disease". Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine. 3: a011866. doi:10.1101/ ...
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, ... Small cell carcinoma, a common cause of ACTH secreted ectopically. *Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, diseases in the production ... This common structure is responsible for excessively tanned skin in Addison's disease.) After a short period of time, ACTH is ...
Common examples include decompensated heart failure, kidney failure, and liver failure. Biosphere. In the Gaia hypothesis ... the duodenum and jejunum. Parathyroid hormone (in high concentrations in the blood) causes bone resorption, releasing calcium ... Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, ...
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity
NCGS is the most common syndrome of gluten-related disorders with prevalence rates between 0.5-13% in the general population. ... four or more biopsies should be taken from the second and third parts of the duodenum, and at least one from the duodenal bulb ... The absence of celiac disease specific antibodies is more common in patients without villous atrophy who only have duodenal ... among which most common are mites, graminaceae, parietaria, cat or dog hair, shellfish, and nickel. Approximately 35% of ...
You Are What You Is
Brain tumor - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Oesophagus - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Guitar (album) bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
Mfumo wa mmeng'enyo wa chakula, kamusi elezo huru
Nakala inapatikana chini ya Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License; masuala ya ziada yanaweza kukubalika. Tazama ... Misusumo inayotengenezwa na kongosho hufikia chakula kwa kutumia mfereji unaounganisha duodenum na kongosho. Misusumo ya ... Maandishi yanapatikana chini ya leseni ya Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; matakwa mengine yanaweza kutakiwa. ...
Upper gastrointestinal series
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, ... Barium meal examination showing the stomach and duodenum in double contrast technique with CO2 as negative contrast medium ... Barium studies and computer tomography are the most common tools used to diagnose gastrointestinal lymphoma. Barium contrast is ... Barium meal examinations are used to study the lower esophagus, stomach and duodenum. ...
ଆସେଣ୍ଡିଙ୍ଗ କୋଲାଞ୍ଜାଇଟିସ - ଉଇକିପିଡ଼ିଆ
This is less common.. How long your child will need any of these devices depends on how their bowel heals after surgery. With a ... IA in the duodenum (duodenal atresia) is due to a problem with how the first part of the small bowel forms before birth. Babies ... It is most common in the small bowel. But it also can affect the large bowel. ... The first part of the small bowel, called the duodenum (pronounced doo-ODD-en-um) ...
Category:Duodenum - Wikimedia Commons
Duodenum (fi); duodenum, dvanácterník (cs); Duodenum (bs); Duodenum, Gastroduodénal (fr); Duodenum (jv); Duodenum, Dvanaesterac ... Duodenum (id); duodenum (nn); 12-fingertarmen, Duodendum, Tolvfingertarmen, Duodenum (nb); Duodenum, twaalfvingerdarm (nl); ... Duodenum, ดูโอดีนัม, ลำไส้เล็กตอนต้น, ดูโอดินัม (th); Zwölffingerdarm (de); Duodenum, XII-nica (pl); الأثنى عشر, عفج, Duodenum ... Duodenum (de-ch); Duodenum (de); Duodenum (pam); Տասներկումատնյա աղիք
Illustration of the biliary system, with the liver, gallbladder, duodenum, pancreatic duct, common bile duct, pancreas, cystic...
... common bile duct, pancreas, cystic duct, and hepatic ducts. ... duodenum, pancreatic duct, common bile duct, pancreas, cystic ... Drawing of the biliary system, with the liver, gallbladder, duodenum, pancreatic duct, common bile duct, pancreas, cystic duct ... Drawing of the biliary system, with the liver, gallbladder, duodenum, pancreatic duct, common bile duct, pancreas, cystic duct ... Drawing of the biliary system, with the liver, gallbladder, duodenum, pancreatic duct, common bile duct, pancreas, cystic duct ...
PDX-1 is required for pancreatic outgrowth and differentiation of the rostral duodenum | Development
Review Commons launches. Were excited to be an affiliate journal for Review Commons, the ASAPbio/EMBO platform for high- ... The rostral duodenum shows a local absence of the normal columnar epithelial lining, villi, and Brunners glands, which are ... 1994) IDX-1: a new homeodomain transcription factor expressed in rat pancreatic islets and duodenum that transactivates the ... PDX-1 is required for pancreatic outgrowth and differentiation of the rostral duodenum ...
Can the Common Bile Duct Drain Into the Fourth Part of the Duodenum? | JAMA Surgery | JAMA Network
An interesting case masqueraded as a case of the common bile duct entering the fourth part of the duodenum; this is an ... McQuillan TC, Castles L. Can the Common Bile Duct Drain Into the Fourth Part of the Duodenum? Arch Surg. 1989;124(8):984-985. ... An interesting case masqueraded as a case of the common bile duct entering the fourth part of the duodenum; this is an ... Can the Common Bile Duct Drain Into the Fourth Part of the Duodenum?. ...
Spectroscopy From Duodenum - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
What Are the Aftereffects of Gallbladder Removal? | Reference.com
Duodenum | anatomy | Britannica.com
The duodenum is the shortest segment of the intestine and is about 23 to 28 cm (9 to 11 inches) long. It is roughly horseshoe- ... Duodenum, the first part of the small intestine, which receives partially digested food from the stomach and begins the ... Cancers of the common bile duct or…. A liquid mixture of food and gastric secretions enters the superior duodenum from the ... digestive system disease: Duodenum. The duodenum is often involved in the diseases of its neighbours, in particular the ...
Stomach-Duodenum Peritoneal Spaces-Arteries-Surgical Aspects and Syndromes - Sanjoy Sanyal
Creative Commons:. This work is licensed under a Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International ... Stomach, greater omentum, Duodenum, Winslow Foramen, Lesser omentum, Duodenal ulcer, Sanjoy sanyal, Hepatogastric ligament, ... Stomach-Duodenum Peritoneal Spaces-Arteries-Surgical Aspects and Syndromes - Sanjoy Sanyal Educational Video created by Dr. ... Stomach-Duodenum Peritoneal Spaces-Arteries-Surgical Aspects and Syndromes - Sanjoy Sanyal is categorized in the following ...
What Are Some Symptoms of an Inflamed Duodenum? | Reference.com
The symptoms of an inflamed duodenum include abdominal pain and bloating, appetite loss and nausea, which may or may not be ... A: Common symptoms of gallbladder problems include abdominal pain, heartburn, back or right shoulder blade pain, nausea, and ... Inflamed duodenum is a condition in which the duodenal lining becomes swollen, usually as a result of H pylori infection, ... The symptoms of an inflamed duodenum include abdominal pain and bloating, appetite loss and nausea, which may or may not be ...
Pancreatic Juice Diagnosis From Duodenum
Common inclusion criterion. - Age is 18 years or older.. - Informed consent was obtained.. - Inclusion criterion for normal ... Pancreatic Juice Diagnosis From Duodenum. Trial Phase:. N/A. Minimum Age:. 18 Years. Maximum Age:. N/A ... Common exclusion criterion. - Severe cardiac disease. - Severe respiratory disease. - Bleeding disorders. - Pregnancy. ... Pancreatic Juice Diagnosis From Duodenum. Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the most lethal of all major cancers with a five year ...
Bassett Collection - Lane Medical Library - Stanford University School of Medicine
Dissection of duodenum (continued).. The common bile duct (1) and the pancreatic duct (10) open separately at the duodenal ... Creative Commons. These images are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 United States ... Exploration of liver, gall bladder, pancreas, duodenum and spleen. Dissection of duodenum (continued).. Image #147-5. KEYWORDS ... Exploration of liver, gall bladder, pancreas, duodenum and spleen. ...
The Digestive System by Abigail Joy Cajayon on Prezi
Common bile duct. Appendix. Cecum. Fecal Matter. aka Poop aka Shit. 1). Small intestine:. Duodenum. Large Intestine:. ... Duodenum. Ileum. Jejunum. Duodenum of small intestine. acid chyme mixes with digestive juices from the pancreas, liver, ... Most digestion is completed early in this journey, while the chyme is still in the duodenum. Jejunum and Ileum of Small ... pancreatic proteases are activated once in the the duodenum. protein-digesting enzymes proteases. mixture of substances, bile, ...
duodenum - Wiktionary
The duodena open into a common pouch just below the entrance of the gall-ducts. The intestine was single from the confluence of ... duodenum (plural duodena or duodenums) *(anatomy) The first part of the small intestine, starting at the lower end of the ... The ſlender is Duodenum or whole gut, which is next to the ſtomacke, ſome twelue inches long (ſaith Fuſchius.). ... The duodenum receives the chyme from the stomach, and has generally been believed to accomplish the second digestion, or the ...
What is the role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the management of gastric cancer?
Top 6 Duodenal Ulcer Symptoms - Natural Home Remedies & Supplements
Other Common Symptoms. *Perforations In The Duodenum Wall. *Life Threatening Symptoms. *Unexplained Weight Loss ... Other Common Symptoms. When having this type of ulcer most of you might experience a few symptoms, such as tiredness, weakness ... Perforations In The Duodenum Wall. When you suffer from this condition, you might face perforations along the linings of the ... An organism called Helicobacter Pylori infects the duodenum present in the small intestine in the human body and this leads to ...
What are hereditary syndromes with a predisposition for gastric cancer?
Weve compiled a list of the most common terms having to do with our Center for Intestinal Rehabilitation and Nutrition Support ... Duodenum: the first part of the small intestine starting just past the end of the stomach ... To help, weve compiled a list of the most common terms having to do with our Center for Intestinal Rehabilitation and ... Necrotizing enterocolitis: most common in premature newborn infants; severe inflammation of the intestine causes damage to part ...
Duodenum - Wikipedia
The first part of the duodenum is the most common location of ulcers as it is where the acidic chyme meets the duodenal mucosa ... Duodenum Duodenum Duodenum Pancreas The name duodenum (/ˌduːəˈdiːnəm/ or /ˌduːˈɒdɪnəm/) is from Medieval Latin, short for ... Dog Duodenum 100X Duodenum with amyloid deposition in lamina propria Section of duodenum of cat. X 60 Micrograph showing ... The pancreatic duct and common bile duct enter the descending duodenum, through the major duodenal papilla. The second part of ...
Category:Human digestive system - Wikimedia Commons
All structured data from the file and property namespaces is available under the Creative Commons CC0 License; all unstructured ... text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, ... Retrieved from "https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Human_digestive_system&oldid=492691538" ...
Acs0507 Surgical Treatment Of Morbid Obesity 2008
A common criticism a Veress needle to a pressure of 15 mm Hg; on occasion, a of GBP is that it is difﬁcult to evaluate the ... A dilating and duodenum after the operation. Such evaluation, how- 5 mm trocar is then placed in this location. Many surgeons ... is not only common but, in many centers, predominant. Although VBG and, presumably, other restrictive proce- For this reason, ... Furthermore, it has been associated with Pouch enlargement is fairly common with horizontal gastro- slipping or kinking of the ...
Understanding Your GI Tract - American College of Gastroenterology
... with a wire is placed into the bile duct draining into the duodenum so that gallstones can be removed from the common bile duct ... This condition is common among older people.. Diverticulum. A small sac that forms on the wall of a hollow organ (usually the ... Duodenum. The first part of the small intestine.. Dyspepsia. Another name for indigestion.. Early satiety. Feeling full before ... The most common simple sugar found in nature.. Gluten. A protein in cereal grains. Wheat, rye, barley, and oats contain the ...
Week 5 - Liver, biliary tree and pancreas anatomy Flashcards by Jodie Murdoch | Brainscape
Common bile duct goes into amuplla of varter after pancratic duct joins. -Enters 2nd part of duodenum through major duodenal ... Left and right hepatic ducts form common hepatic bile duct from liver which becomes common bile duct after cystic duct joins. - ... Posterior to stomach with head in duodenum and tail in splenic hilum ... secrete digestive enzymes into intralobular collecting ducts which join to form the pancreatic duct which unites with common ...
Gastrointestinal diseases Flashcards by Lisa Letterman | Brainscape
Free Anatomy Flashcards about Liz AP2 Digest QR
Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency: Practice Essentials, Anatomy, Pathophysiology
In a German-based study, one of the most common causes of EPI had an age-adjusted prevalence of 8 per 100,000 for males and 2 ... 8] Normal fat digestion also depends on postprandial synchrony between delivery of nutrients to the duodenum and discharge of ... Chronic pancreatitis (the most common cause of EPI) - This condition has a number of possible causes, but the end result is a ... Abdominal imaging can help in identifying features of chronic pancreatitis, which is the most common cause of EPI. ...
Intestinal and Multivisceral Transplantation: Background, History of the Procedure, Problem
... common bile duct; D1, first part of the duodenum; TI, terminal ileum). View Media Gallery ... common bile duct; D1, first part of the duodenum; TI, terminal ileum). ... The most common cause of death for individuals permanently dependent on TPN is liver failure. Steatohepatitis and ... Progressive liver disease is more common in young children on TPN and is often associated with a history of multiple resections ...
Small bowel cancer - Macmillan Cancer Support
Around half of all small bowel cancers start in the duodenum.. The position and sections of the small bowel. View a large ... The most common is a gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST). A GIST can develop in any part of the small bowel. ... It is common to feel overwhelmed by different emotions. These feelings are natural. Partners, family and friends may also have ... These are the most common type of small bowel cancer. They start in the lining of the small bowel. They are usually in the ...
Apologize for Topic - :) | DailyStrength
Duodenum - New World Encyclopedia
A common disorder of the duodenum is a duodenal ulcer, the most frequent type of peptic ulcer. ... From outside the duodenum, digestive enzymes from the pancreas and bile from gall bladder flow into the duodenum, via ducts, to ... While in the duodenum, the chyme is acted upon by enzymes and juices both from outside the duodenum and from cells that are ... In addition, the duodenum is lined with cells that secrete alkaline fluid and enzymes for digestion. The pH in the duodenum is ...
Biliary tract - Wikipedia
1. Bile ducts: 2. Intrahepatic bile ducts, 3. Left and right hepatic ducts, 4. Common hepatic duct, 5. Cystic duct, 6. Common ... Duodenum, 20. Jejunum. 21-22. Right and left kidneys.. The front border of the liver has been lifted up (brown arrow). ... These pass through the ampulla of Vater and enter the duodenum. Function. Bile is secreted by the liver into small ducts ... A structure common to most members of the mammal family, the biliary tract is often referred to as a tree because it begins ...
DuodenalEsophagusIleumEnter the descendiGall bladderHepaticInflammationSecond part of the duodenumMajor duodenaEndoscopicAmpullaEnzymesPyloriColonProximalAortaAbdominal painGastric ulcerSymptomsPosteriorDistal common bileSlightly dilatedLesserBiliary tractReceivesPeptic ulcer dDuodenal papillaMucousPapillaNauseaWallsMyentericBrunner'sMuscularisSmall bowelPolypsStrictures
- The barium sulfate helps to outline the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum so that they appear dearly on the x-rays. (gi.org)
- The celiac artery supplies oxygenated blood to the liver, stomach, abdominal esophagus, spleen and the superior half of both the duodenum and the pancreas. (wikipedia.org)
- Considering taking medication to treat bleeding from stomach, esophagus or duodenum? (webmd.com)
- Below is a list of common medications used to treat or reduce the symptoms of bleeding from stomach, esophagus or duodenum. (webmd.com)
- Upper gastrointestinal tract radiography, also called an upper GI, is an x-ray examination of the esophagus , stomach and first part of the small intestine (also known as the duodenum). (radiologyinfo.org)
- When the upper GI tract is coated with barium, the radiologist is able to view and assess the anatomy and function of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum. (radiologyinfo.org)
- The doctor inserts the duodenoscope down the esophagus, through the stomach, and into the duodenum. (aapc.com)
- It's threaded down the mouth, through the esophagus and stomach, and into the duodenum to the ampulla. (rochester.edu)
- The GI tract starts with the mouth and proceeds to the esophagus, stomach, small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum), and then to the large intestine (colon), rectum, and terminates at the anus. (wikibooks.org)
- However, the same process may involve the inner lining of the mouth, esophagus or food pipe, stomach, and duodenum, as well as jejunum and ileum (parts of small intestines). (hubpages.com)
- Mouth, food pipe or esophagus, stomach and duodenum are rarely affected. (hubpages.com)
- It checks your food pipe (esophagus), stomach, and the first part of the small intestine (the duodenum). (massgeneral.org)
- This test looks at the lining of your esophagus, stomach, and duodenum. (massgeneral.org)
- Then it goes into your esophagus, stomach, and duodenum. (massgeneral.org)
- Your digestive tract consists of the following organs: esophagus stomach small intestine, including the duodenum large intestine or colon rectum anus GI. (healthline.com)
- If the bleeding occurs in your esophagus, stomach, or initial part of the small intestine (duodenum), it's considered upper GI bleeding. (healthline.com)
- Small bowel lymphomas are most common in the jejunum or ileum. (macmillan.org.uk)
- The most common form of Crohn's disease, ileocolitis affects both the colon and the ileum, which is the lower portion of the small intestine. (healthline.com)
- It is composed of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. (home-remedies-for-you.com)
- We knew she had disease in her terminal ileum and colon, but had no idea about duodenum (it was past where regular scopes see). (crohnsforum.com)
- These nutrients move along the small intestine, which is made up of three parts: the duodenum, jejenum, and ileum. (thefreelibrary.com)
Enter the descendi1
- In order to gain the most nutrients from the plant and animal matter consumed by a person, the duodenum utilizes digestive enzymes from the pancreas , bile from the gall bladder , and enzymes from duodenal cells, while hormones help to coordinate those actions as well as the emptying of the stomach's contents into the duodenum. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- From outside the duodenum, digestive enzymes from the pancreas and bile from gall bladder flow into the duodenum, via ducts, to help in digestion, stimulated by hormones from the duodenum itself in response to the arrival of the chyme (Judge 2001). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Some of the bile drains directly into the duodenum and some is stored in the gall bladder. (wikibooks.org)
- Common hepatic duct , 5. (wikipedia.org)
- The common hepatic duct is about 6mm in diameter in adults, with some variation. (wikipedia.org)
- CPT® Assistant specifies that when a stent is placed in the common bile duct extending into the right hepatic duct, and another stent is placed in the common bile duct extending into the left hepatic duct, it is again permissible to report 43268 twice with modifier 59 appended. (aapc.com)
- The bile ducts of your biliary tract include the hepatic ducts, common bile duct , and cystic duct . (nih.gov)
- Inflammation of the duodenum is known as duodenitis, which has various causes, prominent among them infection by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori . (britannica.com)
- The symptoms of duodenum inflammation may occur occasionally or continuously. (reference.com)
- What causes mild inflammation and gastric foveolar metaplasia in duodenum. (healthtap.com)
- What causes 'inflammation' of the duodenum? (healthtap.com)
- All possible causes of chronic non-specific inflammation in duodenum (shown in biopsy) in INDIA? (healthtap.com)
- Does nodularity of the duodenum indicate inflammation or could it be totally normal? (healthtap.com)
Second part of the duodenum2
- The second part of the duodenum also contains the minor duodenal papilla, the entrance for the accessory pancreatic duct. (wikipedia.org)
- Axial and coronal CT images showed the diverticulum measuring 3.6 x 3.1 x 3.3c m (AP x Trans x CC) arising from the medial wall of the second part of the duodenum and lying in the pancreaticoduodenal groove. (appliedradiology.com)
- While in the duodenum, the chyme is acted upon by enzymes and juices both from outside the duodenum and from cells that are part of the duodenum. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- In addition, the duodenum is lined with cells that secrete alkaline fluid and enzymes for digestion. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- The acidic, gruel-like food mass (chyme) passing from the stomach continues to be digested in the duodenum under the influence of enzymes of the alkaline pancreatic and intestinal juices. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Although different etiologies produce distinct inciting events, the final common pathway is premature activation of enzymes within the acinar cell. (clevelandclinicmeded.com)
- Mucous prevents the stomach and duodenum from being damaged by acid and digestive enzymes. (drugs.com)
- H. pylori increases the susceptibility of the duodenal mucosa to damage from unneutralized digestive acids and is a major cause of peptic ulcers , the most common health problem affecting the duodenum. (britannica.com)
- Inflamed duodenum is a condition in which the duodenal lining becomes swollen, usually as a result of H pylori infection, states Healthgrades. (reference.com)
- The most common cause of ulcers is infection of the stomach by bacteria called Helicobacter pylori ( H pylori ). (medlineplus.gov)
- The most common places for secondary cancers to spread from are the skin (melanoma) , lung, breast and large bowel (colon) . (macmillan.org.uk)
- 1%-Colon (leiomyoma/sarcoma more common). (thefreedictionary.com)
- One of the most common causes of lower GI bleeding is colitis , which occurs when your colon becomes inflamed. (healthline.com)
- This surgery is used to remove tumours in the upper, or proximal, part of the duodenum that is close to the stomach. (cancer.ca)
- The gastroduodenal artery arising from the celiac trunk and its superior pancreaticoduodenal branch supply the superior part of the duodenum and portion of the descending part proximal to the duodenal papilla. (healthhype.com)
- Proximal - common carotid a. (sporcle.com)
- The third part, or horizontal part or inferior part of the duodenum begins at the inferior duodenal flexure and passes transversely to the left, passing in front of the inferior vena cava, abdominal aorta and the vertebral column. (wikipedia.org)
- The fourth part of the duodenum is at the vertebral level L2, and may pass directly on top of, or slightly left to, the aorta. (wikipedia.org)
- Back _ midline pancreas, duodenum, aorta. (medindia.net)
- The symptoms of an inflamed duodenum include abdominal pain and bloating, appetite loss and nausea, which may or may not be accompanied by vomiting, according to Healthgrades. (reference.com)
- Common symptoms found with this condition are abdominal pain, bloating, weight loss, pale foul-smelling stools, failure to thrive, diarrhea and skin rash. (medindia.net)
- Common symptoms include upper abdominal pain that radiates to the back and is often worse after eating, vomiting, tenderness in the abdomen, nausea, fatty foul-smelling stools and unintentional weight loss. (medindia.net)
- Abdominal pain (often in the upper mid-abdomen) is a common symptom. (medlineplus.gov)
- In the Western world duodenal ulcer is much more common than gastric ulcer , occurs more often in men than in women, and is aggravated by stress. (britannica.com)
- In Japan gastric ulcer is more common than duodenal ulcer and is thought to be related to the raw fish and acetic acid pickles of the traditional diet. (britannica.com)
- Duodenal ulcer is most common between 25 and 35 years of age, while gastric ulcer is uncommon before 40 years and has a peak frequency between 55 and 65 years. (britannica.com)
- Currently gastric ulcer (GU) is more commonly associated with use of NSAIDs, especially in older patients and those with comorbidities, in whom widespread prescription of NSAIDs and suboptimal adherence to gastro protective therapy is common . (issuu.com)
- What Are Some Symptoms of an Inflamed Duodenum? (reference.com)
- An individual with an inflamed duodenum may also experience life-threatening symptoms, such as blood in the stool and vomiting blood. (reference.com)
- It is advisable to visit a doctor immediately when the symptoms of inflamed duodenum appear to ensure early diagnosis and treatment, notes Healthgrades. (reference.com)
- What Are Some Common Signs and Symptoms of Cancer? (reference.com)
- Common symptoms include pain and discomfort in the upper abdomen, loss of appetite, weight loss, nausea, vomiting and melena (blood in stools). (medindia.net)
- Feeling of fullness in the stomach, pain and discomfort in the upper abdomen, nausea, vomiting, tarry stools, weight loss and fatigue are common symptoms. (medindia.net)
- Some signs and symptoms are common, regardless of the primary location of the disease. (healthline.com)
- Many people who have Crohn's of the stomach and duodenum, called gastroduodenal Crohn's disease, will experience no symptoms at all. (healthline.com)
- Below is a list of common medications used to treat or reduce the symptoms of medication+treatment+for+healing+ulcer+of+the+duodenum. (webmd.com)
- The most common symptoms of ulcerative colitis are diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and rectal bleeding. (thefreelibrary.com)
Distal common bile3
- MRI: coronal section shows gallstones and the pointed filling failure in the distal common bile duct. (hindawi.com)
- Lemmel's syndrome is a pancreaticobiliary disease secondary to periampullary duodenal diverticulum compressing the distal common bile duct. (appliedradiology.com)
- 1 Lemmel first described peri-ampullary diverticula compressing the distal common bile duct, leading to cholestatic jaundice, and called it Lemmel's syndrome. (appliedradiology.com)
- The duodenal bulb about 2 cm long, is the very first part of the duodenum and is slightly dilated. (wikipedia.org)
- Abdominal ultrasound revealed a slightly dilated common bile duct (CBD) and magnetic resonance showed an irregular filling failure in distal CBD and gallstones. (hindawi.com)
- Workup proceeded with an abdominal ultrasound that showed a slightly dilated common bile duct (CBD) and lab results revealed normal bilirubin, amylase, and transaminases. (hindawi.com)
- The duodenum is often involved in the diseases of its neighbours, in particular the pancreas and the biliary tract. (britannica.com)
- A structure common to most members of the mammal family, the biliary tract is often referred to as a tree because it begins with many small branches which end in the common bile duct , sometimes referred to as the trunk of the biliary tree. (wikipedia.org)
- The duodenum receives the chyme from the stomach, and has generally been believed to accomplish the second digestion, or the conversion of chyme into chyle . (wiktionary.org)
- The duodenum receives arterial blood from two different sources. (wikipedia.org)
- In humans, for up to three or four hours after a meal, the duodenum receives partly digested food (chyme) from the stomach (Judge 2001). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
Peptic ulcer d2
- In the walls of the duodenum an inactive substance is formed (prosecretin) which, under the action of hydrochloric acid entering from the stomach, is converted to the biologically active secretin. (thefreedictionary.com)
- This allows your doctor to examine the walls of the stomach and duodenum. (drugs.com)
- A cross section of the superior duodenum, showing the myenteric nerve plexus (*), large clusters of Brunner glands (vertical centre), and a secretory duct (D) extending horizontally from a Brunner gland. (britannica.com)
- The effects of severe protein malnutrition (4%) on myenteric neurons of Wistar rat duodenum, in relation to a standard 22%-protein diet for rodents, were assessed in this study. (scielo.br)
- Segments of the duodenum from 10 rats from each nutritional group were submitted to the elaboration of whole mounts - 5 stained with Giemsa to determine the total population of myenteric neurons and the others stained by a histochemical method to detect nervous cells through the NADPH-diaphorase enzyme activity for studying the subpopulation of nitrergic neurons. (scielo.br)
- The rostral duodenum shows a local absence of the normal columnar epithelial lining, villi, and Brunner's glands, which are replaced by a GLUT2-positive cuboidal epithelium resembling the bile duct lining. (biologists.org)
- Glands line the duodenum, known as Brunner's glands, which secrete mucus and bicarbonate in order to neutralise stomach acids. (wikipedia.org)
- Brunner's glands, which secrete mucus, are found in the duodenum. (newworldencyclopedia.org)