Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Dosage Compensation, Genetic: Genetic mechanisms that allow GENES to be expressed at a similar level irrespective of their GENE DOSAGE. This term is usually used in discussing genes that lie on the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Because the sex chromosomes are only partially homologous, there is a different copy number, i.e., dosage, of these genes in males vs. females. In DROSOPHILA, dosage compensation is accomplished by hypertranscription of genes located on the X CHROMOSOME. In mammals, dosage compensation of X chromosome genes is accomplished by random X CHROMOSOME INACTIVATION of one of the two X chromosomes in the female.Dosage Forms: Completed forms of the pharmaceutical preparation in which prescribed doses of medication are included. They are designed to resist action by gastric fluids, prevent vomiting and nausea, reduce or alleviate the undesirable taste and smells associated with oral administration, achieve a high concentration of drug at target site, or produce a delayed or long-acting drug effect.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Drug Dosage Calculations: Math calculations done for preparing appropriate doses of medicines, taking into account conversions of WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. Mistakes are one of the sources of MEDICATION ERRORS.Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Genes, X-Linked: Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.Sex Chromosomes: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.X Chromosome Inactivation: A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Capsules: Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Drug Monitoring: The process of observing, recording, or detecting the effects of a chemical substance administered to an individual therapeutically or diagnostically.Drug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Metabolic Clearance Rate: Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.Genes, Lethal: Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Disorders of Sex Development: In gonochoristic organisms, congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical. Effects from exposure to abnormal levels of GONADAL HORMONES in the maternal environment, or disruption of the function of those hormones by ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS are included.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Radiation Dosage: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Sex Determination Analysis: Validation of the SEX of an individual by inspection of the GONADS and/or by genetic tests.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Drug Evaluation: Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.Pharmaceutical Solutions: Homogeneous liquid preparations that contain one or more chemical substances dissolved, i.e., molecularly dispersed, in a suitable solvent or mixture of mutually miscible solvents. For reasons of their ingredients, method of preparation, or use, they do not fall into another group of products.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Gentamicins: A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Therapeutic Equivalency: The relative equivalency in the efficacy of different modes of treatment of a disease, most often used to compare the efficacy of different pharmaceuticals to treat a given disease.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Trisomy: The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Tablets, Enteric-Coated: Tablets coated with material that delays release of the medication until after they leave the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Down Syndrome: A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Anticonvulsants: Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.Infusions, Parenteral: The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.Prednisolone: A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Pharmacokinetics: Dynamic and kinetic mechanisms of exogenous chemical and DRUG LIBERATION; ABSORPTION; BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT; TISSUE DISTRIBUTION; BIOTRANSFORMATION; elimination; and DRUG TOXICITY as a function of dosage, and rate of METABOLISM. LADMER, ADME and ADMET are abbreviations for liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicology.Chromosomes, Human, X: The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.Methotrexate: An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Phenytoin: An anticonvulsant that is used to treat a wide variety of seizures. It is also an anti-arrhythmic and a muscle relaxant. The mechanism of therapeutic action is not clear, although several cellular actions have been described including effects on ion channels, active transport, and general membrane stabilization. The mechanism of its muscle relaxant effect appears to involve a reduction in the sensitivity of muscle spindles to stretch. Phenytoin has been proposed for several other therapeutic uses, but its use has been limited by its many adverse effects and interactions with other drugs.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Sex Determination Processes: The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.CreatinineMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Suppression, Genetic: Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).Mice, Inbred C57BLPowders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Drug Therapy: The use of DRUGS to treat a DISEASE or its symptoms. One example is the use of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to treat CANCER.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Sulfadimethoxine: A sulfanilamide that is used as an anti-infective agent.Platypus: A small aquatic oviparous mammal of the order Monotremata found in Australia and Tasmania.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Tacrolimus: A macrolide isolated from the culture broth of a strain of Streptomyces tsukubaensis that has strong immunosuppressive activity in vivo and prevents the activation of T-lymphocytes in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation in vitro.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Drug Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.RNA, Untranslated: RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.RNA, Long Noncoding: A class of untranslated RNA molecules that are typically greater than 200 nucleotides in length and do not code for proteins. Members of this class have been found to play roles in transcriptional regulation, post-transcriptional processing, CHROMATIN REMODELING, and in the epigenetic control of chromatin.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Cyclosporine: A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Methylcellulose: Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Genomic Imprinting: The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Amphotericin B: Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Diploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Antipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.Samarium: Samarium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sm, atomic number 62, and atomic weight 150.36. The oxide is used in the control rods of some nuclear reactors.Ornidazole: A nitroimidazole antiprotozoal agent used in ameba and trichomonas infections. It is partially plasma-bound and also has radiation-sensitizing action.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Haploinsufficiency: A copy number variation that results in reduced GENE DOSAGE due to any loss-of-function mutation. The loss of heterozygosity is associated with abnormal phenotypes or diseased states because the remaining gene is insufficient.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Drug Administration Routes: The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.Drug Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.Prednisone: A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.Suspensions: Colloids with liquid continuous phase and solid dispersed phase; the term is used loosely also for solid-in-gas (AEROSOLS) and other colloidal systems; water-insoluble drugs may be given as suspensions.Vancomycin: Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Chromatography, Reverse-Phase: A chromatography technique in which the stationary phase is composed of a non-polar substance with a polar mobile phase, in contrast to normal-phase chromatography in which the stationary phase is a polar substance with a non-polar mobile phase.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)LaunderingInfant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Sinapis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE. The common name of white mustard sometimes refers to other plants (MUSTARD PLANT).Amikacin: A broad-spectrum antibiotic derived from KANAMYCIN. It is reno- and oto-toxic like the other aminoglycoside antibiotics.Acetaminophen: Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Anticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.Medication Errors: Errors in prescribing, dispensing, or administering medication with the result that the patient fails to receive the correct drug or the indicated proper drug dosage.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Nausea: An unpleasant sensation in the stomach usually accompanied by the urge to vomit. Common causes are early pregnancy, sea and motion sickness, emotional stress, intense pain, food poisoning, and various enteroviruses.Administration, Buccal: Administration of a soluble dosage form between the cheek and gingiva. It may involve direct application of a drug onto the buccal mucosa, as by painting or spraying.Sex Differentiation: The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Digoxin: A cardiotonic glycoside obtained mainly from Digitalis lanata; it consists of three sugars and the aglycone DIGOXIGENIN. Digoxin has positive inotropic and negative chronotropic activity. It is used to control ventricular rate in ATRIAL FIBRILLATION and in the management of congestive heart failure with atrial fibrillation. Its use in congestive heart failure and sinus rhythm is less certain. The margin between toxic and therapeutic doses is small. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p666)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Warfarin: An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.TriazolesRenal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Chromosomes, Insect: Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Antirheumatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.Theophylline: A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.Acetamides: Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.Epilepsy: A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.International Normalized Ratio: System established by the World Health Organization and the International Committee on Thrombosis and Hemostasis for monitoring and reporting blood coagulation tests. Under this system, results are standardized using the International Sensitivity Index for the particular test reagent/instrument combination used.Radiotherapy Dosage: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Caenorhabditis: A genus of small free-living nematodes. Two species, CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS and C. briggsae are much used in studies of genetics, development, aging, muscle chemistry, and neuroanatomy.Erythropoietin: Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.Etidocaine: A local anesthetic with rapid onset and long action, similar to BUPIVACAINE.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Biopharmaceutics: The study of the physical and chemical properties of a drug and its dosage form as related to the onset, duration, and intensity of its action.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
Dosage is taken once daily over the most common span of 12-weeks. Elbasvir/grazoprevir is oftentimes prescribed with ribavirin ... Common side effects during treatment include feeling tired, nausea, reduced appetite, and headache. Low red blood cell count ...
Common bronchodilators[edit]. The bronchodilators are divided into short- and long-acting groups. Short-acting bronchodilators ... Blood tests are required to monitor therapy and to indicate when dosage adjustment is necessary. Side effects can include ... Dry throat is the most common side effect. If the medication gets in contact with the eyes, it may cause blurred vision for a ... Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, ...
Common elemental and vitamin dosages are milligrams per day (mg/d) or micrograms per day (μg/d). Common macronutrient dosages ... and that is used in conjunction with the patient's body weight to determine a safe dosage. In single dosage scenarios, the ... but fails to increase the dosage as the patient needs (i.e. weight based dosing in children, or increasing dosages of ... The correct dosage for a patient is dependent on their individual reaction to both chemicals, and therefore the dosing must be ...
CNS depression occurs much more frequently in the elderly and is especially common in doses above 5 mg of nitrazepam. Both ... this impairment is greater when the higher dosages are prescribed. Nitrazepam in doses of 5 mg or more causes significant ... More common side effects may include: Central nervous system depression, including somnolence, dizziness, depressed mood, ... Less common side effects may include: Hypotension, faintness, palpitation, rash or pruritus, gastrointestinal disturbances, and ...
For some therapeutic applications, dosages like 0.5 g and 1.5- 3 g were used. The lethal dosage is not known. Hyoscyamine, ... Common effects of henbane ingestion include hallucinations, dilated pupils, restlessness, and flushed skin. Less common effects ... Low and average dosages have inebriating and aphrodisiac effects. Henbane is toxic to cattle, wild animals, fish, and birds. ... In all preparations, the dosage has to be carefully estimated due to the high toxicity of henbane. ...
Gump DW, Ashikaga T, Fink TJ, Radin AM (1977). "Side effects of minocycline: different dosage regimens". Antimicrob. Agents ... Media related to Dissociatives at Wikimedia Commons. ...
The most common side effects are mucocutaneous: dry lips, skin and nose. Other common mucocutaneous side effects are ... Increasingly higher dosages will result in higher toxicity, resembling vitamin A toxicity. Adverse effects include:[23] ... The most common adverse effects are a transient worsening of acne (lasting 1-4 months), dry lips (cheilitis), dry and fragile ... A few of the more common birth defects this drug can cause are hearing and visual impairment, missing or malformed earlobes, ...
The word "overdose" implies that there is a common safe dosage and usage for the drug; therefore, the term is commonly only ... Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, ... A common unintentional overdose in young children involves multi-vitamins containing iron. Iron is a component of the ... Unintentional misuse can include errors in dosage caused by failure to read or understand product labels. Accidental overdoses ...
The dosage is adjusted to each individual's response. The most common side effects are abdominal or pelvic pain, bloating, as ...
As a consequence, misprescription is common, both of inappropriate drugs and incorrect dosages. In rural areas, vendors ... As a result, it is likely that vitamin A, iron, and calcium deficiencies are common in all parts of the country. Permissive ... Healers who know how to use medicinal plants are often consulted for common illnesses. The Institute of Traditional Medicine of ... As of 1993, diarrheal diseases were also common, with regular outbreaks occurring annually at the beginning of the rainy season ...
... , the common corn-cockle (also written "corncockle" and "corn cockle" and known locally simply as "the ... "Corn Cockle Uses, Benefits & Dosage". Drugs.com. How to Grow Corncockle Media related to Agrostemma githago at Wikimedia ... In the 19th century, it was reported as a very common weed of wheat fields and its seeds were inadvertently included in ... Commons Data related to Agrostemma githago at Wikispecies. ...
Common variations in the BCL9 gene, which is in the distal area, confer risk of schizophrenia and may also be associated with ... It is assumed to be a dosage-sensitive gene. When this gene is not available in the 1q21.1 area it leads to microcephaly. ... In case of a duplication of GJA5 tetralogy of Fallot is more common. In case of a deletion other congenital heart diseases than ... March 2011). "Common variants in the BCL9 gene conferring risk of schizophrenia". Arch. Gen. Psychiatry. 68 (3): 232-40. doi: ...
Very common (>10% incidence) adverse effects include sleepiness, tiredness, headache, and stomach ache. Common (1-10% incidence ... Increases in dosage can have the same adjustment period. Guanfacine availability is significantly affected by the CYP3A4 and ...
Common side effects include dizziness, back pain, and upper respiratory tract infections.[2] Serious side effects may include ... Based on the initial blood pressure response and/or losartan-hydrochlorothiazide side effects, the dosage may be increased or ... Common side effects include dizziness, headache, back pain, rash, fever, diarrhea, cough, and upper respiratory tract ... Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, ...
AHAs are generally safe when used on the skin as a cosmetic agent using the recommended dosage. The most common side-effects ... Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, ...
The use of intermittent pneumatic compression is common. These devices are also placed on a surgical patient in the operating ... and immobility may influence the prescribed dosage. Anticoagulant medications prevent the formation of blood clots in people ... The list below describes some of the more common medications used to prevent blood clots. Note that generally that since blood ... the development of blood clots is becoming more common. Some risk factors for developing blood clots are considered higher that ...
Dosage is typically half of that applied for malignant cancers (400 mg vs 800 mg). NCI are sponsoring this trial.[17][18] ... Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, ... the most common form of liver cancer, in October 2007,[23] and FDA approval for this indication followed in November 2007.[24] ...
The most common form of prenatal vitamin is the compressed tablet which is available through all channels and at various ... The increased dosage of folic acid or folates reflects the American Dietetic Associations position that women should consume " ... Often prenatal vitamins also have a reduced dosage of vitamins that may be detrimental to the fetus when taken in high doses ( ... Due to tolerance challenges, the prenatal vitamin industry has developed a multitude of dosage forms to meet the needs and ...
A daily dosage up to 3,600 mg was found to be tolerated by healthy as well as unhealthy persons.[7] Some adverse effects, ... The most common Coenzyme Q in human mitochondria is CoQ10. Q refers to the quinone head and 10 refers to the number of isoprene ... The most common side effects are gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea, vomiting, appetite suppression, and stomachaches), rashes, ... While there is no established ideal dosage of CoQ10, a typical daily dose is 100-200 milligrams. Note that different supplement ...
A cannabis-infused baked good is a common type of cannabis edible. Popular varieties include hash cookies, pot brownies, and ... Many resources for recipes, preparation, and dosage are available online, though they vary greatly in effectiveness and quality ... Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, ...
The most common complex that includes around 40% of the GABAA receptors is the α1β2γ2 combination. The expression of the ... Barbiturates showed some hydrolytic problems in regard to formulation of liquid dosage forms. The difficulty is -OH catalyzed ... Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, ... Several efficient benzodiazepines offer choices about dosage form, length of action, metabolic interaction and safety. ...
... and dosage monitoring by medical staff (dosage can be increased or decreased depending on need). With a PCA the patient spends ... The most common form of patient-controlled analgesia is self-administration of oral over-the-counter or prescription ... The PCA can be set to emit a beep telling the patient a dose was NOT delivered). Dosage is also controlled when the patient is ... Narcotics are the most common analgesics administered through PCAs.[6][7] It is important for caregivers to monitor patients ...
Anti-Fya is a common antibody while anti-Fyb is approximately 20 times less common., They are reactive at body temperature and ... They display dosage (react more strongly to homozygous cells versus heterozygous cells). Typically mild but may be serious, ... Asthma is more common and tends to be more severe in those of African descent. There appears to be a correlation with both ... Using these two antibodies, three common phenotypes were defined: Fy(a+b+), Fy(a+b-), and Fy(a-b+). Several other types were ...
Some common dosage forms for the oral cavity include gels, ointments, patches, and tablets. Depending on the dosage form, some ... Gels, solutions, and aerosols are common dosage forms in the nasal cavity. However, recent research into particles and ... The retention of dosage forms in the bladder is relatively poor, which is related to the need for a periodical urine voiding. ... These dosage forms are commonly used to deliver drugs to the eye and nasal cavity. They often include mucoadhesive polymers to ...
Adult dosage is 5-10 ml up to 3-4 times daily. Pholcodine now largely replaces the previously more common codeine linctus, as ...
... usually refers to the process of analyzing data produced by a test for DNA copy number variation in patient's sample. Such analysis helps detect chromosomal copy number variation that may cause or may increase risks of various critical disorders. Copy number variation can be detected with various types of tests such as fluorescent in situ hybridization, comparative genomic hybridization and with high-resolution array-based tests based on array comparative genomic hybridization (or aCGH), SNP array technologies and high resolution microarrays that include copy number probes as well an SNPs. Array-based methods have been accepted as the most efficient in terms of their resolution and high-throughput nature and the highest coverage (choose an array with over 2 million probes) and they are also referred to as Virtual Karyotype. Data analysis for an array-based DNA copy number test can be very challenging though due to very high volume of data that come out of an array platform. ...
... is a molecular cytogenetic method for analysing copy number variations (CNVs) relative to ploidy level in the DNA of a test sample compared to a reference sample, without the need for culturing cells. The aim of this technique is to quickly and efficiently compare two genomic DNA samples arising from two sources, which are most often closely related, because it is suspected that they contain differences in terms of either gains or losses of either whole chromosomes or subchromosomal regions (a portion of a whole chromosome). This technique was originally developed for the evaluation of the differences between the chromosomal complements of solid tumor and normal tissue, and has an improved resoIution of 5-10 megabases compared to the more traditional cytogenetic analysis techniques of giemsa banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) which are limited by the resolution of the microscope utilized. This is achieved through the use of competitive ...
Paired box gene 9, also known as PAX9, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the PAX9 gene. It is also found in other mammals. This gene is a member of the paired box (PAX) family of transcription factors. During mouse embryogenesis Pax9 expression starts from embryonic day 8.5 and becomes more evident by E9.5; at this stage its expression is restricted to the pharyngeal endoderm. Later on, Pax9 is also expressed in the axial skeleton. Pax9 is required for craniofacial, tooth and limb development, and may more generally involve development of stratified squamous epithelia as well as various organs and skeletal elements. PAX9 plays a role in the absence of wisdom teeth in some human populations (possibly along with the less well studied AXIN2 and MSX1). This gene was found amplified in lung cancer. The amplification covers three tissue developmental genes - TTF1, NKX2-8, and PAX9. It appears that certain lung cancer cells select for DNA copy number amplification and increased RNA/protein ...
... (also called lyonization) is a process by which one of the copies of the X chromosome present in female mammals is inactivated. The inactive X chromosome is silenced by its being packaged in such a way that it has a transcriptionally inactive structure called heterochromatin. As nearly all female mammals have two X chromosomes, X-inactivation prevents them from having twice as many X chromosome gene products as males, who only possess a single copy of the X chromosome (see dosage compensation). The choice of which X chromosome will be inactivated is random in placental mammals such as humans, but once an X chromosome is inactivated it will remain inactive throughout the lifetime of the cell and its descendants in the organism. Unlike the random X-inactivation in placental mammals, inactivation in marsupials applies exclusively to the paternally derived X chromosome. In 1959 Susumu Ohno showed that the two X-chromosomes of mammals were different: one appeared similar to the ...
... is one of the most widely used methods to determine the clonal origin of a tumor. The method is based on X chromosome inactivation and it takes the advantage of having different methylation status of a gene called HUMARA (short for Human Androgen receptor) that is located on X chromosome. Considering the fact that once one X chromosome is inactivated in a cell, all other cells derived from it will have the same X chromosome inactivated, this approach becomes a great tool to differentiate a monoclonal population from a polyclonal one in a female tissue. HUMARA gene, in particular, has three important features that make it highly convenient for the purpose. 1-) The gene is located on X chromosome and it goes through inactivation by methylation in normal embryogenesis of a female infant. The fact that most-but not all-genes on X chromosome undergo inactivation, this feature becomes an important one. 2-) Human Androgen Receptor gene alleles have varying numbers of CAG repeats. Thus, ...
A single X chromosome can have either a black allele of the coloration gene or an orange version, but not both. However, a female cat has two X chromosomes, so it can have both versions, black on one chromosome and orange on the other, making the cat a calico. A male cat usually has one X chromosome and one Y chromosome. A Y chromosome does not have a color gene, so the cat can have either an orange or a black gene, but not both. Calico cats are often used as an example in biology classes when discussing sex chromosomes. During the early stages of development, when the cat is still an embryo, in each cell one of the X chromosomes (either the black one or the orange one) deactivates. It is called X-inactivation. All cells that were copied from a cell with a deactivated X chromosome will also have the same X chromosome deactivated. This is what leads to formation of the spots. The earlier in development the X chromosomes deactivate, the larger the spots will be. Deactivation of one of the X ...
A softgel is an oral dosage form for medicine similar to capsules. They consist of a gelatin based shell surrounding a liquid fill. Softgel shells are a combination of gelatin, water, opacifier and a plasticiser such as glycerin or sorbitol. Softgels are produced in a process known as encapsulation using the Rotary Die Encapsulation process invented by Robert Pauli Scherer. The encapsulation process has been described as a form/fill/seal process. Two flat ribbons of shell material are manufactured on the machine and brought together on a twin set of rotating dies. The dies contain recesses in the desired size and shape, which cut out the ribbons into a two-dimensional shape, and form a seal around the outside. At the same time a pump delivers a precise dose of fill material through a nozzle incorporated into a filling wedge whose tip sits between the two ribbons in between two die pockets at the point of cut out. The wedge is heated to facilitate the sealing process. The wedge injection ...
... (5-methyldihydromorphone) is an opioid analogue that is a methylated derivative of hydromorphone which was invented in 1929 as an analgesic. Metopon is sometimes used in medicine, although longer acting than hydromorphone, Metopon is less potent and its oral bioavailability is fairly low. Generally, Metopon has few advantages to distinguish it from other, more commonly used opioid analgesics, although it does have a slightly lower tendency to produce nausea and respiratory depression compared to morphine. In Canada, as of 1948, the hydrochloride of metopon (free base conversion ratio 0.891, molecular weight 335.8) was available only for oral administration for malignant pain and for maintenance of those habituated to morphine; the only dosage form available was singly scored 8 mg tablets. It was manufactured by Parke, Davis, & Co., and was only for sale to doctors and hospitals. Parke, Davis & Co. did not sell metopon to pharmacies. It is unknown whether metopon tablets ...
... is a technology used to manufacture orally disintegrating tablets developed by R.P. Scherer Corporation. Zydis tablets dissolve in the mouth within 3 seconds. Zydis technology was developed by R.P. Scherer Corporation (currently owned by Catalent Pharma Solutions) in 1986. The technology's first commercial application was in August, 1993, when a new dosage form of Pepcidine (famotidine) from Merck & Co. was launched in Sweden. In November 1993 Imodium Lingual (loperamide) from Janssen Pharmaceutica was released in Germany with Zydis technology. In December, 1996, the Food and Drug Administration approved the first prescription drug with Zydis technology sold in the U.S., Claritin RediTabs (loratadine) from Schering-Plough. A Zydis tablet is produced by lyophilizing or freeze-drying the drug in a matrix usually consisting of gelatin. The resulting product is very lightweight and fragile, and must be dispensed in a special blister pack. Amipara et al., in their article "Oral disintirating ...
Half maximal effective concentration (EC50) refers to the concentration of a drug, antibody or toxicant which induces a response halfway between the baseline and maximum after a specified exposure time.[1] It is commonly used as a measure of a drug's potency. EC50 is expressed in molar units (M), where 1 M is equivalent to 1 mol/L. The EC50 of a graded dose response curve therefore represents the concentration of a compound where 50% of its maximal effect is observed.[2] The EC50 of a quantal dose response curve represents the concentration of a compound where 50% of the population exhibit a response,[3] after a specified exposure duration. It is also related to IC50 which is a measure of a compound's inhibition (50% inhibition). For competition binding assays and functional antagonist assays IC50 is the most common summary measure of the dose-response curve. For agonist/stimulator assays the most common summary measure is the EC50.[4] The half maximal ...
In the field of pharmacology, an inverse agonist is an agent that binds to the same receptor as an agonist but induces a pharmacological response opposite to that agonist. A neutral antagonist has no activity in the absence of an agonist or inverse agonist but can block the activity of either. Inverse agonists have opposite actions to those of agonists but the effects of both of these can be blocked by antagonists. A prerequisite for an inverse agonist response is that the receptor must have a constitutive (also known as intrinsic or basal) level activity in the absence of any ligand. An agonist increases the activity of a receptor above its basal level, whereas an inverse agonist decreases the activity below the basal level. The efficacy of a full agonist is by definition 100%, a neutral antagonist has 0% efficacy, and an inverse agonist has < 0% (i.e., negative) efficacy. An example of a receptor that possesses basal activity and for which inverse agonists have been identified is the GABAA ...
The amounts of each vitamin type in multivitamin formulations are generally adapted to correlate with what is believed to result in optimal health effects in large population groups. However, these standard amounts may not correlate what is optimal in certain subpopulations, such as in children, pregnant women and people with certain medical conditions and medication. The health benefit of vitamins generally follows a biphasic dose-response curve, taking the shape of a bell curve, with the area in the middle being the safe-intake range and the edges representing deficiency and toxicity.[16] For example, the Food and Drug Administration recommends that adults on a 2,000 calorie diet get between 60 and 90 milligrams of vitamin C per day.[17] This is the middle of the bell curve. The upper limit is 2,000 milligrams per day for adults, which is considered potentially dangerous.[18] In particular, pregnant women should generally consult their doctors before taking any multivitamins: for example, ...
ನಿಕೋಟಿನ್‌ನ ಎಲ್‌ಡಿ50 ಪ್ರಮಾಣ ಇಲಿಗಳಿಗೆ 50 ಮಿಗ್ರಾ/ಕಿಗ್ರಾ ಮತ್ತು ಮೂಗಿಲಿಗಳಿಗೆ 3 ಮಿಗ್ರಾ/ಕಿಗ್ರಾ. 40-60 ಮಿಗ್ರಾಂ. (0.5-1.0 mg/kg) ಇದು ವಯಸ್ಕ ಮನುಷ್ಯರಿಗೆ ಘಾತಕ ಪ್ರಮಾಣವಾಗಿರುತ್ತದೆ.[೪೩][೪೪] ಆದ್ದರಿಂದ, ಕೊಕೈನ್‌ನಂತಹ ಇತರ ಕ್ಷಾರಗಳಿಗೆ ತುಲನೆ ಮಾಡಿ ನೋಡಿದಾದ ನಿಕೋಟಿನ್ ಹೆಚ್ಚಿನ ವಿಷತ್ವವನ್ನು ಹೊಂದಿದೆ, ಅದು ಮೈಸ್‌ಗೆ ನಿರ್ವಹಣೆ ಮಾಡಿ ನೋಡಿದಾಗ 95.1 ಮಿಗ್ರಾಂ/ಕಿಗ್ರಾಂ ನ LD50 ಪ್ರಮಾಣವನ್ನು ಹೊಂದಿದೆ. ಆದಾಗ್ಯೂ, ಕೇವಲ ಧೂಮಪಾನದ ಮೂಲಕ ನಿಕೋಟಿನ್ ಅನ್ನು ಅತಿ ...

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