A genotoxicological technique for measuring DNA damage in an individual cell using single-cell gel electrophoresis. Cell DNA fragments assume a "comet with tail" formation on electrophoresis and are detected with an image analysis system. Alkaline assay conditions facilitate sensitive detection of single-strand damage.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
Induction and quantitative measurement of chromosomal damage leading to the formation of micronuclei (MICRONUCLEI, CHROMOSOME-DEFECTIVE) in cells which have been exposed to genotoxic agents or IONIZING RADIATION.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
A DNA repair enzyme that is an N-glycosyl hydrolase with specificity for DNA-containing ring-opened N(7)-methylguanine residues.
Any solid objects moving in interplanetary space that are smaller than a planet or asteroid but larger than a molecule. Meteorites are any meteoroid that has fallen to a planetary surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced mutations independently of the mechanism involved.
Finely divided solid matter with particle sizes smaller than a micrometeorite, thus with diameters much smaller than a millimeter, moving in interplanetary space. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
Interruptions in one of the strands of the sugar-phosphate backbone of double-stranded DNA.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Interruptions in the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA.
Defective nuclei produced during the TELOPHASE of MITOSIS or MEIOSIS by lagging CHROMOSOMES or chromosome fragments derived from spontaneous or experimentally induced chromosomal structural changes.
Neon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ne, atomic number 10, and atomic weight 20.18. It is found in the earth's crust and atmosphere as an inert, odorless gas and is used in vacuum tubes and incandescent lamps.
Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
An antineoplastic agent with alkylating properties. It also acts as a mutagen by damaging DNA and is used experimentally for that effect.
Splitting the DNA into shorter pieces by endonucleolytic DNA CLEAVAGE at multiple sites. It includes the internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, which along with chromatin condensation, are considered to be the hallmarks of APOPTOSIS.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
An alkylating agent in cancer therapy that may also act as a mutagen by interfering with and causing damage to DNA.
An experimental lymphocytic leukemia of mice.
The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Interruptions in the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA, across both strands adjacently.
Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (SOUND), ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY waves (such as LIGHT; RADIO WAVES; GAMMA RAYS; or X-RAYS), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as ELECTRONS; NEUTRONS; PROTONS; or ALPHA PARTICLES).
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
The ability of some cells or tissues to survive lethal doses of IONIZING RADIATION. Tolerance depends on the species, cell type, and physical and chemical variables, including RADIATION-PROTECTIVE AGENTS and RADIATION-SENSITIZING AGENTS.
A plant genus of the family FLACOURTIACEAE. Members contain casearins which are clerodane type DITERPENES.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
A plant family of the order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida composed of tropical plants with parallel-nerved leaves.
A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
7,8,8a,9a-Tetrahydrobenzo(10,11)chryseno (3,4-b)oxirene-7,8-diol. A benzopyrene derivative with carcinogenic and mutagenic activity.
ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION or particle radiation (high energy ELEMENTARY PARTICLES) capable of directly or indirectly producing IONS in its passage through matter. The wavelengths of ionizing electromagnetic radiation are equal to or smaller than those of short (far) ultraviolet radiation and include gamma and X-rays.
An order of flightless birds comprising the ostriches, which naturally inhabit open, low rainfall areas of Africa.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.
Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Individuals responsible for various duties pertaining to the medical office routine.
A residue of coal, left after dry (destructive) distillation, used as a fuel.
A potent mutagen and carcinogen. This compound and its metabolite 4-HYDROXYAMINOQUINOLINE-1-OXIDE bind to nucleic acids. It inactivates bacteria but not bacteriophage.
Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.
Information intended for potential users of medical and healthcare services. There is an emphasis on self-care and preventive approaches as well as information for community-wide dissemination and use.
Waste products which threaten life, health, or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed.
Sites where HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES are deposited. Some have facilities for safely storing, processing, and recycling these waste products.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.

Vitamin E supplementation and oxidative damage to DNA and plasma LDL in type 1 diabetes. (1/1075)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of 400 IU/day of the antioxidant vitamin E on the susceptibility of plasma LDL and lymphocyte DNA to oxidative damage in type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied 42 patients with type 1 diabetes and 31 age- and sex-matched control subjects in a randomized prospective double-blind placebo-controlled trial by using 400 IU/day of oral vitamin E for 8 weeks. Measurements were made of single-strand breaks in lymphocyte DNA at baseline and after hydrogen peroxide-induced stress (comet assay) and of copper-induced LDL oxidization and plasma antioxidant profiles. RESULTS: Plasma LDL and lymphocyte DNA were more resistant to induced oxidative change in the type 1 diabetes group than in control subjects. Vitamin E supplementation reduced LDL oxidizability in the control subjects but not in the type 1 diabetes group and had no effect on oxidative DNA damage in either group. The type 1 diabetes group had a significantly poorer plasma antioxidant profile with lower mean serum concentrations of alpha-tocopherol and most carotenoids than control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma LDL and lymphocyte DNA appear to be more resistant to oxidative change in type 1 diabetic subjects than in control subjects, and there was no evidence of oxidatively induced DNA or LDL change in type 1 diabetes. This study does not support the hypothesis of oxidative damage in these patients, and a dose of vitamin E (400 IU/day) that reduced LDL oxidative susceptibility in control subjects did not do so in patients with type 1 diabetes.  (+info)

Comet assay application in environmental monitoring: DNA damage in human leukocytes and plant cells in comparison with bacterial and yeast tests. (2/1075)

Urban airborne particulate is a complex mixture of air pollutants, many of which have not been identified. However, short-term mutagenesis tests together with chemicophysical parameter analysis are able to better assess air quality and genotoxic load. The findings of continuous monitoring (January 1991-August 1998) of urban air genotoxicity of a Po Valley town (Italy) on Salmonella typhimurium and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are reported. During this period, various measures (catalytic devices, unleaded fuels, annual vehicle overhaul, etc.) to improve air-dispersed pollutant control were enforced. However, a continuous presence of genotoxic compounds is shown and more qualitative than quantitative changes are evident. We also demonstrate the ability of the Comet assay to detect DNA-damaging agents in airborne particulate samples. We applied the test to human leukocytes and, with major improvements, to plant cells (Allium cepa roots and epigean tissues of Impatiens balsamina). The first findings on human leukocytes confirm the sensitivity of this assay, its peculiarity and its applicability in assessing genotoxicity in environmental samples. The capability of plants to show the response of multicellular organisms to environmental pollutants largely counterbalances a probable lowering in sensitivity. Moreover, application of the Comet test to epigean tissues could be useful in estimating the bioavailability of and genotoxic damage by air pollutants, including volatile compounds (ozone, benzene, nitrogen oxides, etc.) to higher plants.  (+info)

Comet assay of UV-induced DNA damage in retinal pigment epithelial cells. (3/1075)

PURPOSE: The molecular mechanisms mediating photic injury to the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell are not clearly understood. This study examined qualitative and quantitative aspects of DNA damage caused by broadband UVA and UVB radiation in RPE cells. METHODS: Cultured bovine RPE cells were exposed to doses of between 0 and 0.9 J/cm2 UVA or 0 and 0.09 J/cm2 UVB, as either a suspension or as an attached monolayer. The damage to DNA resulting in single-strand breaks was assessed by means of the comet assay in which the damaged DNA migrates out of the nucleus forming a tail, and this was quantified using image analysis. Two measurements were taken: the mean percentage of tail DNA, which reflects the overall level of DNA damage in the group of cells, and the Olive tail moment, which represents the extent of migration and thus the pattern of DNA damage in individual cells. Cells were processed by the comet assay immediately after UV exposure in acute experiments. To study the occurrence of DNA repair, RPE cells were first exposed to UVB and then incubated at 37 degrees C for either 1 or 24 hours before processing for the comet assay. RESULTS: UVA- and UVB-exposed cells showed a mean percentage of tail DNA that was significantly greater than in unexposed cells. Olive tail moment was higher in cells exposed to larger doses of UVB. This parameter also showed a bimodal distribution when assessed 24 hours after exposure to UVB indicating the presence of two distinct subpopulations of cells with small and large tail moments. Cells with very large tail moments were not seen with doses below 0.045 J/cm2. CONCLUSIONS: Relatively low doses of UVA and UVB induce the formation of DNA strand breaks in cultured RPE. The tail moment profiles for cells incubated for 24 hours after UVB irradiation are consistent with the occurrence of DNA repair in most cells exposed to low doses and apoptosis in a subpopulation of the cells exposed to high doses.  (+info)

The bromodeoxyuridine comet assay: detection of maturation of recently replicated DNA in individual cells. (4/1075)

The single-cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay is a relatively simple method of measuring DNA single strand breaks and alkali-labile sites in individual cells. We have combined this with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) labeling of DNA and immunolocalization of the BrdUrd to assess DNA replicative integrity on a single-cell basis. We show that the existence of strand discontinuities in recently replicated domains of DNA, caused during semiconservative replication or exacerbated by the arrest of replicative polymerases at UV irradiation- or chemical-induced lesions, can be detected in individual cells. Data obtained from BrdUrd-Comets are consistent with biochemical data derived with a range of techniques showing that DNA replication involves the creation of strand breaks or gaps adjacent to recently replicated material, and that DNA damage prolongs the duration of such discontinuities where DNA polymerases are stalled opposite lesions (R. T. Johnson et al, The Legacy of Cell Fusion, pp. 50-67, Oxford: Science Publications, 1994; R. B. Painter, J. Mol. Biol., 143: 289-301, 1980.). Compared with standard biochemical techniques, the BrdUrd-Comet assay is simple and suitable for the accurate and automatable assessment of replicative integrity in very small numbers of mammalian cells, such as may be obtained by biopsy.  (+info)

Extremely low frequency pulsed DC electric fields promote neutrophil extension, metabolic resonance and DNA damage when phase-matched with metabolic oscillators. (5/1075)

Application of extremely low frequency pulsed DC electric fields that are frequency- and phase-matched with endogenous metabolic oscillations leads to greatly exaggerated neutrophil extension and metabolic resonance wherein oscillatory NAD(P)H amplitudes are increased. In the presence of a resonant field, migrating cell length grows from 10 to approximately 40 microm, as does the overall length of microfilament assemblies. In contrast, cells stop locomotion and become spherical when exposed to phase-mismatched fields. Although cellular effects were not found to be dependent on electrode type and buffer, they were sensitive to temporal constraints (phase and pulse length) and cell surface charge. We suggest an electromechanical coupling hypothesis wherein applied electric fields and cytoskeletal polymerization forces act together to overcome the surface/cortical tension of neutrophils, thus promoting net cytoskeletal assembly and heightened metabolic amplitudes. Metabolic resonance enhances reactive oxygen metabolic production by neutrophils. Furthermore, cellular DNA damage was observed after prolonged metabolic resonance using both single cell gel electrophoresis ('comet' assay) and 3'-OH DNA labeling using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase. These results provide insights into transmembrane signal processing and cell interactions with weak electric fields.  (+info)

DNA damage induced by 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine in liver and urinary bladder cells of rats and humans. (6/1075)

3,3'-Dimethoxybenzidine (DMB), a congener of benzidine used in the dye industry and previously found to be carcinogenic in rats, was evaluated for its genotoxic activity in primary cultures of rat and human hepatocytes and of cells from human urinary bladder mucosa, as well as in liver and bladder mucosa of intact rats. A similar modest dose-dependent frequency of DNA fragmentation was revealed by the alkaline elution technique in metabolically competent primary cultures of both rat and human hepatocytes exposed for 20 h to subtoxic DMB concentrations ranging from 56 to 180 microM. Replicating rat hepatocytes displayed a modest increase in the frequency of micronucleated cells after a 48-h exposure to 100 and 180 microM concentrations. In primary cultures of human urinary bladder mucosa cells exposed for 20 h to 100 and 180 microM DMB, the Comet assay revealed a clear-cut increase of DNA fragmentation. In rats given one-half LD50 of DMB as a single oral dose, the GSH level was reduced in both the liver and urinary bladder mucosa, whereas DNA fragmentation was detected only in the bladder mucosa. Taken as a whole, these results suggest that DMB should be considered a potentially genotoxic chemical in both rats and humans; the selective effect on the rat urinary bladder might be the consequence of pharmacokinetic behavior.  (+info)

Induction of genotoxicity by cadmium chloride inhalation in several organs of CD-1 mice. (7/1075)

In recent years, the concentration of metals in the environment has increased significantly. Metal compounds, as a group, are among the best-documented human carcinogens, but the mechanisms by which they act are not completely understood. In the present study a cadmium inhalation model in mice was implemented in order to detect the induction of genotoxic damage as single-strand breaks and alkali-labile sites in several organs (nasal epithelial cells, lung, whole blood, liver, kidney, bone marrow, brain and testicle) using the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) or Comet assay. We found differences among the studied organs after a single and subsequent inhalations: in the organs analyzed we observed that major DNA damage was induced after a single inhalation; in subsequent inhalations there was a tendency to maintain the same magnitude of damage or in some cases it decreased. A correlation between length of exposure, DNA damage and metal tissue concentration was found. These results suggest that cadmium chloride inhalation induces systemic DNA damage; some organs showed less damage than others (liver, brain, etc.) and this finding could be as a consequence of the capacity to remove the damage induced by long periods of exposure, possibly because of the induction of detoxifying mechanisms such as induction of metallothionein.  (+info)

Lymphocyte lycopene concentration and DNA protection from oxidative damage is increased in women after a short period of tomato consumption. (8/1075)

Several epidemiologic studies have suggested a role of tomato products in protecting against cancer and chronic diseases. In nine adult women, we evaluated whether the consumption of 25 g tomato puree (containing 7 mg lycopene and 0.3 mg beta-carotene) for 14 consecutive days increased plasma and lymphocyte carotenoid concentration and whether this was related to an improvement in lymphocyte resistance to an oxidative stress (500 micromol/L hydrogen peroxide for 5 min). Before and after the period of tomato intake, carotenoid concentrations were analyzed by HPLC and lymphocyte resistance to oxidative stress by the Comet assay, which detects DNA strand breaks. Intake of tomato puree increased plasma (P <0.001) and lymphocyte (P<0.005) lycopene concentration and reduced lymphocyte DNA damage by approximately 50% (P<0.0001). Beta-carotene concentration increased in plasma (P<0.05) but not in lymphocytes after tomato puree consumption. An inverse relationship was found between plasma lycopene concentration (r = -0.82, P<0.0001) and lymphocyte lycopene concentration (r = -0.62, P<0.01) and the oxidative DNA damage. In conclusion, small amounts of tomato puree added to the diet over a short period can increase carotenoid concentrations and the resistance of lymphocytes to oxidative stress.  (+info)

Cancer is one of the most unwanted menaces in the human body. Cancers of lower abdomen are not only life threatening but also painful and survival rate is low. Cervical cancer is second most common worldwide and fifth deadliest in women. It affects about 16 per 100,000 women per year and kills about 9 per 100,000 in a year. In developing countries occurrence rate is 80%. It is possible that there may be no symptom until an advance stage of the cancer is progressed. The single cell gel electrophoresis assay also called comet assay, which is versatile, reliable, powerful, uncomplicated and sensitive technique for detection of DNA damage at the level of individual eukaryotic cell. Understanding the extent of DNA damage in neoplastic cells discarded in the urine of cancer patients through comet assay. Usually normal urine sample have very rare cells. In case of cancer patient the number of cells increases drastically. The type of cells passed in the urine of cancer patient contains mainly ...
The Comet Assay, also called single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE), is a sensitive and rapid technique for quantifying and analyzing DNA damage in individual cells.
Recently, investigators at Universität Ulm have been investigating the low molecular weight DNA diffusion assay (LMW assay) to measure cytotoxicity in comet assays.. The comet assay is a well-established in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity test. However, there has always been concern that the comet assay (as with all DNA strand break assays) may possibly detect exposure-related cytotoxicity rather than genotoxic effects. This is because DNA degradation is frequently involved in processes leading to cell death. Concurrent measures for cytotoxicity are required for standard genotoxicity testing to assess genotoxicity and to address possible effects of cytotoxicity in comet assay data interpretation.. Typically, histopathology has been accepted as a suitable cytotoxicity detection method when using the in vivo comet assay. By looking at the histology, levels of necrosis and apoptosis can be determined. However, there are other assays available for assessing cytotoxicity.. Here, the LMW assay has ...
Taking into account that there are controversial antioxidative effects of inhalational anesthetics isoflurane and sevoflurane and absence of comparison of genotoxicity of both anesthetics in animal model, the aim of this study was to compare DNA damage and antioxidant status in Wistar rats exposed to a single time to isoflurane or sevoflurane. The alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis assay (comet assay) was performed in order to evaluate DNA damage in whole blood cells of control animals (unexposed; n = 6) and those exposed to 2% isoflurane (n = 6) or 4% sevoflurane (n = 6) for 120 min. Plasma antioxidant status was determined by 3( 4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. There was no statistically significant difference between isoflurane and sevoflurane groups regarding hemodynamic and temperature variables (P > 0.05). Sevoflurane significantly increased DNA damage compared to unexposed animals (P = 0.02). In addition, Wistar rats anesthetized with ...
Self-assembly systems (SAS) mainly consist of micelles, and liposomes are the classes of Nano Drug Delivery Systems with superior properties compared to traditional therapeutics in targeting cancer tumors. All commercially available nano-formulations of chemotherapeutics currently consist of SAS. According to our knowledge, a specific toxicity comparison based on material differences has not yet been performed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the toxicity of two SAS consisting of Sterically Stabilized Micelles (SSM) made of a lipid-based amphiphilic distearoyl-sn-glycero-phosphatidylethanolamine-polyethylene glycol (PEG)-2000 and a polymeric micelle (PM) consisting of Y-shape amphiphilic block copolymer, synthesized using poly ε-caprolactone and PEG. The mechanism of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of micelles on L-929 healthy mouse fibroblast cells was assessed using Sulforhodamine-B, WST-1, Acridine Orange/Ethidium Bromide and alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis assays.
Article Effects of proton beams from the folded tandem ion accelerator on DNA damage in mouse leukocytes using the comet assay. Single cell gel electrophoresis or the comet assay is a sensitive technique to quantify different types of DNA damage, e.g...
The target of the present study is to estimate the in vitro genotoxic potential of the volatile-anaesthetic halothane (Narcotan7) as well as the protective effect of vitamin A, as an antioxidant. To achieve this task, the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) was applied as the extent of DNA fragmentation in rabbit lymphocytes that were exposed in vitro to halothane at concentrations of 0.1 or 1.0 mM for 10 and 30 min, respectively. The obtained results elucidated that anaesthetic halothane induced a significant increase in DNA damage that shown by comet DNA concentration and its tail length. The recorded elevation of DNA damage was clearly correlated with halothane concentration as well as the period of exposure. To mend the deleterious effect of halothane on DNA, 25 rabbits were orally received vitamin A (8000 IU kg-1 body weight) for 15 days prior to in vitro halothane exposure. Vitamin A administration induced a significant repairing effect in lymphocytes-damaged DNA due to ...
Human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) are a potential source of somatic cells for genetic manipulation and tissue engineering. Confirmation of cytogenetic stability of these cells is an essential step for cell nuclear transfer and generation of a suitable and functional induced pluripotent stem cells line. HDF cells were isolated and cultured from human foreskin samples. Cytogenetic stability of these cells was evaluated in early (3-4) and late (10-15) passages using karyotype test and alkaline comet assay techniques. HDF cells in early and late passages showed normal karyotype but by comet assay abnormality and DNA damages in late passages of HDFs were observed. Also, the parameters of alkaline comet assay in early passages of HDFs compared with late passages and positive control groups more significantly were different (p , 0.05). These findings indicate that single-strand breaks or DNA damage after many passages may have occurred in HDF cells. Our results demonstrate that only early passages of HDF ...
Nitric oxide (NO) as well as its donors has been shown to generate mutation and DNA damage in in vitro assays. The objective of this study was to identify that DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs) could be elicited by NO, not only in vitro but also in vivo. The alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) was performed to examine the DNA damage in g12 cells and the cells isolated from the organs of mice exposed to sodium nitroprusside (SNP). A modified method, in which neither collagenase nor trypsin was necessary, was used to prepare the single-cell suspension isolated from organs of mice. Results showed that the exposure of g12 cells to 0.13-0.5 mu mol/ml SNP with S9 for 1 h induced a concentration-dependent increase in DNA SSBs in g12 cells. The significant increase in DNA migration and comet frequency has appeared in the cells isolated from the spleen, thymus, and peritoneal macrophages of mice after injecting i.p. SNP in the dosage range of 0.67-6.0 mg/kg b.wt for 1 h. However, no obvious ...
The economy of the state of Tabasco is based on oil extraction. However, this imposes major effects to the environment and communities. Examples are the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) that may be found in the soil, water and sediment of the region. Their volatility makes them available to living beings and results in genotoxic activity. The purpose of this study was to quantify the levels of PAHs in the air at several points in the state, and to analyze their relationship with possible damage to DNA on local inhabitants. Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis Assay (Comet Assay) was applied to peripheral blood lymphocytes of five groups of children between six and 15 years of age. PAH samples were analyzed following US/EPA TO-13-A method. Results indicated the presence in the air of most of the 16 PAHs considered as high priority by EPA, some of which have been reported with carcinogenic activity. Differences (p
This protocol details the experimental procedure for performing the comet assay, a very sensitive DNA break assay based on single cell gel electrophoresis.The analysis of DNA strand breaks, both single- and double-strand breaks (SSBs and DSBs, respectively), was performed in immune resp...
Morphological transformation of C3H/M2 mouse fibroblasts by, and genotoxicity of, extracts of human milk. Breast cancer may be initiated by environmental/dietary agents and human milk may act as an ex vivo indicator of in vivo exposure of mammary epithelial cells to genotoxins. Extracts of human milk from UK-resident women (n = 7) were tested for their abilities to morphologically transform C3H/M2 mouse fibroblasts. Genotoxicities were assessed in the Salmonella typhimurium reverse-mutation assay in the presence of S9 using strains TA1538 and YG1019, and in metabolically-competent human MCL-5 cells with the micronucleus and with the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assays. Two of the seven extracts were inactive in the transformation assay both in the presence or absence of S9, two appeared to be equally transforming either in the presence or absence of S9, and two other extracts induced increased transformation frequencies in the presence of S9. A seventh extract, tested only in ...
Pro-carcinogens, such as benzoapyrene (BaP), that are exogenous ligands of the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor may influence the susceptibility of target-cell populations through the up-regulation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) mixed function oxidases. We examined whether the growth kinetics of MCF-7 cells might determine the level of up-regulation of CYP1A1, CYP1A2 or CYP1B1 by BaP, and whether this could then influence subsequent levels of DNA damage. Cell cultures manipulated to be G0/G1-phase concentrated, S-phase concentrated or G2/M-phase concentrated were treated with BaP and the expression levels of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A CDKN1A (P21WAF1/CIP1), B-cell leukaemia/lymphoma-2 (BCL-2), and Bcl-2-associated X levels were determined. Levels of DNA damage were measured as DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs) by the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay or as DNA adducts by 32P-postlabelling analysis. BaP-induced up-regulation of CYP1A1 was ...
Ecology affects human organism by causing breaks in DNA and, therefore, induce mutations and malignant cell formation. Comet assay is a quantitative method that allows to measure DNA damage in eukaryotic cells (Liao, McNutt, & Zhu, 2009). This method is widely used in areas, such as human biomonitoring, genotoxicology, and ecology. Comet assay is also called a single-cell gel electrophoresis. Thus, the products of electrophoresis are analyzed under the fluorescent light, which makes it similar to comets. DNA strand breaks are detected by comparing the intensity of the comet tail relative to the head (Collins, 2004). Probiotics containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus were used, as Lactobacilli probiotics were found to be safe and effective against urogenital diseases, food hypersensitivity, and dental caries (Lebeer, Vanderleyden, & De Keersmaeckler, 2008). The aim of the research was to study DNA protector mechanism for three probiotic products, containing L. rhamnosus ...
Within the last decade, the comet assay has been used with increasing popularity to investigate the level of DNA damage in terms of strand breaks and alkaline labile sites in biomonitoring studies. The assay is easily performed on WBCs and has been included in a wide range of biomonitoring studies of occupational exposures encompassing styrene, vinyl chloride, 1,3-butadiene, pesticides, hair dyes, antineoplastic agents, organic solvents, sewage and waste materials, wood dust, and ionizing radiation. Eleven of the occupational studies were positive, whereas seven were negative. Notably, the negative studies appeared to have less power than the positive studies. Also, there were poor dose-response relationships in many of the biomonitoring studies. Many factors have been reported to produce effects by the comet assay, e.g., age, air pollution exposure, diet, exercise, gender, infection, residential radon exposure, smoking, and season. Until now, the use of the comet assay has been hampered by the ...
Comet Assay IV combines accurate, repeatable results with powerful data processing and comprehensive presentation. Once you have obtained your results, you can easily process them using the Spreadsheet Generator, which is included free with every Comet Assay IV system.. The Spreadsheet Generator is an application built in Excel for drawing graphs, tabulating data and calculating statistics from your Comet Assay IV results. Because it is built in Excel, it can easily be customised using any of Excels standard functions and features.. ...
Oxidatively damaged DNA is thought to be important in both the initiation and development of bladder carcinoma. Phytochemical compounds are thought to promote optimal health, partly via their antioxidant effects in protecting cellular components against damaging free radicals. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of a standardised bilberry extract, mirtoselect, on the level of endogenous and induced oxidatively damaged DNA in bladder cancer cells, as assessed by the Comet assay. The Comet assay, also known as single-cell gel electrophoresis, represents a simple method for measuring DNA strand break damage in eukaryotic cells. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay is greatly enhanced by the addition of bacterial repair endonucleases that recognise specific types of damage in the DNA and converts these lesions into additional DNA breaks. - Studies of mirtoselect against three bladder cancer cell lines (RT112, RT4 and HT1376) have shown significant antiproliferative activities ...
We present a procedure for the comet assay, a gel electrophoresisbased method that can be used to measure DNA damage in individual eukaryotic cells. It is versatile, relatively simple to perform and sensitive. Although most investigations make use of its ability to measure DNA single-strand breaks, modifications to the method allow detection of DNA double-strand breaks, cross-links, base damage and apoptotic nuclei. The limit of sensitivity is approximately 50 strand breaks per diploid mammalian cell. DNA damage and its repair in single-cell suspensions prepared from yeast, protozoa, plants, invertebrates and mammals can also be studied using this assay. Originally developed to measure variation in DNA damage and repair capacity within a population of mammalian cells, applications of the comet assay now range from human and sentinel animal biomonitoring (e.g., DNA damage in earthworms crawling through toxic waste sites) to measurement of DNA damage in specific genomic sequences. This protocol ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - DNA damage and breast cancer risk. AU - Smith, Tasha R.. AU - Miller, Mark S.. AU - Lohman, Kurt K.. AU - Case, L. Douglas. AU - Hu, Jennifer H.. PY - 2003/5/1. Y1 - 2003/5/1. N2 - To evaluate whether deficient DNA repair contributes to elevated DNA damage and breast carcinogenesis, we used the comet assay (single-cell alkaline gel electrophoresis) to measure the levels of DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes from 70 breast cancer cases and 70 controls. DNA damage, measured as the comet tail moment, was not influenced by age, family history (FH), age at menarche, age at first birth or parity. The results showed that cancer cases had significantly higher DNA damage compared with controls; the comet tail moments (mean ± SD) for cases and controls were: 10.78 ± 3.63 and 6.86 ± 2.76 (P , 0.001) for DNA damage at baseline (DB), 21.24 ± 4.88 and 14.97 ± 4.18 (P , 0.001) for DNA damage after exposure to 6 Gy of ionizing radiation (DIR), and 14.76 ± 5.35 and 9.75 ± 3.35 (P , ...
The in vivo genotoxic activity of two inorganic lead compounds was studied in Drosophila melanogaster by measurement of two different genetic endpoints. We used the wing-spot test and the comet assay. The comet assay was conducted with larval haemocytes. The results from the wing-spot test showed that neither lead chloride, PbCl2, nor lead nitrate, Pb(NO3)2, were able to induce significant increases in the frequency of mutant spots. In addition, the combined treatments with gamma-radiation and PbCl2 or Pb(NO3)2 did not show significant variations in the frequency of the three categories of mutant spots recorded, compared with the frequency induced by gamma-radiation alone. This seems to indicate that the lead compounds tested do not interact with the repair of the genetic damage induced by ionizing radiation. When the lead compounds were evaluated in the in vivo comet assay with haemocytes, Pb(NO3)2 was effective in inducing significant increases of DNA damage with a direct dose-response ...
The Comet Assay for detection of DNA repair and DNA damage by tail intensity. In Comet Assays the damage is detected with the single-stranded or double-stranded DNA breaks. DNA damage can be induced by chemicals or UV light radiation. A single cell is paced in low melting agarose on a microscope slide. The cell membrane will be lysed with detergent and salt concentration. Nucleotides will be released from the nucleus and electrophoresis will migrate the damaged DNA to the + anode electric field. The more the DNA is damaged the more there will appear a migration tail. Endonucleases damage increases the DNA migration, whereas DNA-DNA and DNA-protein cross-links result in retarded DNA migration, Tice, 2000. The comet assay is used in DNA repair studies, in animal and clinical studies for base excision repair (BER), nucleotide excision repair (NER) like the Vitotox L. Gevaert, 2009 measures the cytotoxicity in Salmonella lux promotor cloned cells. They show that the Comet Assay or single cell gel ...
Those who defend the planet ignore comets, and its due to wrong perception that comets cant be stopped. Its difficult to track the ice bodies as said by Nuth, but we can prevent it if we get prepared.. Get the Free Tracker App to find 2018 NES Classic in Stock. Comets are dangerous. The research reveals that its easy to deal with asteroids, because they are common. Its easy to detect NEAs, Near Earth Asteroids than comets, because NEAs are just like our planet. But, comets exist deep in the external solar system, so they are difficult to detect. According to scientists, the Halley comet revolves around sun once in every 75 years.. According to Nuth, comets suddenly appear from nowhere. He said that comet named Siding Spring appeared in 2013 and 2014 striking Mars, and both were dangerous. A space aircraft can destroy comet, but it takes 5 years to prepare a spacecraft, said by Nuth in AGU conference. Comet is larger than NEAs, so they strike the earth at high velocity.. On the contrary, NEA ...
Seven flavonoids were isolated from Eremosparton songoricum (Litv) Vass and their antioxidation actions were examined. To investigate protective ability against DNA damage induced by H2O2, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were incubated with 5-hydroxy-7,4′-dimethoxyflavone,5,7-dihydroxy-3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone, acacetin, chrysoeriol, pedalitin, flavogadorinin and 5,7,4′-trihydroxy-3′-methoxyflavone-4′-O-D-glucoside separately and then treated by H2O2. The percentage of damaged cells were determined by single-cell gel electrophoresis. To examine their inhibition of lipid peroxidation, the compounds were incubated with rat microsomes and the reaction was initiated by Fe2+/Vc. The lipid peroxidation product thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was determined. The result showed most of flavonoids had concentration-dependent antioxdative activities. The relationship of antioxidation and the structure is discussed.
PubMed journal article: Validation of Drosophila melanogaster as an in vivo model for genotoxicity assessment using modified alkaline Comet assay. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
BioTek Note applicative, 07-Jul-16, Automated Comet Assay Imaging and Dual-Mask Analysis to Determine DNA Damage on an Individual Comet Basis
Just download these files into the extras folder of Celestia and you are ready to go (despite the comet only being magnitude 10, Celestia exagerates the comets tail and brightness, it does this for all comets around perihelion, but it makes them easy to find). You can get a whole passel of comet orbitals from the Celestia motherlode comet section, but be aware that the 164P-Christensen obits here are the old, pre-recovery orbits (also, if you load in the full catalog of comets, they sky will be taken up by comet orbits, best to use that as a resource to extract comets as you need them ...
The concept underlying the SCGE assay is that undamaged DNA retains a highly organized association with matrix proteins in the nucleus. When damaged, this organization is disrupted. The individual strands of DNA lose their compact structure and relax, expanding out of the cavity into the agarose. When the electric field is applied the DNA, which has an overall negative charge, is drawn towards the positively charged anode. Undamaged DNA strands are too large and do not leave the cavity, whereas the smaller the fragments, the farther they are free to move in a given period of time. Therefore, the amount of DNA that leaves the cavity is a measure of the amount of DNA damage in the cell. The image analysis measures the overall intensity of the fluorescence for the whole nucleoid and the fluorescence of the migrated DNA and compares the two signals. The stronger the signal from the migrated DNA the more damage there is present. The overall structure resembles a comet (hence comet assay) with a ...
The genotoxic effects of 2.45 GHz microwave (MW) radiation on the testis and ovary of Sprague Dawley rats was investigated. The animals were exposed to varying levels of specific absorption rate (SAR) of 0 (control), 0.48, 0.95, 1.43, 1.91, 2.39, 2.90, 3.40, 3.80 and 4.30 Wkg-1 , for 10 min. The induction of DNA damages was assessed using DNA direct amplification of length polymorphisms (DALP) and validated with single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) comet assay for same cells at SAR 2.39 Wkg-1 . Potential damage at the organ level was assessed by histopathological study. The results show significant differences in the Olive moment and % DNA in the blood of the exposed animals when compared with the control (p , 0.05). Hyperchromasia was observed in the ovary of the animals exposed to MW radiation. Also, there was reduction in the number of germ cells and cell disorganization in the testis of exposed group with increasing SARs. These results suggest that MW radiation has the potential to affect ...
The genotoxic effects of 2.45 GHz microwave (MW) radiation on the testis and ovary of Sprague Dawley rats was investigated. The animals were exposed to varying levels of specific absorption rate (SAR) of 0 (control), 0.48, 0.95, 1.43, 1.91, 2.39, 2.90, 3.40, 3.80 and 4.30 Wkg-1 , for 10 min. The induction of DNA damages was assessed using DNA direct amplification of length polymorphisms (DALP) and validated with single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) comet assay for same cells at SAR 2.39 Wkg-1 . Potential damage at the organ level was assessed by histopathological study. The results show significant differences in the Olive moment and % DNA in the blood of the exposed animals when compared with the control (p , 0.05). Hyperchromasia was observed in the ovary of the animals exposed to MW radiation. Also, there was reduction in the number of germ cells and cell disorganization in the testis of exposed group with increasing SARs. These results suggest that MW radiation has the potential to affect ...
diversity among more than two dozen comets observed to date.. Tony Farnham (University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland) is an astronomer who studies the dynamics of cometary nuclei and the interrelationship between a comets nucleus and its coma. He was a member of the Science teams for the Deep Impact mission to comet Tempel 1, the extended mission (DIXI) to comet Hartley 2, and the Stardust-Next mission that returned to comet Tempel 1. He also led one of the teams that performed the analysis of the dust hazards posed by comet Siding Spring during its close approach to Mars.. Kelly Fast (NASA Headquarters) [Bio coming soon...] Yan Fernandez (University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL) is an astronomer who has been studying comets and asteroids since the mid-1990s. He has studied comets, asteroids, Trojans, Centaurs, and small moons at IR, visible, and radio wavelengths for over ten years with the goal of determining their physical and compositional properties. He is the PI of the Spitzer ...
The genotoxicity of jet propulsion fuel 8 (JP-8) was assessed in the leukocytes of archived blood specimens from U.S. Air Force personnel using the comet assay. No differences in mean comet assay measurements were found between low, moderate, and high exposure groups before or after a 4 hour work shift. Before the work shift, mean tail DNA and mean tail (Olive) moment increased as the concentratio
A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, warms and begins to release gases, a process called outgassing. This produces a visible atmosphere or coma, and sometimes also a tail. These phenomena are due to the effects of solar radiation and the solar wind acting upon the nucleus of the comet. Comet nuclei range from a few hundred metres to tens of kilometres across and are composed of loose collections of ice, dust, and small rocky particles. The coma may be up to 15 times the Earths diameter, while the tail may stretch one astronomical unit. If sufficiently bright, a comet may be seen from the Earth without the aid of a telescope and may subtend an arc of 30° (60 Moons) across the sky. Comets have been observed and recorded since ancient times by many cultures.. Comets usually have highly eccentric elliptical orbits, and they have a wide range of orbital periods, ranging from several years to potentially several millions of years. Short-period comets ...
879 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are environmental pollutants implicated in the causation of human lung cancer. One pathway of metabolic activation that yields reactive oxygen species (ROS) involves the oxidation of PAH trans-dihydrodiols by aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) to yield reactive and redox-active o-quinones, which can cause oxidative DNA damage (e.g. 8-oxo-dGuo). Evidence for this pathway in lung cells has been hampered by the difficulty in detecting 8-oxo-dGuo levels reliably in intact cells. We used the single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay to detect DNA strand breaks in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells (which express AKR1A1 and AKR1C isoforms) following treatment with BP-7,8-diol (AKR substrate), and BP-7,8-dione (AKR-product) and (+)-anti-BPDE. In the presence of DNA synthesis inhibitors (cytosine arabinoside and hydroxyurea) all three PAH metabolites produced significant DNA strand breaks in a concentration-dependent manner. Inclusion of ROS scavengers ...
The comet assay is a sensitive, well established technique for quantifying DNA damage in eukaryotic cells. Compatible with the detection of a wide range of DNA damaging agents, its principle consists in migration of fragmented DNA in an electrophoresis gel (damaged DNA forming the tail of the comet), while intact DNA moves at a slower rate (head of the comet). The percentage of fragmented DNA in the comet tail is a direct measure of DNA damage.. ...
These high cliffs occur on the surface of a comet. They were discovered to be part of the dark nucleus of Comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko (CG) by Rosetta, a robotic spacecraft launched by ESA which began orbiting the comet in early August. The ragged cliffs, as featured here, were imaged by Rosetta about two weeks ago. Although towering about one kilometer high, the low surface gravity of Comet CG would likely make a jump from the cliffs, by a human, survivable. At the foot of the cliffs is relatively smooth terrain dotted with boulders as large as 20 meters across. Data from Rosetta indicates that the ice in Comet CG has a significantly different deuterium fraction -- and hence likely a different origin -- than the water in Earths oceans. The Rosetta spacecraft is scheduled to continue to accompany the comet as it makes its closest approach to the Sun in 2015 August. via NASA http://ift.tt/ ...
Hydrogen, Lead, Ability, Alkaline Comet Assay, Alkylation, Alkylators, Blood, Cancer, Cell, Cells, Chromatography, Comet Assay, Concentration, Concentrations, DNA, DNA Damage, Epithelial Cells, Ethylene Oxide, Gas Chromatography, Human
The software applies state of the image processing methods to automatically locate and score comets to characterize and quantify the degree of DNA damage revealed by the comet assay. It is compatible with 4X images which allows for rapid screening of up to 300 comets in seconds when analyzing CometChip®. Trevigens Comet Analysis Software can rapidly evaluate large numbers of cells, related to each treatment group or screening target in a study, and generate summary statistics based on the corresponding numeric results.. ...
Molecular oxygen is two oxygen atoms joined together, and on Earth it is essential for life, where it is produced by photosynthesis. It has been previously detected around some of the icy moons of Jupiter, but it was not expected to be found around a comet. The Rosetta science team originally reported that the oxygen was most likely from the comets main body, or nucleus. This meant it was primordial - that it was already present when the comet itself formed at the beginning of the Solar System 4.6 billion years ago. One group of outside researchers however suggested there might be a different source for molecular oxygen at comets. They had discovered a new way to produce molecular oxygen in space triggered by energetic ions-electrically charged molecules. They proposed that reactions with energetic ions on the surface of comet 67P could instead be the source of the detected molecular oxygen. Now, members of the Rosetta team have analysed the data on 67Ps oxygen in light of the new theory. In ...
The SWAN data captured another surprise. On Sept. 30, the hydrogen jumped by a factor of two and a half in a single day. It dropped down again some six weeks later.. Standard models of how comets behave helped Combis team correlate the hydrogen signature to just how much of the comets surface should be giving off water, a process known as sublimating, because the water turns directly from ice to a vapor without passing through a liquid phase. The amount of surface area predicted didnt jibe with what EPOXI itself saw - a comet that only gave off water from one half of its shape. But EPOXI also captured images of an extended halo of icy fragments that burst off the comet, most likely flung into space by carbon dioxide emissions on the comets surface. These ice chunks probably added sublimated water to the hydrogen cloud.. The rate of water generation being so much higher in 1997 implies that the ice fragmentation was even more severe then, says solar physicist Joe Gurman, U.S. project ...
We present a sensitive 3 sigma upper limit of 1.1% for the HNC/HCN abundance ratio in comet 73P/SchwassmannWachmann (fragment B), obtained on 2006 May 10-11, using Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). This limit is a factor of ~7 lower than the values measured previously in moderately active comets at 1 AU from the Sun. Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann was depleted in most volatile species, except of HCN. The low HNC/HCN ratio thus argues against HNC production from polymers produced from HCN. However, thermal degradation of macromolecules, or polymers, produced from ammonia and carbon compounds, such as acetylene, methane, or ethane appears a plausible explanation for the observed variations of the HNC/HCN ratio in moderately active comets, including the very low ratio in comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann reported here. Similar polymers have been invoked previously to explain anomalous N-14/N-15 ratios measured in cometary CN. ...
Because of their temporal and spatial variations, modern ground-based studies of comets within approximately 4 A.U. of the sun are observationally demanding tasks. Over the years, researchers have attempted resolved spectroscopy of comets covering a wide range of intrinsic luminosity. Recently this group has developed spectral and direct-imaging procedures to detect weak ion tails submerged into the comae of even fairly faint comets. Although the last year was devoid of any really bright comet, re-analysis of older dust and gas production data of the 1986 P/Halley apparition has been almost completed. The main changes are that the nucleus does make a significant contribution to continuum light, and that the gravity effect in the dust escape velocity is somewhat larger than previously assumed. On the direct observational side, spectral studies of the 1987s Comet Bradfield show it to be qualitatively carbon-rich, at least in the outer coma ratio of CO(+) and CO2(+), compared the H2O(+) with respect to
7. The scientific papers and popularized book by S. V. M. Clube and W. M. Napier [Nature, 282 (29 November, 1979), P. 45S; Q. JI. Asir. Soc. (1982),23, pp. 45-66; and The Cosmic Serpent (London and New York, 1982)] deserve comment in light of the present paper. Their statement to the astronomical community that Velikovsky was at least close to correct and that comets (and in particular a body named Venus) did play important roles in early civilizations is long overdue. They also recognize the irrational behavior with which scientists confronted Velikovsky, and the overwhelming data pointing towards worldwide catastrophism caused by comets. I maintain, however, that Clube and Napiers findings support the present paper more precisely than their own theory of terrestrial catastrophism. Both papers agree that comets are of interstellar origin, and that the primordial Oort cloud concept does not explain the observed comet flux in the solar system. They support the ice ball comet model, ...
Ever since its formation, the Earth has been bombarded by comets, and scientists think they now have evidence that these cosmic missiles could have carried the building blocks for life along with them when they impacted.. In 2009, NASAs Stardust mission rendezvoused with the comet Wild-2 and returned to Earth with a sample of an amino acid the probe had picked up from comets outgassing. Tests showed it had too much carbon-13 to have come from Earth, but skepticism remains that simple amino acids could have kick-started the development of life on the planet.. To test that hypothesis, a team of scientists at the University of California, Berkeley, and the University of Hawaii, Manoa, built a pseudo-comet in the lab - a snowball of carbon dioxide, ammonia, and various hydrocarbons such as methane, ethane, and propane - then chilled it in an ultra-high-vacuum chamber down to 10 degrees above absolute zero.. The comet was then zapped with high-energy electrons to simulate the cosmic rays it would ...
http://www.godlikeproductions.com/forum1/message3383800/pg1. People are talking about a large comet that is supposedly visible to the naked eye and will be passing on NYE. This is supposed to go down while partyers are out in the streets, waiting for the ball to drop. Some website forums are spelling doom for society and talking about elites taking to underground bunkers in anticipation of the comet slamming into Earth.. This all very closely resembles the plot of the classic 80s camp sci-fi classic Night of the Comet. 80s camp films have a lot of social criticisms embedded in them, which are poignant, and often overlooked. In that film, those who follow the crowd (and stand in the streets watching the comet) are turned into a pile of red dust. Only their sneakers and clothes remain. Just like holiday shoppers -even the survivors in the film would mostly rather go fashion shopping than worry about more practical type things. Meanwhile scientists are living in underground bunkers, aiming to ...
Reduction of comet tail artifacts using image restoration algorithms. Microspheres (15.4 μm diameter) were embedded in O.C.T phantom, imaged, and processed. MIPS of a sub volume are shown. The unprocessed image (a) shows the comet tail artifact extending to a depth of ≈100 μm. RL processing (b) removes comet tail artifacts and restores the shape of the bead both in-plane and along Z. Next-image processing (c) reduces the comet tail artifacts but in-plane spread persists. Wiener deconvolution (d) removes comet tail artifacts but the resultant image suffers from high frequency noise and in-plane restoration is not as effective as in RL. Parameters were: voxel size 4x4x5µm3, (RL, 20 iterations, damping factor of 3), and Wiener, NSR = 10−4. Scale bar corresponds to 50 µm ...
The reaction of ancient peoples to the appearance of bright comets has toppled empires, de-throned kings, and been taken as a sign of great things to come. Probably some of these comets did not get as bright as Comet Hyakutake (hyah-koo-tah-kay) will in the next two weeks. It is likely that every major news organization will soon cover Comet Hyakutake extensively. Comet Hyakutake is shown above already showing a tail of dust. This image, taken directly from a photographic negative, shows stars as black spots and the bright comet coma and tail as dark clouds against the white background of space. During its closest approach to the Earth on March 25th, Comet Hyakutake will appear in the Northern hemisphere as a diffuse ball of light brighter than most stars. Comet Hyakutake will be visible then most of the night even without binoculars, passing above the stars in the handle of the Big Dipper. Comet Hyakutake will be best seen in dark skies far from city lights, where its tail - possibly ...
Smearing and smiling in GelRed™ or GelGreen™ precast gels most often caused by overloading of DNA. If you see band migration shifts or smearing and smiling, try reducing the amount of DNA loaded. The recommended loading amount for ladders and samples of known concentration is 50-200 ng/lane. For samples of unknown concentration, try loading one half or one third of the usual amount of DNA. This usually solves band migration problems.. Tip #2: Try the post-staining protocol. To avoid any interference the dye may have on DNA migration, we recommend using the post-staining protocol. If your application requires loading more than the recommended amount of DNA, use the post-staining protocol. While we recommend post-staining gels for 30 minutes, you may be able see bands in as little as five minutes, depending on how much DNA is present. Post-staining solutions can be reused. See the GelRed™ Product Information Sheet or GelGreen™ Product Information Sheet for detailed protocols.. Other tips ...
The comet assay is a sensitive, well established technique for quantifying DNA damage in eukaryotic cells. Compatible with the detection of a wide range of DNA damaging agents, its principle consists in migration of fragmented DNA in an electrophoresis gel (damaged DNA forming the tail of the comet), while intact DNA moves at a slower rate (head of the comet). The percentage of fragmented DNA in the comet tail is a direct measure of DNA damage.. ...
The Hapi region on the neck of Rosettas comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko reflects red light less effectively than most other regions on the comet. It thus appears slightly blueish. The Hapi region is located between the comets ...
The image shows a beautiful view of Imhotep on the comets large lobe, but with the resolution of NAVCAM at this distance it is not possible to make out the same level of detail as seen in the OSIRIS images depicting changes in the smooth, central portion that were observed in this region before perihelion.. Perhaps the most eye-catching features of the image are the two groups of jets fanning out from the comets top-right horizon. Less defined jets can also be seen all around the sunlit horizon. The silhouette of the comets small lobe is also visible against the background glow of activity towards the bottom left of the image.. The original 1024 x 1024 pixel image is provided below:. ...
Comet assayEdit. See also: Comet assay. Comet assays are one of the most common tests for genotoxicity. The technique involves ... As a consequence, many sophisticated techniques including Ames Assay, in vitro and in vivo Toxicology Tests, and Comet Assay ... Bacterial Reverse Mutation AssayEdit. See also: Ames test. The Bacterial Reverse Mutation Assay, also known as the Ames Assay, ... To assay for genotoxic molecules, researchers assay for DNA damage in cells exposed to the toxic substrates. This DNA damage ...
February 2006). "A comet assay study reveals that aluminium induces DNA damage and inhibits the repair of radiation-induced ... Yiu G (December 2004). "Rapid Communications: Antiperspirant Induced DNA Damage in Canine Cells by Comet Assay". Toxicol. Mech ...
"Comparative investigation of multiple organs of mice and rats in the comet assay". Mutat. Res. 517 (1-2): 53-75. doi:10.1016/ ...
January 2010). "Genotoxic effect induced by hydrogen peroxide in human hepatoma cells using comet assay". Libyan Journal of ...
As a consequence, many sophisticated techniques including Ames Assay, in vitro and in vivo Toxicology Tests, and Comet Assay ... Comet assays are one of the most common tests for genotoxicity. The technique involves lysing cells using detergents and salts ... 2000). "Single cell gel/comet assay: guidelines for in vitro and in vivo genetic toxicology testing" (PDF). Environmental and ... To assay for genotoxic molecules, researchers assay for DNA damage in cells exposed to the toxic substrates. This DNA damage ...
It can be measured by e.g. the Comet assay or by the TUNEL assay. Men with sperm motility defects often have high levels of ... Using bright-field microscopy, the SCD test appears to be more sensitive than the TUNEL assay. Its main units of measurement is ... comparison between sperm chromatin dispersion test and terminal uridine nick-end labeling assay". Fertil. Steril. 94 (3): 1027- ... and TUNEL assay are both effective in detecting sperm DNA damage. ...
The comet assay in eight mouse organs: results with 24 azo compounds. Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental ... Repeated-dose liver and gastrointestinal tract micronucleus assays with CI Solvent Yellow 14 (Sudan I) using young adult rats. ...
"DNA Damage Measured by the Comet Assay in Head and Neck Cancer Patients Treated with Tirapazamine1". Neoplasia.com. Retrieved ...
Electrophoretic preparations used in the case of comet assay can benefit from the use of water objectives. The refractive index ...
A Pilot Study with Alkaline Comet Assay". Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. 62 (1): 41-49. doi:10.2478/10004-1254- ...
Comet) assay". Env. Mol. Mut. 29 (3): 277-288. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-2280(1997)29:3. 3.0.CO;2-9.CS1 maint: multiple names: ...
Level of DNA fragmentation as measured, e.g. by Comet assay, advanced maternal age and semen quality. Women with ovary-specific ...
Determination of the effects of some artificial sweeteners on human peripheral lymphocytes using the comet assay. Journal of ...
The damage to the DNA was measured for individual cells using single-gel electrophoresis via the comet assay. Researchers have ...
Swain, U; Subba Rao, K (Aug 2011). "Study of DNA damage via the comet assay and base excision repair activities in rat brain ... Hashimoto, K; Takasaki, W; Sato, I; Tsuda, S (Aug 2007). "DNA damage measured by comet assay and 8-OH-dG formation related to ... Helbock, HJ; Beckman, KB; Shigenaga, MK (January 1998). "DNA oxidation matters: the HPLC-electrochemical detection assay of 8- ... "Gene-specific oxidative lesions in aged rat brain detected by polymerase chain reaction inhibition assay". Free Radic. Res. 41 ...
... in human cells evaluated with the comet assay". Mutat. Res. 629 (1): 7-13. doi:10.1016/j.mrgentox.2006.12.007. PMID 17317274. ...
... in human cells evaluated with the comet assay". Mutat. Res. 629 (1): 7-13. doi:10.1016/j.mrgentox.2006.12.007. PMID 17317274. ... Cellulose acetate is degraded within 2-3 weeks under aerobic assay systems of in vitro enrichment cultivation techniques and an ... assays of Phillip Morris, Inc Date Milestones and documents Dahlberg ER (April 11, 2006). "Cigarette Filters With Vegetation, ...
Koppen G, Verschaeve L (2001). "The alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis/comet assay: a way to study DNA repair in radicle ...
Koppen G, Verschaeve L (2001). "The alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis/comet assay: a way to study DNA repair in radicle ...
Simon L, Lutton D, McManus J, Lewis SE (2011). "Sperm DNA damage measured by the alkaline Comet assay as an independent ...
N. P. Singh of the "comet" assay for single cell DNA damage[3]. Schneider is the chairperson of the Advisory Committee to the ...
However, when human cell lines were tested and a Comet assay was conducted, BPF caused DNA fragmentation when introduced to the ... Audebert, Marc; Dolo, L.; Perdu, E.; Cravedi, J.-P.; Zalko, D. (2011-06-09). "Use of the γH2AX assay for assessing the ...
The absence of mutagenicity and genotoxicity assessed by the micronucleus, Ames and MTT tests, and the Comet assay, established ... nor was it genotoxic as assessed by the Ames test and Comet assay. When administered orally to mice by gavage, botryosphaeran ... botryosphaeran was confirmed not to be mutagenic nor genotoxic by the micronucleus test and Comet assay procedures. ...
... sperm chromatin structural assay) and comet assay. Total motile spermatozoa (TMS) or total motile sperm count (TMSC) is a ... treatment and/or by detection of DNA fragmentation revealed by the presence of double-strand breaks detected by the TUNEL assay ...
Guide for Determining DNA Single-Strand Damage in Eukaryotic Cells Using the Comet Assay E2187 - 20a Test Method for Measuring ... 17a Test Methods for Assay of Organic Peroxides E299 - 17a Test Method for Trace Amounts of Peroxides In Organic Solvents E299- ... 17 Test Method for Assay of Nitric Acid E1587 - 17 Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Refined Nickel E1588 - 20 Practice for ... 16 Test Method for Assay of Di-tert-Butyl Peroxide Using Gas Chromatography E477 - 20 Test Method for Laboratory Measurements ...
... comet assay MeSH E05.393.560.598 - micronucleus tests MeSH E05.393.600.300 - dna footprinting MeSH E05.393.620.311 - ligase ... comet assay MeSH E05.196.401.190 - electrophoresis, capillary MeSH E05.196.401.190.500 - electrophoresis, microchip MeSH ... comet assay The list continues at List of MeSH codes (E06).. ... colony-forming units assay MeSH E05.200.500.383.910 - tumor ... drug screening assays, antitumor MeSH E05.337.550.200.800 - tumor stem cell assay MeSH E05.337.550.200.900 - xenograft model ...
... by comet assay, advanced maternal age and semen quality. It is uncertain whether ICSI improves live birth rates or reduces the ...
A Pilot Study with Alkaline Comet Assay". Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 62. doi:10.2478/10004-1254-62-2011-2090 ...
The comet assay is an extremely sensitive DNA damage assay. This sensitivity needs to be handled carefully as it is also ... The single cell gel electrophoresis assay (SCGE, also known as comet assay) is an uncomplicated and sensitive technique for the ... The overall structure resembles a comet (hence "comet assay") with a circular head corresponding to the undamaged DNA that ... Comet) assay. I. Management of invasive transitional cell human bladder carcinoma. II. Fluorescent in situ hybridization Comets ...
"Analysis of genotoxic potentiality of stevioside by comet assay". Food Chem Toxicol. 45 (4): 662-6. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2006.10. ... 1996). "Evaluation of the genotoxicity of stevioside and steviol using six in vitro and one in vivo mutagenicity assays". ...
... by comet assay, advanced maternal age and semen quality. A systematic meta-analysis of 24 estimates of DNA damage based on a ...
Docimology the art of assaying. *Dosiology the study of doses. *Dramaturgy art of producing and staging dramatic works ... Cometology study of comets. *Conchology study of shells. *Coprology study of pornography ...
Single-cell assay for transposase-accessible chromatin with sequencing (scATAC-seq)[edit]. Main article: ATAC-seq ... 2014: Rosetta comet mission. *2015: CRISPR genome-editing method. *2016: First observation of gravitational waves ... 4 Single-cell assay for transposase-accessible chromatin with sequencing (scATAC-seq) ... "A comparison of existing global DNA methylation assays to low-coverage whole-genome bisulfite sequencing for epidemiological ...
Koppen, G.; Verschaeve, L. (2001). "The alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis/comet assay: a way to study DNA repair in ...
Properties of stem cells can be illustrated in vitro, using methods such as clonogenic assays, in which single cells are ... 2014: Rosetta comet mission. *2015: CRISPR genome-editing method. *2016: First observation of gravitational waves ... highlighting the need for screening assays such as stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells, that are capable of detecting ... "Precursors for fibroblasts in different populations of hematopoietic cells as detected by the in vitro colony assay method". ...
Level of DNA fragmentation[19] as measured e.g. by Comet assay, advanced maternal age and semen quality. ...
Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of ifosfamide in relation to DNA damage assessed by the COMET assay in children with cancer. Br ...
"For his Accurate Determination of the Orbit of a Comet of short period, as confirmed by observation.". ... which revolutionised the diagnostic testing of glucose and many other bioelectrochemical assays.". ...
... in human cells evaluated with the comet assay". Mutat. Res. 629 (1): 7-13. doi:10.1016/j.mrgentox.2006.12.007. PMID 17317274.. ... Cellulose acetate is degraded within 2-3 weeks under aerobic assay systems of in vitro enrichment cultivation techniques and an ... assays of Phillip Morris, Inc Date Milestones and documents. ...
L. monocytogenes and S. flexneri both generate a tail in the form of a "comet tail" that gives them mobility. Each species ... In somatic cell nuclei, however, actin filaments cannot be observed using this technique.[104] The DNase I inhibition assay, so ... Lambrechts A, Gevaert K, Cossart P, Vandekerckhove J, Van Troys M (May 2008). "Listeria comet tails: the actin-based motility ... exhibits small differences in the molecular polymerization mechanism of their "comet tails". Different displacement velocities ...
... in human cells evaluated with the comet assay". Mutat. Res. 629 (1): 7-13. doi:10.1016/j.mrgentox.2006.12.007. PMID 17317274.. ...
"Those Wandring Eyes of His': Watching Guyon Watch the Naked Damsels Wrestling." Assays VII. Ed. Peggy A. Knapp and Gary F. ... "A Day of the Comet," "Avatars" and "Hole in the Road" (short stories) in The Mystic Muse, Summer 1987, Fall 1987, Spring 1988, ...
Killian advised Dr W.E. Bok, Secretary of State for the Transvaal Republic, of the results of the assay. The result was the ... When the gold reefs to the north of Boksburg Lake near Comet were found to continue southwards under Boksburg Lake, towards the ... Samples of the quartz were sent to Pretoria for assaying,which confirmed the presence of gold. ...
... art of assaying Dosiology - study of doses Dynamics - study of forces and their effects on motion Dysgenics - study of racial ... study of comets Computer science - study of processes that interact with data Conchology - study of shells Connectomics - study ...
... for I don't know a ballplayer in either league who would assay less quit to the ton than Wagner ... This was the real tragedy ... which accompanied his throws to first like the tail of a comet. In 1898, Wagner won a distance contest in Louisville by ...
Single arms that regenerate a whole individual are called comet forms. The division of the starfish, either across its disc or ... Newton, L. C.; McKenzie, J. D. (1995). "Echinoderms and oil pollution: A potential stress assay using bacterial symbionts". ...
"The Luminosity of Comets". Science. 32 (817): 286-288. 1910. Bibcode:1910Sci....32..286D. doi:10.1126/science.32.817.286. ISSN ... President Grover Cleveland appointed Dudley a member of the Assay Commission of 1887 to examine the weight and fineness of ...
The single cell gel electrophoresis assay (SCGE, also known as comet assay) is an uncomplicated and sensitive technique for the ... The comet assay is an extremely sensitive DNA damage assay. This sensitivity needs to be handled carefully as it is also ... The overall structure resembles a comet (hence "comet assay") with a circular head corresponding to the undamaged DNA that ... Comet) assay. I. Management of invasive transitional cell human bladder carcinoma. II. Fluorescent in situ hybridization Comets ...
... also called alkaline Comet Assay is a method measuring DNA strand breaks in eukaryotic cells.Each treated group is composed of ... Based on their size DNA fragments migrate away from the head to the tail, and the intensity of the comet tail relative to the ... This results in structures resembling comets which by using suitable fluorescent stain, can be observed by fluorescent ... The in vivo alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis assay, ... 489: In Vivo Mammalian Alkaline Comet Assay. In series:OECD ...
The PrimeFlow® RNA assay is a unique in situ hybridization assay that combines the power of branched-DNA technology with the ... Join us in a discussion about leveraging the PrimeFlow® RNA assay to answer unique research questions including:. *Delineating ... Essentially, the PrimeFlow® RNA assay combines the analysis of gene and protein expression in a single application. ...
... also known as comet assay) is an uncomplicated and sensitive technique for the detection of DNA damage ... Comet assay The Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis assay ( ... The comet assay is an extremely sensitive DNA damage assay. ... The Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis assay (also known as comet assay) is an uncomplicated and sensitive technique for the ... The overall structure resembles a comet (hence "comet assay") with a circular head corresponding to the undamaged DNA that ...
The Comet Assay in Toxicology is the first book of its kind to be devoted exclusively to the Comet assay and its applications ... the Comet assay - in the field of modern toxicology. The assay is a simple, sensitive rapid and visual technique for the ... This is a unique reference book as it provides the scientific community with the advances in Comet assay as well as its ... This section sets the scene by explaining why the assay has become the most sensitive and sought after assay in modern ...
The Comet Assay, also called single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE), is a sensitive and rapid technique for quantifying and ... The Comet Assay Interest Group website includes references and protocols for the Comet Assay and maintains a list of companies ... Review Articles and General References for Comet Assays. *Anderson D., et al., Comet assay responses as indicators of ... McKelvey-Martin, V.J., et al., The single cell gel electrophoresis assay (comet assay): A European review. (Review) Mutat. Res ...
This paper is a review of the studies published to date that have made use of the comet assay. The principles of strand break ... The comet assay is a sensitive and rapid method for DNA strand break detection in individual cells. Its use has increased ... The comet assay: a comprehensive review Mutat Res. 1995 Feb;339(1):37-59. doi: 10.1016/0165-1110(94)00013-3. ... The comet assay is a sensitive and rapid method for DNA strand break detection in individual cells. Its use has increased ...
The comet assay (single-cell gel electrophoresis) is a simple method for measuring deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) strand breaks in ... Comet) assay. I. Management of invasive transitional cell human bladder carcinoma. II. Fluorescent in situ hybridization Comets ... 2003) Recommendations for conducting the in vivo alkaline comet assay. Mutagenesis 18, 45-51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... 1997) Comet assay in human biomonitoring studies: reliability, validation, and applications. Env. Mol. Mutagen. 30, 139-146. ...
... Food Chem Toxicol. 2007 Apr;45(4):662-6. doi: 10.1016/j.fct. ... comet assay). The results showed that treatment with stevioside generates lesions in peripheral blood, liver, brain and spleen ...
Andors Komet software used to automatically score modified 3D Comet assay results. *Download PDF Copy ... According to Professor Anderson, The comet assay is a standard method for assessing DNA genomic damage, relying on the ... Andor Technology Ltd.. Andors Komet software used to automatically score modified 3D Comet assay results. News-Medical. 27 ... Andors Komet software used to automatically score modified 3D Comet assay results. News-Medical, viewed 27 May 2020, https ...
Comet assay in combination with in vivo. Micronucleus assay. *. Comet assay slide evaluations (if the assay is performed at ... Comet Assay Basics. The Comet Assay can be used to detect multiple types of DNA damage that are caused by a small molecule test ... Comet assays (numerous cell line options available). *. Comet assay is available for Biomonitoring in human blood and bone ... micronucleus assay). As per the ICH recommendations, the comet assay combined with micronucleus assay can be performed as part ...
Standard Comet Assay (CometAssay®) (17). In the standard comet assay, cells are immobilized in a bed of low melting point ... Comet Assay. The single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) or comet assay is a sensitive and rapid technique for quantifying DNA ... Trevigen offers a complete system for the standard comet assay (CometAssay®) providing kits and reagents including our ... Following gentle cell lysis, and for the alkaline comet assay, samples are treated with alkali to unwind and denature the DNA ...
Help! Theres a comet in my computer! A dummys guide to image analysis used in the comet assay. ... comet assay I am looking for information about other electrophoresis condition deferences about standart condition (1v/cm) in ... And here is a graphic depicted a basic comet assay methodology:. All in all this site seems very good for anyone interested in ... The comet assay: a method to measure DNA damage in individual cells. Nature Protocols 1, - 23 - 29 (2006). doi:10.1038/nprot. ...
Comet Assay - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides ... Comet assay. The Comet Assay, also called single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE), is a sensitive and rapid technique for ... The extent of DNA liberated from the head of the comet is directly proportional to the amount of DNA damage. The Comet Assay ... as the Alkaline Comet Assay. The resulting image that is obtained resembles a comet with a distinct head and tail. The head ...
The comet assay is an efficient method to detect DNA damage including single and double-stranded DNA breaks. We describe ... Alkaline comet assay data plot. **p ,0.01. (B) Neutral comet assay data plot. **p ,0.01. (C) Comet assay analysis revealed the ... The toolbar of the comet assay software. (B) Alkaline comet assay as an example: the user interface of comet assay software ... Proceed to alkaline (step 3.2) or neutral (step 3.3) comet assay. *For alkaline comet assay *Gently remove slides from the LS, ...
Sperm Comet Assay (SCGE). * For permission to use this image or to obtain a higher quality please contact:. Dr.Philip Chan. ...
Genotoxicity assessment of triclocarban by comet and micronucleus assays and Ames test. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, ... The comet assay with multiple mouse organs: comparison of comet assay results and carcinogenicity with 208 chemicals selected ... comet assay and micronucleus assay to detect the effects of TCC on gene mutation, DNA breakage, and chromosome damage. The ... comet assay and micronucleus assay to detect the effects of TCC on gene mutation, DNA breakage, and chromosome damage. The ...
Products & Services / Cell Stress and DNA Damage / DNA Damage / Comet Assay / Standard Comet Assay (CometAssay®) / CometAssay® ... CometAssay® Reagents. CometAssay® Low Melt Agarose (LMAgarose), Lysis Solution and EDTA are ready to use in convenient sizes. ...
4.1%, P,0.001). BD exposure had no significant effects on formation of micronuclei and on comet assay parameters. Effect of ... Chromosomal aberrations, sister-chromatid exchanges, cells with high frequency of SCE, micronuclei and comet assay parameters ... comet assay parameters like tail length (TL) and percentage of DNA in tail [T (%)] and polymorphisms of GSTM1 and GSTT1 ...
The alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis assay (known as the comet assay) in individual cells was adapted for detecting ... DNA damage detected by the comet assay in the white blood cells of workers in a wooden furniture plant.. Palus J1, ... The level of DNA damage was determined as the percentage of cells with comets. It was assessed in cells before and after ...
A Microplate Assay to Assess Chemical Effects on RBL-2H3 Mast Cell Degranulation: Effects of Triclosan without Use of an ...
Comet assay, and preliminary trandescantia mic... by ggorjan in Types > School Work, Genotoxicity, and sciencebiology ... According to these results we can assume that the comet assay was the most sensitive assay, followed by the micronucleus test. ... Genotoxicity evaluation of water soil leachates by Ames test, comet assay, and preliminary Tradescantia micronucleus assay B. ... Genotoxicity evaluation of water soil leachates by Ames test, Comet assay, and preliminary trandescantia micronucleus assay. ...
Validation of Drosophila melanogaster as an in vivo model for genotoxicity assessment using modified alkaline Comet assay. ... Performance of the comet assay in a high-throughput version.. *Evaluation of the alkaline Comet assay conducted with the ... establishment of a positive control in the amphibian comet assay.. *A modified alkaline Comet assay for in vivo detection of ... Alkylating AgentsAnimalsComet AssayCyclophosphamideDNA DamageDose-Response Relationship, DrugDrosophila melanogasterEthyl ...
The Comet Assay (also called Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis) is used to assess DNA damage and repair in individual cells ... The Comet Assay (also called Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis) is used to assess DNA damage and repair in individual cells. The ... Comet Assay - Modified for Detection of Oxidized Bases Using the Repair Endonucleases Fpg, hOGG1 and Endonuclease III (Nth). ... Home Protocols Comet Assay - Modified for Detection of Oxidized Bases Using the Repair Endonucleases Fpg, hOGG1 and ...
The alkaline comet assay was used to assess DNA damage in mononuclear leukocytes of farmers before and after a 1-day spraying ... DNA damage in mononuclear leukocytes of farmers measured using the alkaline comet assay: modifications of DNA damage levels ... DNA damage in mononuclear leukocytes of farmers measured using the alkaline comet assay: modifications of DNA damage levels ... DNA damage in mononuclear leukocytes of farmers measured using the alkaline comet assay: modifications of DNA damage levels ...
Single cell gel electrophoresis or the comet assay is a sensitive technique to quantify different types of DNA damage, e.g... ... Article Effects of proton beams from the folded tandem ion accelerator on DNA damage in mouse leukocytes using the comet assay ... Daphnia magna acute toxicity assay, comet assay, cytokinesis-block micronucleus and E-screen assay were... ... Effects of proton beams from the folded tandem ion accelerator on DNA damage in mouse leukocytes using the comet assay. 0 ...
The Comet Assay as a Rapid Test in Biomonitoring Occupational Exposure to DNA-damaging Agents and Effect of Confounding Factors ... The Comet Assay as a Rapid Test in Biomonitoring Occupational Exposure to DNA-damaging Agents and Effect of Confounding Factors ... The Comet Assay as a Rapid Test in Biomonitoring Occupational Exposure to DNA-damaging Agents and Effect of Confounding Factors ... The Comet Assay as a Rapid Test in Biomonitoring Occupational Exposure to DNA-damaging Agents and Effect of Confounding Factors ...
For this, MN assay of exfoliated epithelial cells was compared with comet assay of peripheral blood leucocytes among 260 ... Thus, the extent of DNA damage evaluation by the comet assay in peripheral blood cells is perfectly reflected by the MN assay ... This study compares the micronucleus (MN) assay in oral buccal mucosa cells with the comet assay in peripheral blood cells in a ... Comparative evaluation of genotoxicity by micronucleus assay in the buccal mucosa over comet assay in peripheral blood in oral ...
Here we performed the in vitro analysis of DNA damage of BLM electrotransfered cells using the technique of Comet assay. ... In vitro analysis of DNA damage of Bleomycin electrotransfered cells using Comet assay. ... Colonogenic assay was performed to evaluate cell viability. Electroporated cells were resuspended in low melting agarose (0.5 ...
Comet Assay Extension. Fully Automatic Comet Assay Analysis with Optional User Validation and Support of Virtual Slides. The ... Feel free to contact us to get further information about Aphelion Comet Assay Extension.. Link to download Aphelion Comet Assay ... The Comet Assay Extension supports many image formats (e.g., Tiff, Jpeg, Dib and CO1 format) with 8 and 12 bit images. ... Comet Assay is an extension for Aphelion Dev that performs image processing and image analysis on digital images captured with ...
  • The single cell gel electrophoresis assay ( SCGE , also known as comet assay ) is an uncomplicated and sensitive technique for the detection of DNA damage at the level of the individual eukaryotic cell . (wikipedia.org)
  • The concept underlying the SCGE assay is that undamaged DNA retains a highly organised association with matrix proteins in the nucleus. (bionity.com)
  • The Comet Assay , also called single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE), is a sensitive and rapid technique for quantifying and analyzing DNA damage in individual cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) or comet assay is a sensitive and rapid technique for quantifying DNA damage and repair from in vivo and in vitro samples of eukaryotic and plant cells. (trevigen.com)
  • Images of the comets were acquired using an imaging system and quantified using the software SCGE-Pro. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The Comet Assay Extension in the Aphelion™ Imaging Software Suite provides support for the Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (SCGE) comet assay. (adcis.net)
  • 7 More recently, the use of the single cell gel electrophoresis assay or comet assay (SCGE) has been proposed as a useful biomarker for early effects. (scielosp.org)
  • In contrast to cytogenetic biomonitoring studies which are mainly done with lymphocytes, the SCGE assay can be used with any cell population, which constitutes an advantage for these kind of studies. (scielosp.org)
  • Single cell gel electrophoresis assay (SCGE) or comet assay gained in popularity as a standard technique and is widely used for testing novel particles or chemicals for genotoxicity, monitoring environmental contamination with genotoxins, human biomonitoring and molecular epidemiology, and fundamental research in DNA damage and repair. (cdc.gov)
  • This study compares the micronucleus (MN) assay in oral buccal mucosa cells with the comet assay in peripheral blood cells in a subset of oral habit-induced precancer and cancer patients. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The in vivo alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis assay, also called alkaline Comet Assay is a method measuring DNA strand breaks in eukaryotic cells.Each treated group is composed of a minimum of 5 animals of one sex (or of each sex as appropriate). (oecd.org)
  • The alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis assay (known as the comet assay) in individual cells was adapted for detecting damaged DNA in WBC. (nih.gov)
  • We are analysing the DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes of (pre-)dialysis patients using two biomarkers: micronuclei frequency and single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay)to evaluate the most beneficial therapy. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Subsequently the cases and the controls were subjected for alkaline version of comet assay - Single cell gel electrophoresis using lymphocytes isolated from the peripheral blood. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The comet assay - a predictive test - was used to analyse the radiosensitivity of single cells (whole blood and isolated lymphocytes) after incubation with the radioprotector amifostine. (uni-halle.de)
  • Leukocytes and lymphocytes were irradiated and repaired in-vitro and investigated with the alkaline comet assay. (uni-halle.de)
  • The comet assay (single-cell gel electrophoresis), which measures DNA strand breaks at the level of single cells, is very easily applied to human lymphocytes, and therefore lends itself to human biomonitoring studies. (elsevier.com)
  • The potential genotoxicity of organic extracts from drinking water sources were investigated by means of the comet assay in human peripheral lymphocytes. (wanfangdata.com.cn)
  • Rajaguru P,Vidya L,Baskarasethupathi B,Kumar P A,Palanivel M,Kalaiselvi K. Genotoxicity evaluation of polluted ground water in human peripheral blood lymphocytes using the comet assay [J].Mutation Research,2002,(1/2):29-37. (wanfangdata.com.cn)
  • Mutagenic properties of ectoparasite infestation on the host body are proved by study results of its genotoxic and cytotoxic influence on the basis of modern DNA-comet assay on the cells of carp blood lymphocytes. (aminbiol.com.ua)
  • Cederberg, H, Henriksson, J & Binderup, M-L 2010, ' DNA damage detected by the alkaline comet assay in the liver of mice after oral administration of tetrachloroethylene ', Mutagenesis , vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 133-138. (dtu.dk)
  • The PrimeFlow® RNA assay is a unique in situ hybridization assay that combines the power of branched-DNA technology with the single-cell resolution of Flow Cytometry, enabling the simultaneous detection of up to four RNA targets in combination with immunophenotyping for cell surface and intracellular proteins using fluorochrome- conjugated antibodies. (utdallas.edu)
  • The S ingle C ell G el E lectrophoresis assay (also known as comet assay ) is an uncomplicated and sensitive technique for the detection of DNA damage at the level of the individual cell . (bionity.com)
  • The comet assay is a sensitive and rapid method for DNA strand break detection in individual cells. (nih.gov)
  • Dušinská, M. and Collins, A. (1996) Detection of oxidised purines and UV-induced photoproducts in DNA of single cells, by inclusion of lesion-specific enzymes in the comet assay. (springer.com)
  • Arxula adeninivorans-based yeast cell assays for the detection of steroid hormones demonstrated their efficiency for the determination of total hormone activity in a variety of samples using a microtiter plate format. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Thus, the extent of DNA damage evaluation by the comet assay in peripheral blood cells is perfectly reflected by the MN assay on oral exfoliated epithelial cells, and MNi frequency can be used with the same effectiveness and greater efficiency in early detection of oral premalignant conditions. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • There was excellent agreement between strand-breaks observed with the Comet Assay and 8-oxo-dGuo detected by immunoaffinity stable isotope dilution LC-MS/MS providing confidence in the detection method. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Both assays can be performed with 'S9' incubation, allowing the detection of progenotoxins. (selectscience.net)
  • Detection and quantification of genotoxicity in wastewater-treated Tetrahymena thermophila using the comet assay. (semanticscholar.org)
  • JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay for the detection of genotoxic carcinogens: I. Summary of pre-validation study results. (semanticscholar.org)
  • article{Uno2015JaCVAMorganizedIV, title={JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay for the detection of genotoxic carcinogens: I. Summary of pre-validation study results. (semanticscholar.org)
  • DNA damage in breast epithelial cells: detection by the single-cell gel (comet) assay and induction by human mammary lipid extracts. (oup.com)
  • Combined with the comet assay, γH2AX foci characterization and reactive oxygen species detection were used to demonstrate that the antioxidant and DNA repair ability of sMSCs are attenuated. (medsci.org)
  • The comet assay: a sensitive genotoxicity test for the detection of DNA damage and repair. (cdc.gov)
  • Compatible with the detection of a wide range of DNA damaging agents, its principle consists in the migration of fragmented DNA in an electrophoresis gel (damaged DNA forming the tail of the comet), while intact DNA moves at a slower rate (head of the comet). (hcs-pharma.com)
  • As per the ICH recommendations, the comet assay combined with micronucleus assay can be performed as part of the initial test battery after performing the Ames assay. (bioreliance.com)
  • In this study, we used a battery of genotoxicity testing methods including salmonella reverse mutation test (Ames test), comet assay and micronucleus assay to detect the effects of TCC on gene mutation, DNA breakage, and chromosome damage. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Genotoxicity assessment of triclocarban by comet and micronucleus assays and Ames test. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Genotoxicity of all six water soil leachates was proven by the comet assay on both human cell lines, however no positive results were detected by bacterial assay, Ames test. (scribd.com)
  • The mutagenic∕ genotoxic activities were evaluated by the Ames test on Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA97a, TA100 and TA102, and the comet assay, so as to assess the safe use of HK in the treatment of Chagas' disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The antimutagenic ∕antigenotoxic potential of HK were also tested against the mutagenicity of a variety of direct and indirect acting mutagens, such as 4- nitro- o -phenylenediamine (NOPD), sodium azide (SA), mitomycin C (MMC), benzo[ a ]pyrene (B[ a ]P), aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ), 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA) and 2-aminofluorene (2-AF), by the Ames test, and doxorubicin (DXR) by the comet assay. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In light of the good trypanosomicidal activity of HK and given that natural products are promising sources of novel potentially therapeutic agents, the aim of the present study was to investigate its mutagenic and genotoxic activities by the Ames and comet assays, respectively, to assess the safety of using HK in the treatment of Chagas' disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As a consequence, many sophisticated techniques including Ames Assay, in vitro and in vivo Toxicology Tests, and Comet Assay have been developed to assess the chemicals' potential to cause DNA damage that may lead to cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Bacterial Reverse Mutation Assay, also known as the Ames Assay , is used in laboratories to test for gene mutation. (wikipedia.org)
  • abstract = "Induction of DNA damage in the liver and kidney of male CD1 mice was studied by means of the alkaline Comet assay after oral administration of tetrachloroethylene at the doses of 1000 and 2000 mg/kg/day. (dtu.dk)
  • Then, analysing comet tail length and fluorescence intensity determines the genomic responses to UVA. (news-medical.net)
  • Automatic analysis of each comet's percentage tail DNA and Olive Tail Moment - a measure of comet tail length multiplied by the intensity of fluorescence - for every treatment at every depth is carried out by Andor's Komet software. (news-medical.net)
  • The results from comet assay demonstrated that exposure to 5, 10, or 15 μM TCC for 24 h did not significantly increase the percentage of comet cells, tail length (TL), DNA in tail (T DNA%), or olive tail moment (OTM) in keratinocyte HaCaT and hepatic L02 cells. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The following biomarkers were used: chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), cells with a high frequency of SCE (HFC), micronuclei, comet assay parameters like tail length (TL) and percentage of DNA in tail [T (%)] and polymorphisms of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes. (nih.gov)
  • Among the precancer groups, LPK patients showed significantly higher levels of DNA damage as reflected by both comet tail length (P (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • An overall significant correlation was observed between MNi frequency and comet tail length with r = 0.844 and P (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • DNA single strand breaks (SSBs) were detected using the single-cell gel assay (comet assay) with alkaline electrophoresis (pH 12.3) and quantified by measuring comet tail length (CTL) (microm). (oup.com)
  • While most of the applications of the Comet Assay have been to study animal eukaryotes, there have been reports of successful application in the study of plant cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Originally developed to measure variation in DNA damage and repair capacity within a population of mammalian cells, applications of the comet assay now range from human and sentinel animal biomonitoring (e.g. (scientistsolutions.com)
  • Comparative evaluation of genotoxicity by micronucleus assay in the buccal mucosa over comet assay in peripheral blood in oral precancer and cancer patients. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The present study compared the efficacy of comet assay in assessing DNA damage in buccal cells over peripheral blood leucocytes (PBLs) in oral potentially malignant and malignant disorders. (bvsalud.org)
  • In the Salmonella mutagenicity assay, A. keiskei caused dose-dependent inhibition against three heterocyclic amine mutagens in the presence of S9, O. javanica was antimutagenic only at the highest concentration in the assay (2 mg/plate), and B. oleracea showed no consistent inhibitory activity at non-toxic levels. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • According to these results we can assume that the comet assay was the most sensitive assay, followed by the micronucleus test. (scribd.com)
  • The present study was undertaken to validate our previously modified version of the Comet assay for genotoxicity assessment in Drosophila melanogaster (Oregon R(+)) with four well-known mutagenic and carcinogenic alkylating agents, i.e. ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) and cyclophosphamide (CP). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Trevigen offers a complete system for the standard comet assay (CometAssay®) providing kits and reagents including our specially treated CometSlides™ and Control Cells. (trevigen.com)
  • In addition to the standard comet assay, Trevigen's exclusive 96-Well CometChip® System provides a high-throughput platform to simultaneously treat and measure DNA damage on a single slide using an array of non-overlapping cells. (trevigen.com)
  • In the standard comet assay, cells are immobilized in a bed of low melting point agarose on a specially treated microscope slide. (trevigen.com)
  • The Comet Assay can be used to detect DNA damage caused by double strand breaks, single strand breaks, alkali labile sites, oxidative base damage, and DNA cross-linking with DNA or protein. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Now, a British research group has published details of a simple empirical test to detect any early-stage cancer, relying on Andor's Komet software to automatically score the modified 3D 'Comet' assay results. (news-medical.net)
  • to discuss the right assays to detect the genotoxic effects of your chemical. (bioreliance.com)
  • The Comet Assay can be used to detect multiple types of DNA damage that are caused by a small molecule test agent. (bioreliance.com)
  • The Comet assay can detect specific DNA damage and repair, and thus can explore mechanism and mode of action to further investigate the effects of a compound. (bioreliance.com)
  • The comet assay has been successfully utilised to detect DNA damage in oral premalignant or malignancy. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We used the single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay to detect DNA strand breaks in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells (which express AKR1A1 and AKR1C isoforms) following treatment with BP-7,8-diol (AKR substrate), and BP-7,8-dione (AKR-product) and ( + )- anti -BPDE. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The CometChip ® platform is a high-throughput single-cell gel electrophoresis version of the CometAssay ® , a sensitive technique used to detect and measure DNA damage and repair in various cell types. (rndsystems.com)
  • In the present study, the comet, or single-cell, gel electrophoresis assay was adapted for use with the ubiquitous unicellular protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila, and the method was evaluated for its ability to detect DNA damage induced by known genotoxins and wastewater samples. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The Comet assay (or Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis assay) is a sensitive technique to detect DNA damage at the level of an individual cell. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Purpose: In the last decades, in-vitro assays were developed to detect possible serious reactions of normal tissue due to irradiation before the treatment. (uni-halle.de)
  • The Neutral CometAssay® is typically used to detect double-stranded breaks, whereas the Alkaline CometAssay® is more sensitive, and is used to detect smaller amounts of damage includingsingle and double-stranded breaks. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • The aim of this study was to determine whether the comet assay could be modified to detect changes in the levels of DNA methylation in single cells. (nwu.ac.za)
  • Conclusions: The comet assay is sensitive to detect the damage exposed to chronic effect of pesticides in greenhouse workers. (comu.edu.tr)
  • Here, we describe the method of alkaline comet assay to detect nanoparticle-induced DNA damage. (cdc.gov)
  • I found this forum dedicated to comet assays produced and hosted by the Industrial Toxicology Research Centre (Lucknow, India). (scientistsolutions.com)
  • We present a procedure for the comet assay, a gel electrophoresisbased method that can be used to measure DNA damage in individual eukaryotic cells. (scientistsolutions.com)
  • Utilisation of buccal epithelial cells in comet assay can be a minimally invasive and rapid method . (bvsalud.org)
  • The following document describes the protocol to realize a neutral comet assay. (bio-protocol.org)
  • To investigate the extent to which PON1 provides protection against lactone induced DNA damage, DNA damage was measured in HepG2 cells using the neutral Comet assay following lactone treatment in the presence and absence of exogenous recombinant PON1 (rPON1). (springer.com)
  • AU - Siddique,Hifzur R, AU - Chowdhuri,D Kar, AU - Saxena,D K, AU - Dhawan,Alok, Y1 - 2005/05/17/ PY - 2005/5/19/pubmed PY - 2005/9/3/medline PY - 2005/5/19/entrez SP - 285 EP - 90 JF - Mutagenesis JO - Mutagenesis VL - 20 IS - 4 N2 - The single cell gel electrophoresis or Comet assay is one of the most popular techniques for genotoxicity assessment. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In early 2018, The Oxford University Press, together with United Kingdom Environmental Mutagen Society, composed a special comet assay issue of the Mutagenesis journal. (scorecomets.com)
  • The genotoxic, clastogenic and anegenic properties of the 99m Tc-MDP(methylene diphosphonate used for bone SPECT) and SnCl 2 were evaluated in Wistar rat blood cells using the Comet assay and micronucleus test. (mdpi.com)
  • The experimental approach was to endovenously administer NaCl 0.9% (negative control), cyclophosphamide 50 mg/kg b.w. (positive control), SnCl 2 500 μg/mL or 99m Tc-MDP to animals and blood samples taken immediately before the injection, 3, and 24 h after (in the Comet assay) and 36 h after, for micronucleus test. (mdpi.com)
  • Zhong Y,Feng S L,Luo Y,Zhang G D,Kong Z M. Evaluating the genotoxicity of surface water of Yangzhong City,using the micronucleus test of Vicia faba and the comet assay [J].Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology,2001,(02):217-224. (wanfangdata.com.cn)
  • Nano-TiO2 also formed small agglomerates in medium containing as little as 1% protein and caused cellular interaction as measured by side scatter by flow cytometry and DNA damage (comet assay) in HepG2 cells. (cdc.gov)
  • This book documents the latest research and showcases the versatile, state-of-the-art technique - the Comet assay - in the field of modern toxicology. (rsc.org)
  • The Comet Assay in Toxicology is the first book of its kind to be devoted exclusively to the Comet assay and its applications as an important tool in modern toxicology. (rsc.org)
  • This section sets the scene by explaining why the assay has become the most sensitive and sought after assay in modern toxicology. (rsc.org)
  • The third section puts together the specific applications of the assay in the diverse fields ranging from genetic toxicity testing to human monitoring, and environmental toxicology. (rsc.org)
  • Single cell gel/comet assay: guidelines for in vitro and in vivo genetic toxicology testing. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Mobile Comet - we bring the assay to you and can perform in any lab as part of an on going toxicology study! (bioreliance.com)
  • This assay can be applied to different cell types and has been useful for numerous applications in fields of toxicology or DNA damage and repair. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Devaux A,Pesonen M,Monod G. Alkaline comet assay in rainbow trout hepatocytes [J].Toxicology in Vitro,1997.71-7910.1016/S0887-2333(97)00004-0. (wanfangdata.com.cn)
  • Colonogenic assay was performed to evaluate cell viability. (vdu.lt)
  • 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-based metabolic profiling was coupled with DNA damage-related assays (cell cycle, Comet assay, viability assays) to profile the comparative effects of watercress and PEITC in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and MCF-10A non-tumorigenic breast cells with and without exposure to IR. (springer.com)
  • Viability Assays. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The single cell gel electrophoresis or Comet assay is one of the most popular techniques for genotoxicity assessment. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Validation of Drosophila melanogaster as an in vivo model for genotoxicity assessment using modified alkaline Comet assay. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Trevigen's Analysis Software and Electrophoresis System are designed to improve assay performance and work with both CometAssay®, FLARE™, and CometChip® products. (trevigen.com)
  • Electrophoresis of the CometChip ® is designed to work with Trevigen's CometAssay ® Electrophoresis System and reagents. (trevigen.com)
  • It is specially engineered to complement and operate as the computational component of Trevigen's unique CometAssay ® Electrophoresis System . (trevigen.com)
  • The CometAssay Analysis Software has automated comet acquisition and scoring that can analyze more than half a million comets per week using the CometAssay Electrophoresis System . (rndsystems.com)
  • JC-1 assays and flow cytometry were used to determine drug-induced apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The 99m Tc-MDP was not able to induce a significant DNA strand breaks increase in in vivo assays. (mdpi.com)
  • Isoprene was also genotoxic in several in vivo assays. (gc.ca)
  • The assay is a simple, sensitive rapid and visual technique for the quantitative and qualitative assessment of DNA damage in single cells. (rsc.org)
  • Assessment of DNA damage in term neonates with sepsis by comet assay. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Assessment of DNA damage by comet assay and ChEs activity has been widely used as a biomarker of genotoxicity and exposure to pesticide respectively, to measure the risk related to pesticides in the exposed population [15]. (b-interleukin-ii-44-56.com)
  • Evaluation of the DNA 'comet' tail shape and migration pattern allows for assessment of DNA damage. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • The term "comet" refers to the pattern of DNA migration through the electrophoresis gel, which often resembles a comet. (wikipedia.org)
  • The overall structure resembles a comet (hence "comet assay") with a circular head corresponding to the undamaged DNA that remains in the cavity and a tail of damaged DNA. (bionity.com)
  • 2 The resulting image that is obtained resembles a 'comet' with a distinct head and tail. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Comet evaluation was made by visual (types 0−4) and digital (percentage of DNA remaining in the comet head = % head DNA) analysis. (begellhouse.com)
  • The kit contains sufficient reagents for the evaluation of 960 assays in 96-well plates or 192 assays in 24-well plates. (muzeumamonitow.pl)
  • Moreover, TCC did not markedly enhance the frequency of micronucleated cells or micronuclei in HaCaT and L02 cells in the micronucleus assay. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Chromosomal aberrations, sister-chromatid exchanges, cells with high frequency of SCE, micronuclei and comet assay parameters in 1, 3-butadiene-exp. (nih.gov)
  • BD exposure had no significant effects on formation of micronuclei and on comet assay parameters. (nih.gov)
  • The Tradescantia micronucleus assay showed increase in micronuclei formation for three samples. (scribd.com)
  • The results revealed lack of induction of Micronuclei or DNA damage as evidenced by the Comet assay, despite the presence of traces of transformed toxic heavy metals. (ispub.com)
  • the intensity of the comet tail relative to the head reflects the number of DNA breaks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on their size DNA fragments migrate away from the head to the tail, and the intensity of the comet tail relative to the total intensity (head plus tail) reflects the amount of DNA breakage. (oecd.org)
  • The length and intensity of the comet tail vary by function of the broken DNA. (adcis.net)
  • Daphnia magna acute toxicity assay, comet assay, cytokinesis-block micronucleus and E-screen assay were. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The toxicity of the plant extract was determined by brine shrimp lethality assay. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The assay detects single and double-stranded DNA breaks by measuring the migration of DNA from individual nuclei following alkaline treatment. (neb.com)
  • Our Histamine Assay Kit detects total histamine from food samples using a colorimetric probe. (muzeumamonitow.pl)
  • The FLARE™ (Fragment Length Analysis using Repair Enzymes) Assay provides the ability to probe for oxidative DNA damage in conjunction with CometAssay® reagents. (trevigen.com)
  • Human IgG antibody Laboratories manufactures the china supplier comet assay single cell gel electrophoresis assay reagents distributed by Genprice. (muzeumamonitow.pl)
  • Kits include Comet Slides, reagents, and a fluorescent dye to visualize cells under an epifluorescence microscope. (muzeumamonitow.pl)
  • Trevigen's FLARE™ (Fragment Length Analysis using Repair Enzymes) Assay Kits provide the ability to assess the type of DNA damage using DNA Repair enzymes when used in combination with the comet assay. (trevigen.com)
  • The Comet Assay (also called Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis) is used to assess DNA damage and repair in individual cells. (neb.com)
  • The alkaline comet assay was used to assess DNA damage in mononuclear leukocytes of farmers before and after a 1-day spraying period with selected pesticides under usual conditions. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cells were treated with cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) for 72 h to assess the formation of single- and double-strand DNA breaks, measured by alkaline and neutral single cell gel electrophoresis assays, respectively. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This case control study was undertaken to assess free radical induced DNA damage in babies with neonatal sepsis using single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay). (alliedacademies.org)
  • The present case-control study was undertaken to assess the level of DNA damage in children with congenital heart disease and compare the same with that of age and sex matched controls using submarine gel electrophoresis (Comet Assay).The clinical diagnosis of CHD was confirmed with echocardiography. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The two laboratories that reported discordant results (with another cell line having the highest level of DNA-repair activity) were those that reported to have little experience with the modified comet assay to assess DNA repair. (ku.dk)
  • Collagen-based Contraction Assay Kit provides a simple system to assess cell contractivity in vitro and screen cell contraction mediators. (muzeumamonitow.pl)
  • Our Endothelial Tube Formation Assay (In Vitro Angiogenesis) provides an easy, robust system to assess angiogenesis in vitro. (muzeumamonitow.pl)
  • Comet assay provides a rapid and reliable way to screen genotoxic effects of a wide variety of nanoparticles. (cdc.gov)
  • Collins, A.R., The comet assay for DNA damage and repair (Review). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The assay has applications in testing novel chemicals for genotoxicity, monitoring environmental contamination with genotoxins, human biomonitoring and molecular epidemiology, and fundamental research in DNA damage and repair. (springer.com)
  • Olive, P. L., Banáth, J. P., and Durand, R. E. (1990) Heterogeneity in radiation-induced DNA damage and repair in tumor and normal cells measured using the "comet" assay. (springer.com)
  • The comet assay offers the opportunity to measure both DNA damage and repair. (unav.edu)
  • When comparison of Comet parameters was made among the chemicals, MMS was found to be the most potent genotoxicant and ENU the least. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Comet parameters were compared between the cases and controls using Unpaired 't' test using the statistical software SPSS version 19. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Some comet assay parameters were significantly decreased in the vitamin E group (group 1), vitamin C group (group 2) and vitamin E +C group (groups 3) after the treatment period compared to before (remark EMF -Portal: the exact parameters are presented ambiguously in the article). (emf-portal.org)
  • The comet assay (single-cell gel electrophoresis) is a simple method for measuring deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) strand breaks in eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Single cell gel electrophoresis or the comet assay is a sensitive technique to quantify different types of DNA damage, e.g. single strand breaks, double strand breaks, base damage at single cell level of any dividing or non-dividing eukaryotic cell. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Within the last decade, the comet assay has been used with increasing popularity to investigate the level of DNA damage in terms of strand breaks and alkaline labile sites in biomonitoring studies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The specificity of the Comet assay was improved by coupling the assay to 8-oxoguanine-glycosylase (hOGG1), which by catalyzing the excision of 8-oxo-dGuo yields strand-breaks that are dependent upon this lesion. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The comet assay has been established long ago for the determination of DNA strand breaks, both SSB and DSB, with the possibility of quantification of the extent of the damage using appropriate sofware packages (reviewed in 2). (researchsquare.com)
  • This results in structures resembling comets which by using suitable fluorescent stain, can be observed by fluorescent microscopy. (oecd.org)
  • Retrieved on May 27, 2020 from https://www.news-medical.net/news/20141211/Andors-Komet-software-used-to-automatically-score-modified-3D-Comet-assay-results.aspx. (news-medical.net)
  • Trevigen provides a complete standardized system for consistent results which includes CometAssay ® Kits, CometSlides™, Alkaline and Neutral CometAssay ® Control Cells and a specialized electrophoresis unit. (trevigen.com)
  • A significant correlation between the comet results from each patient before and after treatment (r = 0.64, p = 0.001) was observed. (begellhouse.com)
  • These results support the usefulness of the comet assay as a sensitive technique to evaluate basal DNA status and DNA damage caused by cancer treatments. (begellhouse.com)
  • Used as an in vitro assay, it can readily supply mechanistic information as a follow up for compounds that produce positive GreenScreen HC or BlueScreen HC results. (selectscience.net)
  • These results highlight the dangers of generalising to potential health benefits, based solely on identification of high anthocyanic content in plants, results of a single antioxidant assay and traditional approaches to structure activity relationships. (mdpi.com)
  • The results were verified with the well-established cytosine extension assay. (nwu.ac.za)
  • The results showed that artepillin C itself was not genotoxic in the mouse micronucleus and comet assays. (propolisscience.org)
  • The results demonstrated that the comet assay can be successfully applied to the genotoxicity monitoring programs of drinking water sources. (wanfangdata.com.cn)
  • According to Professor Anderson, 'The comet assay is a standard method for assessing DNA genomic damage, relying on the electrophoretic movement through agarose of supercoiled loops of DNA linked to the nuclear matrix from lysed cells. (news-medical.net)
  • The result is structures resembling miniature comets that are observable by fluorescence microscopy, in which high genomic damage is indicated by longer optically intense tails and lower genomic damage by shorter tails. (news-medical.net)
  • In our Lymphocyte Genome Sensitivity (LGS) assay, lymphocyte samples are embedded at different depths within the agar gel and irradiated with UVA in vitro. (news-medical.net)
  • Sensitivity and specificity of the empirical lymphocyte genome sensitivity (LGS) assay: implications for improving cancer diagnostics," FASEB J. 2014 Oct;28(10):4563-70. (news-medical.net)
  • The new BlueScreen HC assay provides a simple alternative for those screeners, profilers and safety toxicologists for whom fluorescence reporter systems are either not appropriate or not accessible, or where there is a preference for a luminescent rather than a fluorescent assay. (selectscience.net)
  • The position of the fluorescent hybridization spots in the comet head or tail indicates whether the sequence of interest lies within or in the vicinity of a damaged region of DNA. (elsevier.com)
  • Essentially, the PrimeFlow® RNA assay combines the analysis of gene and protein expression in a single application. (utdallas.edu)
  • The single cell gel electrophoresis assay (comet assay): A European review. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Wistar rats were treated with stevioside solution (4mg/mL) through oral administration (ad libitum) and the DNA-induced damage was evaluated using the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). (nih.gov)
  • The Comet Assay, also called single cell gel electrophoresis, is a rapid and sensitive technique for accurately analyzing DNA damage (genotoxicity) in individual cells from small molecule formulations of industrial chemicals, consumer products, agrochemicals, emission particulates, and pharmaceuticals. (bioreliance.com)
  • The 96-Well CometChip ® System is a high-throughput platform to simultaneously treat and measure DNA damage induced by different treatments, or among different cell types on a single slide using the comet assay. (trevigen.com)
  • DNA damage and its repair in single-cell suspensions prepared from yeast, protozoa, plants, invertebrates and mammals can also be studied using this assay. (scientistsolutions.com)
  • At 98 +/- 2 h, the anterior midgut from control and treated larvae were dissected out, single-cell suspensions were prepared and Comet assay was performed. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Each micropore traps one cell in a single focal plane and each well in the 96-well CometChip contains 400 microwells, allowing measurement of up to 38,400 comets per chip. (rndsystems.com)
  • In the search of new human genotoxic biomarkers, the single cell gel electrophoresis assay has been proposed as a sensible alternative. (scielosp.org)
  • Herein we present our experience using the single cell gel electrophoresis assay in human population studies, both occupationally and environmentally exposed. (scielosp.org)
  • A single-cell gel electrophoresis assay (Comet assay) was conducted to determine the DNA damage in lung cells obtained from the right lung. (oup.com)
  • Micronucleus assay and the comet assay were employed to study the endpoint of chromosomal damage and single / double-strand DNA breaks. (ispub.com)
  • The measurement of DNA-repair activity by extracts from cells or tissues by means of the single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay has a high potential to become widely used in biomonitoring studies. (ku.dk)
  • Trevigen's CometAssay®, or single cell gel electrophoresis assay, provides a simple and effective method for evaluating DNA damage in cells. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • The alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay can be combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) methodology to investigate the localization of specific gene domains within an individual cell. (elsevier.com)
  • The China Supplier Comet Assay Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis Assay reagent is RUO (Research Use Only) to test human serum or cell culture lab samples. (muzeumamonitow.pl)
  • This protocol details the experimental procedure for performing the comet assay, a very sensitive DNA break assay based on single cell gel electrophoresis. (researchsquare.com)
  • Feng S L,Luo Y,Zhong Y,Xie Z Y,Kong Z M. Single cell gel electrophoresis assay in the earthworm measuring the genotoxicity of pesticides to DNA [J].Journal of Nanjing University(Natural Science),2000,(05):649-65210.3321/j.issn:0469-5097.2000.05.021. (wanfangdata.com.cn)
  • Kassie F,Parzefall W,Knasmuller S. Single cell gelelectrophoresis assay:a new technique for human biomonitoring studies [J].Mutation Research,2000.13-3110.1016/S1383-5742(00)00041-7. (wanfangdata.com.cn)
  • CometAssay ® Low Melt Agarose (LMAgarose), Lysis Solution and EDTA are ready to use in convenient sizes. (trevigen.com)
  • The Comet Assay Interest Group website includes references and protocols for the Comet Assay and maintains a list of companies that sell software for comet assay image analysis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Marijna, You can also look under the "Protocols" tab on the left side of the tool bar on this page, and find several protocols that are related to Comet Assays (with various conditions). (scientistsolutions.com)
  • The sensitivity and specificity of the assay are greatly enhanced if the nucleoids are incubated with bacterial repair endonucleases that recognize specific kinds of damage in the DNA and convert lesions to DNA breaks, increasing the amount of DNA in the comet tail. (springer.com)