A genotoxicological technique for measuring DNA damage in an individual cell using single-cell gel electrophoresis. Cell DNA fragments assume a "comet with tail" formation on electrophoresis and are detected with an image analysis system. Alkaline assay conditions facilitate sensitive detection of single-strand damage.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
Induction and quantitative measurement of chromosomal damage leading to the formation of micronuclei (MICRONUCLEI, CHROMOSOME-DEFECTIVE) in cells which have been exposed to genotoxic agents or IONIZING RADIATION.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
A DNA repair enzyme that is an N-glycosyl hydrolase with specificity for DNA-containing ring-opened N(7)-methylguanine residues.
Any solid objects moving in interplanetary space that are smaller than a planet or asteroid but larger than a molecule. Meteorites are any meteoroid that has fallen to a planetary surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced mutations independently of the mechanism involved.
Finely divided solid matter with particle sizes smaller than a micrometeorite, thus with diameters much smaller than a millimeter, moving in interplanetary space. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
Interruptions in one of the strands of the sugar-phosphate backbone of double-stranded DNA.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Interruptions in the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA.
Defective nuclei produced during the TELOPHASE of MITOSIS or MEIOSIS by lagging CHROMOSOMES or chromosome fragments derived from spontaneous or experimentally induced chromosomal structural changes.
Neon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ne, atomic number 10, and atomic weight 20.18. It is found in the earth's crust and atmosphere as an inert, odorless gas and is used in vacuum tubes and incandescent lamps.
Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
An antineoplastic agent with alkylating properties. It also acts as a mutagen by damaging DNA and is used experimentally for that effect.
Splitting the DNA into shorter pieces by endonucleolytic DNA CLEAVAGE at multiple sites. It includes the internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, which along with chromatin condensation, are considered to be the hallmarks of APOPTOSIS.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
An alkylating agent in cancer therapy that may also act as a mutagen by interfering with and causing damage to DNA.
An experimental lymphocytic leukemia of mice.
The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Interruptions in the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA, across both strands adjacently.
Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (SOUND), ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY waves (such as LIGHT; RADIO WAVES; GAMMA RAYS; or X-RAYS), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as ELECTRONS; NEUTRONS; PROTONS; or ALPHA PARTICLES).
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
The ability of some cells or tissues to survive lethal doses of IONIZING RADIATION. Tolerance depends on the species, cell type, and physical and chemical variables, including RADIATION-PROTECTIVE AGENTS and RADIATION-SENSITIZING AGENTS.
A plant genus of the family FLACOURTIACEAE. Members contain casearins which are clerodane type DITERPENES.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
A plant family of the order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida composed of tropical plants with parallel-nerved leaves.
A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
7,8,8a,9a-Tetrahydrobenzo(10,11)chryseno (3,4-b)oxirene-7,8-diol. A benzopyrene derivative with carcinogenic and mutagenic activity.
ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION or particle radiation (high energy ELEMENTARY PARTICLES) capable of directly or indirectly producing IONS in its passage through matter. The wavelengths of ionizing electromagnetic radiation are equal to or smaller than those of short (far) ultraviolet radiation and include gamma and X-rays.
An order of flightless birds comprising the ostriches, which naturally inhabit open, low rainfall areas of Africa.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.
Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Individuals responsible for various duties pertaining to the medical office routine.
A residue of coal, left after dry (destructive) distillation, used as a fuel.
A potent mutagen and carcinogen. This compound and its metabolite 4-HYDROXYAMINOQUINOLINE-1-OXIDE bind to nucleic acids. It inactivates bacteria but not bacteriophage.
Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.
Information intended for potential users of medical and healthcare services. There is an emphasis on self-care and preventive approaches as well as information for community-wide dissemination and use.
A malignant neoplasm that may be classified either as a glioma or as a primitive neuroectodermal tumor of childhood (see NEUROECTODERMAL TUMOR, PRIMITIVE). The tumor occurs most frequently in the first decade of life with the most typical location being the cerebellar vermis. Histologic features include a high degree of cellularity, frequent mitotic figures, and a tendency for the cells to organize into sheets or form rosettes. Medulloblastoma have a high propensity to spread throughout the craniospinal intradural axis. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2060-1)
Primary or metastatic neoplasms of the CEREBELLUM. Tumors in this location frequently present with ATAXIA or signs of INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION due to obstruction of the fourth ventricle. Common primary cerebellar tumors include fibrillary ASTROCYTOMA and cerebellar HEMANGIOBLASTOMA. The cerebellum is a relatively common site for tumor metastases from the lung, breast, and other distant organs. (From Okazaki & Scheithauer, Atlas of Neuropathology, 1988, p86 and p141)
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.
A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)

Vitamin E supplementation and oxidative damage to DNA and plasma LDL in type 1 diabetes. (1/1075)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of 400 IU/day of the antioxidant vitamin E on the susceptibility of plasma LDL and lymphocyte DNA to oxidative damage in type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied 42 patients with type 1 diabetes and 31 age- and sex-matched control subjects in a randomized prospective double-blind placebo-controlled trial by using 400 IU/day of oral vitamin E for 8 weeks. Measurements were made of single-strand breaks in lymphocyte DNA at baseline and after hydrogen peroxide-induced stress (comet assay) and of copper-induced LDL oxidization and plasma antioxidant profiles. RESULTS: Plasma LDL and lymphocyte DNA were more resistant to induced oxidative change in the type 1 diabetes group than in control subjects. Vitamin E supplementation reduced LDL oxidizability in the control subjects but not in the type 1 diabetes group and had no effect on oxidative DNA damage in either group. The type 1 diabetes group had a significantly poorer plasma antioxidant profile with lower mean serum concentrations of alpha-tocopherol and most carotenoids than control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma LDL and lymphocyte DNA appear to be more resistant to oxidative change in type 1 diabetic subjects than in control subjects, and there was no evidence of oxidatively induced DNA or LDL change in type 1 diabetes. This study does not support the hypothesis of oxidative damage in these patients, and a dose of vitamin E (400 IU/day) that reduced LDL oxidative susceptibility in control subjects did not do so in patients with type 1 diabetes.  (+info)

Comet assay application in environmental monitoring: DNA damage in human leukocytes and plant cells in comparison with bacterial and yeast tests. (2/1075)

Urban airborne particulate is a complex mixture of air pollutants, many of which have not been identified. However, short-term mutagenesis tests together with chemicophysical parameter analysis are able to better assess air quality and genotoxic load. The findings of continuous monitoring (January 1991-August 1998) of urban air genotoxicity of a Po Valley town (Italy) on Salmonella typhimurium and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are reported. During this period, various measures (catalytic devices, unleaded fuels, annual vehicle overhaul, etc.) to improve air-dispersed pollutant control were enforced. However, a continuous presence of genotoxic compounds is shown and more qualitative than quantitative changes are evident. We also demonstrate the ability of the Comet assay to detect DNA-damaging agents in airborne particulate samples. We applied the test to human leukocytes and, with major improvements, to plant cells (Allium cepa roots and epigean tissues of Impatiens balsamina). The first findings on human leukocytes confirm the sensitivity of this assay, its peculiarity and its applicability in assessing genotoxicity in environmental samples. The capability of plants to show the response of multicellular organisms to environmental pollutants largely counterbalances a probable lowering in sensitivity. Moreover, application of the Comet test to epigean tissues could be useful in estimating the bioavailability of and genotoxic damage by air pollutants, including volatile compounds (ozone, benzene, nitrogen oxides, etc.) to higher plants.  (+info)

Comet assay of UV-induced DNA damage in retinal pigment epithelial cells. (3/1075)

PURPOSE: The molecular mechanisms mediating photic injury to the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell are not clearly understood. This study examined qualitative and quantitative aspects of DNA damage caused by broadband UVA and UVB radiation in RPE cells. METHODS: Cultured bovine RPE cells were exposed to doses of between 0 and 0.9 J/cm2 UVA or 0 and 0.09 J/cm2 UVB, as either a suspension or as an attached monolayer. The damage to DNA resulting in single-strand breaks was assessed by means of the comet assay in which the damaged DNA migrates out of the nucleus forming a tail, and this was quantified using image analysis. Two measurements were taken: the mean percentage of tail DNA, which reflects the overall level of DNA damage in the group of cells, and the Olive tail moment, which represents the extent of migration and thus the pattern of DNA damage in individual cells. Cells were processed by the comet assay immediately after UV exposure in acute experiments. To study the occurrence of DNA repair, RPE cells were first exposed to UVB and then incubated at 37 degrees C for either 1 or 24 hours before processing for the comet assay. RESULTS: UVA- and UVB-exposed cells showed a mean percentage of tail DNA that was significantly greater than in unexposed cells. Olive tail moment was higher in cells exposed to larger doses of UVB. This parameter also showed a bimodal distribution when assessed 24 hours after exposure to UVB indicating the presence of two distinct subpopulations of cells with small and large tail moments. Cells with very large tail moments were not seen with doses below 0.045 J/cm2. CONCLUSIONS: Relatively low doses of UVA and UVB induce the formation of DNA strand breaks in cultured RPE. The tail moment profiles for cells incubated for 24 hours after UVB irradiation are consistent with the occurrence of DNA repair in most cells exposed to low doses and apoptosis in a subpopulation of the cells exposed to high doses.  (+info)

The bromodeoxyuridine comet assay: detection of maturation of recently replicated DNA in individual cells. (4/1075)

The single-cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay is a relatively simple method of measuring DNA single strand breaks and alkali-labile sites in individual cells. We have combined this with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) labeling of DNA and immunolocalization of the BrdUrd to assess DNA replicative integrity on a single-cell basis. We show that the existence of strand discontinuities in recently replicated domains of DNA, caused during semiconservative replication or exacerbated by the arrest of replicative polymerases at UV irradiation- or chemical-induced lesions, can be detected in individual cells. Data obtained from BrdUrd-Comets are consistent with biochemical data derived with a range of techniques showing that DNA replication involves the creation of strand breaks or gaps adjacent to recently replicated material, and that DNA damage prolongs the duration of such discontinuities where DNA polymerases are stalled opposite lesions (R. T. Johnson et al, The Legacy of Cell Fusion, pp. 50-67, Oxford: Science Publications, 1994; R. B. Painter, J. Mol. Biol., 143: 289-301, 1980.). Compared with standard biochemical techniques, the BrdUrd-Comet assay is simple and suitable for the accurate and automatable assessment of replicative integrity in very small numbers of mammalian cells, such as may be obtained by biopsy.  (+info)

Extremely low frequency pulsed DC electric fields promote neutrophil extension, metabolic resonance and DNA damage when phase-matched with metabolic oscillators. (5/1075)

Application of extremely low frequency pulsed DC electric fields that are frequency- and phase-matched with endogenous metabolic oscillations leads to greatly exaggerated neutrophil extension and metabolic resonance wherein oscillatory NAD(P)H amplitudes are increased. In the presence of a resonant field, migrating cell length grows from 10 to approximately 40 microm, as does the overall length of microfilament assemblies. In contrast, cells stop locomotion and become spherical when exposed to phase-mismatched fields. Although cellular effects were not found to be dependent on electrode type and buffer, they were sensitive to temporal constraints (phase and pulse length) and cell surface charge. We suggest an electromechanical coupling hypothesis wherein applied electric fields and cytoskeletal polymerization forces act together to overcome the surface/cortical tension of neutrophils, thus promoting net cytoskeletal assembly and heightened metabolic amplitudes. Metabolic resonance enhances reactive oxygen metabolic production by neutrophils. Furthermore, cellular DNA damage was observed after prolonged metabolic resonance using both single cell gel electrophoresis ('comet' assay) and 3'-OH DNA labeling using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase. These results provide insights into transmembrane signal processing and cell interactions with weak electric fields.  (+info)

DNA damage induced by 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine in liver and urinary bladder cells of rats and humans. (6/1075)

3,3'-Dimethoxybenzidine (DMB), a congener of benzidine used in the dye industry and previously found to be carcinogenic in rats, was evaluated for its genotoxic activity in primary cultures of rat and human hepatocytes and of cells from human urinary bladder mucosa, as well as in liver and bladder mucosa of intact rats. A similar modest dose-dependent frequency of DNA fragmentation was revealed by the alkaline elution technique in metabolically competent primary cultures of both rat and human hepatocytes exposed for 20 h to subtoxic DMB concentrations ranging from 56 to 180 microM. Replicating rat hepatocytes displayed a modest increase in the frequency of micronucleated cells after a 48-h exposure to 100 and 180 microM concentrations. In primary cultures of human urinary bladder mucosa cells exposed for 20 h to 100 and 180 microM DMB, the Comet assay revealed a clear-cut increase of DNA fragmentation. In rats given one-half LD50 of DMB as a single oral dose, the GSH level was reduced in both the liver and urinary bladder mucosa, whereas DNA fragmentation was detected only in the bladder mucosa. Taken as a whole, these results suggest that DMB should be considered a potentially genotoxic chemical in both rats and humans; the selective effect on the rat urinary bladder might be the consequence of pharmacokinetic behavior.  (+info)

Induction of genotoxicity by cadmium chloride inhalation in several organs of CD-1 mice. (7/1075)

In recent years, the concentration of metals in the environment has increased significantly. Metal compounds, as a group, are among the best-documented human carcinogens, but the mechanisms by which they act are not completely understood. In the present study a cadmium inhalation model in mice was implemented in order to detect the induction of genotoxic damage as single-strand breaks and alkali-labile sites in several organs (nasal epithelial cells, lung, whole blood, liver, kidney, bone marrow, brain and testicle) using the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) or Comet assay. We found differences among the studied organs after a single and subsequent inhalations: in the organs analyzed we observed that major DNA damage was induced after a single inhalation; in subsequent inhalations there was a tendency to maintain the same magnitude of damage or in some cases it decreased. A correlation between length of exposure, DNA damage and metal tissue concentration was found. These results suggest that cadmium chloride inhalation induces systemic DNA damage; some organs showed less damage than others (liver, brain, etc.) and this finding could be as a consequence of the capacity to remove the damage induced by long periods of exposure, possibly because of the induction of detoxifying mechanisms such as induction of metallothionein.  (+info)

Lymphocyte lycopene concentration and DNA protection from oxidative damage is increased in women after a short period of tomato consumption. (8/1075)

Several epidemiologic studies have suggested a role of tomato products in protecting against cancer and chronic diseases. In nine adult women, we evaluated whether the consumption of 25 g tomato puree (containing 7 mg lycopene and 0.3 mg beta-carotene) for 14 consecutive days increased plasma and lymphocyte carotenoid concentration and whether this was related to an improvement in lymphocyte resistance to an oxidative stress (500 micromol/L hydrogen peroxide for 5 min). Before and after the period of tomato intake, carotenoid concentrations were analyzed by HPLC and lymphocyte resistance to oxidative stress by the Comet assay, which detects DNA strand breaks. Intake of tomato puree increased plasma (P <0.001) and lymphocyte (P<0.005) lycopene concentration and reduced lymphocyte DNA damage by approximately 50% (P<0.0001). Beta-carotene concentration increased in plasma (P<0.05) but not in lymphocytes after tomato puree consumption. An inverse relationship was found between plasma lycopene concentration (r = -0.82, P<0.0001) and lymphocyte lycopene concentration (r = -0.62, P<0.01) and the oxidative DNA damage. In conclusion, small amounts of tomato puree added to the diet over a short period can increase carotenoid concentrations and the resistance of lymphocytes to oxidative stress.  (+info)

The Comet Assay, also known as single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE), is a sensitive method used to detect and measure DNA damage at the level of individual cells. The assay gets its name from the comet-like shape that formed DNA fragments migrate towards the anode during electrophoresis, creating a "tail" that represents the damaged DNA.

In this assay, cells are embedded in low melting point agarose on a microscope slide and then lysed to remove the cell membranes and histones, leaving the DNA intact. The slides are then subjected to electrophoresis under neutral or alkaline conditions, which causes the negatively charged DNA fragments to migrate out of the nucleus towards the anode. After staining with a DNA-binding dye, the slides are visualized under a fluorescence microscope and the degree of DNA damage is quantified by measuring the length and intensity of the comet "tail."

The Comet Assay is widely used in genetic toxicology to assess the genotoxic potential of chemicals, drugs, and environmental pollutants. It can also be used to measure DNA repair capacity and oxidative DNA damage.

DNA damage refers to any alteration in the structure or composition of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which is the genetic material present in cells. DNA damage can result from various internal and external factors, including environmental exposures such as ultraviolet radiation, tobacco smoke, and certain chemicals, as well as normal cellular processes such as replication and oxidative metabolism.

Examples of DNA damage include base modifications, base deletions or insertions, single-strand breaks, double-strand breaks, and crosslinks between the two strands of the DNA helix. These types of damage can lead to mutations, genomic instability, and chromosomal aberrations, which can contribute to the development of diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and aging-related conditions.

The body has several mechanisms for repairing DNA damage, including base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair, and double-strand break repair. However, if the damage is too extensive or the repair mechanisms are impaired, the cell may undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death) to prevent the propagation of potentially harmful mutations.

A micronucleus test is a type of genetic toxicology assay used to detect the presence of micronuclei in cells, which are small chromosomal fragments or whole chromosomes that have been missegregated during cell division. The test measures the frequency of micronuclei in cells exposed to a potential genotoxic agent, such as a chemical or radiation, and compares it to the frequency in untreated control cells.

The assay is typically performed on cultured mammalian cells, such as human lymphocytes or Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, and involves exposing the cells to the test agent for a specific period of time, followed by staining and examination of the cells under a microscope. The micronuclei are identified based on their size, shape, and staining characteristics, and the frequency of micronucleated cells is calculated as a measure of genotoxic potential.

Micronucleus tests are widely used in regulatory toxicology to assess the genetic safety of chemicals, drugs, and other substances, and can provide valuable information on potential risks to human health. The test is also used in basic research to study the mechanisms of genotoxicity and chromosomal instability.

Mutagens are physical or chemical agents that can cause permanent changes in the structure of genetic material, including DNA and chromosomes, leading to mutations. These mutations can be passed down to future generations and may increase the risk of cancer and other diseases. Examples of mutagens include ultraviolet (UV) radiation, tobacco smoke, and certain chemicals found in industrial settings. It is important to note that not all mutations are harmful, but some can have negative effects on health and development.

Mutagenicity tests are a type of laboratory assays used to identify agents that can cause genetic mutations. These tests detect changes in the DNA of organisms, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, after exposure to potential mutagens. The most commonly used mutagenicity test is the Ames test, which uses a strain of Salmonella bacteria that is sensitive to mutagens. If a chemical causes an increase in the number of revertants (reversion to the wild type) in the bacterial population, it is considered to be a mutagen. Other tests include the mouse lymphoma assay and the chromosomal aberration test. These tests are used to evaluate the potential genotoxicity of chemicals and are an important part of the safety evaluation process for new drugs, chemicals, and other substances.

DNA-Formamidopyrimidine Glycosylase (Fpg) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the repair of DNA damage. It is involved in the base excision repair pathway, which is responsible for correcting damaged or mismatched bases in the DNA molecule.

The Fpg protein specifically recognizes and removes formamidopyrimidines, which are damaged bases that can arise from oxidative stress or exposure to certain chemicals or radiation. Formamidopyrimidines include two types of lesions: formamidopyrimidine (Fapy) adenine and Fapy guanine. These lesions can distort the structure of the DNA molecule, leading to mutations and genomic instability if not repaired.

By removing the damaged bases, Fpg allows for the insertion of a correct base during DNA replication, preventing the transmission of mutations to subsequent generations of cells. This enzyme is highly conserved across different species, indicating its importance in maintaining genome stability and preventing the development of diseases such as cancer.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "meteoroids" is not a term used in medical definitions. It is a term from the field of astronomy. Meteoroids are small particles or bits of rock that are traveling in space. When they enter the Earth's atmosphere, they can become meteors (also known as "shooting stars") and can sometimes make it to the ground as meteorites.

Antimutagenic agents are substances that prevent or reduce the frequency of mutations in DNA, which can be caused by various factors such as radiation, chemicals, and free radicals. These agents work by preventing the formation of mutations or by repairing the damage already done to the DNA. They can be found naturally in foods, such as antioxidants, or they can be synthesized in a laboratory. Antimutagenic agents have potential use in cancer prevention and treatment, as well as in reducing the negative effects of environmental mutagens.

Cosmic dust, also known as extraterrestrial dust or space dust, refers to tiny particles of solid matter that are present in outer space. These particles are primarily made up of rock, metal, and organic material, and they can vary in size from a few nanometers to several hundred micrometers in diameter.

Cosmic dust is formed through various processes, including the cooling and condensation of gas in interstellar clouds, supernova explosions, collisions between asteroids and comets, and the erosion of larger bodies such as planets and moons. The dust is constantly being created and destroyed in space, and it plays a critical role in the formation and evolution of stars, planets, and other celestial objects.

In addition to its importance in astrophysics, cosmic dust also has implications for human health and technology. When cosmic dust enters Earth's atmosphere, it can interact with water vapor and other chemicals to form tiny particles that can serve as nuclei for cloud formation. These particles can have a significant impact on climate and weather patterns.

Furthermore, cosmic dust can pose a risk to spacecraft and astronauts in space. The tiny particles can damage sensitive equipment and pose a health hazard to astronauts who are exposed to them during spacewalks or other extravehicular activities. As a result, understanding the properties and behavior of cosmic dust is an important area of research for both astrophysicists and engineers working in the field of space exploration.

DNA repair is the process by which cells identify and correct damage to the DNA molecules that encode their genome. DNA can be damaged by a variety of internal and external factors, such as radiation, chemicals, and metabolic byproducts. If left unrepaired, this damage can lead to mutations, which may in turn lead to cancer and other diseases.

There are several different mechanisms for repairing DNA damage, including:

1. Base excision repair (BER): This process repairs damage to a single base in the DNA molecule. An enzyme called a glycosylase removes the damaged base, leaving a gap that is then filled in by other enzymes.
2. Nucleotide excision repair (NER): This process repairs more severe damage, such as bulky adducts or crosslinks between the two strands of the DNA molecule. An enzyme cuts out a section of the damaged DNA, and the gap is then filled in by other enzymes.
3. Mismatch repair (MMR): This process repairs errors that occur during DNA replication, such as mismatched bases or small insertions or deletions. Specialized enzymes recognize the error and remove a section of the newly synthesized strand, which is then replaced by new nucleotides.
4. Double-strand break repair (DSBR): This process repairs breaks in both strands of the DNA molecule. There are two main pathways for DSBR: non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR). NHEJ directly rejoins the broken ends, while HR uses a template from a sister chromatid to repair the break.

Overall, DNA repair is a crucial process that helps maintain genome stability and prevent the development of diseases caused by genetic mutations.

Single-stranded DNA breaks (SSBs) refer to a type of DNA damage in which one strand of the double-helix structure is cleaved or broken. This kind of damage can occur spontaneously due to cellular metabolism or can be induced by various genotoxic agents, such as ionizing radiation and certain chemicals.

SSBs are typically repaired rapidly and efficiently by enzymes known as DNA repair proteins. However, if left unrepaired or misrepaired, they can lead to mutations, genomic instability, and increased risk of diseases, including cancer. In some cases, single-stranded breaks may also precede the formation of more severe double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs).

It is important to note that while SSBs are less catastrophic than DSBs, they still play a significant role in genome maintenance and cellular health.

Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that is an essential part of the immune system. They are responsible for recognizing and responding to potentially harmful substances such as viruses, bacteria, and other foreign invaders. There are two main types of lymphocytes: B-lymphocytes (B-cells) and T-lymphocytes (T-cells).

B-lymphocytes produce antibodies, which are proteins that help to neutralize or destroy foreign substances. When a B-cell encounters a foreign substance, it becomes activated and begins to divide and differentiate into plasma cells, which produce and secrete large amounts of antibodies. These antibodies bind to the foreign substance, marking it for destruction by other immune cells.

T-lymphocytes, on the other hand, are involved in cell-mediated immunity. They directly attack and destroy infected cells or cancerous cells. T-cells can also help to regulate the immune response by producing chemical signals that activate or inhibit other immune cells.

Lymphocytes are produced in the bone marrow and mature in either the bone marrow (B-cells) or the thymus gland (T-cells). They circulate throughout the body in the blood and lymphatic system, where they can be found in high concentrations in lymph nodes, the spleen, and other lymphoid organs.

Abnormalities in the number or function of lymphocytes can lead to a variety of immune-related disorders, including immunodeficiency diseases, autoimmune disorders, and cancer.

DNA breaks refer to any damage or disruption in the DNA molecule that results in a separation of the double helix strands. There are two types of DNA breaks: single-strand breaks (SSBs) and double-strand breaks (DSBs).

Single-strand breaks occur when one of the two strands in the DNA duplex is cleaved, leaving the other strand intact. These breaks are usually repaired quickly and efficiently by enzymes that can recognize and repair the damage.

Double-strand breaks, on the other hand, are more serious forms of DNA damage because they result in a complete separation of both strands of the DNA duplex. DSBs can lead to genomic instability, chromosomal aberrations, and cell death if not repaired promptly and accurately.

DSBs can be caused by various factors, including ionizing radiation, chemotherapeutic agents, oxidative stress, and errors during DNA replication or repair. The body has several mechanisms to repair DSBs, including non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR). However, if these repair pathways are impaired or overwhelmed, DSBs can lead to mutations, cancer, and other diseases.

Micronuclei, chromosome-defective, refer to small additional nuclei that form during cell division when the genetic material is not properly divided between the two resulting daughter cells. These micronuclei can contain whole chromosomes or fragments of chromosomes that were not incorporated into either of the main nuclei during cell division. Chromosome-defective micronuclei are often associated with genomic instability, DNA damage, and chromosomal aberrations, which can lead to various health issues, including cancer and developmental defects. They can be used as a biomarker for genetic damage in cells and are commonly observed in response to exposure to mutagenic agents such as radiation or chemicals.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Neon" is not a medical term. Neon is actually a noble gas, the fourth lightest and second most abundant in the Earth's atmosphere. It is used in vacuum tubes and high-voltage indicators, and in advertising signs and neon lamps. If you have any medical terms you would like me to define, please let me know!

Gamma rays are a type of ionizing radiation that is released from the nucleus of an atom during radioactive decay. They are high-energy photons, with wavelengths shorter than 0.01 nanometers and frequencies greater than 3 x 10^19 Hz. Gamma rays are electromagnetic radiation, similar to X-rays, but with higher energy levels and the ability to penetrate matter more deeply. They can cause damage to living tissue and are used in medical imaging and cancer treatment.

Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) is an alkylating agent that is commonly used as a mutagen in genetic research. It works by introducing point mutations into the DNA of organisms, which can then be studied to understand the function of specific genes. EMS modifies DNA by transferring an ethyl group (-C2H5) to the oxygen atom of guanine bases, leading to mispairing during DNA replication and resulting in a high frequency of GC to AT transitions. It is highly toxic and mutagenic, and appropriate safety precautions must be taken when handling this chemical.

DNA fragmentation is the breaking of DNA strands into smaller pieces. This process can occur naturally during apoptosis, or programmed cell death, where the DNA is broken down and packaged into apoptotic bodies to be safely eliminated from the body. However, excessive or abnormal DNA fragmentation can also occur due to various factors such as oxidative stress, exposure to genotoxic agents, or certain medical conditions. This can lead to genetic instability, cellular dysfunction, and increased risk of diseases such as cancer. In the context of reproductive medicine, high levels of DNA fragmentation in sperm cells have been linked to male infertility and poor assisted reproductive technology outcomes.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic material present in the cells of organisms where it is responsible for the storage and transmission of hereditary information. DNA is a long molecule that consists of two strands coiled together to form a double helix. Each strand is made up of a series of four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - that are linked together by phosphate and sugar groups. The sequence of these bases along the length of the molecule encodes genetic information, with A always pairing with T and C always pairing with G. This base-pairing allows for the replication and transcription of DNA, which are essential processes in the functioning and reproduction of all living organisms.

Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) is not a medication, but rather a chemical compound with the formula CH3SO3CH3. It's an alkylating agent that is used in laboratory settings for various research purposes, including as a methylating agent in biochemical and genetic studies.

MMS works by transferring its methyl group (CH3) to other molecules, which can result in the modification of DNA and other biological macromolecules. This property makes it useful in laboratory research, but it also means that MMS is highly reactive and toxic. Therefore, it must be handled with care and appropriate safety precautions.

It's important to note that MMS is not used as a therapeutic agent in medicine due to its high toxicity and potential to cause serious harm if mishandled or misused.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Leukemia L5178" is not a recognized medical term or classification for leukemia. The World Health Organization (WHO) and other organizations have established specific classifications for different types of leukemias based on factors such as cell type, genetic mutations, and other characteristics. However, "L5178" does not appear in these classifications.

It's possible that "L5178" might refer to a specific research cell line used in scientific studies, but without more context, it's difficult to provide a precise definition. If you have more information about where you encountered this term, I may be able to provide a more accurate response.

A dose-response relationship in radiation refers to the correlation between the amount of radiation exposure (dose) and the biological response or adverse health effects observed in exposed individuals. As the level of radiation dose increases, the severity and frequency of the adverse health effects also tend to increase. This relationship is crucial in understanding the risks associated with various levels of radiation exposure and helps inform radiation protection standards and guidelines.

The effects of ionizing radiation can be categorized into two types: deterministic and stochastic. Deterministic effects have a threshold dose below which no effect is observed, and above this threshold, the severity of the effect increases with higher doses. Examples include radiation-induced cataracts or radiation dermatitis. Stochastic effects, on the other hand, do not have a clear threshold and are based on probability; as the dose increases, so does the likelihood of the adverse health effect occurring, such as an increased risk of cancer.

Understanding the dose-response relationship in radiation exposure is essential for setting limits on occupational and public exposure to ionizing radiation, optimizing radiation protection practices, and developing effective medical countermeasures in case of radiation emergencies.

Electrophoresis, Agar Gel is a laboratory technique used to separate and analyze DNA, RNA, or proteins based on their size and electrical charge. In this method, the sample is mixed with agarose gel, a gelatinous substance derived from seaweed, and then solidified in a horizontal slab-like format. An electric field is applied to the gel, causing the negatively charged DNA or RNA molecules to migrate towards the positive electrode. The smaller molecules move faster through the gel than the larger ones, resulting in their separation based on size. This technique is widely used in molecular biology and genetics research, as well as in diagnostic testing for various genetic disorders.

Oxidative stress is defined as an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (free radicals) and the body's ability to detoxify them or repair the damage they cause. This imbalance can lead to cellular damage, oxidation of proteins, lipids, and DNA, disruption of cellular functions, and activation of inflammatory responses. Prolonged or excessive oxidative stress has been linked to various health conditions, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, and aging-related diseases.

Double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) refer to a type of damage that occurs in the DNA molecule when both strands of the double helix are severed or broken at the same location. This kind of damage is particularly harmful to cells because it can disrupt the integrity and continuity of the genetic material, potentially leading to genomic instability, mutations, and cell death if not properly repaired.

DSBs can arise from various sources, including exposure to ionizing radiation, chemical agents, free radicals, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and errors during DNA replication or repair processes. Unrepaired or incorrectly repaired DSBs have been implicated in numerous human diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and premature aging.

Cells possess several mechanisms to repair double-stranded DNA breaks, including homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). HR is a more accurate repair pathway that uses a homologous template, typically the sister chromatid, to restore the original DNA sequence. NHEJ, on the other hand, directly ligates the broken ends together, often resulting in small deletions or insertions at the break site and increased risk of errors. The choice between these two pathways depends on various factors, such as the cell cycle stage, the presence of nearby breaks, and the availability of repair proteins.

In summary, double-stranded DNA breaks are severe forms of DNA damage that can have detrimental consequences for cells if not properly repaired. Cells employ multiple mechanisms to address DSBs, with homologous recombination and non-homologous end joining being the primary repair pathways.

Medical Definition:

Radiation is the emission of energy as electromagnetic waves or as moving subatomic particles, especially high-energy particles that cause ionization, which can occur naturally (e.g., sunlight) or be produced artificially (e.g., x-rays, radioisotopes). In medicine, radiation is used diagnostically and therapeutically in various forms, such as X-rays, gamma rays, and radiopharmaceuticals, to diagnose and treat diseases like cancer. However, excessive exposure to radiation can pose health risks, including radiation sickness and increased risk of cancer.

Spermatozoa are the male reproductive cells, or gametes, that are produced in the testes. They are microscopic, flagellated (tail-equipped) cells that are highly specialized for fertilization. A spermatozoon consists of a head, neck, and tail. The head contains the genetic material within the nucleus, covered by a cap-like structure called the acrosome which contains enzymes to help the sperm penetrate the female's egg (ovum). The long, thin tail propels the sperm forward through fluid, such as semen, enabling its journey towards the egg for fertilization.

Radiation tolerance, in the context of medicine and particularly radiation oncology, refers to the ability of tissues or organs to withstand and recover from exposure to ionizing radiation without experiencing significant damage or loss of function. It is often used to describe the maximum dose of radiation that can be safely delivered to a specific area of the body during radiotherapy treatments.

Radiation tolerance varies depending on the type and location of the tissue or organ. For example, some tissues such as the brain, spinal cord, and lungs have lower radiation tolerance than others like the skin or bone. Factors that can affect radiation tolerance include the total dose of radiation, the fractionation schedule (the number and size of radiation doses), the volume of tissue treated, and the individual patient's overall health and genetic factors.

Assessing radiation tolerance is critical in designing safe and effective radiotherapy plans for cancer patients, as excessive radiation exposure can lead to serious side effects such as radiation-induced injury, fibrosis, or even secondary malignancies.

"Casearia" is a genus of flowering plants in the family Salicaceae, which includes around 150-200 species. These plants are commonly known as shrubs or small trees and are native to tropical and subtropical regions around the world. The leaves of Casearia plants are typically simple and opposite, with serrated or entire margins. The flowers are small and greenish-white, and the fruit is a drupe that contains one or two seeds.

Some species of Casearia have been used in traditional medicine to treat various ailments, such as skin conditions, fever, and diarrhea. However, it's important to note that the safety and efficacy of using these plants for medicinal purposes have not been thoroughly studied or proven through scientific research. Therefore, it is not recommended to use any plant or herbal remedy without consulting a qualified healthcare professional first.

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a colorless, odorless, clear liquid with a slightly sweet taste, although drinking it is harmful and can cause poisoning. It is a weak oxidizing agent and is used as an antiseptic and a bleaching agent. In diluted form, it is used to disinfect wounds and kill bacteria and viruses on the skin; in higher concentrations, it can be used to bleach hair or remove stains from clothing. It is also used as a propellant in rocketry and in certain industrial processes. Chemically, hydrogen peroxide is composed of two hydrogen atoms and two oxygen atoms, and it is structurally similar to water (H2O), with an extra oxygen atom. This gives it its oxidizing properties, as the additional oxygen can be released and used to react with other substances.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Melastomataceae" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic category in botany, referring to the Melastomataceae family of plants, also known as the melastome or blueberry family. This family includes around 400 genera and 5,000 species of flowering plants, many of which are found in tropical regions around the world.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help. Please provide me with more information so that I can better assist you.

Deoxyguanosine is a chemical compound that is a component of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), one of the nucleic acids. It is a nucleoside, which is a molecule consisting of a sugar (in this case, deoxyribose) and a nitrogenous base (in this case, guanine). Deoxyguanosine plays a crucial role in the structure and function of DNA, as it pairs with deoxycytidine through hydrogen bonding to form a rung in the DNA double helix. It is involved in the storage and transmission of genetic information.

Occupational exposure refers to the contact of an individual with potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents as a result of their job or occupation. This can include exposure to hazardous substances such as chemicals, heavy metals, or dusts; physical agents such as noise, radiation, or ergonomic stressors; and biological agents such as viruses, bacteria, or fungi.

Occupational exposure can occur through various routes, including inhalation, skin contact, ingestion, or injection. Prolonged or repeated exposure to these hazards can increase the risk of developing acute or chronic health conditions, such as respiratory diseases, skin disorders, neurological damage, or cancer.

Employers have a legal and ethical responsibility to minimize occupational exposures through the implementation of appropriate control measures, including engineering controls, administrative controls, personal protective equipment, and training programs. Regular monitoring and surveillance of workers' health can also help identify and prevent potential health hazards in the workplace.

Ionizing radiation is a type of radiation that carries enough energy to ionize atoms or molecules, which means it can knock electrons out of their orbits and create ions. These charged particles can cause damage to living tissue and DNA, making ionizing radiation dangerous to human health. Examples of ionizing radiation include X-rays, gamma rays, and some forms of subatomic particles such as alpha and beta particles. The amount and duration of exposure to ionizing radiation are important factors in determining the potential health effects, which can range from mild skin irritation to an increased risk of cancer and other diseases.

Struthioniformes is an order of large, flightless birds that includes ostriches, emus, cassowaries, and rheas. These birds are characterized by their inability to fly, long necks, and strong legs adapted for running. They are found in various parts of the world, with ostriches native to Africa, emus to Australia, cassowaries to Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, and rheas to South America. Struthioniformes birds are known for their fast running speed, with the ostrich being the fastest bird on land, capable of reaching speeds up to 60 miles per hour. They also lay large, hard-shelled eggs that are among the largest in the animal kingdom.

Cell survival refers to the ability of a cell to continue living and functioning normally, despite being exposed to potentially harmful conditions or treatments. This can include exposure to toxins, radiation, chemotherapeutic drugs, or other stressors that can damage cells or interfere with their normal processes.

In scientific research, measures of cell survival are often used to evaluate the effectiveness of various therapies or treatments. For example, researchers may expose cells to a particular drug or treatment and then measure the percentage of cells that survive to assess its potential therapeutic value. Similarly, in toxicology studies, measures of cell survival can help to determine the safety of various chemicals or substances.

It's important to note that cell survival is not the same as cell proliferation, which refers to the ability of cells to divide and multiply. While some treatments may promote cell survival, they may also inhibit cell proliferation, making them useful for treating diseases such as cancer. Conversely, other treatments may be designed to specifically target and kill cancer cells, even if it means sacrificing some healthy cells in the process.

Ethylnitrosourea (ENU) is an alkylating agent, which is a type of chemical compound that has the ability to interact with and modify the structure of DNA. It is commonly used in laboratory research as a mutagen, which is a substance that increases the frequency of mutations or changes in the genetic material of organisms.

ENU is known to cause point mutations, which are small changes in the DNA sequence that can lead to alterations in the function of genes. This property makes ENU a valuable tool for studying gene function and for creating animal models of human diseases caused by genetic mutations.

It is important to note that ENU is a potent carcinogen, meaning it can cause cancer, and should be handled with care in laboratory settings. It is not used as a medical treatment in humans or animals.

Agrochemicals are a broad range of chemical products used in agriculture to enhance crop production and protect plants from pests. They include fertilizers, which provide nutrients to plants, and pesticides, which include herbicides (weed killers), insecticides (insect killers), fungicides (fungus killers), and other substances used to control pests. Agrochemicals are used to improve crop yield, quality, and resistance to environmental stressors, but their use can also have negative impacts on the environment and human health if not managed properly.

Antioxidants are substances that can prevent or slow damage to cells caused by free radicals, which are unstable molecules that the body produces as a reaction to environmental and other pressures. Antioxidants are able to neutralize free radicals by donating an electron to them, thus stabilizing them and preventing them from causing further damage to the cells.

Antioxidants can be found in a variety of foods, including fruits, vegetables, nuts, and grains. Some common antioxidants include vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, and selenium. Antioxidants are also available as dietary supplements.

In addition to their role in protecting cells from damage, antioxidants have been studied for their potential to prevent or treat a number of health conditions, including cancer, heart disease, and age-related macular degeneration. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks of using antioxidant supplements.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Medical secretaries are administrative professionals who work in healthcare settings, such as hospitals, clinics, or private medical practices. Their primary role is to provide support to medical staff by handling various administrative tasks. Although I couldn't find a specific medical definition for "medical secretary," I can offer you a detailed job description based on common responsibilities and duties associated with this profession:

1. Scheduling appointments and managing patient records: Medical secretaries coordinate schedules for patients and healthcare professionals, maintain accurate and confidential patient records, and ensure that medical information is up-to-date and securely stored.
2. Communication: They serve as a liaison between patients, healthcare providers, and other medical staff, handling inquiries, providing information, and facilitating communication via phone, email, or in-person interactions.
3. Document preparation and management: Medical secretaries prepare and distribute various documents, such as correspondence, reports, referral letters, and medical records. They also manage document filing systems, both physical and electronic, to ensure easy access and organization.
4. Billing and insurance processing: They are responsible for managing financial transactions related to patient care, including generating invoices, submitting insurance claims, and handling billing inquiries and disputes.
5. Organizational skills: Medical secretaries maintain a well-organized workspace and workflow, prioritizing tasks and meeting deadlines to support the efficient operation of the medical practice or department.
6. Meeting and event coordination: They arrange meetings, conferences, and continuing education events for medical staff, handling logistics, registration, and communication with attendees.
7. Ad hoc duties: Medical secretaries may perform various ad hoc tasks as needed, such as ordering supplies, maintaining equipment, or providing general office support.
8. Professionalism and confidentiality: They adhere to strict professional standards, including maintaining patient confidentiality and demonstrating respect, empathy, and discretion in all interactions.

While there may not be a specific medical definition for "medical secretary," the above job description outlines the essential roles and responsibilities associated with this profession within healthcare settings.

'Coke' is a term that can have different meanings depending on the context. In the medical field, coke most commonly refers to a solid form of carbon or a type of char produced by heating coal or other organic materials in the absence of air. This form of carbon is relatively pure and low in impurities, making it useful for various industrial applications, including the production of steel and aluminum.

However, 'coke' can also refer to a street name for cocaine, which is a highly addictive stimulant drug derived from the leaves of the coca plant. It is important to note that this usage of the term 'coke' is more commonly associated with illicit drug use and addiction rather than medical terminology.

Therefore, when using the term 'coke' in a medical context, it is essential to clarify its meaning to avoid any confusion or misunderstandings.

4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide is a chemical compound that is often used in laboratory research as a carcinogenic agent. Its molecular formula is C6H4N2O3, and it is known to cause DNA damage and mutations, which can lead to the development of cancer. It is primarily used in scientific research to study the mechanisms of carcinogenesis and to test the effectiveness of potential cancer treatments.

It is important to note that 4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide is not a medication or a treatment for any medical condition, and it should only be handled by trained professionals in a controlled laboratory setting.

X-rays, also known as radiographs, are a type of electromagnetic radiation with higher energy and shorter wavelength than visible light. In medical imaging, X-rays are used to produce images of the body's internal structures, such as bones and organs, by passing the X-rays through the body and capturing the resulting shadows or patterns on a specialized film or digital detector.

The amount of X-ray radiation used is carefully controlled to minimize exposure and ensure patient safety. Different parts of the body absorb X-rays at different rates, allowing for contrast between soft tissues and denser structures like bone. This property makes X-rays an essential tool in diagnosing and monitoring a wide range of medical conditions, including fractures, tumors, infections, and foreign objects within the body.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

MedlinePlus is not a medical term, but rather a consumer health website that provides high-quality, accurate, and reliable health information, written in easy-to-understand language. It is produced by the U.S. National Library of Medicine, the world's largest medical library, and is widely recognized as a trusted source of health information.

MedlinePlus offers information on various health topics, including conditions, diseases, tests, treatments, and wellness. It also provides access to drug information, medical dictionary, and encyclopedia, as well as links to clinical trials, medical news, and patient organizations. The website is available in both English and Spanish and can be accessed for free.

Consumer health information (CHI) refers to the resources and materials that provide health information and education to the general public, who are not necessarily healthcare professionals. CHI is designed to be understandable and accessible to laypeople, and it covers a wide range of topics related to health and wellness, including:

* Diseases and conditions
* Preventive care and healthy lifestyles
* Medications and treatments
* Medical tests and procedures
* Healthcare services and facilities
* Patient rights and responsibilities

CHI can be found in various formats, such as pamphlets, brochures, websites, videos, podcasts, and social media. It is essential to ensure that CHI is accurate, unbiased, and up-to-date to help consumers make informed decisions about their health and healthcare. The goal of CHI is to empower individuals to take an active role in managing their health and making healthcare choices that are right for them.

Medulloblastoma is a type of malignant brain tumor that originates in the cerebellum, which is the part of the brain located at the back of the skull and controls coordination and balance. It is one of the most common types of pediatric brain tumors, although it can also occur in adults.

Medulloblastomas are typically made up of small, round cancer cells that grow quickly and can spread to other parts of the central nervous system, such as the spinal cord. They are usually treated with a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. The exact cause of medulloblastoma is not known, but it is thought to be related to genetic mutations or abnormalities that occur during development.

Cerebellar neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the cerebellum, which is the part of the brain responsible for coordinating muscle movements and maintaining balance. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and they can arise from various types of cells within the cerebellum.

The most common type of cerebellar neoplasm is a medulloblastoma, which arises from primitive nerve cells in the cerebellum. Other types of cerebellar neoplasms include astrocytomas, ependymomas, and brain stem gliomas. Symptoms of cerebellar neoplasms may include headaches, vomiting, unsteady gait, coordination problems, and visual disturbances. Treatment options depend on the type, size, and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health and age. Treatment may involve surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Brain neoplasms, also known as brain tumors, are abnormal growths of cells within the brain. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign brain tumors typically grow slowly and do not spread to other parts of the body. However, they can still cause serious problems if they press on sensitive areas of the brain. Malignant brain tumors, on the other hand, are cancerous and can grow quickly, invading surrounding brain tissue and spreading to other parts of the brain or spinal cord.

Brain neoplasms can arise from various types of cells within the brain, including glial cells (which provide support and insulation for nerve cells), neurons (nerve cells that transmit signals in the brain), and meninges (the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord). They can also result from the spread of cancer cells from other parts of the body, known as metastatic brain tumors.

Symptoms of brain neoplasms may vary depending on their size, location, and growth rate. Common symptoms include headaches, seizures, weakness or paralysis in the limbs, difficulty with balance and coordination, changes in speech or vision, confusion, memory loss, and changes in behavior or personality.

Treatment for brain neoplasms depends on several factors, including the type, size, location, and grade of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these approaches. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence and manage any long-term effects of treatment.

Glioblastoma, also known as Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), is a highly aggressive and malignant type of brain tumor that arises from the glial cells in the brain. These tumors are characterized by their rapid growth, invasion into surrounding brain tissue, and resistance to treatment.

Glioblastomas are composed of various cell types, including astrocytes and other glial cells, which make them highly heterogeneous and difficult to treat. They typically have a poor prognosis, with a median survival rate of 14-15 months from the time of diagnosis, even with aggressive treatment.

Symptoms of glioblastoma can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor but may include headaches, seizures, nausea, vomiting, memory loss, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, changes in personality or behavior, and weakness or paralysis on one side of the body.

Standard treatment for glioblastoma typically involves surgical resection of the tumor, followed by radiation therapy and chemotherapy with temozolomide. However, despite these treatments, glioblastomas often recur, leading to a poor overall prognosis.

Cell hypoxia, also known as cellular hypoxia or tissue hypoxia, refers to a condition in which the cells or tissues in the body do not receive an adequate supply of oxygen. Oxygen is essential for the production of energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) through a process called oxidative phosphorylation. When the cells are deprived of oxygen, they switch to anaerobic metabolism, which produces lactic acid as a byproduct and can lead to acidosis.

Cell hypoxia can result from various conditions, including:

1. Low oxygen levels in the blood (hypoxemia) due to lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, or high altitude.
2. Reduced blood flow to tissues due to cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure, peripheral artery disease, or shock.
3. Anemia, which reduces the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood.
4. Carbon monoxide poisoning, which binds to hemoglobin and prevents it from carrying oxygen.
5. Inadequate ventilation due to trauma, drug overdose, or other causes that can lead to respiratory failure.

Cell hypoxia can cause cell damage, tissue injury, and organ dysfunction, leading to various clinical manifestations depending on the severity and duration of hypoxia. Treatment aims to correct the underlying cause and improve oxygen delivery to the tissues.

Anoxia is a medical condition that refers to the absence or complete lack of oxygen supply in the body or a specific organ, tissue, or cell. This can lead to serious health consequences, including damage or death of cells and tissues, due to the vital role that oxygen plays in supporting cellular metabolism and energy production.

Anoxia can occur due to various reasons, such as respiratory failure, cardiac arrest, severe blood loss, carbon monoxide poisoning, or high altitude exposure. Prolonged anoxia can result in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, a serious condition that can cause brain damage and long-term neurological impairments.

Medical professionals use various diagnostic tests, such as blood gas analysis, pulse oximetry, and electroencephalography (EEG), to assess oxygen levels in the body and diagnose anoxia. Treatment for anoxia typically involves addressing the underlying cause, providing supplemental oxygen, and supporting vital functions, such as breathing and circulation, to prevent further damage.

A glioma is a type of tumor that originates from the glial cells in the brain. Glial cells are non-neuronal cells that provide support and protection for nerve cells (neurons) within the central nervous system, including providing nutrients, maintaining homeostasis, and insulating neurons.

Gliomas can be classified into several types based on the specific type of glial cell from which they originate. The most common types include:

1. Astrocytoma: Arises from astrocytes, a type of star-shaped glial cells that provide structural support to neurons.
2. Oligodendroglioma: Develops from oligodendrocytes, which produce the myelin sheath that insulates nerve fibers.
3. Ependymoma: Originate from ependymal cells, which line the ventricles (fluid-filled spaces) in the brain and spinal cord.
4. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM): A highly aggressive and malignant type of astrocytoma that tends to spread quickly within the brain.

Gliomas can be further classified based on their grade, which indicates how aggressive and fast-growing they are. Lower-grade gliomas tend to grow more slowly and may be less aggressive, while higher-grade gliomas are more likely to be aggressive and rapidly growing.

Symptoms of gliomas depend on the location and size of the tumor but can include headaches, seizures, cognitive changes, and neurological deficits such as weakness or paralysis in certain parts of the body. Treatment options for gliomas may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

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"DNA Damage Measured by the Comet Assay in Head and Neck Cancer Patients Treated with Tirapazamine1". Neoplasia.com. Retrieved ...
DNA damage in H. lucorum haemocytes and digestive gland cells is determined by the comet assay. Helix lucorum is used in ...
Electrophoretic preparations used in the case of comet assay can benefit from the use of water objectives. The refractive index ...
A Pilot Study with Alkaline Comet Assay". Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. 62 (1): 41-49. doi:10.2478/10004-1254- ...
Comet) assay". Env. Mol. Mut. 29 (3): 277-288. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-2280(1997)29:3. 3.0.CO;2-9. PMID 9142171. S2CID 27619855 ...
Level of DNA fragmentation as measured, e.g. by Comet assay, advanced maternal age and semen quality. Women with ovary-specific ...
Determination of the effects of some artificial sweeteners on human peripheral lymphocytes using the comet assay. Journal of ...
The damage to the DNA was measured for individual cells using single-gel electrophoresis via the comet assay. Researchers have ...
Swain, U; Subba Rao, K (Aug 2011). "Study of DNA damage via the comet assay and base excision repair activities in rat brain ... PMID: 25858675; PMCID: PMC4394211 Hashimoto, K; Takasaki, W; Sato, I; Tsuda, S (Aug 2007). "DNA damage measured by comet assay ... Helbock, HJ; Beckman, KB; Shigenaga, MK (January 1998). "DNA oxidation matters: the HPLC-electrochemical detection assay of 8- ... "Gene-specific oxidative lesions in aged rat brain detected by polymerase chain reaction inhibition assay". Free Radic. Res. 41 ...
... in human cells evaluated with the comet assay". Mutat. Res. 629 (1): 7-13. doi:10.1016/j.mrgentox.2006.12.007. PMID 17317274. ...
... in human cells evaluated with the comet assay". Mutat. Res. 629 (1): 7-13. doi:10.1016/j.mrgentox.2006.12.007. PMID 17317274. ...
... in human cells evaluated with the comet assay". Mutat. Res. 629 (1): 7-13. doi:10.1016/j.mrgentox.2006.12.007. PMID 17317274. ... Cellulose acetate is degraded within 2-3 weeks under aerobic assay systems of in vitro enrichment cultivation techniques and an ...
"Effects of the anti-malarial compound cryptolepine and its analogues in human lymphocytes and sperm in the Comet assay". ...
... montanus seeds by using comet assay". Genetics and Molecular Research. 13 (4): 10510-10517. doi:10.4238/2014.December.12.12. ...
Koppen G, Verschaeve L (2001). "The alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis/comet assay: a way to study DNA repair in radicle ...
Koppen, G.; Verschaeve, L. (2001). "The alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis/comet assay: a way to study DNA repair in ...
Koppen G, Verschaeve L (2001). "The alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis/comet assay: a way to study DNA repair in radicle ...
Koppen G; Verschaeve L (2001). "The alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis/comet assay: a way to study DNA repair in radicle ...
"Sperm DNA damage measured by the alkaline Comet assay as an independent predictor of male infertility and in vitro ...
N. P. Singh of the "comet" assay for single cell DNA damage. Schneider is the chairperson of the advisory committee to the Los ...
SCSA has numerous advantages when compared to other sperm DNA fragmentation (sDF) assays [TUNEL assay, COMET assay, and Sperm ... Notably, SCSA outcompetes other convention sperm DNA fragmentation (sDF) assays such as TUNEL and COMET in terms of efficiency ... Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA) is a diagnostic approach that detects sperm abnormality with a large extent of DNA ... "Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA) , Center for Women's Health , OHSU". www.ohsu.edu. Retrieved 2021-03-31. Evenson, Donald ...
... causes DNA damage in several types of human cells as judged by assays for genotoxicity such as the comet assay, ... Nicotine derived genotoxic effects in human primary parotid gland cells as assessed in vitro by comet assay, cytokinesis-block ...
The comet assay is an extremely sensitive DNA damage assay. This sensitivity needs to be handled carefully as it is also ... The single cell gel electrophoresis assay (SCGE, also known as comet assay) is an uncomplicated and sensitive technique for the ... The overall structure resembles a comet (hence "comet assay") with a circular head corresponding to the undamaged DNA that ... Comet) assay. I. Management of invasive transitional cell human bladder carcinoma. II. Fluorescent in situ hybridization Comets ...
Source: Comet_Assay.txt. Installation: Download Comet_Assay.txt to the plugin folder or the macro folder and restart ImageJ. ... Instructions for Comet Assay Plugin. These files are provided for use under Open Software License v. 3.0 (OSL-3.0) Downloading ... Description: Calculates the tail length, tail moment, and % of DNA in the tail parameters of the Comet Assay and displays the ... The macro is based on the NIH Image Comet Assay by Herbert M. Miller from 1997. Extensive documentation and instructions are ...
The Comet Assay (also called Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis) is used to assess DNA damage and repair in individual cells ... The Comet Assay (also called Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis) is used to assess DNA damage and repair in individual cells. The ... Comet Assay - Modified for Detection of Oxidized Bases Using the Repair Endonucleases Fpg, hOGG1 and Endonuclease III (Nth). ... Home Protocols Comet Assay - Modified for Detection of Oxidized Bases Using the Repair Endonucleases Fpg, hOGG1 and ...
Rank J, Jensen K. Biomonitoring of DNA damage in the blue mussel using the comet assay. I Molecular ecology, evolution and ... Rank, J & Jensen, K 2003, Biomonitoring of DNA damage in the blue mussel using the comet assay. i Molecular ecology, evolution ... Rank, J., & Jensen, K. (2003). Biomonitoring of DNA damage in the blue mussel using the comet assay. I Molecular ecology, ... Biomonitoring of DNA damage in the blue mussel using the comet assay. / Rank, Jette; Jensen, Klara. Molecular ecology, ...
SDF was analysed using alkaline and neutral Comet assay, SCD test and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and ROC analysis ... SDF for alkaline and neutral Comet, and the SCD test was analysed in these categories of individuals. Data revealed the ...
Cellular damage in spermatozoa from wild-captured Solea senegalensis as detected by two different assays: comet analysis and ...
g Quantification of tail moments in an alkaline comet assay performed after shRNA-mediated knockdown of Setd2 in mouse MLL-AF9/ ... Comet assay. Cells were treated with Doxycycline (1 µg/ml) to induce shRNA expression. shRen.713-expressing cells were treated ... We are grateful for the expert technical assistance of A. Mazouzi with comet assays. We thank G. Stefanzl for storing and ... Comet tail moments, defined as the average distance migrated by the DNA multiplied by the fraction of DNA in the comet tail, ...
About Comet Assay IV Comet Assay IV is the worlds fastest, most consistent comet assay scoring system. ... Comet assay news A guide on scoring a comet slide * Created: Monday, 28 April 2014 10:34 ... If you are new to the comet assay and unsure how to go about scoring your comet slide, hopefully this article will help. We ... We regularly attend comet assay workshops and contribute to the debate towards regulatory acceptance of the assay. ...
... is available at Genprice in USA and Gentaur in Europe. ... The Tech File of Comet Assay Tank for 40 Slides is available here. ...
Palavra-chave: Comet assay utilizada 50 vezes por 5 professores. Utilizada por 5 professores Por ordem de relevância (total: 5) ... Palavra-chave relacionada é aquela que foi utilizada juntamente com "Comet assay" ...
Neutral Comet Assay. The Comet analysis of DNA double-strand breaks was carried out at neutral pH using Trevigen comet assay ... Supplementary Methodology: Cell viability (MTT assay) and Neutral Comet assay. Table S1: List of antibodies used in the study. ... DNA damage was measured by neutral comet assay after 24 h of drug treatment in non-irradiated and irradiated LN229 cells (A) ... DNA damage was measured by neutral comet assay after 24 h of drug treatment in non-irradiated and irradiated LN229 cells (A) ...
Comet assay protocol is an eagle-i resource of type Protocol at Jackson State University. ... Comet assay protocol. eagle-i ID. http://jsu.eagle-i.net/i/0000012b-00bd-75a3-3984-bcfb80000006 ...
The comet assay is a versatile method to detect nuclear DNA damage in individual eukaryotic cells, from yeast to human. The ... The comet assay is commonly used to assess DNA damage. This collection of consensus protocols includes adaptations for a wide ... Measuring DNA modifications with the comet assay: a compendium of protocols. Research output: Contribution to journal › Journal ... The present document includes a series of consensus protocols that describe the application of the comet assay to a wide ...
Comet assay. DNA repair by corneal fibroblasts and keratocytes was assessed by Comet assay using the protocol previously ... In a Comet assay, DNA migrates from the nuclei, or head of the Comet, and forms a progressively longer tail depending on the ... To determine whether MMC treated keratocytes undergo DNA repair, a Comet assay was performed on MMC treated quiescent ... and the lack of formation of DNA interstrand breaks detected by Comet Assay. More troubling was the finding that the effect of ...
Comet assay showed that the percentage of tail DNA content and tail length of the Comet were decreased after applying exogenous ... Comet tail length and DNA% in the tail was measured with Comet Assay IV software (Perceptive Instruments Ltd., Suffolk,UK). ... Left, representative images of Comet assay. Right, quantification of Comet tail DNA% and tail length. (f) DNA damage after ATM ... Left: representative images of Comet assay. Right: quantification of Comet tail DNA% and tail length. (c) Distribution of γ- ...
Comet assay is a technique used to measure DNA damage. It involves subjecting cells to an electric field, causing fragmented ... The term "assay" refers to the analysis of a sample. It involves examining and testing a substance to determine its composition ... This assay is commonly used in research and medical settings to assess genotoxicity, evaluate the effects of various treatments ... Therefore, "analysis of a sample" is the correct answer as it accurately defines the meaning of assay. ...
Comet Assay Extension-Aphelion Extensions. Vision softwareSoftware Comet Assay Extension-Aphelion Extensions. The Comet Assay ... The Comet Assay Extension supports many image formats (e.g., Tiff, Jpeg, Dib and CO1 format) with 8 and 12 bit images. ... Comet Assay Extension requires a valid license for Aphelion Dev. It can be installed on any personal computer running Windows® ... The Comet Assay Extension in the Aphelion™ Imaging Software Suite provides support for the Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis ( ...
A. Nersesyan, C. Hoelzl, F. Ferk, M. Mišík, and S. Knasmueller, in The Comet Assay in Toxicology, ed. A. Dhawan and D. Anderson ...
... and subjected to a comet assay to assess DNA damage. Assay output images were analyzed using OpenComet software. Double-strand ... Comet assay assessment of DNA damage in buccal mucosa cells exposed to X-Rays via Panoramic Radiography. Ryna Dwi Yanuaryska; ( ... Objectives: This study used the comet assay to assess DNA damage in buccal mucosa cells consequent to X ray radiation from ...
Comet Assay. The DNA damage was assessed using the Comet assay as previously reported [29]. Briefly, microscope slides were ... Consistent with the ROS results, the DNA damage assessed using the Comet assay was increased in the H2O2-exposed H9c2 cells ( ... L. Giovannelli, A. Cozzi, I. Guarnieri, P. Dolara, and F. Moroni, "Comet assay as a novel approach for studying DNA damage in ... b) Representative photomicrographs of cells assessed using the Comet assay. (c) DNA damage was calculated as classes of DNA ...
Semen DNA fragmentation index, evaluated with both TUNEL and comet assay, and the ICSI outcome. In: In Vivo. 2007 ; Vol. 21, No ... Semen DNA fragmentation index, evaluated with both TUNEL and comet assay, and the ICSI outcome. In Vivo. 2007;21(6):1075-1080. ... Semen DNA fragmentation index, evaluated with both TUNEL and comet assay, and the ICSI outcome. / Caglar, Gamze Sinem; Köster, ... Dive into the research topics of Semen DNA fragmentation index, evaluated with both TUNEL and comet assay, and the ICSI ...
COMET assay confirmed the stronger action on DNA protection in wild samples. ... and three assays on human cells (two luminol amplified chemiluminescence, LACL, one on DNA damage, COMET) were used to measure ... human neutrophil burst and COMET assay. P.C. Braga, R. Antonacci, Y.Y. Wang, N. Lattuada, M. Dal Sasso, L. Marabini, M. Fibiani ... Comparative antioxidant activity of cultivated and wild Vaccinium species investigated by EPR, human neutrophil burst and COMET ...
OxiSelect Comet Assay Slides (3-Well) , MBS168261 , MyBiosourceProduct Short Name: [OxiSelect Comet Assay Slides (3-Well)] ... Product Name Synonyme: [OxiSelect Comet Assay Slides (3-Well)]Other Names: N/AProduct Gene Name: N/AProduct Gene Name Synonyme ...
the alkaline comet assay pursuing 3 or. Supplementary MaterialsSupporting Information EM-57-469-s001. the alkaline comet assay ... transgene, thus allowing for determination of the mutation frequency based on a positive selection assay for a defective useful ... in mobile and acellular assays [Jacobsen et al., 2008b], induced DNA strand breaks and FPG\delicate sites in FE1 cells [ ...
SDF was analysed using alkaline and neutral Comet assay, SCD test and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and ROC analysis ... Double Stranded Sperm DNA Breaks, Measured by Comet Assay, Are Associated with Unexplained Recurrent Miscarriage in Couples ... MiOXSYS Fragmentación del ADN espermático Zymot ZyMot ICSI SPERMVD Lenshooke Comet CometFertility® OXIDATIVESTRESS FERTILE® ... SDF for alkaline and neutral Comet, and the SCD test was analysed in these categories of individuals. Data revealed the ...
Primary DNA damage assessed with the comet assay and comparison to the absorbed dose of diagnostic X-rays in children ... The results demonstrate the usefulness of the comet assay as a measure of X-ray damage to lymphocytes in a clinical setting. ... x-ray dosimetry; DNA damage; human peripheral blood lymphocytes; alkaline comet assay; ALARA. ... Primary DNA damage assessed with the comet assay and comparison to the absorbed dose of diagnostic X-rays in children. ...
Comet assay. D283-MED cells were cultured in a 12 well plate directly before drug treatments. Cells were collected by ... b) Comet assay (performed according to manufacturers protocol). Percentage of Olive Tail moment was calculated (see methods ... This was further confirmed using an alkaline comet assay, which showed that hypoxia had no direct effect on the ability of ... The samples were diluted with pre-warmed agarose and loaded on the slide provided by the OxiSelectTM comet assay kit. ...
  • The single cell gel electrophoresis assay (SCGE, also known as comet assay) is an uncomplicated and sensitive technique for the detection of DNA damage at the level of the individual eukaryotic cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term "comet" refers to the pattern of DNA migration through the electrophoresis gel, which often resembles a comet. (wikipedia.org)
  • The comet assay (single-cell gel electrophoresis) is a simple method for measuring deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) strand breaks in eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Comet Assay (also called Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis) is used to assess DNA damage and repair in individual cells. (neb.com)
  • The Comet Assay Extension in the Aphelion™ Imaging Software Suite provides support for the Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (SCGE) comet assay. (onlsol.com)
  • In damaged cells, broken DNA spreads towards the anode part of the electrophoresis device, displaying a comet-like shape with an intense head and a diffused tail. (onlsol.com)
  • DFI was evaluated, by both terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUDP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) and single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assays, in the processed semen samples used for ICSI. (uni-luebeck.de)
  • SDF was analysed using alkaline and neutral Comet assay, SCD test and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and ROC analysis including data from 105 more infertile patients (n = 150) was performed to establish predictive threshold values. (fertiliberica.es)
  • DNA integrity of sperm estimated on the basis of single gel electrophoresis and DNA damage, especially single and double strand breaks ( Warnecke and Pluta, 2003 ) are reflected in a comet like dispersion of the DNA fragments. (scialert.net)
  • The aim of this work is to assess DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of children prior to and following airway X-ray examinations of the chest using the alkaline comet assay and to compare data with the measured absorbed dose. (irb.hr)
  • The results demonstrate the usefulness of the comet assay as a measure of X-ray damage to lymphocytes in a clinical setting. (irb.hr)
  • 2-Nitrotoluene was genotoxic in a range of in vitro and in vivo assays, was notably clastogenic in human peripheral lymphocytes and formed DNA adducts in exposed rodents. (gc.ca)
  • DNA damage was analyzed by comet assay in lymphocytes, while % tail DNA and mean tail moment parameters were evaluated. (tubitak.gov.tr)
  • the intensity of the comet tail relative to the head reflects the number of DNA breaks. (wikipedia.org)
  • The length and intensity of the comet tail vary by function of the broken DNA. (onlsol.com)
  • In vitro cytotoxic and non genotoxic effects of gutta-percha solvents on mouse lymphoma cells by single cell gel (comet) assay. (bvsalud.org)
  • The current study evaluated the potential for a select number of environmental contaminants previously detected in the cluster area to induce DNA damage using in vitro assays with hematopoietic stem-cell derived progenitor cells. (cdc.gov)
  • The assay detects single and double-stranded DNA breaks by measuring the migration of DNA from individual nuclei following alkaline treatment. (neb.com)
  • SDF for alkaline and neutral Comet, and the SCD test was analysed in these categories of individuals. (fertiliberica.es)
  • Various applications of the comet assay have been validated by research groups in academia, industry and regulatory agencies, and its strengths are highlighted by the adoption of the comet assay as an in vivo test for genotoxicity in animal organs by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (ku.dk)
  • All treated waters were tested for genotoxicity using the comet assay and showed similar genotoxic potential. (iwaponline.com)
  • Genotoxicity of the compounds was determined using the comet assay, and toxicity determined via the cell viability assay. (cdc.gov)
  • The concept underlying the SCGE assay is that undamaged DNA retains a highly organized association with matrix proteins in the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The comet assay is commonly used to assess DNA damage. (ku.dk)
  • Objectives: This study used the comet assay to assess DNA damage in buccal mucosa cells consequent to X ray radiation from panoramic radiography. (ui.ac.id)
  • Buccal mucosa cells were collected from all participants before exposure to IR and at 30 min or 24 h after exposure in groups 1 and 2, respectively, and subjected to a comet assay to assess DNA damage. (ui.ac.id)
  • On 30 June 22, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) published Test #470: Mammalian Erythrocyte Pig-a Gene Mutation Assay , a Test Guideline (TG) that describes an in vivo gene mutation assay that can be combined with other genetic and general toxicology tests to promote the efficient use of animal resources. (hesiglobal.org)
  • DFI assessed by the TUNEL assay was negatively correlated with sperm concentration, progressive motility and sperm morphology. (uni-luebeck.de)
  • The motility, fertilising ability and DNA integrity of freeze-thawed goldfish sperm was evaluated using computer-aided sperm motility analysis and the comet assay. (scialert.net)
  • 2,3,7,8-TCDD was particularly potent, inducing DNA damage in virtually all cells at 1 M. In conclusion, most of the toxins evaluated using the comet assay showed potential to induce DNA damage in hematopoietic cells, and the genotoxic effects were dose-dependent. (cdc.gov)
  • The comet assay is a versatile method to detect nuclear DNA damage in individual eukaryotic cells, from yeast to human. (ku.dk)
  • Depending on the specimen type, there are important modifications to the comet assay protocol to avoid the formation of additional DNA damage during the processing of samples and to ensure sufficient sensitivity to detect differences in damage levels between sample groups. (ku.dk)
  • The present document includes a series of consensus protocols that describe the application of the comet assay to a wide variety of cell types, species and types of DNA damage, thereby demonstrating its versatility. (ku.dk)
  • MMC also induced phosphorylation of the nuclear histone marker of DNA damage, γH2AX (a member of the H2A histone family), without induction of cell cycle entry or immediate DNA repair measured by Comet assay. (molvis.org)
  • DNA damage in HepG2 cells after TIGAR knockdown with or without treatment of epirubicin or CoCl 2 was detected by Comet assay. (nature.com)
  • Four cell-free antioxidant assays (ABTS radical scavenging and electronic paramagnetic resonance using Fremy's salt, superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical), and three assays on human cells (two luminol amplified chemiluminescence, LACL, one on DNA damage, COMET) were used to measure the effects of cultivated blueberry (V. corymbosum) and wild bilberry (V. myrtillus) on the differently induced oxidative stress. (europeanreview.org)
  • Nano-TiO2 also formed small agglomerates in medium containing as little as 1% protein and caused cellular interaction as measured by side scatter by flow cytometry and DNA damage (comet assay) in HepG2 cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Endurance exercise results in DNA damage as detected by the comet assay. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Patulin cause a dose-dependent DNA damage in comet assay which was influenced by the cellular GSH content. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Comet assay with cells of kidney and liver revealed a slight protective impact of Dacapo extract on DNA damage compared to the other groups. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Using the comet assay, 16 compounds at 10 nM concentration, induced a significant amount of DNA damage compared to the control. (cdc.gov)
  • Comet Assay Tank for 40 Slides is available at Genprice in USA and Gentaur in Europe. (genprice.shop)
  • The antioxidant properties of resveratrol were shown in ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Calculates the tail length, tail moment, and % of DNA in the tail parameters of the Comet Assay and displays the results in the results table. (unc.edu)
  • This collection of consensus protocols includes adaptations for a wide range of species and sample types, assay formats and detection of different types of DNA lesions. (ku.dk)
  • Two other assays were performed with freshwater crustaceans, T. platyurus and D. magna, underlining no significant differences with controls with both species. (easychair.org)
  • The assay can reveal 100 breaks per cell on average. (onlsol.com)
  • Endometrium-derived epithelial cells (Ishikawa) showed no response to the natural compound by using a cell viability assay (MTT). (nutrimedical.com)
  • Cell proliferation, chemosensitivity, and apoptosis were assessed through CCK-8 assay and Annexin V-APC/PI staining. (bvsalud.org)
  • The comet assay quantifies the ratio of simple and double DNA breaks within individual cells. (onlsol.com)
  • VANCOUVER, BC, Aug. 5, 2022 /CNW/ - Fosterville South Exploration Ltd. ("Fosterville South") or (the "Company") (TSXV: FSX) (OTCQX: FSXLF) (Germany: 4TU) reports gold assay results from drilling at the Comet-New Trojan prospect at the Lauriston Project, Golden Mountain Project and Providence Project. (fostervillesouth.com)
  • Sensitivity and specificity of the empirical lymphocyte genome sensitivity (LGS) assay: implications for improving cancer diagnostics. (bradford.ac.uk)
  • This protocol of Dr. Andrew Collins is from the Comet Assay Interest Group web site at http://cometassay.com/ . (neb.com)
  • This site is maintained by Instem , industry-leading experts in image analysis for the comet assay. (scorecomets.com)
  • Comet Assay IV is the world's fastest, most consistent comet assay scoring system. (scorecomets.com)
  • However, in cellular system resveratrol in higher concentrations revealed also prooxidative properties, as shown in 2,7-dichlordihydrofluorescein (DCF) assay. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Comet Assay Extension requires a valid license for Aphelion Dev. (onlsol.com)
  • Comet assay allows comparisons using a simple procedure and requires small sample size. (scialert.net)
  • A follow up program of an additional four reverse circulation holes was completed to test mineralization at a deeper level and further south for which assays remain pending. (fostervillesouth.com)
  • At the New Trojan Prospect, which is 2.5 kilometers to the north of the Comet prospect, the drill program consisted of an initial ten reverse circulation holes to test various shallow gold workings and anomalous soil geochemistry. (fostervillesouth.com)
  • Similar to the Comet prospect, a significant portion of the drill holes intersected gold mineralization. (fostervillesouth.com)
  • We are very proud that Comet Assay IV is being used by researchers and scientists across the globe publishing in a selection of high impact journals (e.g. (scorecomets.com)
  • Assay output images were analyzed using OpenComet software. (ui.ac.id)
  • All the assays (except for the hydroxyl radical scavenging) showed a good relationship mainly with anthocyanin and polyphenol content and the significant greater activity of wild Vaccinium extracts. (europeanreview.org)
  • A significant number of drill holes at the Comet prospect intersected gold mineralization (see Table 1). (fostervillesouth.com)
  • We hypothized a mechanism via cross-linking of DNA, which was confirmed by a modified version of comet assay. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • The comet assay is a technique which can evaluate the DNA integrity of cells. (scialert.net)
  • 2007]. We've reported that carbon dark had not been cytotoxic previously, but generated reactive air types (ROS) in mobile and acellular assays [Jacobsen et al. (healthcarecoremeasures.com)
  • The lysis solution often used in the comet assay consists of a highly concentrated aqueous salt (often, common table salt can be used) and a detergent (such as Triton X-100 or sarcosinate). (wikipedia.org)