A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
High temperature destruction of waste by burning with subsequent reduction to ashes or conversion to an inert mass.
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.
The contamination of indoor air.
The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.
Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)
Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.
Debris resulting from a process that is of no further use to the system producing it. The concept includes materials discharged from or stored in a system in inert form as a by-product of vital activities. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
A circumstance where a substance or organism takes fire and burns without an exogenous source. Spontaneous human combustion differs from preternatural human combustibility in that in the latter, some spark or trivial flame sets the fire and the body tissues, which have a greatly enhanced inflammability, continue to undergo incineration without any external heat source or combustible materials. (Bergman NA. Spontaneous human combustion: its role in literature and science. Pharos 1988;Fall;51(4):18-21)
Various material objects and items in the home. It includes temporary or permanent machinery and appliances. It does not include furniture or interior furnishings (FURNITURE see INTERIOR DESIGN AND FURNISHINGS; INTERIOR FURNISHINGS see INTERIOR DESIGN AND FURNISHINGS).
Residue generated from combustion of coal or petroleum.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
Relating to the size of solids.
Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.
Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Pulmonary injury following the breathing in of toxic smoke from burning materials such as plastics, synthetics, building materials, etc. This injury is the most frequent cause of death in burn patients.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Toxic asphyxiation due to the displacement of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin by carbon monoxide.
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Burns of the respiratory tract caused by heat or inhaled chemicals.
The discarding or destroying of garbage, sewage, or other waste matter or its transformation into something useful or innocuous.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN); A toxic liquid or colorless gas. It is found in the smoke of various tobacco products and released by combustion of nitrogen-containing organic materials.
Inorganic oxides of sulfur.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
A refined petroleum fraction used as a fuel as well as a solvent.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of metabolism or mechanical energy of periodic movements, into electrical energy.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.
AUTOMOBILES, trucks, buses, or similar engine-driven conveyances. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.
Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.
Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.
A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.
A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
Respirators to protect individuals from breathing air contaminated with harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays, or vapors.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).
Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.
Permanent roads having a line of rails fixed to ties and laid to gage, usually on a leveled or graded ballasted roadbed and providing a track for freight cars, passenger cars, and other rolling stock. Cars are designed to be drawn by locomotives or sometimes propelled by self-contained motors. (From Webster's 3d) The concept includes the organizational and administrative aspects of railroads as well.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
The geographic designation for states bordering on or located in the Pacific Ocean. The states so designated are Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington. (U.S. Geologic Survey telephone communication)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.
An amorphous form of carbon prepared from the incomplete combustion of animal or vegetable matter, e.g., wood. The activated form of charcoal is used in the treatment of poisoning. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Substances which, when ingested, inhaled, or absorbed, or when applied to, injected into, or developed within the body in relatively small amounts may, by their chemical action, cause damage to structure or disturbance of function. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
The physical effects involving the presence of electric charges at rest and in motion.
Substances that are energetically unstable and can produce a sudden expansion of the material, called an explosion, which is accompanied by heat, pressure and noise. Other things which have been described as explosive that are not included here are explosive action of laser heating, human performance, sudden epidemiological outbreaks, or fast cell growth.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Using ice skates, roller skates, or skateboards in racing or other competition or for recreation.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.
An organochlorophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide for the control of flies and roaches. It is also used in anthelmintic compositions for animals. (From Merck, 11th ed)
That branch of medicine dealing with the studies and effects of flight through the atmosphere or in space upon the human body and with the prevention or cure of physiological or psychological malfunctions arising from these effects. (from NASA Thesaurus)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
The principles of proper conduct concerning the rights and duties of the professional, relations with patients or consumers and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the professional and interpersonal relations with patient or consumer families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.
Living facilities for humans.
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)
Transport of the OVUM or fertilized ovum (ZYGOTE) from the mammalian oviduct (FALLOPIAN TUBES) to the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION in the UTERUS.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).
Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
The process of moving specific RNA molecules from one cellular compartment or region to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).
A group of condensed ring hydrocarbons.
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
A family of proteins involved in the transport of organic cations. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics, and their metabolites from the body.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A family of monosaccharide transport proteins characterized by 12 membrane spanning helices. They facilitate passive diffusion of GLUCOSE across the CELL MEMBRANE.
Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.
2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
Epithelial cells that line the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
Passive or active movement of SPERMATOZOA from the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES through the male reproductive tract as well as within the female reproductive tract.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A class of chemicals that contain an anthracene ring with a naphthalene ring attached to it.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Compounds that contain a BENZENE ring fused to a furan ring.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOSIDES across cellular membranes.
Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A family of diphenylenemethane derivatives.
A set of protein subcomplexes involved in PROTEIN SORTING of UBIQUITINATED PROTEINS into intraluminal vesicles of MULTIVESICULAR BODIES and in membrane scission during formation of intraluminal vesicles, during the final step of CYTOKINESIS, and during the budding of enveloped viruses. The ESCRT machinery is comprised of the protein products of Class E vacuolar protein sorting genes.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.
... s are external combustion engines, where the working fluid is separated from the combustion products. The ideal ... Penrhyn, UK: Atlantic Transport Publishers. pp. 2-3. ISBN 978-0-906899-61-8. Brooks, John. Dreadnought Gunnery at the Battle of ... In the 20th century, the rapid development of internal combustion engine technology led to the demise of the steam engine as a ... Pumping the working fluid in liquid form during the cycle requires a small fraction of the energy to transport it compared to ...
Spontaneous combustion[edit]. The improper storage of pistachio products in bulk containers has been known to start fires. ... "Transport Information Service. Gesamtverband Deutsche Versicherungswirtschaft. Retrieved 2007-11-05.. External links[edit]. ... "Risk factor: self-heating/spontaneous combustion". Container Handbook. Gesamtverband Deutsche Versicherungswirtschaft. ... the nuts and especially kernels are prone to self-heating and spontaneous combustion when stored with the oil-soaked fiber/ ...
ISBN 0-521-34060-8. "Risk factor: self-heating/spontaneous combustion". Container Handbook. Gesamtverband Deutsche ... "Pistachio Nuts: Self-heating". Transport Information Service. Gesamtverband Deutsche Versicherungswirtschaft. Retrieved 5 ... the nuts and especially kernels are prone to self-heating and spontaneous combustion when stored with oil-soaked fiber or ...
Unlike internal combustion engines, electric motors draw power from a central plant and can be overloaded for short periods ... "Transport in Kiev, Ukraine". www.classicbuses.co.uk. Retrieved 2020-10-20. Trolleybus Magazine No. 321 (May-June 2015), p. 90 ... This can result in cost savings when trolleybuses are added to a transport system that already has trams, though this refers ... Dunbar p. 84 Dunbar p. 83 J. S. King, Keighley Corporation Transport, (Advertiser Press Ltd, 1964, no ISBN) p. 39 et seq. ...
The elevator was powered by an internal combustion engine. An area for maintenance supplies was present, in order to transport ... Internal combustion engine The manager of the radio station from 1974 to 1980 was Zygmunt Duczmalewski . His successor, Witold ...
"Pressure Gain Combustion Program Committee - Resources". AIAA Pressure Gain Combustion Program Committee. Retrieved 2016-12-30 ... Computational simulations and experimental results have shown that the RDE has potential in transport and other applications. ... The combustion products expand out of the channel and are pushed out of the channel by the incoming fuel and oxidizer. Although ... In detonative combustion, the results expand at supersonic speed. It is theoretically more efficient than conventional ...
... but still rely on an internal combustion engine (such as hydrogen internal combustion engine vehicles (HICEVs)) and these are ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "How to get rid of dirty diesels on city roads" (PDF). Transport & Environment. March ... Combustion engine phase-out briefing Heleen Ekker (1 September 2020). "Nieuwe studie: elektrische auto gaat langer mee dan ... In 2018 Volkswagen Group's strategy chief said "the year 2026 will be the last product start on a combustion engine platform" ...
... transport, handle and store; it is easy to ignite and has good combustion characteristics; it can be used in power stations ... An alcohol-based surfactant recently replaced the original phenol-based version; improving the transport properties of the fuel ...
These include erosion, transport, fossil fuel combustion, and bacterial formation. The latter includes extracellular ... Environmental magnetism is the study of magnetism as it relates to the effects of climate, sediment transport, pollution and ...
Methane is more easily stored and transported than hydrogen. Storage and combustion infrastructure (pipelines, gasometers, ... Methane combustion produces carbon dioxide (CO2) and water. The carbon dioxide can be recycled to boost the Sabatier process ... Public transport systems like trams and trolleybuses require electricity, but due to their variability in movement, a steady ... In the electrolysis stage, oxygen is stored for methane combustion in a pure oxygen environment at an adjacent power plant, ...
... and momentum transport limitations across phases; and the difficulty of achieving and sustaining combustion of the metal. In ...
On complete combustion it has no emissions other than nitrogen and water vapour. The combustion chemical formula is 4 NH3 + 3 ... Then, the LNG is transported via semi trailer to fuel stations where it is stored in bulk tanks until it is dispensed into a ... These cars generally use the hydrogen in one of two methods: combustion or fuel-cell conversion. In combustion, the hydrogen is ... A steam engine uses external combustion, as opposed to internal combustion. Gasoline-powered cars are more efficient at about ...
Peters, N. (1983). Local quenching due to flame stretch and non-premixed turbulent combustion. Combustion Science and ... They have the advantage of showing strong coupling between chemical reactions and molecular transport. 2. The steady laminar ... Peters, N. (1984). Laminar diffusion flamelet models in non-premixed turbulent combustion. Progress in energy and combustion ... on Combustion/The Combustion Institute. pp. 1057-1064. 1. Versteeg H.K. and Malalasekera W., An introduction to computational ...
Fluid mechanics and combustion Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Combustion, p. 1-18 Pittsburgh, Pa., ... Transport properties of helium from 200 to 50.000°K by Wilbert James Lick, Howard Wilson Emmons Harvard University Press: ... Combustion Institute, 1971. "The Further History of Fire Science" Combustion Science and Technology, 40, 1984 (reprinted in ... The fire whirl by Howard W. Emmons and Shuh-Jing Ying Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Combustion, p. 475-486 ...
"Fellows of The Combustion Institute , The Combustion Institute". 2017-06-20. Retrieved 2021-03-04. "Home - Professor Guillermo ... associate editor of Thermal and Mass Transport (Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering) from 2016; Guest Editor of Proceedings of ... Rein is best known for his contributions to smouldering combustion research in the field of fire science. He is a fellow of The ... His research is focused on fire, combustion, and heat transfer. He is the editor-in-chief of the journal Fire Technology since ...
"Transport Environment.org Transport & Environment, Bulletin - News from the European Federation for Transport and Environment, ... "EU Commission wages war on combustion engines with hyper-strict emissions standards". "COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) No 582/2011 ( ... "Transport & Environment - Emissions from Maritime Transport". European Commission. 2015-02-16. Retrieved 2015-02-28. "Emission ... EU transport emissions of CO 2 currently[when?] account for about 3.5% of total global CO 2 emissions. The purpose of Directive ...
... calls for a shift from combustion powered road transport to bicycles, walking and rail transport and the replacement of ... Popular alternatives are human-powered transport, public transport, electric vehicles, and biofuels. Natural gas is widely used ... Many countries and cities have introduced bans on the sales of new internal combustion engine vehicles, requiring all new cars ... Black carbon - a pollutant created by combustion of fossil fuels, biofuels, and biomass - is possibly the second largest ...
Another reason is that the cost of processing and transporting raw corn can be more expensive than transporting and processing ... These buses will use ethanol-powered internal-combustion engines and electric motors. The vehicles' diesel engines will use ... Stockholm will introduce a fleet of Swedish-made electric hybrid buses in its public transport system on a trial basis in 2008 ... In 2006 Brazilian ethanol provided 18% of the country's road transport sector fuel consumption needs, and by April 2008, more ...
The relative energy required for transport of a tonne-km for various modes of transport are: pipelines=1(basis), water 2, rail ... Preheated combustion air was used in iron production and in the open hearth furnace. In 1780, before the introduction of hot ... Sailing ships could transport goods for over a 3000 miles for the cost of 30 miles by wagon. A horse that could pull a one-ton ... Piggyback is the transporting of trailers or entire trucks on rail cars, which is a more fuel efficient means of shipping and ...
Lokomotywy spalinowe produkcji polskiej [Combustion engine locomotives of Polish manufacture] (in Polish). Warsaw: WKiŁ. ISBN ... Polish locomotives designation Modern Locos Gallery Rail Service Mikoleje Chabówka Rail Museum MaSzynaWiki Rail transport ...
The cleaner combustion also has fewer particulate emissions, lower NOx due to the complete combustion of the gas within the ... The main purpose of fuel is to store energy, which should be in a stable form and can be easily transported to the place of use ... The least expensive source of carbon for recycling into fuel is flue-gas emissions from fossil-fuel combustion, where it can be ... Propane is stored and transported in a liquid state at roughly 5 bar (73 psi) of pressure. Fueling vehicles are similar to ...
Daylight transport usually required animal power until internal combustion locomotives were developed. Large quantities of hay ... A wagon for transporting artillery shells. A rectangular water tank car is in the background. Orenstein and Koppel GmbH ... Deutz AG produced two-hundred 4-wheel internal combustion locomotives with an evaporative cooling water jacket surrounding the ... ammunition and fortification construction materials where transport facilities had been destroyed. Reconstruction of ...
Direct partial combustion has been demonstrated in nature but not replicated commercially. Technologies reliant on partial ... The motivation for GTL is to produce liquid fuels, which are more readily transported than methane. Methane must be cooled ... Two general strategies exist: (i) direct partial combustion of methane to methanol and (ii) Fischer-Tropsch-like processes that ... Because of the associated cryogenic apparatus, LNG tankers are used for transport. Methanol is a conveniently handled ...
The carbon arises from the excessive heating of engine oil or from incomplete combustion. This soot may contain fullerenes ... While smaller particles are readily transported by the lubrication system, larger carbon particles may abrade components with ... Undesired abrasion may result from the presence of carbon in internal combustion engines. ... transport heat (which may affect the physical properties of the workpiece or the abrasive), decrease friction (with the ...
The transport system prioritizes walking and cycling. The use of vehicles with internal combustion engines is prohibited in the ... Railway transport will be available via Belorussky Rail Terminal and Kiyevsky Rail Terminal. A link to Vnukovo International ...
It was used all summer and transported thousands of passengers. Each train consisted of a Waggonet and a trailer and offered ... It was the first piece of rolling stock with an internal combustion engine. It was successfully tested in summer 1887 between ... Three original vehicles for passenger and goods transport are exhibited in the Mercedes-Benz Museum in Stuttgart. In 1887, the ... It was well received as a convenient means of passenger transport between Wilhelmsplatz and Kursaal. Starting in 1890, he sold ...
"Role of firebrand combustion in large outdoor fire spread", Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 76, 100801, 2020. " ... 2016 Tibor Z. Harmathy Award from Springer Nature for a paper, "Experimental Study of Firebrand Transport" 2016 Best Journal ... "Role of firebrand combustion in large outdoor fire spread". Progress in Energy and Combustion Science. 76: 100801. doi:10.1016/ ... He has worked on microgravity droplet combustion, droplet-surface interaction, soot formation in well-stirred reactor/plug flow ...
... and other combustion byproducts. Incomplete combustion occurs when there is insufficient oxygen; the inputs are fuels ... In the case of heated water or steam, piping is used to transport the heat to the rooms. Most modern hot water boiler heating ... The use of furnaces, space heaters, and boilers as a method of indoor heating could result in incomplete combustion and the ... Carbon monoxide binds with hemoglobin in the blood, forming carboxyhemoglobin, reducing the blood's ability to transport oxygen ...
... transport and measurement. The second is "The age of Power". This deals with steam power, internal combustion engines and ...
... the natural gas combustion required to produce and transport LNG to the plants adds 20 to 40 percent more carbon dioxide than ... Natural gas has far more volume than oil to transport, and most gas is transported by pipelines. There is a natural gas ... emissions from natural gas transported as LNG are higher than that of natural gas produced locally to the point of combustion, ... LNG is transported using both tanker truck,[106] railway tanker cars,[107] and purpose built ships known as LNG carriers. LNG ...
Yaws, Carl L. (2009). Transport Properties of Chemicals and Hydrocarbons. New York: William Andrew Inc. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-8155 ... combustion ΔcH. o. 298 8675.9 kJ/mol[7] Specific heat capacity, C 432.01 J/mol·K[5][7] ...
The ancient Romans also had a complex system of aqueducts,[52] which were used to transport water across long distances.[52] ... Antoine Lavoisier conducting an experiment with combustion generated by amplified sun light ... The rise in technology has led to skyscrapers and broad urban areas whose inhabitants rely on motors to transport them and ... Main article: History of transport. Meanwhile, humans were learning to harness other forms of energy. The earliest known use of ...
Internal combustion engine * sw:Internal combustion engine. International Court of Justice * sw:International Court of Justice ... Transport * sw:Usafiri. Treaty of Versailles * sw:Mkataba wa Versailles. Tree * sw:Mti. Trigonometry * sw:Trigonometry. ...
Within the region the local transport authorities carry out transport planning through the use of a Local Transport Plan (LTP) ... and Hamworthy Combustion (owned by Koch Industries), at the A349/A3049 junction in Fleetsbridge, is an international ... TransportEdit. The region lies on several main line railways. The Great Western Main Line runs from London Paddington to ... Transport for Wales also operates services between Maesteg and Cheltenham Spa and West Midlands Trains operates a parliamentary ...
Separate production wells are used to bring the product gas to the surface.[7][9] The high pressure combustion is conducted at ... Underground product gas is an alternative to natural gas and potentially offers cost savings by eliminating mining, transport, ... Underground combustion produces NO. x and SO. 2 and lowers emissions, including acid rain. ... Injection wells are used to supply the oxidants (air, oxygen) and steam to ignite and fuel the underground combustion process. ...
EU to phase out palm oil from transport fuel by 2030 *^ a b The Royal Society (January 2008). Sustainable biofuels: prospects ... Syngas may be burned directly in internal combustion engines, turbines or high-temperature fuel cells.[27] The wood gas ... "Technology Roadmap, Biofuels for Transport" (PDF). 2011.. *^ Hall, Jeremy; Matos, Stelvia; Silvestre, Bruno; Martin, Michael ( ... Biofuels currently make up 3.1%[71] of the total road transport fuel in the UK or 1,440 million litres. By 2020, 10% of the ...
Water is a common impurity in ionic liquids as it can be absorbed from the atmosphere and influences the transport properties ... "Synthesis, Characterization and Combustion of Triazolium Based Salts" (PDF). pp. 1-23. Retrieved 2016-03-02 ...
... and could not be transported long distances because of problems with self-combustion. Mining generally took place in winter ... Although SNC Space Systems' Dream Chaser was not chosen by NASA as one of three commercial spacecraft to transport astronauts ...
If biomass sources are not close by the combustion unit, transporting biomass emits CO2 offsetting the amount of CO2 captured ... Post-combustion[edit]. In addition to pre-combustion and oxy-fuel combustion technologies, post-combustion is a promising ... the efficiency of post-combustion technology is expected to be 95% while pre-combustion and oxy-combustion capture CO2 at an ... post-combustion, pre-combustion, and oxy-fuel combustion.[20] ... Pre-combustion[edit]. "Pre-combustion carbon capture" describes ...
Internal combustion engines[edit]. Further information: Internal combustion engine cooling. The water jacket around an engine ... The primary advantage of water cooling for cooling CPU cores in computing equipment is transporting heat away from the source ... Water cooling is commonly used for cooling automobile internal combustion engines and power stations. Water coolers utilising ... This method was common in early internal combustion engines, until scale buildup was observed from dissolved salts and minerals ...
The original mass of combustible material and the mass of the oxygen required for combustion equals the mass of the combustion ... transporting powders, filing silos and containers (which produces powder), and the mixing and blending of powders.[17] ... Non-combustible material[20] - A non-combustible material is a substance that does not ignite, burn, support combustion, or ... Flammability is the ease with which a combustible substance can be ignited, causing fire or combustion or even an explosion. ...
Gas turbine and some other types of internal combustion engines, and external combustion engine, both can also be designed to ... "Alternative Transport Fuels - Courtesy of AIP". world-petroleum.org. World Petroleum Council. 2009. Archived from the original ... Date, Anil W. (7 March 2011). Analytic Combustion: With Thermodynamics, Chemical Kinetics and Mass Transfer (Google eBook). ... Dimethyl ether, DME, is a synthetic, gaseous diesel fuel that results in clean combustion with very little soot and reduced NOx ...
... the Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation obliges suppliers to include 5% renewable fuel in all transport fuel sold in the UK by ... Combustion[edit]. Fuel systems on some modern diesel engines were not designed to accommodate biodiesel, while many heavy duty ... Emissions are inherent to the combustion of diesel fuels that are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (E.P.A. ... This control of atomization as well as combustion allows for greater efficiency of modern diesel engines as well as greater ...
Without them, there wouldn't be much transport. People also burn fossil fuels to heat their homes. They use coal less for this ... This can be reduced by making the combustion process more efficient, and by using various techniques to reduce the escape of ...
"Transport Information Service of the German Insurance Association. Retrieved 15 February 2018.. ... "Everything You Need to Know About Combustion Chemistry & Analysis - Industrial Controls".. *^ http://www.scienceofcooking.com/ ... Heat convection, to the surrounding air, and thermal radiation are the primary modes of heat transport from the body. Under ...
Transport[edit]. SVCTs appear to be the predominant system for vitamin C transport in the body,[102] the notable exception ... "for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the ... Ascorbic acid is absorbed in the body by both active transport and simple diffusion. Sodium-Dependent Active Transport-Sodium- ... Wilson JX (2005). "Regulation of vitamin C transport". Annual Review of Nutrition. 25: 105-125. doi:10.1146/annurev.nutr. ...
The advent of modern transportation made it easier to transport food products over long distances and the need for the time and ... The motor and the combustion fan regulate the temperature of the smoker by feeding it more pellets and increasing airflow in ... When smoking using wood chips or chunks, the combustion temperature is often raised by soaking the pieces in water before ... An ignition rod within the auger ignites the pellets where a combustion fan keeps them smouldering. ...
SFC - Soot Free Combustion: large scale biomass gasification, 03.03.11 *^ Biofuel gasification in unique CHP plant Archived ... Transport fuelEdit. Diesel engines can be operated on dual fuel mode using producer gas. Diesel substitution of over 80% at ... The combustion process occurs as the volatile products and some of the char react with oxygen to primarily form carbon dioxide ... Combustion of syngas or derived fuels emits exactly the same amount of carbon dioxide as would have been emitted from direct ...
In oceanography a common unit to measure volume transport (volume of water transported by a current for example) is a sverdrup ... sensor is used to accurately determine the mass flow rate of intake air used in the internal combustion engine. Many such mass ...
Milk is then transported (manually in buckets) or with a combination of airflow and mechanical pump to a central storage vat or ... often an internal combustion engine, for the vacuum and milk pumps. ... Later, cream was separated from the milk by machine on the farm, and transported to a factory to be made into butter. The skim ... Milk coming from the cow is transported to a nearby storage vessel by the airflow leaking around the cups on the cow or by a ...
... "liquid electrolytes to transport lithium ions between the anode and the cathode. If a battery cell is charged too quickly, it ... compared to combustion engines. ...
The electron transport chain pulls H+ ions through the chain. From the electron transport chain, the released hydrogen ions ... a b c Schmidt-Rohr, K. (2015). "Why Combustions Are Always Exothermic, Yielding About 418 kJ per Mole of O2", J. Chem. Educ. 92 ... The mitochondrial electron transport chain proton pump transfers across the inner membrane 10 H+ / 1 NADH+H+ (4 + 2 + 4) or 6 H ... NADH can be used by the electron transport chain to create further ATP as part of oxidative phosphorylation. To fully oxidize ...
Thus, whereas all the air taken in by a turbojet passes through the combustion chamber and turbines, in a turbofan some of that ... To boost fuel economy and reduce noise, almost all of today's jet airliners and most military transport aircraft (e.g., the C- ... Whereas all the air taken in by a turbojet passes through the turbine (through the combustion chamber), in a turbofan some of ... Modern combat aircraft tend to use low-bypass ratio turbofans, and some military transport aircraft use turboprops. ...
The combustion of hydrocarbons, such as in an internal combustion engine, produces water, carbon dioxide, some partially ... For example, during the combustion of wood with molecular oxygen, the oxidation state of carbon atoms in the wood increases and ... "Why Combustions Are Always Exothermic, Yielding About 418 kJ per Mole of O2". J. Chem. Educ. 92 (12): 2094-2099. doi:10.1021/ ...
The combustion of octane, a representative species, performs the chemical reaction: 2. C. 8. H. 18. +. 25. O. 2. ⟶. 16. CO. 2. ... The Defense Supplies Corporation would buy, transport and store all aviation gasoline for the Army and Navy at cost plus a ... A gasoline-fueled internal combustion engine obtains energy from the combustion of gasoline's various hydrocarbons with oxygen ... Combustion of 1 U.S. gallon (3.8 L) of gasoline produces 8.74 kilograms (19.3 lb) of carbon dioxide (2.3 kg/l), a greenhouse ...
It is used to store oxygen rather than transport it.. Hemocyanin. The second most common oxygen-transporting protein found in ... and incomplete combustion in furnaces). CO competes with oxygen at the heme binding site. Hemoglobin's binding affinity for CO ... This nitric oxide transport to peripheral tissues is hypothesized to assist oxygen transport in tissues, by releasing ... of carbon dioxide transport in mammals. Nitric oxide can also be transported by hemoglobin; it is bound to specific thiol ...
A diesel engine is a type of internal combustion engine which ignites fuel by injecting it into a combustion chamber previously ... Some common properties of liquid fuels are that they are easy to transport, and can be handled with relative ease. Physical ... Its combustion is very clean compared to other hydrocarbon fuels, but the fuel's low boiling point requires the fuel to be kept ... It is a common liquid rocket fuel for rocket applications and can be used as a fuel in an internal combustion engine or fuel ...
It is produced in eukaryotic organisms from succinate in complex 2 of the electron transport chain via the enzyme succinate ... Fumaric acid converts to the irritant maleic anhydride, upon partial combustion. It is "practically non-toxic" but high doses ... a measured quantity of carbon can be ground with the subject compound and the enthalpy of combustion computed by difference. ...
With many of our research topics, we are concerned with multi-mode (diffusive, turbulent, radiative) transport behavior between ... Systems that contain multiple phases, chemical dynamics, and the transport of mass, energy, chemical species, and momentum. ... and advanced research needs in the areas of combustion, fire science, and a wide range of systems. ... The Combustion and Reacting Transport Section at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory addresses the Navys basic, applied, ...
Transport medicine personnel are potentially exposed to jet fuel combustion products. Setting-specific data are required to ... Occupational health and safety assessment of exposure to jet fuel combustion products in air medical transport. https:// ... Air medical personnel exposures to jet fuel combustion products were generally low and did not exceed established U.S. or ... This study assessed exposure to jet fuel combustion products, compared various engine ignition scenarios, and determined ...
Combustion Road transport Domestic shipping Domestic aviation Agriculture Rail transport, off-road machinery Product use Waste ... The Centres for Economic Development, Transport and the Environment. Regional State Administrative Agencies. The Housing ... as well as activities like transport and product use. Finnish PRTR facilities reports are available through the E-PRTR website. ...
9.1 Internal Combustion Engines 9.1.1 Every new ship should be fitted with a marine diesel engine and a sufficient supply of ... 9.1.8 Combustion and cooling air should be ducted from the weather deck, such ducts being arranged so as to minimize the ... Where combustion air is drawn from within the machinery space, the intake duct cross-section area should be proportionally ... 1.5 The owner of a ship should demonstrate to the satisfaction of Transport Canada, Marine Safety Directorate, that each person ...
The Combustion and Fire Systems program is part of the Transport Phenomena cluster, which also includes 1) the Fluid Dynamics ... Basic combustion science: Combustion of gas, liquid, and solid fuels over a broad range of temperatures, pressures, and ... technologies such as oxy-fuel combustion and chemical looping combustion for carbon capture. ... Combustion science related to clean energy: Increasing efficiency and reducing pollution; production and use of renewable fuels ...
Combustion research in the past used fluid mechanics with global heat release by chemical reactions described with ... Combustion is an old technology, which at present provides about 90% of our worldwide energy support. ... Transport Phenomena. Pages 49-64. Warnatz, Professor Dr. Dr. h.c. Jürgen (et al.) ... Combustion is an old technology, which at present provides about 90% of our worldwide energy support. Combustion research in ...
Combustion research in the past used fluid mechanics with global heat release by chemical reaction ... Combustion is an old technology, which at present provides about 90% of our worldwide energy support. ... Navier-Stokes equation chemistry classification fluid mechanics thermodynamics transport Authors and affiliations. *Jürgen ... Combustion is an old technology, which at present provides about 90% of our worldwide energy support. Combustion research in ...
Combustion research in the past used fluid mechanics with global heat release by chemical reactions described with ... Combustion is an old technology, which at present provides about 90% of our worldwide energy support. ... Combustion is an old technology, which at present provides about 90% of our worldwide energy support (e.g., in traffic, ... Also, combustion-specific topics of chemistry and fluid mechanics are considered, and tools are described for the simulation of ...
... thermal transport processes; (14) combustion; (15) nanoparticle interactions; (16) industrially-relevant biomolecular ... Division of Chemical, Bioengineering, Environmental and Transport Systems. Division of Civil, Mechanical and Manufacturing ... and Transport Systems (CBET); Civil, Mechanical and Manufacturing Innovation (CMMI); and Electrical, Communications and Cyber ...
Goods Transport. Transport is the biggest sector in the ESD with a share of 34%, with heavy-duty vehicles being responsible for ... Switching from combustion engines to electric engines results in a significant saving of carbon emission and greater energy ... Road transport is dominated by cost: in 2025, the cost per km of a battery truck (400 km battery) will be 2/3 that of diesel (0 ... Transport emissions need to get as close to zero as possible by 2050. That takes a staged approach in the decades leading up to ...
A computational model for coal transport and combustion. Final technical report Description: In this project, a comprehensive ... A computational model for coal transport and combustion. Quarterly technical progress report, June 1, 1993--August 31, 1993 ... A Computational Model for Coal Transport and Combustion. Quarterly Technical Progress Report, September 1, 1993--November 30, ... Modeling Transport in Gas Chromatography Columns for the Micro-ChemLab Description: The gas chromatography (GC) column is a ...
Modeling of Oil Transport between Piston Skirt and Cylinder Liner in Internal Combustion Engines. 2019-04-02 ... which is one of the major contributors to the total friction loss in internal combustion engines. In this work, based upon the ... the EOPM comprise mostly of soot particles from fuel combustion. In the lean to slightly rich region (0.8 < λ < 1.2), however, ...
Transport Phenomena Phone: (703) 292-8320. *Combustion and Fire Systems *Fluid Dynamics ... Division of Chemical, Bioengineering, Environmental, and Transport Systems (ENG/CBET) Phone: (703) 292-8320 , Fax: (703) 292- ...
A Transport Equation Residual Model Incorporating Refined G-Equation and Detailed Chemical Kinetics Combustion Models. 2008-10- ... A transport equation residual model incorporating refined G-equation and detailed chemical kinetics combustion models has been ... This new combustion concept is called Homogenous Charge Progressive Combustion (HCPC). HCPC is based on split-cycle principle. ... Diesel Engine Combustion Chamber Geometry Optimization Using Genetic Algorithms and Multi-Dimensional Spray and Combustion ...
GHG Emissions from Transport or Mobile Sources These sources are indirect emissions and are considered Scope 3 for reporting ... GHG Emissions from Stationary Combustion (English). Download Guidance Date: May 2015 Download Worksheet Date: May 2015 ...
Alternative marine fuels and the effect on combustion and emission characteristics https://www.sintef.no/publikasjoner/ ...
Alternative marine fuels and the effect on combustion and emission characteristics https://www.sintef.no/en/publications/ ...
Purchase Oxy-Fuel Combustion for Power Generation and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN ... 10.5 Oxygen transport membrane (OTM) technology. 10.6 Future trends. 10.7 Acknowledgements. Chapter 11: Carbon dioxide (CO2) ... Introduces oxy-fuel combustion comparing the economics of oxy-fuel vs. post-/pre-combustion CO2 capture ... Part one introduces oxy-fuel combustion further, with a chapter comparing the economics of oxy-fuel vs. post-/pre-combustion ... Molecular Transport Properties, 247. Turbulent Transport Properties, 251 ... 5 Ignition and Combustion of Single Energetic Solid Particles 330. 5.1 Why Energetic Particles Are Attractive for Combustion ... 5.7.3 Comparison of Predicted and Measured Combustion Times, 381. 5.8 Ignition and Combustion of Boron Particles in Fluorine- ... 5.11.1 Evolution Process of Condensed-Phase Combustion Products, 440. 5.12 Combustion Behavior for Fine and Ultrafine Aluminum ...
ETC = electron transport chain. ATPase = mitochondrial ATPase. Figure 1. The complete metabolic degradation (biological ... 2. Combustion. Lavoisier approached combustion by carefully weighing reactants and products. Instead of losing weight the ash ... Based on combustion experiments emphasis has been placed on energy conversion-from one form to another-as the chemical bonds of ... Thornton, W.M. The relation of oxygen to the heat of combustion of organic compounds. Philos. Mag. Ser. 1917, 33, 196-203. [ ...
Buy a discounted Paperback of Combustion Physics online from Australias leading online bookstore. ... Booktopia has Combustion Physics by Chung K. Law. ... Ionic Transport Processes in Electrochemistry and Membrane ... lasting contribution to combustion literature and education. AIAA Journal. "Combustion Physics is an excellent text that is ... Combustion Physics is an excellent text that is comprehensive in coverage, rigorous yet expeditious in the analytical ...
1. H2 Micromix combustion. Jet A-1 has relatively narrow combustion flammability limits which presents several challenges for ... Micromix (diffusion) combustion enables superior fuel and air mixing without the risks of auto-ignition and flashback ... H2 is a promising fuel as it has much wider flammability limits enabling leaner (lower flame temperature) combustion. ... Within WP3, ultra-low NOx H2 Micromix combustion technology is being matured through a combination of numerical and ...
While numerous studies have investigated the potential of electrifying passenger transport, less focus has been on how road ... freight transport could be powered in a sustainable future. This study looks at Electric Road Systems (ERS) in comparison to ... Electrification of the transport sector has been pointed out as a key factor for tackling some of todays main challenges, such ... NOX emissions from combustion.. NOX emissions from combustion.. Production. NOX emissions from combustion. POP and Dioxin ...
Read chapter Global Impacts Atmospheric Long-Range Transport of Urban Pollutants--LEONARD LEVIN: In October 2003, a group of ... the location of origin for co-transported mercury. Selenium is used as an indicator for oil or coal combustion, and elevated ... Long-range transport of pollutants is generally taken to mean transport over spatial scales in the mesoscale-beta range or ... During this transport, the pollutant(s) of primary interest, as well as the co-pollutants transported with them, may undergo ...
Spontaneous combustion[edit]. The improper storage of pistachio products in bulk containers has been known to start fires. ... "Transport Information Service. Gesamtverband Deutsche Versicherungswirtschaft. Retrieved 2007-11-05.. External links[edit]. ... "Risk factor: self-heating/spontaneous combustion". Container Handbook. Gesamtverband Deutsche Versicherungswirtschaft. ... the nuts and especially kernels are prone to self-heating and spontaneous combustion when stored with the oil-soaked fiber/ ...
Post-Combustion Gas Permeation Carbon Capture System Models Juan E. Morinelly, David C. Miller National Energy Technology ... A Century of Transport Phenomena: Was a Transport Phenomena Course in Chemical Engineering Curricula Inevitable?. Conference ... A Century of Transport Phenomena: A Quarter Century of Fun with Industrial Strength Transport Phenomena. Conference ... The study of transport phenomena is an important area of chemical engineering. In many ways it differentiates chemical ...
The HyMethShip project reduces drastically emissions and improves the efficiency of waterborne transport at the same time. This ... The HyMethShip project reduces drastically emissions and improves the efficiency of waterborne transport at the same time. This ... Hydrogen-Methanol Ship propulsion system using on-board pre-combustion carbon capture. From 2018-07-01 to 2021-06-30, ongoing ... For medium and long distance waterborne transport, the HyMethShip concept is considered the best approach available that ...
In addition a software package with a report and a manual to estimate national emissions from road transport was made available ... land-use change and fuel combustion followed by a formal review process. This resulted in the three volume set Revised 1996 ... Line sources - in some inventories, vehicle emissions from road transport, railways, inland navigation, shipping or aviation ... COPERT3, Computer Programme for estimating Emissions from Road Transport.. Apart from the individual MS the European Community ...
... mainly owing to local and regional emissions from residential biomass combustion; transport of air masses from continental ... of combustion-related aerosol particles and to address the importance of local emissions and long-range transport for ... In addition, back trajectory analyses and chemical transport model (CTM) simulations were included for the evaluation. The ... Alkali-AMS cluster analysis indicated three major clusters: (1) biomass burning origin, (2) mixture of other combustion sources ...
... what future remains for combustion engines in road transport? Additionally following Brexit, with ambiguity around the role of ... Transport » Transport - General Transport » Transport - Marine Transport » Transport - Rail Transport » Transport - Road - Low ... Carbon Vehicles Transport » Transport - Road - other vehicles Transport » Transport - Integrated Transport Systems its dft ... Update on H2020 Transport incl how SMEs can get funding to apply for H2020 Read More About Horizon 2020 for Transport update » ...
  • It is also investigating fundamental and applied combustion behavior of solid fuel and catalytic processes to form fuels from seawater. (navy.mil)
  • To reach this potential, however, solid fuels must achieve faster burn rates (i.e., regression rates), higher combustion efficiencies, and higher energy densities. (navy.mil)
  • Our objective is to determine the mechanistic details of combustion of composite solid fuels (polymer hydrocarbon fuels containing energetic metal-based additives), including the chemical, fluid mechanic, and thermodynamic processes occurring at the fuel/oxidizer interface. (navy.mil)
  • Detailed measurements of combustion behavior for these fuels are necessary to develop and validate theoretical and numerical models. (navy.mil)
  • Yet pollutant formation during combustion of fossil fuels is a central topic and will continue to be so in future. (springer.com)
  • A continuous rise in the consumption of gasoline, diesel, and other petroleum-based fuels will eventually deplete reserves and deteriorate the environment, Alternative Transportation Fuels: Utilisation in Combustion Engines explores the feasibility of using alternative fuels that could pave the way for the sustained operation of the transport sector. (routledge.com)
  • It assesses the potential avenues for using different alternative fuels in the transport sector, highlights several types of transport and its effect on the environment, and discusses the conventional and alternative fuels for land transport. (routledge.com)
  • The book starts off with coverage of the fuels for the land transport, aviation sector and reports on the experimental investigations relating to the utilisation of alternative fuels in internal combustion engines. (routledge.com)
  • Based on the authors' experience at laboratories around the globe, Alternative Transportation Fuels: Utilisation in Combustion Engines presents potential alternative fuels for rail, marine, and aviation applications. (routledge.com)
  • There are numerous experimental methods available for studying the combustion characteristics of fuels. (hindawi.com)
  • In the present case, we are interested in combustion of liquid fuels. (hindawi.com)
  • Finland (Manuscript received 3 January 2000) Abstract Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boilers are widely used for multi-fuel combustion of waste and bio-fuels. (scribd.com)
  • Flame combustion is most prominent with fuels that have been premixed with an oxidant, either oxygen or a compound that provides oxygen, for the reaction. (britannica.com)
  • Reducing the environmental impact of fossil fuels usage for transport, the largest contributor to CO 2 emissions, is a policy priority for a growing number of countries worldwide. (iea.org)
  • In order to conduct this study in a fair and comparative manner, we draw the system boundary around the fuels and its required modifications to function in an Internal Combustion Engine. (wikiversity.org)
  • The HyMethShip project reduces drastically emissions and improves the efficiency of waterborne transport at the same time. (europa.eu)
  • The overall aims were to characterize the ambient concentrations of combustion-related aerosol particles and to address the importance of local emissions and long-range transport for atmospheric concentrations in the urban background environment. (mdpi.com)
  • Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion is being considered as a practical solution for diesel engines due to its high efficiency and low NOx and PM emissions. (sae.org)
  • At the same time, side effects of the current, fossil-based transport system, such as emissions of carbon dioxide, particulate matters, nitrogen and sulfur oxides, undermine human health as well as eco-system quality [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Still, trucks account for 25% of GHG-emissions of EU's transport sector [ 5 ] and the number of heavy trucks, especially, is increasing more and more [ 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Line sources - in some inventories, vehicle emissions from road transport, railways, inland navigation, shipping or aviation etc are provided for sections along the line of the road, railway-track, sea-lane etc. (europa.eu)
  • Their system, called pressurized oxy-fuel combustion, provides a way of separating all of the carbon-dioxide emissions produced by the burning of coal, in the form of a concentrated, pressurized liquid stream. (environmental-expert.com)
  • spatial and temporal patterns in combustion emissions at scales of individual burns to the globe. (buecher.de)
  • III - Particulate Emissions and Transport to Sediments. (buecher.de)
  • Transport accounts for nearly a quarter of carbon dioxide emissions from fuel combustion. (oecd.org)
  • Earlier this month, the China Air Transport Association (CATA) urged China's airlines to refuse to take part in the emissions scheme. (theiet.org)
  • There is no easy solution to reduce GHG emissions from transport: A comprehensive approach is required that simultaneously seeks to (i) reduce the demand for total motorized transport activity through appropriately designed urban places, (ii) promote the use of "low-emission" transport modes such as walking, cycling, and public transport, and (iii) use the most efficient fuel-vehicle technology system possible for all trips. (worldbank.org)
  • Reducing CO2 emissions is a growing challenge for the transport sector. (worldbank.org)
  • Transportation produces roughly 23 percent of the global CO2 emissions from fuel combustion. (worldbank.org)
  • With rapid urbanization in developing countries, energy consumption and CO2 emissions by urban transport are increasing rapidly. (worldbank.org)
  • These growing emissions also pose an enormous challenge to urban transport in China. (worldbank.org)
  • As a recent World Bank study of 17 sample cities in China indicates, urban transport energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have recently grown between 4 and 6 percent a year in major cities such as Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Xian (Darido, Torres- Montoya, and Mehndiratta 2009). (worldbank.org)
  • Despite the trend toward increasing emissions, opportunities exist for low-carbon urban transport development in China. (worldbank.org)
  • Figure above provides a schematic of the drivers of emissions from urban transport and indicates entry points for urban transport policy interventions to save energy and reduce CO2 emissions. (worldbank.org)
  • This is a broad-based research program that includes fundamental combustion concepts and processes, spectroscopic measurements, kinetic and continuum modeling, molecular dynamics, flame propagation, enhancement and inhibition phenomena, fire behavior, and fire protection engineering. (navy.mil)
  • Even if, there are many researches into investigating the mechanism on engine combustion, so that to clarify the relationship between complicated phenomena, it is very dificult to investigate due tothe complicated process of both physical and chemical reaction from the start of fuel injection to the and of combustion event. (vdu.lt)
  • the first called preburner and the second called main combustion chamber. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the main combustion chamber, the propellants are combusted completely to produce thrust. (wikipedia.org)
  • The staged combustion cycle is sometimes referred to as closed cycle, as opposed to the gas generator, or open cycle where a portion of propellant never reaches the main combustion chamber. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Hydrogen peroxide/kerosene powered engines such as the British Gamma of the 1950s may use a closed-cycle process by catalytically decomposing the peroxide to drive turbines before combustion with the kerosene in the combustion chamber proper. (wikipedia.org)
  • Traverse the combustion chamber in the time available and fully utilize the air charge. (scribd.com)
  • A segmented thermal barrier for a combustion chamber surface of an internal combustion engine. (sumobrain.com)
  • A fuel oil provision-vaporization-pressure regulation-full premixed combustion system includes an air pump, a fuel tank, a vaporizing chamber, a preheater, a. (patents.com)
  • Part of the flue gas is recycled to the combustion chamber to control the combustion temperature, while the remainder is dehydrated to obtain a high-purity CO 2 stream. (iea.org)
  • and 3) the Thermal Transport Processes program. (nsf.gov)
  • This approach was useful for stationary combustion processes, but it is not sufficient for transient processes like ignition and quenching or for pollutant formation. (springer.com)
  • Also, combustion-specific topics of chemistry and fluid mechanics are considered, and tools described for the simulation of combustion processes. (springer.com)
  • Modeling analyses over the past year have focused on reproducing the observed mass-recovery curves and understanding the basic physical processes controlling tracer transport in SWIW and TWCF tests. (unt.edu)
  • This book offers a highly practical discussion of burning behavior and chemical processes occurring in diverse materials, arming readers with the tools they need to solve the most complex combustion problems facing the scientific community today. (wiley.com)
  • Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794) focused on combustion and respiration as processes that first and foremost took something from the air as opposed to providing something to the air (i.e., phlogiston) as many of his time had asserted [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Atmospheric processes, including the wind-borne transport of air pollutants, are typically classified into time and equivalent spatial scales, each of which includes dominant physical and chemical processes. (nap.edu)
  • Also, nitric oxide is one of the major components for air pollution from combustion processes, and is emitted by cars, factories and home fuel burning. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The COMSOL Multiphysics models we develop encompass cross-disciplinary areas such as heat, flow and species transport, chemical kinetics, electromagnetics, and electrochemical processes applied to various techniques for thin film deposition, material removal, and thermal systems. (comsol.com)
  • Even so, with the results of his combustion experiments Lavoisier had and the world gained a credible working hypothesis: both combustion and respiration took oxygen from the air. (mdpi.com)
  • Combustion begins if sufficient oxidizer, such as oxygen, and fuel are present to maintain the reaction into thermal runaway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once ignition temperature is reached, combustion occurs with oxidizers present (oxygen). (wikipedia.org)
  • Conventionally, combustion tube tests of a crude oil and rock are used to infer that ISC works at reservoir scale and estimate the oxygen requirements. (onepetro.org)
  • The RS-25 is another example of a staged combustion engine, and the first to use liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • After considering measurement uncertainties, burning rates decreased appreciably as the initial droplet diameter increased for combustion in air but not for combustion in the oxygen/helium environments. (hindawi.com)
  • Instead of air, nearly pure oxygen can be used to combust fuel - this is oxy-fuel combustion . (iea.org)
  • The disclosed method and apparatus include a plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements adapted to separate oxygen from an oxygen containing stream contacting the retentate side of the membrane elements. (osti.gov)
  • The permeated oxygen is combusted with a hydrogen containing synthesis gas stream contacting the permeate side of the tubular oxygen transport membrane elements thereby generating a reaction product stream and radiant heat. (osti.gov)
  • The present method and apparatus also includes at least one catalytic reactor containing a catalyst to promote the stream reforming reaction wherein the catalytic reactor is surrounded by the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements. (osti.gov)
  • The view factor between the catalytic reactor and the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements radiating heat to the catalytic reactor is greater than or equal to 0.5. (osti.gov)
  • Selenium is used as an indicator for oil or coal combustion, and elevated levels of selenium are commonly used to "tag" chromium or nickel. (nap.edu)
  • The combustion kinetics of these fuel particles differs markedly from that of pulverized coal, mainly because of their larger sizes, irregular (nonspherical) shapes, and versatile internal pore structures. (springer.com)
  • CCPs have almost no moisture when first collected after the combustion of coal. (astm.org)
  • Long-range transport of pollutants is generally taken to mean transport over spatial scales in the mesoscale-beta range or larger. (nap.edu)
  • During this transport, the pollutant(s) of primary interest, as well as the co-pollutants transported with them, may undergo chemical and photochemical transformation. (nap.edu)
  • teleconnections between densely populated areas via the transport of emitted pollutants. (nap.edu)
  • Additionally, an environmental index that measures the pollutants released during the combustions is proposed. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition to the analytical tool, we have also developed a time-dependent adsorption/desorption model and incorporated this model into a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to simulate analyte transport and separation process in GC columns. (unt.edu)
  • Fluid Dynamics and Transport of Droplets and Sprays. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • This book serves as both a graduate text and a reference for engineers and scientists exploring the theoretical and computational aspects of the fluid dynamics and transport of sprays and droplets. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • His major research and teaching interests include spray combustion, turbulent combustion and ignition, aerospace propulsion, fluid dynamics, and applied mathematics. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • The energy efficiency of the HyMethShip system is more than 45% better than the best available technology approach (renewable methanol as fuel coupled with conventional post-combustion carbon capturing). (europa.eu)
  • This route is referred to as post-combustion capture in power generation applications. (iea.org)
  • In his dissertation, Topi Sikanen, a Master of Science (Technology) and Research Scientist at VTT, examined the transport, evaporation and combustion of liquids in large-scale fire incidents. (eurekalert.org)
  • Simulation of transport, evaporation, and combustion of liquids in large-scale fire incidents. (eurekalert.org)
  • The influence of different physical parameters like droplet temperature, gas phase temperature, ambient gas pressure and droplet burning velocity on the ignition delay process is investigated using fuel droplet combustion stand. (vdu.lt)
  • The study of single droplet combustion is useful on both scientific and practical grounds. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, all experiments were conducted in an environment that was about 25°C. While there have been numerous investigations of reduced-gravity droplet combustion, to the best of our knowledge the only hydrocarbon/alcohol mixture droplets burned in reduced gravity were toluene/methanol mixtures and mixtures of hexanol with nonane or jet fuel [ 1 - 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This variable can be considered as the active fraction of the entire particle mass on its periphery, and it can be used as the crucial element in modeling the combustion process of the same particle under other circumstances by including the actual boundary conditions. (springer.com)
  • When the mixture is very rich (air equivalence ratio λ less than ∼ 0.7), the EOPM comprise mostly of soot particles from fuel combustion. (sae.org)
  • Another advantage of this method is its covering inherently the entire combustion process (water and volatile release, and char combustion) and also its applicability for reactors utilizing bigger particles like fluidized bed combustors. (springer.com)
  • Both heat transport and diffusion of active particles must be considered essential for ignition. (britannica.com)
  • Lake Sediment Records of Fossil Fuel-Derived Carbonaceous Aerosols from Combustion. (buecher.de)
  • The number concentrations of aerosols downstream of the setup face were associated with aerosols generated by combustion in diesel engines operated in the shield haulage loop and/ or outside of the longwall panels. (cdc.gov)
  • To receive news and publication updates for Journal of Combustion, enter your email address in the box below. (hindawi.com)
  • The Alkali-AMS cluster analysis indicated three major clusters: (1) biomass burning origin, (2) mixture of other combustion sources, and (3) marine origin. (mdpi.com)
  • Biomass combustion is widely considered as one of the main pillars of renewable and sustainable energy of the future. (springer.com)
  • Characterization of Particulate Products of Biomass Combustion. (buecher.de)
  • The fuel is then transferred through rigid pipes to the fuel injectors, which inject the correct amount of fuel into the combustion chambers. (scribd.com)
  • The second of a two-volume work, Applications of Turbulent and Multiphase Combustion expands on topics involving laminar flames from Professor Kuo's bestselling book Principles of Combustion, Second Edition, then builds upon the theory discussed in the companion volume Fundamentals of Turbulent and Multiphase Combustion to address in detail cutting-edge experimental techniques and applications not covered anywhere else. (wiley.com)
  • This graduate-level text incorporates these advances in a comprehensive treatment of the fundamental principles of combustion physics. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Fire deaths are considered to be mainly attributable to to cause death or immediate or delayed permanent adverse the inhalation of toxic combustion products (1-2).3 The in- health effects or prevent escape from such an environment' troduction of a variety of new synthetic materials, treated with (15). (cdc.gov)
  • The most toxic combustion products generated from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) involved in electrical transformer fires are polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) and polychlorinated dibenzodioxin (PCDD) isomers. (ilo.org)
  • and characterization of diesel, biodiesel, and their combustion emission. (pdx.edu)
  • Many internal combustion engine emission limits are already prescribed for land transport. (easychair.org)
  • Combustion research in the past used fluid mechanics with global heat release by chemical reactions described with thermodynamics, assuming infinitely fast reactions. (springer.com)
  • Yet the integration of renewable energy and renewable electrification into end use sectors such as transport, heating and cooling needs to be accelerated as we enter a new phase of low-carbon economic growth. (issuu.com)
  • The results show that, if powered by renewable energy, ERS have a potential to decrease the environmental impact of freight transport considerably. (mdpi.com)
  • An understanding of turbulence, combustion, and multiphase reacting flows is essential for engineers and scientists in many industries, including power genera-tion, jet and rocket propulsion, pollution control, fire prevention and safety, and material processing. (wiley.com)
  • In the staged combustion cycle, propellant flows through multiple combustion chambers, and is thus combusted in stages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical Kinetics in Combustion and Reactive Flows. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Spontaneous combustion or spontaneous ignition is a type of combustion which occurs by self-heating (increase in temperature due to exothermic internal reactions), followed by thermal runaway (self heating which rapidly accelerates to high temperatures) and finally, autoignition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fuel injection pressures in the range of 200 to 1700 atm are used depending on the engine size and type of combustion system employed. (scribd.com)
  • Data were compared against regulated time-weighted exposure thresholds to determine the presence of potentially harmful products of combustion. (arctichealth.org)
  • For the 2nd edition, the parts dealing with experiments, spray combustion, and soot were thoroughly revised. (springer.com)
  • The research scope spans studies in laboratory flow reactors and small burners to intermediate and real-scale combustion and fire experiments. (navy.mil)
  • Experiments were performed on a single-cylinder heavy-duty Caterpillar SCOTE 3401E engine at high speed (1737 rev/min) and loads up to 60% of full load for fully Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) combustion. (sae.org)
  • The set of experiments also demonstrated the importance of cylinder charge preparation by way of optimized start-of-combustion timing for sufficient in-cylinder mixing. (sae.org)
  • Department of Energy Pittsburgh Research conducted experiments with mine conveyor belt samples in a 20-L furnace and in a laboratory fire tunnel to measure and compare the major toxic gas concentrati evolved during the combustion of the materials. (cdc.gov)
  • Reduced-gravity experiments were performed on combustion of droplets composed of n-heptane mixed with methanol or ethanol. (hindawi.com)
  • These methods range from experiments in practical devices such as engines, which can be difficult to control and interpret at a detailed level, to fundamental experiments that allow one to focus on specific details of the combustion under well-controlled conditions. (hindawi.com)
  • In the present paper, results from experiments on reduced-gravity combustion of droplets consisting of heptane, heptane/methanol, or heptane/ethanol mixtures are described, with a particular focus on investigating droplet burning rates. (hindawi.com)
  • Methods of relating pollutant levels measured at distant receptor points to their area of origin and transport route vary widely. (nap.edu)
  • Basically, the transport equation for the time-average concentration field of the material is solved numerically to predict the diffusion of the pollutant material. (scirp.org)
  • Carless commuting is cruising in the fast lane at the Consumer Electronics Show, with companies showing off electric bicycles, scooters, skateboards and more aimed at making the internal combustion engine a thing of the past. (phys.org)
  • An analysis with GASFLOW will result in a prediction of the gas composition and discrete particle distribution in space and time throughout the facility and the resulting pressure and temperature loadings on the walls and internal structures with or without combustion. (unt.edu)
  • In this paper, we present a comprehensive overview of a multi-institutional effort to experimentally characterize the internal geometry and near-nozzle flow of the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) Spray G gasoline injector. (osti.gov)
  • A vehicle has an internal-combustion engine drive and a fuel cell drive system. (google.com)
  • Liquid fuel is used to supply energy to the internal-combustion engine drive and the fuel cell system. (google.com)
  • The internal-combustion engine drive is used for starting the vehicle and for permitting its immediate movement after. (google.com)
  • The internal-combustion engine drive is used for starting the vehicle and for permitting its immediate movement after starting of the internal-combustion engine, as well as for heating the fuel cell system to a working temperature. (google.com)
  • Subsequently, an electric driving motor, which is fed by the fuel cell system, alone or together with the internal-combustion engine drive, drives the movement of the vehicle. (google.com)
  • 3. The vehicle drive system according to claim 1 , wherein liquid fuel is provided for the energy supply of the internal-combustion engine drive and of the fuel cell system. (google.com)
  • 5. The vehicle drive system according to claim 2 , wherein a nominal capacity of the internal-combustion engine drive is lower than a nominal capacity of the electric driving motor. (google.com)
  • 6. The vehicle drive system according to claim 2 , wherein the internal-combustion engine and the fuel cell system drive are jointly connected to a radiator by a cooling circulating system. (google.com)
  • 7. The vehicle drive system according to claim 1 , further comprising a device for transmitting heat from the exhaust gases of the internal-combustion engine drive into the gas generating device. (google.com)
  • a bypass arranged in parallel to the device for transmitting heat from the exhaust gases of the internal-combustion engine drive into the gas generating device which bypass extends outside the gas generating device and which has a shut-off element which can be operated by the control system. (google.com)
  • 10. The vehicle drive system according to claim 1 , wherein the internal-combustion engine drive and the fuel cell system drive are connected to a joint exhaust gas purification system. (google.com)
  • This internal combustion engine is capable of suppressing a reduction in durability and reliability of an oil control valve while assuring arrangement spaces to be formed on the front and rear sides of the internal combustion engine, and. (sumobrain.com)
  • A tool (1) for machining a groove (18) of a rotation -symmetric component, preferably a piston (17) of an internal combustion engine, wherein the machining is carried out by a rotation of the tool (1) around an axis of symmetry of the ro. (sumobrain.com)
  • This report and its results are to be proposed to Toyota, to aid in implementing an environmentally friendly - yet cost-effective - internal combustion engine. (wikiversity.org)
  • A transport equation residual model incorporating refined G-equation and detailed chemical kinetics combustion models has been developed and implemented in the ERC KIVA-3V release2 code for Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engine simulations for better predictions of flame propagation. (sae.org)
  • Combustion tube results may lead to field-scale simulation on a coarse grid with upscaled Arrhenius reaction kinetics. (onepetro.org)
  • A mixture identical to that tested in the kinetics cell is also burned in a combustion tube experiment. (onepetro.org)
  • Intrinsic kinetics is purely related to the chemical aspect of the process neglecting every other external phenomenon, while apparent kinetics aims to describe the combustion of a realistic particle with every influential parameter as well. (springer.com)
  • It delivers an in-depth analysis of engine combustion, then focuses on fuel quality characterization and a modeling of alternative-fuelled engines, and describes alternative-powered vehicles. (routledge.com)
  • The section's fire science research has also included the characterization and modeling of blast mitigation, solid combustion and lithium-ion battery fires in efforts to quantify the hazards of the fire products and the propagation behavior. (navy.mil)
  • According to thermal theories, flame propagation is accounted for by heat energy transport from the combustion zone to the unburned mixture, which raises the temperature of the mixture. (britannica.com)
  • EFI systems monitor and ration gasoline to maintain the engines' optimum combustion mixture. (prweb.com)
  • Combustion Engines are machines in which chemical energy is converted to mechanical energy as a result of the combustion of an ignitable mixture of air and fuel. (scribd.com)
  • CO 2 is separated from a mixture of gases at the end of the industrial or energy process, for example from combustion flue gases. (iea.org)
  • This study assessed exposure to jet fuel combustion products, compared various engine ignition scenarios, and determined methods to minimize exposure. (arctichealth.org)
  • Spontaneous combustion can occur when a substance with a relatively low ignition temperature (hay, straw, peat, etc.) begins to release heat. (wikipedia.org)
  • The baseline conditions, representative of conventional high-temperature diesel combustion, have either a short or a long ignition delay. (sae.org)
  • Micromix (diffusion) combustion enables superior fuel and air mixing without the risks of auto-ignition and flashback associated with premixing. (europa.eu)
  • One or more embodiments and modifications thereof provide a gas combustion type driving tool which can control a temperature difference between a fuel container and an electromagnetic valve device to thereby prevent poor ignition, and can be designed without shifting a grip backward to thereby enhance a gravity balance of the driving tool. (google.com)
  • Endo, M. , Shao, Q. , Tsukahara, T. and Kawaguchi, Y. (2016) Analysis of High Concentration Spikes Appearing in Mass Plume in Nearly Homogeneous Turbulent Flow Based on the PDF Transport Equation. (scirp.org)
  • We evaluate a potential foam's ability to suppress a fire by measuring extinction time in a small-scale burning fuel pool, the transient fuel transport through a foam using spectroscopy, and foam properties such as bubble size and liquid drainage rate, relevant for firefighting. (navy.mil)
  • It is thus of interest to study combustion droplets composed of blends of hydrocarbons with alcohols. (hindawi.com)
  • Studying individual droplets may enable the development of droplet submodels for computational models of sprays and increase the understanding of the basic physics of droplet vaporization and combustion, for example, for comparison with detailed models that can only be developed for simplified situations such as for an individual droplet. (hindawi.com)
  • In-situ combustion (ISC) possesses advantages over surface-generated steam injection for deep reservoirs in terms of wellbore heat losses and generation of heat above the critical point of water. (onepetro.org)
  • One of the most investigated topics is the prediction of heat release, which needs a proper particle combustion model. (springer.com)
  • However, when the electromagnetic valve device is disposed nearer to the combustion portion than the fuel container, since the electromagnetic valve device is easier to be influenced by a heat of the combustion portion, a temperature of the electromagnetic valve device becomes higher than that of the fuel container. (google.com)
  • When amounts of heat transmission from the combustion portion to the fuel container and electromagnetic valve device are equal, their respective influences can be made almost equal, thereby being able to control the temperature difference between the fuel container and electromagnetic valve device. (google.com)
  • Combustion of fuel produce heat energy which works on reciprocating piston. (scribd.com)
  • In an effort to build the knowledge base for alternative low-temperature combustion strategies, this paper presents a comparison of three alternative low-temperature combustion strategies to two high-temperature conventional diesel combustion conditions. (sae.org)
  • H2 is a promising fuel as it has much wider flammability limits enabling leaner (lower flame temperature) combustion. (europa.eu)
  • An isoconversional method is used to estimate kinetic parameters vs. temperature and combustion characteristics of the sample. (onepetro.org)
  • In the case that the electromagnetic valve device becomes higher in temperature than the fuel container, when a liquefied gas is supplied from the fuel container to the electromagnetic valve device, the liquefied gas is vaporized within a gas pipe line due to the temperature difference between the fuel container and electromagnetic valve device, resulting in a poor fuel combustion to thereby prevent the driving tool against proper operation. (google.com)
  • The purpose of the present invention is to provide a transport refrigeration unit in which air having stable pressure and stable temperature can be supplied to a sub-engine. (sumobrain.com)
  • The other three conditions are representative of some alternative combustion strategies, employing significant charge-gas dilution along with either early or late fuel injection, or a combination of both (double-injection). (sae.org)
  • Within WP3, ultra-low NOx H2 Micromix combustion technology is being matured through a combination of numerical and experimental research comprising injector array, full annular combustor segment and altitude-relight studies. (europa.eu)
  • In the transport equation residual model a fictitious species concept is introduced to account for the residual gases in the cylinder, which have a great effect on the laminar flame speed. (sae.org)
  • This combustion zone is usually called the flame front. (britannica.com)
  • A widely applied thermal theory, one of the first flame propagation theories, implies that combustion proceeds primarily at temperatures close to the maximum the flame can achieve. (britannica.com)
  • He is the recipient of the Pendray Aerospace Literature Award, Propellants and Combustion Award, Energy Systems Award, Wyld Propulsion Award, and Sustained Service Award from the AIAA and of the ASME Freeman Scholar Fluids Engineering Award, The Combustion Institute Alfred C. Egerton Gold Medal, and Institute for the Dynamics of Explosions and Reactive Systems Oppenheim Award. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Combustion is an old technology, which at present provides about 90% of our worldwide energy support. (springer.com)
  • To follow-up the recent webinars promoting the Department for Transport's T-TRIG competition, we present for your viewing pleasure both screencast recordings, plus presentation slides to assist in applying for funding of up to £25,000 to research to support innovative science, technology and engineering ideas that could improve UK transport. (innovateuk.org)
  • Current transport is unsustainable in terms of energy use, efficiency and cost-effectiveness, so we're working on solutions that accelerate new vehicle technology. (le.ac.uk)
  • Alfa Laval's gas combustion technology provides DFDE or LSD engines with a compact gas combustion unit (GCU) that has lower installation costs and operating expenditures than comparable units. (alfalaval.com)
  • It provides ship-owners with gas combustion technology that is easy to integrate, and reliable to operate and easy to maintain due to fewer spare parts. (alfalaval.com)
  • An in-depth understanding of energy technology, sources, conversion, storage, transport and conservation is crucial for developing a sustainable and economically viable energy infrastructure. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Research efforts focus mainly on the development of membranes as an alternative technology for air separation and novel oxy-fuel technologies, such as chemical looping and pressurised oxy-fuel combustion. (iea.org)
  • The goal of the Combustion and Fire Systems program is to advance energy conversion efficiency, improve energy security, enable cleaner environments, and enhance public safety. (nsf.gov)
  • In order to obtain a quantitative comparison, the quality of the different combustion reactions and the efficiency of the technologies employed in the specific application sector have to be considered adequately. (hindawi.com)
  • This gives the efficiency advantages of staged combustion, while avoiding major engineering problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • But the way that we use transport today is unsustainable in terms of energy use, impact, efficiency and cost effectiveness. (le.ac.uk)
  • In addition to the propellant turbopumps, staged combustion engines often require smaller boost pumps to prevent both preburner backflow and turbopump cavitation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Alfa Laval Gas Combustion Unit (GCU) conveniently handles boil-off on vessels with dual-fuel or low-speed diesel engines. (alfalaval.com)
  • All new Club Car compact XRT™800 and XRT™850 utility transport vehicles (UTVs) manufactured after April will feature powerful new Subaru 14-hp rated, 404-cc, single-cylinder overhead cam engines with electronic fuel injection (EFI). (prweb.com)
  • For medium and long distance waterborne transport, the HyMethShip concept is considered the best approach available that achieves this level of CO2 reduction and is economically feasible. (europa.eu)
  • The Alfa Laval GCU is available in four standard sizes, which accommodate capacities of 1.5 to 3 t/h, 3 to 4.5 t/h, 4.5 to 6 t/h, and 6 to 9 t/h methane, using either single or dual combustion chambers. (alfalaval.com)
  • Electric Road Systems: Strategic Stepping Stone on the Way towards Sustainable Freight Transport? (mdpi.com)
  • While numerous studies have investigated the potential of electrifying passenger transport, less focus has been on how road freight transport could be powered in a sustainable future. (mdpi.com)
  • Still, ERS could prove to be a valuable part of the solution, as they drastically decrease the need for large batteries with high cost and sustainability impact, thereby catalyzing electrification and the transition towards sustainable freight transport. (mdpi.com)
  • The European Advantage: How NGOs can benefit from recent European Legislation in their work for Sustainable Transport Infrastructure. (transportenvironment.org)
  • If you want to stay up to date on the latest sustainable transport news, subscribe to the T&E Bulletin. (transportenvironment.org)
  • The challenge is widely recognised and addressed by industry, government agencies, research institutes, national and European programmes, all of which share the aim of making transport more sustainable, seamless, competitive and responsive. (le.ac.uk)
  • Combustion Physics is an excellent text that is comprehensive in coverage, rigorous yet expeditious in the analytical developments, insightful in the physical descriptions, and above all, very readable. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Engineers and researchers in chemical and mechanical engineering and materials science will find Applications of Turbulent and Multiphase Combustion an indispensable guide for upgrading their skills and keeping up with this rapidly evolving area. (wiley.com)
  • Kenneth K. Kuo is Distinguished Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Director of the High Pressure Combustion Laboratory (HPCL) in the Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering of the College of Engineering at The Pennsylvania State University. (wiley.com)
  • Hay is one of the most widely studied materials in spontaneous combustion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although in-cylinder optical diagnostics have provided significant understanding of conventional diesel combustion, most alternative combustion strategies have not yet been explored to the same extent. (sae.org)
  • The focus was on contributions of diesel- and battery-powered heavy-duty vehicles used to transfer equipment between the depleted and new longwall panels and diesel-powered light-duty vehicles used to transport personnel and materials to various locations within the mine. (cdc.gov)
  • The HyMethShip system innovatively combines a membrane reactor, a CO2 capture system, a storage system for CO2 and methanol as well as a hydrogen-fueled combustion engine into one system. (europa.eu)
  • A major application of GASFLOW is for predicting the transport, mixing, and combustion of hydrogen and other gases in nuclear reactor containments and other facilities. (unt.edu)
  • Some dangerous goods can only be transported on an aircraft under specific circumstances. (flytap.com)
  • His measurements concerning combustion pre-date those of respiration and appear to have laid the ground work for his prescient interpretation of biological respiration: respiration was, he declared, a slowed down version of combustion. (mdpi.com)
  • To do this, the results of a macroscopic combustion measurement with real samples in a well-modelable environment have to be used, and for considering some not negligible effects, 3D CFD modeling of the experimental environment is also to be applied. (springer.com)
  • Details of the spray targeting were found to have a major impact on the combustion process. (sae.org)