A species of gram-negative, aerobic rods formerly called Pseudomonas testosteroni. It is differentiated from other Comamonas species by its ability to assimilate testosterone and to utilize phenylacetate or maleate as carbon sources.
A genus of gram-negative, straight or slightly curved rods which are motile by polar flagella and which accumulate poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate within the cells.
A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
A group of gram-negative bacteria consisting of rod- and coccus-shaped cells. They are both aerobic (able to grow under an air atmosphere) and microaerophilic (grow better in low concentrations of oxygen) under nitrogen-fixing conditions but, when supplied with a source of fixed nitrogen, they grow as aerobes.
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
A 3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase which catalyzes the reversible reduction of the active androgen, DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE to 5 ALPHA-ANDROSTANE-3 ALPHA,17 BETA-DIOL. It also has activity towards other 3-alpha-hydroxysteroids and on 9-, 11- and 15- hydroxyprostaglandins. The enzyme is B-specific in reference to the orientation of reduced NAD or NADPH.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.
Enzymes of the oxidoreductase class that catalyze the dehydrogenation of hydroxysteroids. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.-.
Catalyzes the oxidation of catechol to 2-hydroxymuconate semialdehyde in the carbazole and BENZOATE degradation via HYDROXYLATION pathways. It also catalyzes the conversion of 3-methylcatechol to cis, cis-2-hydroxy-6-oxohept-2,4-dienoate in the TOLUENE and XYLENE degradation pathway. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC 1.13.1.2.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
Steroids in which fission of one or more ring structures and concomitant addition of a hydrogen atom at each terminal group has occurred.
An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.
Benzoate derivatives substituted by one or more hydroxy groups in any position on the benzene ring.
Organic salts and esters of benzenesulfonic acid.
A pyrrolo-quinoline having two adjacent keto-groups at the 4 and 5 positions and three acidic carboxyl groups. It is a coenzyme of some DEHYDROGENASES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.
A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
A species of gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria found ubiquitously and formerly called Comamonas acidovorans and Pseudomonas acidovorans. It is the type species of the genus DELFTIA.
Enzymes that catalyze the transposition of double bond(s) in a steroid molecule. EC 5.3.3.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
A group of compounds that has the general structure of a dicarboxylic acid-substituted benzene ring. The ortho-isomer is used in dye manufacture. (Dorland, 28th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 4,5-dihydro-4-oxo-5-imidazolepropanoate to urocanate and water. EC 4.2.1.49.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.

Genetic organization and characteristics of the 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid degradation pathway of Comamonas testosteroni TA441. (1/50)

Comamonas testosteroni TA441 degrades 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)propionate (3HPP) via the meta pathway. A gene cluster required for degradation of 3HPP was cloned from strain TA441 and sequenced. The genes encoding six catabolic enzymes, a flavin-type hydroxylase (mhpA), extradiol dioxygenase (mhpB), 2-keto-4-pentenoate hydratase (mhpD), acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (acylating) (mhpF), 4-hydroxy-2-ketovalerate aldolase (mhpE) and the meta cleavage compound hydrolase (mhpC), were found in this cluster, encoded in this order. mhpD and mhpF were separated by two genes, orf4 and orf5, which were not necessary for growth on 3HPP. The gene mhpR, encoding a putative transcriptional activator of the IcIR family, was located adjacent to mhpA in the opposite orientation. Disruption of the mhpB or mhpR genes affected growth on 3HPP or trans-3-hydroxycinnamate. The mhpB and mhpC gene products showed high specificity for 3-(2,3-dihydroxyphenyl)propionate (DHPP) and the meta cleavage compound produced from DHPP, respectively.  (+info)

Crystal structure of delta(5)-3-ketosteroid isomerase from Pseudomonas testosteroni in complex with equilenin settles the correct hydrogen bonding scheme for transition state stabilization. (2/50)

Delta(5)-3-Ketosteroid isomerase from Pseudomonas testosteroni has been intensively studied as a prototype to understand an enzyme-catalyzed allylic isomerization. Asp(38) (pK(a) approximately 4.7) was identified as the general base abstracting the steroid C4beta proton (pK(a) approximately 12.7) to form a dienolate intermediate. A key and common enigmatic issue involved in the proton abstraction is the question of how the energy required for the unfavorable proton transfer can be provided at the active site of the enzyme and/or how the thermodynamic barrier can be drastically reduced. Answering this question has been hindered by the existence of two differently proposed enzyme reaction mechanisms. The 2.26 A crystal structure of the enzyme in complex with a reaction intermediate analogue equilenin reveals clearly that both the Tyr(14) OH and Asp(99) COOH provide direct hydrogen bonds to the oxyanion of equilenin. The result negates the catalytic dyad mechanism in which Asp(99) donates the hydrogen bond to Tyr(14), which in turn is hydrogen bonded to the steroid. A theoretical calculation also favors the doubly hydrogen-bonded system over the dyad system. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance analyses of several mutant enzymes indicate that the Tyr(14) OH forms a low barrier hydrogen bond with the dienolic oxyanion of the intermediate.  (+info)

Bioaugmentation of activated sludge by an indigenous 3-chloroaniline-degrading Comamonas testosteroni strain, I2gfp. (3/50)

A strain identified as Comamonas testosteroni I2 was isolated from activated sludge and found to be able to mineralize 3-chloroaniline (3-CA). During the mineralization, a yellow intermediate accumulated temporarily, due to the distal meta-cleavage of chlorocatechol. This strain was tested for its ability to clean wastewater containing 3-CA upon inoculation into activated sludge. To monitor its survival, the strain was chromosomally marked with the gfp gene and designated I2gfp. After inoculation into a lab-scale semicontinuous activated-sludge (SCAS) system, the inoculated strain maintained itself in the sludge for at least 45 days and was present in the sludge flocs. After an initial adaptation period of 6 days, complete degradation of 3-CA was obtained during 2 weeks, while no degradation at all occurred in the noninoculated control reactor. Upon further operation of the SCAS system, only 50% 3-CA removal was observed. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA genes revealed a dynamic change in the microbial community structure of the activated sludge. The DGGE patterns of the noninoculated and the inoculated reactors evolved after 7 days to different clusters, which suggests an effect of strain inoculation on the microbial community structure. The results indicate that bioaugmentation, even with a strain originating from that ecosystem and able to effectively grow on a selective substrate, is not permanent and will probably require regular resupplementation.  (+info)

Arrangement and regulation of the genes for meta-pathway enzymes required for degradation of phenol in Comamonas testosteroni TA441. (4/50)

Comamonas testosteroni TA441 degrades phenol by a meta-cleavage pathway after the occurrence of a spontaneous mutation that derepresses the aphKLMNOPQB operon encoding phenol hydroxylase and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase, the enzymes for the initial two steps of the degradation pathway. A gene cluster, aphCEFGHJI, encoding the meta-pathway enzymes for degradation of 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde (HMS) to TCA cycle intermediates was found downstream of the aphK operon. The upstream operon and the downstream gene cluster were found to be separated by two open reading frames of unknown function and an oppositely oriented aphT gene, which is similar to regulatory genes for ortho-cleavage of catechol or chlorinated catechols. A promoter assay using an aphC::lacZ transcriptional fusion plasmid revealed that the aphC promoter activity is induced by both phenol and HMS. The phenol-dependent induction was mediated by AphR and the HMS-dependent induction was mediated by AphT. The aphC promoter in strain TA441 was not silenced, unlike the cases of the aphK and aphR promoters, and was highly induced by HMS.  (+info)

Regulation of the steroid-inducible 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/carbonyl reductase gene in Comamonas testosteroni. (5/50)

The Comamonas testosteroni 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/carbonyl reductase gene (hsdA) codes for an adaptive enzyme in the degradation of steroid compounds. However, no information was available on the molecular regulation of steroid-inducible genes nor on the mechanism of steroid signaling in procaryotes. We, therefore, investigated the cis- and trans-acting elements of hsdA expression to infer the mechanism of its molecular regulation by steroids. The gene was localized on a 5.257-kilobase EcoRI fragment of C. testosteroni chromosomal DNA. The promoter was characterized, and the transcriptional start site was identified. Two palindromic operator domains were found upstream of hsdA. A new gene coding for a trans-acting negative regulator (repressor A, RepA) of hsdA expression was characterized. The specific interaction between RepA, testosterone, and the operator domain is demonstrated. From our results we conclude that hsdA is under negative transcriptional control by an adjacent gene product (RepA). Accordingly, induction of hsdA by steroids in fact is a derepression, where steroidal inducers bind to the repressor, thereby preventing its binding to the hsdA operator.  (+info)

Map of the IncP1beta plasmid pTSA encoding the widespread genes (tsa) for p-toluenesulfonate degradation in Comamonas testosteroni T-2. (6/50)

The catabolic IncP1beta plasmid pTSA from Comamonas testosteroni T-2 was mapped by subtractive analysis of restriction digests, by sequencing outwards from the tsa operon (toluenesulfonate degradation), and by generating overlapping, long-distance-PCR amplification products. The plasmid was estimated to comprise 72 +/- 4 kb. The tsa region was found to be a composite transposon flanked by two IS1071 elements. A cryptic tsa operon was also present in the tsa transposon. Those backbone genes and regions which we sequenced were in the same order as the corresponding genes in resistance plasmid R751, and identities of about 99% were observed. Enrichment cultures with samples from four continents were done to obtain organisms able to utilize p-toluenesulfonate as the sole source of carbon and energy for aerobic growth. Most (15) of the 16 cultures (13 of them isolates) were obtained from contaminated sites and were attributed to three metabolic groups, depending on their metabolism of p-toluenesulfonate. The largest group contained the tsa transposon, usually (six of seven isolates) with negligible differences in sequence from strain T-2.  (+info)

Endotoxic properties of lipid A from Comamonas testosteroni. (7/50)

The lipid A from Comamonas testosteroni has been isolated and its complete chemical structure determined [Iida, T., Haishima, Y., Tanaka, A., Nishijima, K., Saito, S. & Tanamoto, K. (1996). Eur J Biochem 237, 468-475]. In this work, the relationship between its chemical structure and biological activity was studied. The lipid A was highly homogeneous chemically and was characterized by the relatively short chain length (C(10)) of the 3-hydroxy fatty acid components directly bound to the glucosamine disaccharide backbone by either amide or ester linkages. The lipid A exhibited endotoxic activity in all of the assay systems tested (mitogenicity in mouse spleen cells; induction of tumour necrosis factor alpha release from both mouse peritoneal macrophages and mouse macrophage-like cell line J774-1, as well as from the human monocytic cell line THP-1; induction of nitric oxide release from J774-1 cells; Limulus gelation activity and lethal toxicity in galactosamine-sensitized mice) to the same extent as did 'Salmonella minnesota' lipid A or Escherichia coli LPS used as controls. The strong endotoxic activity of the C. testosteroni lipid A indicates that the composition of 3-hydroxydecanoic acid is not responsible for the low endotoxicity of the lipid A observed in members of the genus Rhodopseudomonas, as has previously been suggested. Furthermore, both the lack of a second acylation of the 3-hydroxy fatty acid attached at the 3' position, and the substitution of the hydroxyl group of the 3-hydroxy fatty acid attached at position 2, do not affect the manifestation of endotoxic activity or species specificity.  (+info)

PhcS represses gratuitous expression of phenol-metabolizing enzymes in Comamonas testosteroni R5. (8/50)

We identified an open reading frame, designated phcS, downstream of the transcriptional activator gene (phcR) for the expression of multicomponent phenol hydroxylase (mPH) in Comamonas testosteroni R5. The deduced product of phcS was homologous to AphS of C. testosteroni TA441, which belongs to the GntR family of transcriptional regulators. The transformation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1c (phenol negative, catechol positive) with pROR502 containing phcR and the mPH genes conferred the ability to grow on phenol, while transformation with pROR504 containing phcS, phcR, and mPH genes did not confer this ability. The disruption of phcS in strain R5 had no effect on its phenol-oxygenating activity in a chemostat culture with phenol. The phenol-oxygenating activity was not expressed in strain R5 grown in a chemostat with acetate. In contrast, the phenol-oxygenating activity in the strain with a knockout phcS gene when grown in a chemostat with acetate as the limiting growth factor was 66% of that obtained in phenol-grown cells of the strain with a knockout in the phcS gene. The disruption of phcS and/or phcR and the complementation in trans of these defects confirm that PhcS is a trans-acting repressor and that the unfavorable expression of mPH in the phcS knockout cells grown on acetate requires PhcR. These results show that the PhcS protein repressed the gratuitous expression of phenol-metabolizing enzymes in the absence of the genuine substrate and that strain R5 acted by an unknown mechanism in which the PhcS-mediated repression was overcome in the presence of the pathway substrate.  (+info)

*Comamonas testosteroni* is a species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that is commonly found in the environment, such as in soil and water. It is capable of degrading various organic compounds, including steroids like testosterone, which is how it gets its name. This bacterium is not typically associated with human disease, but there have been rare cases of infections reported in people with weakened immune systems.

'Comamonas' is a genus of gram-negative, aerobic, motile bacteria that are commonly found in various environments such as soil, water, and clinical specimens. The cells are typically rod-shaped and may be straight or curved. Comamonas species are capable of utilizing a wide range of organic compounds as carbon and energy sources. Some species have been associated with human infections, although they are generally considered to be of low pathogenicity.

It's worth noting that while some strains of Comamonas have been found to cause infections in humans, they are relatively rare and often occur in individuals with compromised immune systems or underlying medical conditions. Further research is needed to fully understand the role of Comamonas species in human health and disease.

Gram-negative aerobic bacteria are a type of bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the Gram staining method, which is a technique used to differentiate bacterial species based on their cell wall composition. These bacteria have a thin peptidoglycan layer and an outer membrane containing lipopolysaccharides (LPS), making them resistant to many antibiotics and disinfectants. They are called aerobic because they require oxygen for their growth and metabolism. Examples of Gram-negative aerobic bacteria include Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. These bacteria can cause various infections in humans, such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and sepsis.

Environmental biodegradation is the breakdown of materials, especially man-made substances such as plastics and industrial chemicals, by microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi in order to use them as a source of energy or nutrients. This process occurs naturally in the environment and helps to break down organic matter into simpler compounds that can be more easily absorbed and assimilated by living organisms.

Biodegradation in the environment is influenced by various factors, including the chemical composition of the substance being degraded, the environmental conditions (such as temperature, moisture, and pH), and the type and abundance of microorganisms present. Some substances are more easily biodegraded than others, and some may even be resistant to biodegradation altogether.

Biodegradation is an important process for maintaining the health and balance of ecosystems, as it helps to prevent the accumulation of harmful substances in the environment. However, some man-made substances, such as certain types of plastics and industrial chemicals, may persist in the environment for long periods of time due to their resistance to biodegradation, leading to negative impacts on wildlife and ecosystems.

In recent years, there has been increasing interest in developing biodegradable materials that can break down more easily in the environment as a way to reduce waste and minimize environmental harm. These efforts have led to the development of various biodegradable plastics, coatings, and other materials that are designed to degrade under specific environmental conditions.

'Gram-Negative Aerobic Rods and Cocci' are categorizations used in microbiology to describe certain types of bacteria based on their shape and staining characteristics.

1. Gram-Negative: This refers to the bacterial cells that do not retain crystal violet dye during the Gram staining procedure. Instead, they take up a counterstain such as safranin or fuchsin, making them appear pink or red under a microscope. Gram-negative bacteria possess an outer membrane in addition to the inner cytoplasmic membrane, which contains lipopolysaccharides (endotoxins) that can cause severe reactions and illnesses in humans. Examples of gram-negative bacteria include Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

2. Aerobic: This term describes organisms that require oxygen to grow and metabolize. Aerobic bacteria use molecular oxygen as the final electron acceptor in their respiratory chain, which allows them to generate more energy compared to anaerobic bacteria. Many gram-negative bacteria are aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, meaning they can grow with or without oxygen.

3. Rods and Cocci: These terms describe the shape of bacterial cells. Rods (bacilli) are elongated, rod-shaped bacteria, while cocci are round or oval-shaped bacteria. Examples of gram-negative aerobic rods include Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, while Neisseria meningitidis and Moraxella catarrhalis are examples of gram-negative aerobic cocci.

In summary, 'Gram-Negative Aerobic Rods and Cocci' is a collective term for bacteria that do not retain crystal violet during Gram staining, require oxygen to grow, and have either rod or coccus shapes. These bacteria can cause various infections and diseases in humans and are often resistant to multiple antibiotics.

Oxygenases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of molecular oxygen (O2) into their substrates. They play crucial roles in various biological processes, including the biosynthesis of many natural products, as well as the detoxification and degradation of xenobiotics (foreign substances).

There are two main types of oxygenases: monooxygenases and dioxygenases. Monooxygenases introduce one atom of molecular oxygen into a substrate while reducing the other to water. An example of this type of enzyme is cytochrome P450, which is involved in drug metabolism and steroid hormone synthesis. Dioxygenases, on the other hand, incorporate both atoms of molecular oxygen into their substrates, often leading to the formation of new carbon-carbon bonds or the cleavage of existing ones.

It's important to note that while oxygenases are essential for many life-sustaining processes, they can also contribute to the production of harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS) during normal cellular metabolism. An imbalance in ROS levels can lead to oxidative stress and damage to cells and tissues, which has been linked to various diseases such as cancer, neurodegeneration, and cardiovascular disease.

"Pseudomonas" is a genus of Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely found in soil, water, and plants. Some species of Pseudomonas can cause disease in animals and humans, with P. aeruginosa being the most clinically relevant as it's an opportunistic pathogen capable of causing various types of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

P. aeruginosa is known for its remarkable ability to resist many antibiotics and disinfectants, making infections caused by this bacterium difficult to treat. It can cause a range of healthcare-associated infections, such as pneumonia, bloodstream infections, urinary tract infections, and surgical site infections. In addition, it can also cause external ear infections and eye infections.

Prompt identification and appropriate antimicrobial therapy are crucial for managing Pseudomonas infections, although the increasing antibiotic resistance poses a significant challenge in treatment.

Dioxygenases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of both atoms of molecular oxygen (O2) into their substrates. They are classified based on the type of reaction they catalyze and the number of iron atoms in their active site. The two main types of dioxygenases are:

1. Intradiol dioxygenases: These enzymes cleave an aromatic ring by inserting both atoms of O2 into a single bond between two carbon atoms, leading to the formation of an unsaturated diol (catechol) intermediate and the release of CO2. They contain a non-heme iron(III) center in their active site.

An example of intradiol dioxygenase is catechol 1,2-dioxygenase, which catalyzes the conversion of catechol to muconic acid.

2. Extradiol dioxygenases: These enzymes cleave an aromatic ring by inserting one atom of O2 at a position adjacent to the hydroxyl group and the other atom at a more distant position, leading to the formation of an unsaturated lactone or cyclic ether intermediate. They contain a non-heme iron(II) center in their active site.

An example of extradiol dioxygenase is homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase, which catalyzes the conversion of homogentisate to maleylacetoacetate in the tyrosine degradation pathway.

Dioxygenases play important roles in various biological processes, including the metabolism of aromatic compounds, the biosynthesis of hormones and signaling molecules, and the detoxification of xenobiotics.

Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in steroid hormone metabolism. They catalyze the oxidation and reduction reactions of hydroxyl groups on the steroid molecule, which can lead to the activation or inactivation of steroid hormones. HSDs are involved in the conversion of various steroids, including sex steroids (e.g., androgens, estrogens) and corticosteroids (e.g., cortisol, cortisone). These enzymes can be found in different tissues throughout the body, and their activity is regulated by various factors, such as hormones, growth factors, and cytokines. Dysregulation of HSDs has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

Catechol 2,3-dioxygenase is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of catechols to muconic acids as part of the meta-cleavage pathway in the breakdown of aromatic compounds. This enzyme plays a crucial role in the degradation of various aromatic hydrocarbons, including lignin and environmental pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Catechol 2,3-dioxygenase requires Fe(II) as a cofactor for its activity. The gene that encodes this enzyme is often used as a bioremediation marker to monitor the degradation of aromatic pollutants in the environment.

Alcohol oxidoreductases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones, while reducing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) to NADH. These enzymes play an important role in the metabolism of alcohols and other organic compounds in living organisms.

The most well-known example of an alcohol oxidoreductase is alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), which is responsible for the oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde in the liver during the metabolism of alcoholic beverages. Other examples include aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH).

These enzymes are important targets for the development of drugs used to treat alcohol use disorder, as inhibiting their activity can help to reduce the rate of ethanol metabolism and the severity of its effects on the body.

Secosteroids are a type of steroid molecule that contains a broken bond in the steroid ring structure. The term "secosteroid" is derived from "secosecondary alcohol," which refers to the hydroxyl group (-OH) that is formed when the bond is broken.

The most well-known example of a secosteroid is vitamin D, which is actually a family of related compounds known as calciferols. In vitamin D, the bond between carbons 9 and 10 in the steroid ring structure is broken, forming a new polar group that allows the molecule to act as a hormone.

Secosteroids have a variety of biological activities, including roles in calcium metabolism, immune function, and cell growth and differentiation. In addition to vitamin D, other examples of secosteroids include certain forms of bile acids and steroid hormones that are produced by the body in response to stress or injury.

Phenol, also known as carbolic acid, is an organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH. It is a white crystalline solid that is slightly soluble in water and has a melting point of 40-42°C. Phenol is a weak acid, but it is quite reactive and can be converted into a variety of other chemicals.

In a medical context, phenol is most commonly used as a disinfectant and antiseptic. It has a characteristic odor that is often described as "tarry" or " medicinal." Phenol is also used in some over-the-counter products, such as mouthwashes and throat lozenges, to help kill bacteria and freshen breath.

However, phenol is also a toxic substance that can cause serious harm if it is swallowed, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin. It can cause irritation and burns to the eyes, skin, and mucous membranes, and it can damage the liver and kidneys if ingested. Long-term exposure to phenol has been linked to an increased risk of cancer.

Because of its potential for harm, phenol is regulated as a hazardous substance in many countries, and it must be handled with care when used in medical or industrial settings.

Hydroxybenzoates are the salts or esters of hydroxybenzoic acids. They are commonly used as preservatives in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products due to their antimicrobial and antifungal properties. The most common examples include methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben. These compounds work by inhibiting the growth of bacteria and fungi, thereby increasing the shelf life and safety of various products. However, there has been some concern about their potential health effects, including possible hormonal disruption, and their use in certain applications is being re-evaluated.

Benzenesulfonates are organic compounds that contain a benzene ring substituted with a sulfonate group. In chemistry, a sulfonate group is a functional group consisting of a sulfur atom connected to three oxygen atoms (-SO3). Benzenesulfonates are often used as detergents, emulsifiers, and phase transfer catalysts in various chemical reactions. They can also be found in some pharmaceuticals and dyes.

PQQ, or pyrroloquinoline quinone, is a redox cofactor that plays a role in the electron transfer chain and is involved in various redox reactions in the body. It can be found in some bacteria and plants, and there is evidence to suggest that it may also be present in human tissues. However, the exact role of PQQ as a cofactor in humans is not well understood and more research is needed to fully understand its functions and potential health benefits.

A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound that is required for an enzyme to function. Cofactors can be inorganic ions, such as iron or magnesium, or organic molecules, like PQQ. They play a crucial role in catalyzing biochemical reactions and maintaining the structural integrity of proteins.

In summary, PQQ is a redox cofactor that may have a role in various redox reactions in the body, but its exact functions and significance in human health are still being studied.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

3-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (3-HSDs) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in steroid hormone biosynthesis. These enzymes catalyze the conversion of 3-beta-hydroxy steroids to 3-keto steroids, which is an essential step in the production of various steroid hormones, including progesterone, cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones such as testosterone and estradiol.

There are several isoforms of 3-HSDs that are expressed in different tissues and have distinct substrate specificities. For instance, 3-HSD type I is primarily found in the ovary and adrenal gland, where it catalyzes the conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone to 17-hydroxycortisol. On the other hand, 3-HSD type II is mainly expressed in the testes, adrenal gland, and placenta, where it catalyzes the conversion of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to androstenedione and androstenedione to testosterone.

Defects in 3-HSDs can lead to various genetic disorders that affect steroid hormone production and metabolism, resulting in a range of clinical manifestations such as adrenal insufficiency, ambiguous genitalia, and sexual development disorders.

Steroids, also known as corticosteroids, are a type of hormone that the adrenal gland produces in your body. They have many functions, such as controlling the balance of salt and water in your body and helping to reduce inflammation. Steroids can also be synthetically produced and used as medications to treat a variety of conditions, including allergies, asthma, skin conditions, and autoimmune disorders.

Steroid medications are available in various forms, such as oral pills, injections, creams, and inhalers. They work by mimicking the effects of natural hormones produced by your body, reducing inflammation and suppressing the immune system's response to prevent or reduce symptoms. However, long-term use of steroids can have significant side effects, including weight gain, high blood pressure, osteoporosis, and increased risk of infections.

It is important to note that anabolic steroids are a different class of drugs that are sometimes abused for their muscle-building properties. These steroids are synthetic versions of the male hormone testosterone and can have serious health consequences when taken in large doses or without medical supervision.

"Delftia acidovorans" is a species of gram-negative, motile, aerobic bacteria that is commonly found in various environments such as soil, water, and clinical settings. It is a rod-shaped bacterium that is known to be able to degrade a wide range of organic compounds, including aromatic hydrocarbons and other pollutants.

In clinical settings, "Delftia acidovorans" has been isolated from various types of human infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and bacteremia. However, it is considered to be a rare cause of infection, and its clinical significance is not well understood.

It's worth noting that the genus "Delftia" was previously classified as part of the genus "Comamonas," but was reclassified based on genetic and biochemical evidence. Therefore, some older literature may refer to this bacterium as "Comamonas acidovorans."

Steroid isomerases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the interconversion of steroids by rearranging various chemical bonds within their structures, leading to the formation of isomers. These enzymes play crucial roles in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism, enabling the production of a diverse array of steroid hormones with distinct biological activities.

There are several types of steroid isomerases, including:

1. 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/delta(5)-delta(4) isomerase (3-beta-HSD): This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of delta(5) steroids to delta(4) steroids, accompanied by the oxidation of a 3-beta-hydroxyl group to a keto group. It is essential for the biosynthesis of progesterone, cortisol, and aldosterone.
2. Aromatase: This enzyme converts androgens (such as testosterone) into estrogens (such as estradiol) by introducing a phenolic ring, which results in the formation of an aromatic A-ring. It is critical for the development and maintenance of female secondary sexual characteristics.
3. 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17-beta-HSD): This enzyme catalyzes the interconversion between 17-keto and 17-beta-hydroxy steroids, playing a key role in the biosynthesis of estrogens, androgens, and glucocorticoids.
4. 5-alpha-reductase: This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by reducing the double bond between carbons 4 and 5 in the A-ring. DHT is a more potent androgen than testosterone, playing essential roles in male sexual development and prostate growth.
5. 20-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20-alpha-HSD): This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of corticosterone to aldosterone, a critical mineralocorticoid involved in regulating electrolyte and fluid balance.
6. 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-beta-HSD): This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone and 17-alpha-hydroxypregnenolone to 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, which are essential intermediates in steroid hormone biosynthesis.

These enzymes play crucial roles in the biosynthesis, metabolism, and elimination of various steroid hormones, ensuring proper endocrine function and homeostasis. Dysregulation or mutations in these enzymes can lead to various endocrine disorders, including congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), and others.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

Oxidoreductases are a class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions, which involve the transfer of electrons from one molecule (the reductant) to another (the oxidant). These enzymes play a crucial role in various biological processes, including energy production, metabolism, and detoxification.

The oxidoreductase-catalyzed reaction typically involves the donation of electrons from a reducing agent (donor) to an oxidizing agent (acceptor), often through the transfer of hydrogen atoms or hydride ions. The enzyme itself does not undergo any permanent chemical change during this process, but rather acts as a catalyst to lower the activation energy required for the reaction to occur.

Oxidoreductases are classified and named based on the type of electron donor or acceptor involved in the reaction. For example, oxidoreductases that act on the CH-OH group of donors are called dehydrogenases, while those that act on the aldehyde or ketone groups are called oxidases. Other examples include reductases, peroxidases, and catalases.

Understanding the function and regulation of oxidoreductases is important for understanding various physiological processes and developing therapeutic strategies for diseases associated with impaired redox homeostasis, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular disease.

Phthalic acids are organic compounds with the formula C6H4(COOH)2. They are white crystalline solids that are slightly soluble in water and more soluble in organic solvents. Phthalic acids are carboxylic acids, meaning they contain a functional group consisting of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and single-bonded to a hydroxyl group (-OH).

Phthalic acids are important intermediates in the chemical industry and are used to produce a wide range of products, including plastics, resins, and personal care products. They are also used as solvents and as starting materials for the synthesis of other chemicals.

Phthalic acids can be harmful if swallowed, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin. They can cause irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, and prolonged exposure can lead to more serious health effects. Some phthalates, which are compounds that contain phthalic acid, have been linked to reproductive and developmental problems in animals and are considered to be endocrine disruptors. As a result, the use of certain phthalates has been restricted in some countries.

Urocanate hydratase is an enzyme that is involved in the metabolism of the amino acid histidine. The gene for this enzyme is located on chromosome 7q31-q32. Urocanate hydratase catalyzes the conversion of urocanate to imidazoleacetic acid, which is an important step in the degradation of histidine. Defects in this enzyme can lead to a rare genetic disorder called histidinemia, which is characterized by elevated levels of histidine and its metabolites in the blood and urine. However, it's important to note that histidinemia is generally considered a benign condition, and affected individuals usually do not experience any symptoms or complications.

Gene expression regulation in bacteria refers to the complex cellular processes that control the production of proteins from specific genes. This regulation allows bacteria to adapt to changing environmental conditions and ensure the appropriate amount of protein is produced at the right time.

Bacteria have a variety of mechanisms for regulating gene expression, including:

1. Operon structure: Many bacterial genes are organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule. The expression of these genes can be coordinately regulated by controlling the transcription of the entire operon.
2. Promoter regulation: Transcription is initiated at promoter regions upstream of the gene or operon. Bacteria have regulatory proteins called sigma factors that bind to the promoter and recruit RNA polymerase, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into RNA. The binding of sigma factors can be influenced by environmental signals, allowing for regulation of transcription.
3. Attenuation: Some operons have regulatory regions called attenuators that control transcription termination. These regions contain hairpin structures that can form in the mRNA and cause transcription to stop prematurely. The formation of these hairpins is influenced by the concentration of specific metabolites, allowing for regulation of gene expression based on the availability of those metabolites.
4. Riboswitches: Some bacterial mRNAs contain regulatory elements called riboswitches that bind small molecules directly. When a small molecule binds to the riboswitch, it changes conformation and affects transcription or translation of the associated gene.
5. CRISPR-Cas systems: Bacteria use CRISPR-Cas systems for adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids. These systems incorporate short sequences from foreign DNA into their own genome, which can then be used to recognize and cleave similar sequences in invading genetic elements.

Overall, gene expression regulation in bacteria is a complex process that allows them to respond quickly and efficiently to changing environmental conditions. Understanding these regulatory mechanisms can provide insights into bacterial physiology and help inform strategies for controlling bacterial growth and behavior.

Testosterone is a steroid hormone that belongs to androsten class of hormones. It is primarily secreted by the Leydig cells in the testes of males and, to a lesser extent, by the ovaries and adrenal glands in females. Testosterone is the main male sex hormone and anabolic steroid. It plays a key role in the development of masculine characteristics, such as body hair and muscle mass, and contributes to bone density, fat distribution, red cell production, and sex drive. In females, testosterone contributes to sexual desire and bone health. Testosterone is synthesized from cholesterol and its production is regulated by luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

... is a Gram-negative soil bacterium. Strain I2gfp has been used in bioaugmentation trials, in attempts to ... "Comamonas testosteroni , Type strain , DSM 50244, ATCC 11996, ICPB 2741-78, NCIB 8955, CCUG 1426, NRRL B-2611, NCTC 10698, LMG ... "Bioaugmentation of Activated Sludge by an Indigenous 3-Chloroaniline-Degrading Comamonas testosteroni Strain, I2gfp". Appl. ... "Complex regulation in a Comamonas platform for diverse aromatic carbon metabolism". Nature Chemical Biology. Springer Nature: 1 ...
Comamonas testosteroni, and nostoc sp. Plant organisms: phaseolus coccineus, phaseolus vulgaris, vicia faba, vigna radiata ...
Horinouchi M, Kurita T, Hayashi T, Kudo T (October 2010). "Steroid degradation genes in Comamonas testosteroni TA441: Isolation ... Horinouchi M, Hayashi T, Kudo T (March 2012). "Steroid degradation in Comamonas testosteroni". The Journal of Steroid ... KSI has been studied extensively from the bacteria Comamonas testosteroni (TI), formerly referred to as Pseudomonas ... "Insights into the catalytic mechanism and active-site environment of Comamonas testosteroni delta 5-3-ketosteroid isomerase as ...
Comamonas testosteroni is a rare human pathogen associated with acute appendicitis. It is known to have extremely low virulence ... Bayhan, Gulsum (2013). "Comamonas testosteroni: An Unusual Bacteria Associated with Acute Appendicitis". Balkan Medical Journal ... Those relatives are as follows: Hydrogena, Acidovorax, Comamonas, and Xylophilus. Xenophilus azovorans can be set apart from ...
XVII Degradation of 3-methylquinoline by Comamonas testosteroni 63". Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler. 374 (3): 175-81. doi:10.1515/ ...
Comamonas testosteroni and Pseudomonas stutzeri were obtained from sea water. Few of these are capable of degrading at higher ... Pseudomonas lemoigne, Comamonas sp. Acidovorax faecalis, Aspergillus fumigatus and Variovorax paradoxus are soil microbes ...
Locher, HH; Poolman, B; Cook, AM; Konings, WN (1993). "Uptake of 4-toluene sulfonate by Comamonas testosteroni T-2". Journal of ... TsaS of Comamonas testosteroni, has been reported to function in the uptake of 4-toluene sulfonate. None of these functional ... as part of a putatively two-component transport system for 4-toluenesulphonate in Comamonas testosteroni T-2". Biochemical ...
nov., and comparison of thiosulfate oxidation with Comamonas testosteroni and Comamonas composti". Current Microbiology. 61 (4 ... nov., and comparison of thiosulfate oxidation with Comamonas testosteroni and Comamonas composti". Current Microbiology. 61 (4 ... Comamonas thiooxydans is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium from the genus Comamonas and family Comamonadaceae, which was ... Based on this genome, the GTDB assigns strain E6 to Comamonas thiooxydans. "Genus: Comamonas". Retrieved 2013-05-10. "Archived ...
3,4-DHSA is also produced by other bacteria such as Comamonas testosteroni. A particular type of enzyme known as extradiol ... 17-dione in steroid degradation in Comamonas testosteroni TA441". J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 92 (3): 143-54. doi:10.1016/j. ... "Steroid degradation gene cluster of Comamonas testosteroni consisting of 18 putative genes from meta-cleavage enzyme gene tesB ...
... testosteroni and Comamonas kerstersii have been found to cause infections in people. "Genus: Comamonas". lpsn.dsmz.de ... Comamonas J.P. Euzéby: List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature v t e (Articles with short description, Short ... Comamonas is a genus of bacteria in the phylum Pseudomonadota. Like all Pseudomonadota, they are Gram-negative bacteria. ... Comamonas species are aerobic organisms and motile using bipolar or polar tufts of one to five flagella. ...
Wang YZ, Zhou Y, Zylstra GJ (1995). "Molecular analysis of isophthalate and terephthalate degradation by Comamonas testosteroni ...
"Characterization of the p-toluenesulfonate operon tsaMBCD and tsaR in Comamonas testosteroni T-2". J. Bacteriol. 179 (3): 919- ... pathways for p-toluenecarboxylate and p-toluenesulfonate and their multicomponent oxygenases in Comamonas testosteroni strains ...
Purification and properties of a desulphonative two-component enzyme system from Comamonas testosteroni T-2". Biochem. J. 274: ...
6-dioxygenase from Comamonas testosteroni 63. The first two enzymes in quinoline and 3-methylquinoline degradation". Eur. J. ...
6-dioxygenase from Comamonas testosteroni 63. The first two enzymes in quinoline and 3-methylquinoline degradation". Eur. J. ...
"Crystal structure of quinohemoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase from Comamonas testosteroni: structural basis for substrate ... of the interaction between PQQ and heme c in the quinohemoprotein ethanol dehydrogenase from Comamonas testosteroni". ... "Quinohaemoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase apoenzyme from Pseudomonas testosteroni". The Biochemical Journal. 234 (3): 611-5. doi: ...
Schlafli HR, Weiss MA, Leisinger T, Cook AM (1994). "Terephthalate 1,2-dioxygenase system from Comamonas testosteroni T-2: ...
4-dicarboxylate dehydrogenase from Comamonas testosteroni T-2". FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 130: 97-102. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6968.1995 ...
... pathways for p-toluenecarboxylate and p-toluenesulfonate and their multicomponent oxygenases in Comamonas testosteroni strains ...
3-dihydroxybiphenyl dehydrogenase from Comamonas testosteroni B-356 and sequence of the encoding gene (bphB)". Appl. Environ. ...
4-dienoic acid and related enzymes involved in testosterone degradation in Comamonas testosteroni TA441". Applied and ...
4-dienoic acid and related enzymes involved in testosterone degradation in Comamonas testosteroni TA441". Applied and ...
Comamonas MeSH B03.440.400.425.292.150.750 - Comamonas testosteroni MeSH B03.440.400.425.292.170 - Delftia MeSH B03.440.400.425 ... Comamonas MeSH B03.660.075.102.150.750 - Comamonas testosteroni MeSH B03.660.075.102.170 - Delftia MeSH B03.660.075.102.170.030 ...
Comamonas testosterone, Enterococcus cecorum, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Bartonella rattaustraliani, Yersinia ...
Comamonas testosterone, Pseudomonas stutzeri, are found in seawater and lakewater. Among the most studied, Alcaligenes faecalis ... Species such as Pseudomonas lemoigne, Comamonas sp. Acidovorax faecalis, Aspergillus fumigatus and Variovorax paradoxus have ...
Comamonas testosteroni is a Gram-negative soil bacterium. Strain I2gfp has been used in bioaugmentation trials, in attempts to ... "Comamonas testosteroni , Type strain , DSM 50244, ATCC 11996, ICPB 2741-78, NCIB 8955, CCUG 1426, NRRL B-2611, NCTC 10698, LMG ... "Bioaugmentation of Activated Sludge by an Indigenous 3-Chloroaniline-Degrading Comamonas testosteroni Strain, I2gfp". Appl. ... "Complex regulation in a Comamonas platform for diverse aromatic carbon metabolism". Nature Chemical Biology. Springer Nature: 1 ...
In this study, using Comamonas testosteroni as a model organism, we demonstrated the involvement of Comamonas biofilms in ... Involvement in Denitrification is Beneficial to the Biofilm Lifestyle of Comamonas testosteroni: A Mechanistic Study and Its ... Involvement in Denitrification is Beneficial to the Biofilm Lifestyle of Comamonas testosteroni: A Mechanistic Study and Its ... Comamonas is one of the most abundant microorganisms in biofilm communities driving wastewater treatment. Little has been known ...
Comamonas testosteroni. Room 46. Sink. ND. ND. P. mendocina. Room 40. Shower drain. ND. E, F. ...
Elevated level of the second messenger c-di-GMP in Comamonas testosteroni enhances biofilm formation and biofilm-based ... Elevated level of the second messenger c-di-GMP in Comamonas testosteroni enhances biofilm formation and biofilm-based ... Elevated level of the second messenger c-di-GMP in Comamonas testosteroni enhances biofilm formation and biofilm-based ...
Zalesak, M.; Ruzicka, J.; Vicha, R.; Dvorackova, M. Cometabolic degradation of dichloroethenes by Comamonas testosteroni RF2. ... TCE and all DCEs are degraded by Comamonas testosteroni RF2 in the presence of phenol and sodium lactate [89]. ... Comamonas, Geobacter, Desulfomonile, Desulfuromonas, Sulfurospirillum, Enterobacter, and Shewanella). Two Dehalococcoides ...
Comamonas testosteroni. Secretion. Gen.Diagn.Dept., PHL, Göteborg, Sweden. 1968-08-30. ... Comamonas acidovorans. Human wound. J.-E.Brorson, PHL, Göteborg, Sweden. 1968-08-30. ...
Mechanism of proton transfer in the 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/carbonyl reductase from Comamonas testosteroni. J. Biol. ...
Studie über die Genregulation der Expression der 3alpha-Hydroxysteroid-Dehydrogenase im Bakterium Comamonas testosteroni by: ... Carbonyl Reductase from Comamonas testosteroni:New Approaches for efficient Protein Design by: Hoffmann-Geim, Frank Published ...
Characterization of the p-toluenesulfonate operon tsaMBCD and tsaR in Comamonas testosteroni T-2. ... pathways for p-toluenecarboxylate and p-toluenesulfonate and their multicomponent oxygenases in Comamonas testosteroni strains ... pathways for p-toluenecarboxylate and p-toluenesulfonate and their multicomponent oxygenases in Comamonas testosteroni strains ...
in 1.7%, Comamonas testosteroni in 1.2% of patients produced. ESBL positivity is present in 51 (36.7%) of 139 E. coli strains ...
ebook Shakespeare and of natural by Comamonas testosteroni 63. Biol Chem Hoppe-Seyler 374: 175-181. ...
2008). Another member of the TSUP family, TsaS of Comamonas testosteroni, has been reported to function in the uptake of 4- ... as part of a putatively two-component transport system for 4-toluenesulphonate in Comamonas testosteroni T-2. Biochem. J. 383: ...
How Comamonas testosteroni and Rhodococcus ruber enhance nitrification in the presence of quinoline. Zhu, G., Zhang, H., Yuan, ...
Comamonas testosteroni. ISOMERASE. 34. 3m8c_2. A & D. ? C2. 2. ?. ?. PROBNOT. C2. 2. P00947. P. H. E. R. Comamonas testosteroni ... Comamonas testosteroni. ISOMERASE. 34. 3nxj_1. A & B. ? C2. 2. ?. ?. PROBNOT. C2. 2. P00947. P. H. E. R. Comamonas testosteroni ... Comamonas testosteroni. ISOMERASE. 33. 3mki_1. A & A. ? C2. 2. ?. ?. PROBNOT. C2. 2. P00947. P. H. E. R. Comamonas testosteroni ... Comamonas testosteroni. ISOMERASE. 33. 3myt_1. A & A. ? C2. 2. ?. ?. PROBNOT. C2. 2. P00947. P. H. E. R. Comamonas testosteroni ...
2010), Comamonas testosteroni (Tsui et al. 2011), Ralstonia picketti (Makaritsis et al. 2009) and Pseudomonas stutzeri (Noble ... 4.2%) Serratia marcescens (4.2%), Burkholderia cepacia (2.1%), Comamonas testosteroni (8.3%) and Ralstonia picketti (2.1%). ... No information was available to us about the pathogenicity of Comamonas testosteroni, Pseudomonas stutzeri and Ralstonia ... Comamonas testosteroni infection in Taiwan: reported two cases and literature review. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2011; 44(1): ...
Comamonas testosteroni CNB-2. Magnesium (Mg), Cobalt (Co), Nickel (Ni), Manganese (Mn). magnesium and cobalt transporter CorA ... Comamonas testosteroni KF-1. Magnesium (Mg), Cobalt (Co), Nickel (Ni), Manganese (Mn). magnesium and cobalt transport protein ... Comamonas testosteroni ATCC 11996. Magnesium (Mg), Cobalt (Co), Nickel (Ni), Manganese (Mn). magnesium and cobalt transport ...
Comamonas testosteroni KF-1 Position: -219. Score: 4.75442. Sequence: TGCACAAAAGCAGTGCA Locus tag: CtesDRAFT_4526. Name: nasD. ...
Comamonas testosteroni KF-1 CtesDRAFT_1260. iscR. -182. 5.8. TTACCCGACAAAATTGATGGGGAAT. CtesDRAFT_1260. iscR. -152. 5.6. ...
Comamonas testosteroni CNB-1. 61. TrbF. 94310290. Trb. NC_007973. Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34. ...
Comamonas acidovorans, Comamonas testosteroni and Hydrogenophaga pseudoflava[12, 13]. Saito and coworkers reported the ... Sudesh K, Fukui T, Taguchi K, Iwata T, Doi Y: Improved production of poly(4-hydroxybutyrate) by Comamonas acidovorans and its ...
Bakterije Comamonas testosteroni pospešujejo nevtralizacijo klora. Bakterije Bacillus pumilus z razgradnjo odmrlih organizmov ...
Comamonas testosteroni CNB-2, complete genome. efflux transporter, RND family, MFP subunit. 8e-07. 55.1. ...
Degradation of 3-methylquinoline by Comamonas testosteroni 63. Biol. Chem. Hoppe Seyler 374 (1993) 175-181. [PMID: 8489738]. [ ... 4-dicarboxylate dehydrogenase from Comamonas testosteroni T-2. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 130 (1996) 97-102.. 2. Wang, Y.Z., Zhou, Y ... and Zylstra, G.J. Molecular analysis of isophthalate and terephthalate degradation by Comamonas testosteroni YZW-D. Environ. ... 3-dihydroxybiphenyl dehydrogenase from Comamonas testosteroni B-356 and sequence of the encoding gene (bphB). Appl. Environ. ...
Both Delftia and Comamonas belong to the family of the Comamonadaceae. All three strains possess a large plasmid of ca. 100 kb ... Strains A and B were isolated in this study from a wastewater treatment plant and were identified as Comamonas testosterone and ... and Comamonas testosterone comb. nov., with an emended description of the genus Comamonas. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 37: 52-59. ... Adaptation of Comamonas testosteroni TA441 to utilize phenol: organization and regulation of the genes involved in phenol ...
... from Comamonas testosteroni. Q93PS9 4-oxalomesaconate hydratase (EC 4.2.1.83) from Comamonas testosteroni. 342 amino acids: ...
Another environmental bacterium, Comamonas testosterone may proved to be natures plastic recycling center as it prefers to eat ...
BACKGROUND: Comamonas testosteroni is a gram-negative bacillus, known before 1987 as Pseudomonas testosteroni. Although ... An investigation of clinical characteristics and antimicrobial agent susceptibility patterns in clinical Comamonas testosteroni ... testosteroni. RESULTS: C testosteroni infection was detected between November 2019 and December 2020 in eight patients in our ... Six of them had a bloodstream infection (BSI), one had pneumonia, and one had urinary tract infection due to C. testosteroni. ...
Q38M37 2-oxo-3-hexenedioate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.77) from Comamonas testosteroni CNB-1. PFams: FAA_hydrolase. 262 amino ...
Explore the topic Testosterone through the articles written by the best experts in this field - both academic and industrial - ... Testosterone inducible regulator is a kinase that drives steroid sensing and metabolism in comamonas testosteroni. Journal of ... Testosterone inducible regulator is a kinase that drives steroid sensing and metabolism in comamonas testosteroni. Journal of ... Comamonas testosteroni (C. testosteroni) is able to catabolize a variety of steroids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. 3,17 ...
Cis-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl-2,3-diol dehydrogenase OS=Comamonas testosteroni GN=bphB PE=1 SV=1. 12. 266. 2.0E-06. ...
  • The diversity has been examined of the plasmids and of the gene tdnQ, involved in oxidative deamination of aniline in three bacterial isolates that are able to metabolise both aniline and 3-chloroaniline (3-CA). Strains A and B were isolated in this study from a wastewater treatment plant and were identified as Comamonas testosterone and Delftia acidovorans, respectively. (sciepub.com)
  • Biodegradation of the mixtures of 4-chlorophenol and phenol by Comamonas testosteroni CPW301. (sciepub.com)
  • Comamonas is one of the most abundant microorganisms in biofilm communities driving wastewater treatment. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • In this study, using Comamonas testosteroni as a model organism, we demonstrated the involvement of Comamonas biofilms in denitrification under bulk aerobic conditions and elucidated the influence of nitrate respiration on its biofilm lifestyle. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Under bulk aerobic condition, biofilms of C. testosteroni were capable of reducing nitrate, and intriguingly, nitrate reduction significantly enhanced viability of the biofilm-cells and reduced cell detachment from the biofilms. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Taking these factors together, this study reveals that nitrate reduction occurs in mature biofilms of C. testosteroni under bulk aerobic conditions, and the respiratory reduction of nitrate is beneficial to the biofilm lifestyle by providing more metabolic energy to maintain high viability and a higher level of c-di-GMP to reduce cell detachment. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • BACKGROUND: Comamonas testosteroni is a gram-negative bacillus, known before 1987 as Pseudomonas testosteroni. (bvsalud.org)
  • Our results showed that C. testosteroni could use nitrate as the sole electron acceptor for anaerobic growth. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Plasmid control of ptoluenesulfonic acid degradation in Comamonas testosteroni BS1310. (sciepub.com)
  • However, whereas pK2.4-EGFP-4 could integrate into the chromosomal DNA of C. testosteroni and knock out the βhsd gene promoter, pBB2.4-EGFP-8 could replicate in C. testosteroni cells as a free plasmid DNA. (idexlab.com)
  • Adaptation of Comamonas testosteroni TA441 to utilize phenol: organization and regulation of the genes involved in phenol degradation. (sciepub.com)
  • Identification and isolation of a regulator protein for 3,17β-HSD expressional regulation in Comamonas testosteroni. (idexlab.com)
  • Elucidating the mechanism of 3,17β-HSD gene (βhsd) regulation may help us to generate prospective C. testosteroni mutants for bioremediation. (idexlab.com)
  • Our data reveal that the βhsd gene undergoes complex regulation involving the two promoters, a loop structure via the two repeat sequences, and the steroid Testosterone . (idexlab.com)
  • Comamonas testosteroni is a Gram-negative soil bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both Delftia and Comamonas belong to the family of the Comamonadaceae. (sciepub.com)
  • In contrast, in C. testosteroni cells transformed with pBB2.4-EGFP-8 the expression of EGFP was induced with Testosterone . (idexlab.com)
  • These knock-out mutants showed an enhanced expression of both the βhsd gene and the hsdA gene (the latter coding for 3α-HSD/CR) in the presence of Testosterone . (idexlab.com)
  • In this study, we identified the C. testosteroni infections observed in our hospital and evaluated their antimicrobial agent susceptibility patterns compared with cases reported in the literature. (bvsalud.org)
  • 3,17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3,17β-HSD) from C. testosteroni is a member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily. (idexlab.com)
  • Characterization of Phenol Biodegradation by Comamonas testosteroni ZD4-1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ZD4-3[J]. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences, 2003, 16(2): 163-172. (besjournal.com)
  • Results Bacterial strains ZD 4-1 and ZD 4-3 were identified asComamonas testosteroni and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by 16S rDNA sequence analysis, respectively.The growth of the two strains was observed on a variety of aromatic hydrocarbons. (besjournal.com)
  • A species of gram-negative, aerobic rods formerly called Pseudomonas testosteroni. (nih.gov)
  • Especie de bacilos gramnegativos aerobios, previamente conocido como Pseudomonas testosteroni. (bvsalud.org)
  • They are considered proteobacteria in the genera of Achromobacter , Comamonas , and Pseudomonas . (kmutnb.ac.th)
  • After the biochemical identification tests and the use of VITEK-2 Compact (Biomerieux, France) automated microbial identification system, pathogenic bacteria was identified as Comamonas testosteroni . (imjsu.org)
  • There has been an increase in bacterial infections caused by Comamonas testosteroni and antibiotic resistance of the bacteria. (imjsu.org)
  • Contrary to most bacteria preferring sugars as their food source, C. testosteroni was observed to have a natural appetite for complex waste from plants and plastics. (lab.equipment)
  • Comamonas testosteroni is a Gram-negative soil bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a new study, the common environmental bacterium, Comamonas testosteroni , was found to potentially become nature's plastic recycling center, following the determination of its ability to digest what is indigestible. (lab.equipment)
  • Comamonas testosteroni is a gram-negative bacillus which commonly occurs in various environments worldwide. (imjsu.org)
  • It is differentiated from other Comamonas species by its ability to assimilate testosterone and to utilize phenylacetate or maleate as carbon sources. (nih.gov)
  • We found that the metabolism of C. testosteroni is regulated on different levels, and those levels are integrated. (lab.equipment)
  • At present, their research is focused on investigating further the metabolism that triggers polymer biosynthesis in C. testosteroni. (lab.equipment)