Comamonas testosteroni: A species of gram-negative, aerobic rods formerly called Pseudomonas testosteroni. It is differentiated from other Comamonas species by its ability to assimilate testosterone and to utilize phenylacetate or maleate as carbon sources.Comamonas: A genus of gram-negative, straight or slightly curved rods which are motile by polar flagella and which accumulate poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate within the cells.Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria: A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Gram-Negative Aerobic Rods and Cocci: A group of gram-negative bacteria consisting of rod- and coccus-shaped cells. They are both aerobic (able to grow under an air atmosphere) and microaerophilic (grow better in low concentrations of oxygen) under nitrogen-fixing conditions but, when supplied with a source of fixed nitrogen, they grow as aerobes.Oxygenases: Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.3-alpha-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase (B-Specific): A 3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase which catalyzes the reversible reduction of the active androgen, DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE to 5 ALPHA-ANDROSTANE-3 ALPHA,17 BETA-DIOL. It also has activity towards other 3-alpha-hydroxysteroids and on 9-, 11- and 15- hydroxyprostaglandins. The enzyme is B-specific in reference to the orientation of reduced NAD or NADPH.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Dioxygenases: Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: Enzymes of the oxidoreductase class that catalyze the dehydrogenation of hydroxysteroids. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.-.Catechol 2,3-Dioxygenase: Catalyzes the oxidation of catechol to 2-hydroxymuconate semialdehyde in the carbazole and BENZOATE degradation via HYDROXYLATION pathways. It also catalyzes the conversion of 3-methylcatechol to cis, cis-2-hydroxy-6-oxohept-2,4-dienoate in the TOLUENE and XYLENE degradation pathway. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC 1.13.1.2.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Secosteroids: Steroids in which fission of one or more ring structures and concomitant addition of a hydrogen atom at each terminal group has occurred.Phenol: An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.Hydroxybenzoates: Benzoate derivatives substituted by one or more hydroxy groups in any position on the benzene ring.Benzenesulfonates: Organic salts and esters of benzenesulfonic acid.PQQ Cofactor: A pyrrolo-quinoline having two adjacent keto-groups at the 4 and 5 positions and three acidic carboxyl groups. It is a coenzyme of some DEHYDROGENASES.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Delftia acidovorans: A species of gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria found ubiquitously and formerly called Comamonas acidovorans and Pseudomonas acidovorans. It is the type species of the genus DELFTIA.Steroid Isomerases: Enzymes that catalyze the transposition of double bond(s) in a steroid molecule. EC 5.3.3.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Phthalic Acids: A group of compounds that has the general structure of a dicarboxylic acid-substituted benzene ring. The ortho-isomer is used in dye manufacture. (Dorland, 28th ed)Urocanate Hydratase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 4,5-dihydro-4-oxo-5-imidazolepropanoate to urocanate and water. EC 4.2.1.49.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Gluconeogenesis: Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.Decarboxylation: The removal of a carboxyl group, usually in the form of carbon dioxide, from a chemical compound.Phosphoenolpyruvate Sugar Phosphotransferase System: The bacterial sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) that catalyzes the transfer of the phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate to its sugar substrates (the PTS sugars) concomitant with the translocation of these sugars across the bacterial membrane. The phosphorylation of a given sugar requires four proteins, two general proteins, Enzyme I and HPr and a pair of sugar-specific proteins designated as the Enzyme II complex. The PTS has also been implicated in the induction of synthesis of some catabolic enzyme systems required for the utilization of sugars that are not substrates of the PTS as well as the regulation of the activity of ADENYLYL CYCLASES. EC 2.7.1.-.Phosphotransferases (Nitrogenous Group Acceptor): A group of enzymes that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group onto a nitrogenous group acceptor. EC 2.7.3.PhosphoenolpyruvateMetabolic Phenomena: The CHEMICAL PROCESSES that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism and related temporal, spatial, qualitative, and quantitative concepts.Peptide Nucleic Acids: DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.Metabolic Engineering: Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.Industrial Microbiology: The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Biometric Identification: A method of differentiating individuals based on the analysis of qualitative or quantitative biological traits or patterns. This process which has applications in forensics and identity theft prevention includes DNA profiles or DNA fingerprints, hand fingerprints, automated facial recognition, iris scan, hand geometry, retinal scan, vascular patterns, automated voice pattern recognition, and ultrasound of fingers.Radio Frequency Identification Device: Machine readable patient or equipment identification device using radio frequency from 125 kHz to 5.8 Ghz.Doping in Sports: Illegitimate use of substances for a desired effect in competitive sports. It includes humans and animals.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Hemangioma, Cavernous, Central Nervous System: A vascular anomaly composed of a collection of large, thin walled tortuous VEINS that can occur in any part of the central nervous system but lack intervening nervous tissue. Familial occurrence is common and has been associated with a number of genes mapped to 7q, 7p and 3q. Clinical features include SEIZURES; HEADACHE; STROKE; and progressive neurological deficit.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.PhenanthrenesAntarctic Regions: The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)Fuel Oils: Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Hydroponics: A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Agricultural Inoculants: Beneficial microorganisms (bacteria or fungi) encapsulated in carrier material and applied to the environment for remediation and enhancement of agricultural productivity.Mammoths: An extinct genus of large mammals in the family Elephantidae that fed by grazing on low vegetation. Most died out at the end of the last ice age.Silage: Fodder converted into succulent feed for livestock through processes of anaerobic fermentation (as in a silo).Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Serratia liquefaciens: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus SERRATIA found in plants and the DIGESTIVE TRACT of rodents. It is the most prevalent Serratia species in the natural environment.Serratia: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the natural environment (soil, water, and plant surfaces) or as an opportunistic human pathogen.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Sarcocystis: A genus of protozoa found in reptiles, birds, and mammals, including humans. This heteroxenous parasite produces muscle cysts in intermediate hosts such as domestic herbivores (cattle, sheep, pigs) and rodents. Final hosts are predators such as dogs, cats, and man.Chemoreceptor Cells: Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.Pseudomonas putida: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Calorimetry: The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)DimethylformamideParacoccus: Gram-negative non-motile bacteria found in soil or brines.Formamides: A group of amides with the general formula of R-CONH2.ArchivesBiological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Rosacea: A cutaneous disorder primarily of convexities of the central part of the FACE, such as FOREHEAD; CHEEK; NOSE; and CHIN. It is characterized by FLUSHING; ERYTHEMA; EDEMA; RHINOPHYMA; papules; and ocular symptoms. It may occur at any age but typically after age 30. There are various subtypes of rosacea: erythematotelangiectatic, papulopustular, phymatous, and ocular (National Rosacea Society's Expert Committee on the Classification and Staging of Rosacea, J Am Acad Dermatol 2002; 46:584-7).Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Game Theory: Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.Facial DermatosesPunishment: The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.Burkholderia pseudomallei: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes MELIOIDOSIS. It has been isolated from soil and water in tropical regions, particularly Southeast Asia.Melioidosis: A disease of humans and animals that resembles GLANDERS. It is caused by BURKHOLDERIA PSEUDOMALLEI and may range from a dormant infection to a condition that causes multiple abscesses, pneumonia, and bacteremia.Cupriavidus necator: A gram-negative, facultatively chemoautotrophic bacterium, formerly called Wautersia eutropha, found in water and soil.Cupriavidus: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria, in the family BURKHOLDERIACEAE, that are mobile by means of peritrichous FLAGELLA. The genus was formerly called Wautersia and species in this genus were formerly in the genus RALSTONIA.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Medical Subject Headings: Controlled vocabulary thesaurus produced by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. It consists of sets of terms naming descriptors in a hierarchical structure that permits searching at various levels of specificity.3' Flanking Region: The region of DNA which borders the 3' end of a transcription unit and where a variety of regulatory sequences are located.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).5' Flanking Region: The region of DNA which borders the 5' end of a transcription unit and where a variety of regulatory sequences are located.2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic Acid: A powerful herbicide used as a selective weed killer.Aeromonas hydrophila: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that may be pathogenic for frogs, fish, and mammals, including man. In humans, cellulitis and diarrhea can result from infection with this organism.2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid: An herbicide with irritant effects on the eye and the gastrointestinal system.Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Genetics, Medical: A subdiscipline of human genetics which entails the reliable prediction of certain human disorders as a function of the lineage and/or genetic makeup of an individual or of any two parents or potential parents.PeroxidasesClick Chemistry: Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Endoscopes: Instruments for the visual examination of interior structures of the body. There are rigid endoscopes and flexible fiberoptic endoscopes for various types of viewing in ENDOSCOPY.Gastroscopes: Endoscopes used for examining the interior of the stomach.Endoscopes, Gastrointestinal: Instruments for the visual examination of the interior of the gastrointestinal tract.Decontamination: The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.Capsule Endoscopes: A pill sized videocamera encased in a capsule. It is designed to be swallowed and subsequently traverse the gastrointestinal tract while transmitting diagnostic images along the way.

Genetic organization and characteristics of the 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid degradation pathway of Comamonas testosteroni TA441. (1/50)

Comamonas testosteroni TA441 degrades 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)propionate (3HPP) via the meta pathway. A gene cluster required for degradation of 3HPP was cloned from strain TA441 and sequenced. The genes encoding six catabolic enzymes, a flavin-type hydroxylase (mhpA), extradiol dioxygenase (mhpB), 2-keto-4-pentenoate hydratase (mhpD), acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (acylating) (mhpF), 4-hydroxy-2-ketovalerate aldolase (mhpE) and the meta cleavage compound hydrolase (mhpC), were found in this cluster, encoded in this order. mhpD and mhpF were separated by two genes, orf4 and orf5, which were not necessary for growth on 3HPP. The gene mhpR, encoding a putative transcriptional activator of the IcIR family, was located adjacent to mhpA in the opposite orientation. Disruption of the mhpB or mhpR genes affected growth on 3HPP or trans-3-hydroxycinnamate. The mhpB and mhpC gene products showed high specificity for 3-(2,3-dihydroxyphenyl)propionate (DHPP) and the meta cleavage compound produced from DHPP, respectively.  (+info)

Crystal structure of delta(5)-3-ketosteroid isomerase from Pseudomonas testosteroni in complex with equilenin settles the correct hydrogen bonding scheme for transition state stabilization. (2/50)

Delta(5)-3-Ketosteroid isomerase from Pseudomonas testosteroni has been intensively studied as a prototype to understand an enzyme-catalyzed allylic isomerization. Asp(38) (pK(a) approximately 4.7) was identified as the general base abstracting the steroid C4beta proton (pK(a) approximately 12.7) to form a dienolate intermediate. A key and common enigmatic issue involved in the proton abstraction is the question of how the energy required for the unfavorable proton transfer can be provided at the active site of the enzyme and/or how the thermodynamic barrier can be drastically reduced. Answering this question has been hindered by the existence of two differently proposed enzyme reaction mechanisms. The 2.26 A crystal structure of the enzyme in complex with a reaction intermediate analogue equilenin reveals clearly that both the Tyr(14) OH and Asp(99) COOH provide direct hydrogen bonds to the oxyanion of equilenin. The result negates the catalytic dyad mechanism in which Asp(99) donates the hydrogen bond to Tyr(14), which in turn is hydrogen bonded to the steroid. A theoretical calculation also favors the doubly hydrogen-bonded system over the dyad system. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance analyses of several mutant enzymes indicate that the Tyr(14) OH forms a low barrier hydrogen bond with the dienolic oxyanion of the intermediate.  (+info)

Bioaugmentation of activated sludge by an indigenous 3-chloroaniline-degrading Comamonas testosteroni strain, I2gfp. (3/50)

A strain identified as Comamonas testosteroni I2 was isolated from activated sludge and found to be able to mineralize 3-chloroaniline (3-CA). During the mineralization, a yellow intermediate accumulated temporarily, due to the distal meta-cleavage of chlorocatechol. This strain was tested for its ability to clean wastewater containing 3-CA upon inoculation into activated sludge. To monitor its survival, the strain was chromosomally marked with the gfp gene and designated I2gfp. After inoculation into a lab-scale semicontinuous activated-sludge (SCAS) system, the inoculated strain maintained itself in the sludge for at least 45 days and was present in the sludge flocs. After an initial adaptation period of 6 days, complete degradation of 3-CA was obtained during 2 weeks, while no degradation at all occurred in the noninoculated control reactor. Upon further operation of the SCAS system, only 50% 3-CA removal was observed. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA genes revealed a dynamic change in the microbial community structure of the activated sludge. The DGGE patterns of the noninoculated and the inoculated reactors evolved after 7 days to different clusters, which suggests an effect of strain inoculation on the microbial community structure. The results indicate that bioaugmentation, even with a strain originating from that ecosystem and able to effectively grow on a selective substrate, is not permanent and will probably require regular resupplementation.  (+info)

Arrangement and regulation of the genes for meta-pathway enzymes required for degradation of phenol in Comamonas testosteroni TA441. (4/50)

Comamonas testosteroni TA441 degrades phenol by a meta-cleavage pathway after the occurrence of a spontaneous mutation that derepresses the aphKLMNOPQB operon encoding phenol hydroxylase and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase, the enzymes for the initial two steps of the degradation pathway. A gene cluster, aphCEFGHJI, encoding the meta-pathway enzymes for degradation of 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde (HMS) to TCA cycle intermediates was found downstream of the aphK operon. The upstream operon and the downstream gene cluster were found to be separated by two open reading frames of unknown function and an oppositely oriented aphT gene, which is similar to regulatory genes for ortho-cleavage of catechol or chlorinated catechols. A promoter assay using an aphC::lacZ transcriptional fusion plasmid revealed that the aphC promoter activity is induced by both phenol and HMS. The phenol-dependent induction was mediated by AphR and the HMS-dependent induction was mediated by AphT. The aphC promoter in strain TA441 was not silenced, unlike the cases of the aphK and aphR promoters, and was highly induced by HMS.  (+info)

Regulation of the steroid-inducible 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/carbonyl reductase gene in Comamonas testosteroni. (5/50)

The Comamonas testosteroni 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/carbonyl reductase gene (hsdA) codes for an adaptive enzyme in the degradation of steroid compounds. However, no information was available on the molecular regulation of steroid-inducible genes nor on the mechanism of steroid signaling in procaryotes. We, therefore, investigated the cis- and trans-acting elements of hsdA expression to infer the mechanism of its molecular regulation by steroids. The gene was localized on a 5.257-kilobase EcoRI fragment of C. testosteroni chromosomal DNA. The promoter was characterized, and the transcriptional start site was identified. Two palindromic operator domains were found upstream of hsdA. A new gene coding for a trans-acting negative regulator (repressor A, RepA) of hsdA expression was characterized. The specific interaction between RepA, testosterone, and the operator domain is demonstrated. From our results we conclude that hsdA is under negative transcriptional control by an adjacent gene product (RepA). Accordingly, induction of hsdA by steroids in fact is a derepression, where steroidal inducers bind to the repressor, thereby preventing its binding to the hsdA operator.  (+info)

Map of the IncP1beta plasmid pTSA encoding the widespread genes (tsa) for p-toluenesulfonate degradation in Comamonas testosteroni T-2. (6/50)

The catabolic IncP1beta plasmid pTSA from Comamonas testosteroni T-2 was mapped by subtractive analysis of restriction digests, by sequencing outwards from the tsa operon (toluenesulfonate degradation), and by generating overlapping, long-distance-PCR amplification products. The plasmid was estimated to comprise 72 +/- 4 kb. The tsa region was found to be a composite transposon flanked by two IS1071 elements. A cryptic tsa operon was also present in the tsa transposon. Those backbone genes and regions which we sequenced were in the same order as the corresponding genes in resistance plasmid R751, and identities of about 99% were observed. Enrichment cultures with samples from four continents were done to obtain organisms able to utilize p-toluenesulfonate as the sole source of carbon and energy for aerobic growth. Most (15) of the 16 cultures (13 of them isolates) were obtained from contaminated sites and were attributed to three metabolic groups, depending on their metabolism of p-toluenesulfonate. The largest group contained the tsa transposon, usually (six of seven isolates) with negligible differences in sequence from strain T-2.  (+info)

Endotoxic properties of lipid A from Comamonas testosteroni. (7/50)

The lipid A from Comamonas testosteroni has been isolated and its complete chemical structure determined [Iida, T., Haishima, Y., Tanaka, A., Nishijima, K., Saito, S. & Tanamoto, K. (1996). Eur J Biochem 237, 468-475]. In this work, the relationship between its chemical structure and biological activity was studied. The lipid A was highly homogeneous chemically and was characterized by the relatively short chain length (C(10)) of the 3-hydroxy fatty acid components directly bound to the glucosamine disaccharide backbone by either amide or ester linkages. The lipid A exhibited endotoxic activity in all of the assay systems tested (mitogenicity in mouse spleen cells; induction of tumour necrosis factor alpha release from both mouse peritoneal macrophages and mouse macrophage-like cell line J774-1, as well as from the human monocytic cell line THP-1; induction of nitric oxide release from J774-1 cells; Limulus gelation activity and lethal toxicity in galactosamine-sensitized mice) to the same extent as did 'Salmonella minnesota' lipid A or Escherichia coli LPS used as controls. The strong endotoxic activity of the C. testosteroni lipid A indicates that the composition of 3-hydroxydecanoic acid is not responsible for the low endotoxicity of the lipid A observed in members of the genus Rhodopseudomonas, as has previously been suggested. Furthermore, both the lack of a second acylation of the 3-hydroxy fatty acid attached at the 3' position, and the substitution of the hydroxyl group of the 3-hydroxy fatty acid attached at position 2, do not affect the manifestation of endotoxic activity or species specificity.  (+info)

PhcS represses gratuitous expression of phenol-metabolizing enzymes in Comamonas testosteroni R5. (8/50)

We identified an open reading frame, designated phcS, downstream of the transcriptional activator gene (phcR) for the expression of multicomponent phenol hydroxylase (mPH) in Comamonas testosteroni R5. The deduced product of phcS was homologous to AphS of C. testosteroni TA441, which belongs to the GntR family of transcriptional regulators. The transformation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1c (phenol negative, catechol positive) with pROR502 containing phcR and the mPH genes conferred the ability to grow on phenol, while transformation with pROR504 containing phcS, phcR, and mPH genes did not confer this ability. The disruption of phcS in strain R5 had no effect on its phenol-oxygenating activity in a chemostat culture with phenol. The phenol-oxygenating activity was not expressed in strain R5 grown in a chemostat with acetate. In contrast, the phenol-oxygenating activity in the strain with a knockout phcS gene when grown in a chemostat with acetate as the limiting growth factor was 66% of that obtained in phenol-grown cells of the strain with a knockout in the phcS gene. The disruption of phcS and/or phcR and the complementation in trans of these defects confirm that PhcS is a trans-acting repressor and that the unfavorable expression of mPH in the phcS knockout cells grown on acetate requires PhcR. These results show that the PhcS protein repressed the gratuitous expression of phenol-metabolizing enzymes in the absence of the genuine substrate and that strain R5 acted by an unknown mechanism in which the PhcS-mediated repression was overcome in the presence of the pathway substrate.  (+info)

*Comamonas testosteroni

... is a Gram-negative soil bacterium. Strain I2gfp has been used in bioaugmentation trials, in attempts to ... Type strain of Comamonas testosteroni at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase. ... "Bioaugmentation of Activated Sludge by an Indigenous 3-Chloroaniline-Degrading Comamonas testosteroni Strain, I2gfp". Appl. ...

*Prephenate dehydrogenase

Comamonas testosteroni, and nostoc sp. Plant organisms: phaseolus coccineus, phaseolus vulgaris, vicia faba, vigna radiata ...

*Steroid Delta-isomerase

Horinouchi M, Kurita T, Hayashi T, Kudo T (October 2010). "Steroid degradation genes in Comamonas testosteroni TA441: Isolation ... Horinouchi M, Hayashi T, Kudo T (March 2012). "Steroid degradation in Comamonas testosteroni". The Journal of Steroid ... KSI has been studied extensively from the bacteria Comamonas testosteroni (TI), formerly referred to as Pseudomonas ... "Insights into the catalytic mechanism and active-site environment of Comamonas testosteroni delta 5-3-ketosteroid isomerase as ...

*5,6-dihydroxy-3-methyl-2-oxo-1,2,5,6-tetrahydroquinoline dehydrogenase

XVII Degradation of 3-methylquinoline by Comamonas testosteroni 63". Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler. 374 (3): 175-81. doi:10.1515/ ...

*Polyhydroxybutyrate

Comamonas testosteroni and Pseudomonas stutzeri were obtained from sea water. Few of these are capable of degrading at higher ... Pseudomonas lemoigne, Comamonas sp. Acidovorax faecalis, Aspergillus fumigatus and Variovorax paradoxus are soil microbes ...

*TSUP family

Locher, HH; Poolman, B; Cook, AM; Konings, WN (1993). "Uptake of 4-toluene sulfonate by Comamonas testosteroni T-2". Journal of ... TsaS of Comamonas testosteroni, has been reported to function in the uptake of 4-toluene sulfonate. None of these functional ... as part of a putatively two-component transport system for 4-toluenesulphonate in Comamonas testosteroni T-2". Biochemical ...

*Comamonas thiooxydans

nov., and comparison of thiosulfate oxidation with Comamonas testosteroni and Comamonas composti". Current Microbiology. 61 (4 ... nov., and comparison of thiosulfate oxidation with Comamonas testosteroni and Comamonas composti". Current Microbiology. 61 (4 ... Comamonas thiooxydans is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium from the genus Comamonas and family Comamonadaceae, which was ... Type strain of Comamonas thiooxydans at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase. ...

*DHSA

3,4-DHSA is also produced by other bacteria such as Comamonas testosteroni. A particular type of enzyme known as extradiol ... 17-dione in steroid degradation in Comamonas testosteroni TA441". J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 92 (3): 143-54. doi:10.1016/j. ... "Steroid degradation gene cluster of Comamonas testosteroni consisting of 18 putative genes from meta-cleavage enzyme gene tesB ...

*Terephthalate 1,2-cis-dihydrodiol dehydrogenase

Wang YZ, Zhou Y, Zylstra GJ (1995). "Molecular analysis of isophthalate and terephthalate degradation by Comamonas testosteroni ...

*4-formylbenzenesulfonate dehydrogenase

"Characterization of the p-toluenesulfonate operon tsaMBCD and tsaR in Comamonas testosteroni T-2". J. Bacteriol. 179 (3): 919- ... pathways for p-toluenecarboxylate and p-toluenesulfonate and their multicomponent oxygenases in Comamonas testosteroni strains ...

*4-sulfobenzoate 3,4-dioxygenase

Purification and properties of a desulphonative two-component enzyme system from Comamonas testosteroni T-2". Biochem. J. 274: ...

*2-hydroxyquinoline 5,6-dioxygenase

6-dioxygenase from Comamonas testosteroni 63. The first two enzymes in quinoline and 3-methylquinoline degradation". Eur. J. ...

*Alcohol dehydrogenase (azurin)

"Crystal structure of quinohemoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase from Comamonas testosteroni: structural basis for substrate ... of the interaction between PQQ and heme c in the quinohemoprotein ethanol dehydrogenase from Comamonas testosteroni". ... "Quinohaemoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase apoenzyme from Pseudomonas testosteroni". Biochem. J. 234 (3): 611-615. PMC 1146615 . ...

*Terephthalate 1,2-dioxygenase

Schlafli HR, Weiss MA, Leisinger T, Cook AM (1994). "Terephthalate 1,2-dioxygenase system from Comamonas testosteroni T-2: ...

*3S,4R)-3,4-dihydroxycyclohexa-1,5-diene-1,4-dicarboxylate dehydrogenase

4-dicarboxylate dehydrogenase from Comamonas testosteroni T-2". FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 130: 97-102. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6968.1995 ...

*4-(hydroxymethyl)benzenesulfonate dehydrogenase

... pathways for p-toluenecarboxylate and p-toluenesulfonate and their multicomponent oxygenases in Comamonas testosteroni strains ...

*Cis-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl-2,3-diol dehydrogenase

3-dihydroxybiphenyl dehydrogenase from Comamonas testosteroni B-356 and sequence of the encoding gene (bphB)". Appl. Environ. ...

*4,5:9,10-diseco-3-hydroxy-5,9,17-trioxoandrosta-1(10),2-diene-4-oate hydrolase

4-dienoic acid and related enzymes involved in testosterone degradation in Comamonas testosteroni TA441". Appl. Environ. ...

*2-hydroxyhexa-2,4-dienoate hydratase

4-dienoic acid and related enzymes involved in testosterone degradation in Comamonas testosteroni TA441". Appl. Environ. ...

*List of MeSH codes (B03)

Comamonas MeSH B03.440.400.425.292.150.750 --- Comamonas testosteroni MeSH B03.440.400.425.292.170 --- Delftia MeSH B03.440. ... Comamonas MeSH B03.660.075.102.150.750 --- Comamonas testosteroni MeSH B03.660.075.102.170 --- Delftia MeSH B03.660.075.102. ...
Comamonas testosteroni ATCC ® 700441D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Comamonas testosteroni strain JS42 TypeStrain=False Application:
Glycolysis is the process of converting glucose into pyruvate and generating small amounts of ATP (energy) and NADH (reducing power). It is a central pathway that produces important precursor metabolites: six-carbon compounds of glucose-6P and fructose-6P and three-carbon compounds of glycerone-P, glyceraldehyde-3P, glycerate-3P, phosphoenolpyruvate, and pyruvate [MD:M00001]. Acetyl-CoA, another important precursor metabolite, is produced by oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate [MD:M00307]. When the enzyme genes of this pathway are examined in completely sequenced genomes, the reaction steps of three-carbon compounds from glycerone-P to pyruvate form a conserved core module [MD:M00002], which is found in almost all organisms and which sometimes contains operon structures in bacterial genomes. Gluconeogenesis is a synthesis pathway of glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors. It is essentially a reversal of glycolysis with minor variations of alternative paths [MD:M00003 ...
The phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS) is a major mechanism used by bacteria for uptake of carbohydrates, particularly hexoses, hexitols, and disaccharides, where the source of energy is from PEP. The PTS consists of two general components, enzyme I (EI) and histidine phosphocarrier protein (HPr), and of membrane-bound sugar specific permeases (enzymes II). Each enzyme II (EII) complex consists of one or two hydrophobic integral membrane domains (domains C and D) and two hydrophilic domains (domains A and B). EII complexes may exist as distinct proteins or as a single multidomain protein. The PTS catalyzes the uptake of carbohydrates and their conversion into their respective phosphoesters during transport. There are four successive phosphoryl transfers in the PTS. Initial autophosphorylation of EI, using PEP as a substrate, is followed by transfer of the phosphoryl group from EI to HPr. EIIA catalyzes the self-phosphoryl transfer from HPr after which the ...
CAS 68081-81-2 Sodium (C10-16)alkylbenzenesulfonate Chemical World Report This CAS 68081-81-2 - Sodium (C10-16)alkylbenzenesulfonate Chemical World...
Mutagenetic replacements of conserved residues within the active site of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily were studied using prokaryotic 3 beta/17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3 beta/17 beta-HSD) from Comamonas testosteroni as a model system. The results provide novel data to establish Ser 138 as a member of a catalytically important triad of residues also involving Tyr151 and Lys155. A Ser--|Ala exchange at position 138 results in an almost complete (| 99.9%) loss of enzymatic activity, which is not observed with a Ser--|Thr replacement. This indicates that an essential factor for catalysis is the ability of side chain 138 to form hydrogen bond interactions. Mutations in the NAD(H) binding region, in strands beta A, beta D, and adjacent turns, reveal two additional residues, Thr12 and Asn87, which are important for correct binding of the coenzyme and with a differential effect on the reactions catalyzed. Thus, mutation of Thr12 to Ala results in a complete loss of the 3
The enzyme 3beta/17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta/17beta-HSD) is a steroid-inducible component of the Gram-negative bacterium Conramonas testosteroni. It catalyzes the reversible reduction/ dehydrogenation of the oxo/beta-hydroxy groups at positions 3 and 17 of steroid compounds, including hormones and isobile acids. Crystallographic analysis at 1.2 Angstrom resolution reveals the enzyme to have nearly identical subunits that form a tetramer with 222 symmetry. This is one of the largest oligomeric structures refined at this resolution. The subunit consists of a monomer with a single-domain structure built around a seven-stranded beta-sheet flanked by six alpha-helices. The active site contains a Ser-Tyr-Lys triad, typical for short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR). Despite their highly diverse substrate specificities, SDR members show a close to identical folding pattern architectures and a common catalytic mechanism. In contrast to other SDR apostructures determined, the ...
Elisa, dont come here and spout your "opinion" as fact. You will be denied because you are WRONG. You have been listening to Glenn Beck and Rush too long.. Check out this well researched wiki page on czars:. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_U.S._executive_branch_czars. It LISTS all the czars including ones appointed by Roosevelt. Hmmm… strange since you just claimed he never had any. Also Nixon, Lyndon Johnson, Clinton, Bush, and Obama. This page says Bush had 31 czars and 46 different people in the czar position. So perhaps my number of 36 IS off but it isnt even in the same ballpark as your figure… 12.. Your lowball figures are coming from conservative media who are nitpicking each and every czar under Bush and finding some teeny reason to say he was not REALLY a czar. They/you are seeing what you want to see.. But let us not forget that czars are essentially advisors. Czar is a media coined term. Can the President have too many advisors? Frankly I would HOPE a president would have a ...
Trigger Warning: There are pictures in this article that may be upsetting to some. Viewer discretion is advised. Ello! This is the start of a new series that deal with mysterious diseases and unusual pathogens. The first of this showcase is the prion, a silent, mysterious and nigh-invulnerable killer with a 100% mortality rate. Lets start…
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
TSAR is a free, digitally delivered art information utility. Every entry is carefully checked with the presenting institutions. Nevertheless, inaccuracies occur. Always try to call the sponsoring institution to check the facts. In our effort to be an increasingly more valuable product, we ask for your comments and suggestions to be emailed to [email protected] ...
August 26, 2004 - Washington, DC, USA Washington, DC: A newly released federal report refutes claims by US Drug Czar John Walters that the United States is being inundated with Canadian pot,...
The Washington Post and everybody else is reporting that on Tuesday President Obama will name Howard A. Schmidt as cyber-security czar. Schmidt was an advisor to President Bush on cyber-security matters. The Post rehearses the reasons why the Obama administration has had difficulty in finding someon...
Drug Czar Ramstad? Now that the State and Treasury department picks have been officially unveiled, the parlor game of Obama cabinet speculation turns to the less high-profile posts - the people...
Because Williams book follows closely historical events, anyone with a grasp of Russian history will know the outcome (though perhaps after Tarantinos "Inglourious Basterds" all bets are off when it comes to assassination attempts on real-life figures). It also means Hadfield is ultimately a rather ineffectual hero, flowing along with events with little power or opportunity to alter the fate of the Tsar or those who plan to kill him. ...
Washington is spending $60 billion to create the careers of the future, but not a single green job yet exists. Obamas green czar explains.
The Russian Orthodox Church posed a number of questions to the investigators and the state commission, which have remained unanswered
Why Is Wal-Mart Endorsing Employer Mandated Healthcare?... Tylenol Tsar FDA Panel Recommends Ban on Vicodin, Percocet... Candidates Aplenty for Spending on
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Squaraine dyes, that exhibit intense absorption in the red/near infrared region, have been successfully introduced into mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) to obtain a nanoplatform for photodynamic therapy. Three brominated squaraine dyes which exhibited good PS performance in solution but a different behaviour
A bacterial strain, designated YH12T, was isolated from a wetland sample collected from Woopo, Republic of Korea, and characterized using a polyphasic approach. Analysis of 16S rDNA indicated that the isolate formed a monophyletic clade with the members of the genus Comamonas. The closest phylogenetic relative among the valid species was Comamonas testosteroni, with 96.6% 16S rDNA similarity. The chemotaxonomic properties of the wetland isolate supported its membership of the genus Comamonas, as it contained ubiquinone Q-8 as a major respiratory quinone and hexadecanoic, methylene-hexadecanoic and octadecenoic acids as major cellular fatty acids. The G+C content of the DNA was 66 mol%. The isolate is a gram-negative, non-pigmented, rod-shaped, oxidase- and catalase-positive, non-motile, non-endospore-forming and non-fermentative bacterium. The phenotypic properties of the isolate were compared with those of the type strains of Comamonas terrigena, C. testosteroni and Delftia acidovorans. A number of
Alfa Aesar™ 2-Chloroethyl p-toluenesulfonate, 97% 500g Alfa Aesar™ 2-Chloroethyl p-toluenesulfonate, 97% Chlorot to Chola -Organics
1H,1H,5H-Octafluoropentyl p-toluenesulfonate 2264-00-8 NMR spectrum, 1H,1H,5H-Octafluoropentyl p-toluenesulfonate H-NMR spectral analysis, 1H,1H,5H-Octafluoropentyl p-toluenesulfonate C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
The distribution and the metabolic pathways of bacteria degrading steroid compounds released by eukaryotic organisms were investigated using the bile salt cholate as model substrate. Cholate-degrading bacteria could be readily isolated from freshwater environments. All isolated strains transiently released steroid degradation intermediates into culture supernatants before their further degradation. Cholate degradation could be initiated via two different reaction sequences. Most strains degraded cholate via a reaction sequence known from the model organism Pseudomonas sp. strain Chol1 releasing intermediates with a 3-keto-Δ,sup,1,4,/sup,-diene structure of the steroid skeleton. The actinobacterium Dietzia sp. strain Chol2 degraded cholate via a different and yet unexplored reaction sequence releasing intermediates with a 3-keto-Δ,sup,4,6,/sup,-diene-7-deoxy structure of the steroid skeleton such as 3,12-dioxo-4,6-choldienoic acid (DOCDA). Using DOCDA as substrate, two Alphaproteobacteria, ...
The numbers are based upon the sortable list below. Please see it for details and references. Note that what is measured is the popularity of the word czar, rather than an objective measure of authority.. Also note that under George W. Bush only 33 Czar titles had been currently found, thus only 33 Czars, although many of these titles were used by several distinct individuals. For example, there has been an Assistant Secretary of Labor for Mine Safety and Health since the passage of the Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, but the phrase "mine safety czar" was only applied to the position since the controversial appointment of Richard Stickler to the post in 2006. Similarly, there has been a director of the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs since the office was created by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980, but the term "regulatory czar" was not applied to the post until 2001.. ...
Dietary composition has major effects on physiology. Here, we show that developmental rate, reproduction, and lifespan are altered in C. elegans fed Comamonas DA1877 relative to those fed a standard E. coli OP50 diet. We identify a set of genes that change in expression in response to this diet and use the promoter of one of these (acdh-1) as a dietary sensor. Remarkably, the effects on transcription and development occur even when Comamonas DA1877 is diluted with another diet, suggesting that Comamonas DA1877 generates a signal that is sensed by the nematode. Surprisingly, the developmental effect is independent from TOR and insulin signaling. Rather, Comamonas DA1877 affects cyclic gene expression during molting, likely through the nuclear hormone receptor NHR-23. Altogether, our findings indicate that different bacteria elicit various responses via distinct mechanisms, which has implications for diseases such as obesity and the interactions between the human microbiome and intestinal ...
1OHS: Crystal Structure of 5-3-Ketosteroid Isomerase Mutant Y14F/D38N from Pseudomonas Testosteroni Complexed with Androstanedione
Extreme stability of polyhedra under harsh conditions is provided by dense packing of polyhedrin monomers in crystals with solvent channels of very low porosity, which, however, limits the incorporation of foreign particles. Research group led by Satoshi Abe and Takafumi Ueno at Tokyo Institute of Technology hypothesized that if a porous framework inside PhCs is extended without compromising crystal stability, PhCs can be used for accumulation and storage of exogenous molecules in living cells. As in natural PhCs, polyhedrin monomers form a trimer, the scientists assumed that if amino acid residues at the contact interface of each trimer are deleted, the porosity of the resulting crystals would be increased. To achieve this goal, they genetically engineered polyhedrin monomers, which were then expressed and self-assembled in Spodoptera frugiperda IPLB-Sf21AE, the larva of an armyworm moth, infected with baculovirus. The mutant PhCs maintained crystal lattice of the wild-type PhC but had ...
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... Drug Czar Challenged Posted by CN Staff on May 30, 2005 at 08:18:43 PT By Charles M. Darlington Source: Virginia Gazette Williamsburg, VA -- I am quite sure that Gazette reporter Rusty Carter was unaware that Dr. Andrea Barthwell ( Drug forum draws national interest, May 25 Gazette) has been hired by a British company called GW Pharmaceuticals that is attempting to market a liquid version of marijuana called Sativex. It is indistinguishable from the crude drug, having all its components but recombined in liquid form.Dr. Barthwell earned a considerable amount of taxpayer money as deputy director of the Organization for National Drug Control Policy, railing against exactly the same drug. Now, instead of claiming that marijuana has absolutely no medicinal properties, she now states that only Sativex has medicinal properties, and the crude drug does not.The self-serving hypocrisy of this statement becomes glaringly obvious, and I am not surprised that she did ...
Russia said on Wednesday that charred remains found in a pit belonged to Tsar Nicholas IIs only son and his daughter, exactly 90 years after the Bolsheviks shocked the world by murdering the last Tsar.
CIDRAP News) - Test results on a cluster of Alabama patients hospitalized with similar respiratory symptoms indicated no unusual pathogens but instead a variety of common respiratory viruses and bacteria, state health officials announced today. ...
The survival of the inoculated microbial culture is critical for successful bioaugmentation but impossible to predict precisely. As an alternative strategy, bioaugmentation of a group of...
Russians open coffin of next-to-last czar to collect DNA - AP News: ST. PETERSBURG, Russia (AP) - Investigators have opened the coffin .12/11/2017 18:23:07PM EST.
There are very few of us who know just what all of Obamas Czars do, as they quietly go about their "work" in the nations capital. This listing of their names and job descriptions should be educational to all Americans, no matter what your political leaning. If you resent the existence of these extra-governmental "officials", with their very generous salaries funded by, you guessed it, you the taxpayer, then get angry with the one who put these characters on the payroll ...
ARBXYLI AIDS AND TEIR DERIVATIVES A STUDENT SULD BE ABLE T: 1. Give the IUPA name given the structure, and draw the structure given the name, of carboxylic acids and their metal salts, acyl chlorides,
HPLC Part: KF-805 Shodex GPC® KF-805 High Performance, LC Column 300 x 8 mm, Ea Recomended Use: Separation of polymers Separation Mode: Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) Solid Support: Polymer Format: Column USP Designation: N/A
The Russian Teremok pancake chain has opened its first location in the US. Teremok is the countrys biggest maker of blini - thin, fried pancakes served with cheese, ham, caviar or other fillings.
The article reports that Sony Corp. of America chief technology officer, Phil Wiser, has decided to take on the job of chairman at the digital home video startup company, Building B. The startup will focus on delivering digital entertainment into homes. While the company is still in its early stages, it is expected to provide software and hardware as well as distribute content itself ...
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2013 Mar;63(Pt 3):809-14. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.040188-0. Epub 2012 May 11. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt
Influenza A virus is a pathogen of global medical importance causing significant health and socio-economic costs every year. Influenza virus is an unusual pathogen in that it is pleomorphic, capable o
iMatter is a youth-driven organization dedicated to inspiring and mentoring young people to step into their authentic voice and power to disrupt the status quo and push local leaders to do what is necessary to stop climate change and transition to a just, sustainable society. HSDA is teaming up with iMatter to help local leaders organize and advocate around climate action. This program would include bi-weekly training calls, activist toolkits and resources, as well as constant support and healthy discussion. Our future matters, and were fighting for it. ...
The Tennessee Health Services and Development Agency ("HSDA") is responsible for regulating the health care industry in Tennessee through the…
R. Gil Kerlikowske, who serves as the 6th ever "drug czar," under the Obama administration, was given a tour by Mary Mitchell staff and other community leaders, stopping off at one of the Bronxs most notorious drug-ridden areas-a neighborhood in Fordham-Bedford Park-as well as a more positive visit to the Garden of Happiness, a community garden on Prospect Avenue and East 181st St ...
Read the SF Russian Restaurants - Traktir & Russian Czar? discussion from the Chowhound Restaurants, San Francisco food community. Join the discussion today.
New Jerseys little-known Hurricane Sandy czar, who oversaw the distribution of billions of dollars in federal aid during a challenged recovery effort, stepped down Tuesday and will be replaced by his deputy, Gov. Christies office said. - Maddie Hanna, Philadelphia Inquirer
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The nations drug czar has touted needle-exchange programs as a way to reduce the spread of disease and to steer heroin users into treatment.
For the removal of toxic and recalcitrant organic substances from wastewater, bioaugmentation with bacteria harbouring specific degradation pathways in activate
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Zagraniczne książki pl - medycyna - bogaty zbiór książek w oryginalnych wydaniach, wydawnictwa zagraniczne, ksiązki zagraniczne.
could help to guide a perplexed government and keep it on the correct path. Chicherins view of the government as perplexed was one shared by many intellectuals in 1858. True, the Tsar had decided that serfs must obtain their freedom, but he did not make it clear until the very end of the year that they were to be permitted to obtain land. Meanwhile, it became a central issue. While most landowners were determined to hold on to as much of their land as possible, most intellectuals were convinced that by some arrangement or other the peasants would have to receive enough of it to provide a means of livelihood. The key to victory for either side was, of course, the Tsar. Throughout most of the year, Alexander II seemed indecisive on this central question. Meanwhile, progressive officials like the Minister of Interior Lanskoi and his assistant Nicholas Milyutin battled against other officials defending the interests of the landowners. Some of the most influential reactionaries sat on the Tsars ...
The village was founded in the half of the 16th century. According to one of the versions its name comes from a Russian settler Rak.. Rakowicze were on the rout of an important track named "Carski Hostiniec" (the Czars road) - the way where Czars had been traveling to Białowieża before the railway station was built. The rout, going out from Bielsk, led through Widowo, Ogrodniki, Użyki, and Rakowicze as well. The inhabitants of the villages situated on the rout, were obliged to assist at cortege crossing, lighting torches on coordinators command.Up to now many historical moments concerning that period are kept in inhabitants memory. In accordance with one of them even small children were thaught how to behave during Czars crossing through the village. Other stories concerning that period tell us about the fact that inhabitants of the villages, situated on "Carski Hostiniec" rout, wrote their wishes and willingness on their forheads in hope of their fullfilment, not having the opportunity ...
Pregnenolone is a naturally occurring metabolite that is made in your body. It is often referred to as the mother steroid compound because it is the basic raw material for all steroid hormones in the body.
Estrogens (also called Oestrogens) are steroid compounds that are important for development and functioning of females of the species. They are named so because they play an important role in the estrous cycle. Their name comes from estrus/oistros (period of fertility for female mammals) + gen/gonos = to generate.
Księgarnia wysyłkowa online - oferujemy audiobooki, ebooki, książki i czasopisma naukowe, ekonomiczne, prawnicze i wiele innych. Sprawdź - księgarnia internetowa Warszawa. Zapraszamy.
A centralized body to handle testing would save companies a lot of the work they repeat to test patches, Clarke said. That saved time is precious, because the window of opportunity for patching systems -- the time between when a patch and its corresponding exploit is released -- is getting more narrow. A version of Clarkes idea was included in the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace. Regardless of whether the patch-review body is a good idea or not, the logistics of such a system are far from simple. For starters, some administrators and experts contacted by SearchSecurity.com wondered who would pay to support such an organization, in addition to other concerns. The software vendors would probably balk at coughing up the money because they already spend so much on testing their own patches internally. In fact, companies like Microsoft have sophisticated testing environments that they use for checking their patches, said Tim Mullen, chief information officer and chief software architect for ...
I see what you are saying. I think he is Progressive and influenced by Marx because of what he stands for (what he says he stands for), ad based on his past, which included being directly tutored for years by Marxist Frank Marshall Davis, Jeremiah Wright, Reverand Wallace, his own words in his book seeking out Marxist professors, the hand picked appointments of the straight up, self admitted Communists, admitted Maoists, admitted Marxists etc as Czars. I can only imagine what those Czars are doing, not like we will ever know much of the truth concerning them ...
W Diariuszu zamieszczamy informacje o zmianach w Księdze Ochrony Wyłącznego Prawa (KO) i w Krajowym Rejestrze (KR). Urzędowe wykazy odmian roślin: - do których przyznano hodowcy wyłączne prawo oraz zgłoszonych
Energy Efficiency Market Growth, National Push for Private Sector Involvement Gil Sperling is known as the weatherization czar at the Department of Energy. H…
Official website of the author of The poison Tide, To Kill a Tsar and The Interrogator with features, pictures and film offering historical background to the stories.
No part of this web site may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying or ...
Wydawnictwo medyczne Cornetis publikuje czasopisma dedykowane wybranym specjalizacjom medycznym, wydaje książki oraz prowadzi portale o tematyce medycznej.
Wydawnictwo medyczne Cornetis publikuje czasopisma dedykowane wybranym specjalizacjom medycznym, wydaje książki oraz prowadzi portale o tematyce medycznej.
By Delina Y. Lyon, Timothy M. Vogel (auth.), Hans F. Stroo, Andrea Leeson, C. Herb Ward (eds.). ​This quantity presents a assessment of the prior 10 to fifteen years of extensive learn, improvement and demonstrations which were at the leading edge of constructing bioaugmentation right into a manageable remedial know-how. This quantity presents either a primer at the simple microbial methods taken with bioaugmentation, in addition to a radical precis of the technique for enforcing the know-how. This reference quantity will function a necessary source for environmental remediation execs who search to appreciate, evaluation, and enforce bioaugmentation.. ...
Stomata are special structures in plant leaves that allow gas and water vapor exchange between plants and the environment. Stomata are separated by pavement cells. Wang et al. used genetic approaches to show that in Arabidopsis thaliana stomatal specification involves a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. Because double knockout of MPK3 and MPK6 is embryonic-lethal and single loss-of-function mutants do not exhibit any phenotype, Wang et al. created single-knockout mpk6−/− plants in which MPK3 was reduced by RNA interference. These plants arrested as seedlings and showed clustered stomata instead of the normal arrangement in which stomata are always separated by one pavement cell. A similar phenotype was observed in mpk3, mpk6 double-mutant plants that were rescued with a steroid-inducible MPK6 gene. MKK4 and MKK5 are the upstream kinases to MPK3 and MPK6 in stress response pathways, and RNA interference of these two MAPKKs simultaneously caused the seedling leaves to have all ...
Liver abscesses containing hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae have emerged during the past 2 decades, originally in Southeast Asia and then worldwide. We hypothesized that hypervirulent K. pneumoniae might also be emerging in France. In a retrospect ...
A new testing methodology based on metagenomics could accelerate the diagnosis of foodborne bacterial outbreaks, allowing public health officials to identify the microbial culprits in less than a day. The methodology could also identify co-infections with secondary microbes, determine the specific variant of the pathogen, and help alert health officials to the presence of new or unusual pathogens.. Researchers from the Georgia Institute of Technology and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently compared the new methodology against traditional culture-based methods with samples from two severe outbreaks of Salmonella, a common foodborne pathogen. The metagenomics approach - which relies on DNA sequencing and bioinformatics analysis of the resulting sequencing data -- not only correctly identified the bacterial culprit, but also found a possible coinfection with a second important pathogen, Staphylococcus.. Widespread use of the new shotgun metagenomics methodology could ...
Adventure travel is becoming more popular, increasing the likelihood of contact with unusual pathogens. We investigated an outbreak of leptospirosis in
In addition, PHCS Community Education & Outreach provides ongoing educational programming and health screenings, such as blood pressure, glucose, cholesterol, body mass index, vision, foot, lung capacity and balance. Educational programs offered by PHCS cover a comprehensive range of topics and are presented by physicians, nurses, certified educators and other healthcare professionals. PHCS also will provide training to staff members of the South Brunswick Senior Center.. For more information about the South Brunswick Wellness Center, including hours of operation, please call 609.497.2230.. ...
Democrat political operative Ron Klain has been named as Obamas "Ebola Czar". He has never run a hospital, never been a doctor, and has no basic medical logistics knowledge to apply to this critical task. My objection to this appointment is supported by literally every other position to which Mr. Klain has been appointed. They were positions in which his political connections, loyalty to the Democrat party, and a strong willingness to do anything necessary to further and to provide cover for the liberal cause were absolutely essential. I believe its fair to say that this appointment is based upon exactly those qualifications, because he has no other resume bullet points to bring to this specific effort.. Just as CDC Director Dr. Frieden was ordered to consider the economic impact upon "emerging democracies" when weighing his response to this nations challenge, Mr. Klain will surely have his own marching orders, which will apply little or none to the medical and epidemiological problems faced ...
A compound of the structure ##STR1## wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 are each independently, hydrogen or ##STR2## X is --(CH.sub.2).sub.m -- or --Ar--; R.sup.3 and R.sup.4 are each, independently, hydrogen, alkyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n --Ar, --(CH.sub.2).sub.p --NR.sup.5 R.sup.6, or --(CH.sub.2).sub.p --N.sup.+ R.sup.5 R.sup.6 R.sup.7 Y.sup.- ; R.sup.5 and R.sup.6 are each, independently, hydrogen, alkyl, or --(CH.sub.2).sub.n --Ar; Ar is an optionally substituted group selected from ##STR3## in which the optional substituents are selected from the group consisting of alkyl, aralkyl, alkoxy, cyano, halo, nitro, carbalkoxy, or perfluoroalkyl; R.sup.7 is alkyl; Y is a halide, sulfate, phosphate, or p-toluenesulfonate anion; m=1-6; n=1-6; p=1-6; with the proviso that R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 are not both hydrogen; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, which by virtue of its immunosuppressive activity is useful in treating transplantation rejection, host vs. graft disease, autoimmune diseases and diseases of
New steroid compounds of the general formula: ##STR1## wherein X is a hydroxyl group and Y is a hydrogen atom, or X and Y, taken together, form an oxo group; each of the two R radicals is independently a hydrogen atom, acyl group, a silyl group, an alkoxycarbonyl group or a ...
Equipoise is a potent steroid compound that is widely used by the bodybuilders and other sportsmen. You should know everything about this drug in detail before making its use.
Health Disclaimer! The information provided on this site should not be construed as personal medical advice or instruction. No action should be taken based solely on the contents of this site. Readers should consult appropriate health professionals on any matter relating to their health and well-being. The information and opinions provided here are believed to be accurate and sound, based on the best judgment available to the authors, but readers who fail to consult appropriate health authorities assume the risk of any injuries. The publisher is not responsible for errors or omissions.. ...
Michael Botticelli served as President Obama's director of National Drug Control Policy, and pushed Congress to pass a funding measure last year
Occupy cornfields! Support is growing for a petition calling for the ouster of Michael Taylor, a senior adviser for the FDA who formerly served as vice...
Physicians by instinct and training focus on the health of individuals; they must learn to pay more attention to the health of whole societies and to deal with the difficult conflicts of interest that often arise between the two. One physician, Jeffrey Fisher (1994), recommends that physicians be required to take periodic recertification exams in which they are tested on antibiotic knowledge. If antibiotics had been used more judiciously over the past few decades, there doubtless would have been more deaths from bacterial infections misdiagnosed as viral, and fewer deaths from allergic reactions to antibiotics. But a small net increase in deaths would probably have been a reasonable price to pay to avoid the present situation, which portends a return to the pre-antibiotic era and much higher death rates ...
Nasza hurtownia z akcesoriami religijnymi i liturgicznymi oferuje wszystkie tomy lekcjonarzy mszalnych, a poza tym także okładki na księgi i ewangeliarze.
6501 Lansing Ave. Cleveland, OH February 2015, No. 2/150 Luty 2015, Nr 2/150 POLISH-AMERICAN PROMOCJA POLSKIEGO WYDANIA KSIĄŻKI
The volumes written to try to explain why such an absolute mediocrity like George W Bush is allowed to sit in the White House-- even if you agree with your host that he was absolutely NOT elected in either 2000 (when the election was stolen in Florida) or in 2004 when the GOP had gained enough control of vote counting in enough places to totally corrupt the results, especially in gold ole Florida and Ohio-- would fill a full wall, if not a full library. Americans overall might have become intellectually and politically lazy but you can look at it another way. Were a trusting people with a tremendous sense of respect for the office of the presidency. We are optimistic and really expect pretty unreasonably high standards from people we look up to even if the admiration is ex oficio. As a people we always are willing-- MORE than willing-- to give the President the benefit of the doubt. I can always remember reading about Russian peasants and workers in 1905 being shot down in front of the czars ...
The objectives of this paper are to provide an overview of the TSAR and TSARINA simulation models, and to illustrate their application.These models were developed to provide a method to assess how airbase attacks would affect the capability of airbases to generate effective combat sorties, and to evaluate how a wide range of airbase improvement options could increase the combat capability of airba ...
Nine skeletons found in a shallow grave in Ekaterinburg, Russia, in July 1991, were tentatively identified by Russian forensic authorities as the remains of the last Tsar, Tsarina, three of their five children, the Royal Physician and three servants. We have performed DNA based sex testing and short …
Acknowledging his operation should be doing a better job of providing information, the claims czar promises to deploy more agents in the Gulf to respond to…
Price 20 00 Availability In Stock Model Odżywianie i suplementacja Cz II Average Rating Not Rated Qty Add to Cart Description Additional Images 1 Reviews 0 Related Products 40 Odżywianie i suplementacja Cz II Nr produktu 1033 Informacje zawarte w tej książce na temat funkcjonowania naszego organizmu potrzebie świadomości zdrowego odżywiania się oraz konieczności naturalnej suplementacji w dzisiejszych czasach są opisane na podstawie wieloletniego doświadczenia i współpracy z lekarzami i pacjentami W moim przekonaniu powinne one wzbudzić świadomość jak powinniśmy postępować w codziennym życiu chcąc zadbać o zdrowie własne i zdrowie w naszych rodzinach Jestem przekonany że każdy znajdzie w tej książce odpowiedzi na nurtujące nas pytania czy wątpliwości związane z odżywianiem się oraz koniecznością stosowania naturalnej suplementacji dbając o zdrowie w naszym codziennym życiu Nikt z nas nie powinien mieć wątpliwości że żywność którą spożywamy jest ...
MPonLine jest specjalistycznym medycznym serwisem internetowym przedstawiaj cym aktualn wiedz medyczn opart o kryteria evidence-based medicine (EBM). Daje bezp atny dost p do us ug, serwis w i baz danych lekarzom, farmaceutom, studentom medycyny i wszystkim osobom zwi zanym zawodowo z ochron zdrowia. Serwis prowadzi wydawnictwo Medycyna Praktyczna.
MPonLine jest specjalistycznym medycznym serwisem internetowym przedstawiaj cym aktualn wiedz medyczn opart o kryteria evidence-based medicine (EBM). Daje bezp atny dost p do us ug, serwis w i baz danych lekarzom, farmaceutom, studentom medycyny i wszystkim osobom zwi zanym zawodowo z ochron zdrowia. Serwis prowadzi wydawnictwo Medycyna Praktyczna.
Jack became interested in Anastasia, 21 years his senior, through Gleb Botkin, son of the Czars family physician. Botkins father had been murdered by the Bolsheviks along with the royal family in 1918. Botkin had known Anastasia as a child and supported Jacks wifes claim that she was the Czars daughter. He escaped from Russia during the early months of the revolution and came to New York to be near his children. Botkin founded "The Church of Aphrodite"- which was more philosophy than religion- and gave himself the title of Archbishop.. When his house in New Jersey burned, the Reverend Botkin moved to Charlottesville to be with his daughter, Marina, and he served as Jacks best man when Jack married Anastasia.. Former journalist Rey Barry has written that Jack was entranced with Anastasias story- which Jack came to believe and champion- and that was his main reason to marry. Her interest may have been that she wanted an identity and a way to stay in this country because her visa was set to ...
A: Traditional methods did not have the accuracy to identify such unusual pathogens that were referred to MISU. I began to explore new technologies, especially mass spectrometry (MS). MS instruments have been used for a century by physicists and chemists to study the nature of matter. Their application in biology, however, posed major obstacles and had to await the development of techniques that enabled very large molecules, such as proteins, to change their state to a "gas" so they could now travel in a charged field for analysis. There are numerous types of mass spectrometers. The one we first used was Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (MALDI-TOF-MS) at a company in Manchester. In the method we used, a bacterial/matrix admixture placed at one end of a tube under vacuum, was bombarded using a soft laser to create a plume of ions or charged fragments. These travel at rates - milliseconds - that are inversely proportional to their mass/charge ratios to ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Dr. Gutowski is a Fellow of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and a Diplomate, American Board of Orthopaedic Surgeons. He is a Clinical Assistant Professor, Department of Surgery, Section of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School. Dr. Gutowski has been a member of the PHCS Foundations Physicians Development Committee since 2007 and serves on the Board of Directors of the PHCS Foundation. He was named 2016 Philanthropist of the Year by the PHCS Foundation. ...
Washington, DC - The federal government continues to oppose allowing licensed farmers the opportunity to cultivate industrial hemp for fiber and other agricultural purposes, according to statements posted this week by Drug Czar Gil Kerlikowske on the whitehouse.gov website.. Hemp is a distinct variety of the plant species cannabis sativa that contains only minute (typically less than .03 percent) amounts of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive compound in marijuana. According to a Congressional Research Service (CRS) report, "The United States is the only developed nation in which industrial hemp is not an established crop." Farmers in Canada and the European Union grow hemp commercially for fiber, seed, and oil for use in a variety of industrial and consumer products, including food.. Stated Kerlikowske on the White Houses We the People website: "Federal law prohibits human consumption, distribution, and possession of Schedule I controlled substances. … While most of the ...
En marzo de 1907 Rasputin recibiu o permiso para cambiar o seu apelido. En abril foi invitado de novo a Tsarskoe Selo, nesta ocasión para ver ao fillo do tsar, o tsarévich Aleksei Nikolaevich. O neno fixérase dano e isto causoulle unha dolorosa hemorraxia. Non era público, era máis ben segredo de Estado, que o herdeiro ao trono sufría hemofilia, unha enfermidade que afectaba a moitas casas reais de Europa.[30] Cando os doutores non puideron ofrecerlle unha cura, a tsarina desesperada buscou axuda. Rasputin tiña fama de ter a habilidade de curar mediante a oración e foi quen de calmar aos tsares e darlle ao tsarévich un pouco de alivio, a pesar de que os doutores predixeran que ía morrer. Ao día seguinte o tsarévich mostrou signos de mellora.[31]. Pierre Gilliard,[32] a historiadora francesa Hélène Carrère dEncausse[33] e o xornalista Diarmuid Jeffreys, especularon sobre a posibilidade de que as prácticas de Rasputin incluían a administración de aspirina, un analxésico ...
For the first time, the drug czar has supported broadening access to naloxone, the life-saving prescription drug that immediately reverses overdoses of heroin and prescription painkillers.
Książki zagraniczne pl - sztuka, Andrei Smirnov Książki zagraniczne, książki w języku obcym, książki w języku angielskim, niemieckim, po francusku.
książka: Księgarnia Internetowa Cooking - Health & Healing - Low Carbohydrate :: Książki z zagranicy :: Książki zagraniczne
I was much pleased to watch over the last few years of the many reforms and cultural improvements that you have commenced to put into place with great enthusiasm and vigor. I know from personal experience the challenges and deft hand it takes to create great changes in social culture as well as the difficulties of controlling the wayward and selfish of those in our realms who would rebel against us and our divine responsibilities as rulers over those the Lord has put into our dominion. Controlling and appealing to the natures of the aristocracy- many of whom consistently seem to forget their place in society and endeavor to pull themselves up to heights that their God did not deem proper has been a challenge for both of us from our tender years to now. I wish to congratulate you on your tax reforms as well as your ingenuity in using the ideals of loyalty and meritocracy to control and distract those in noble stations who might distract you from continuing to improve the lives of those under your ...
Congressional representatives introduce a bill that would require the federal government to create a chief privacy officer position. Every federal department and agency also would get a privacy head. By Kim Zetter.
SYDNEY - Vic Darchinyan has traded blows with a renowned warrior several divisions above him, as he prepares to fight the much taller Anselmo Chemito Moreno in a bantamweight boxing unification world title bout. IBO champion Darchinyan left Australia on
Introduction. To what extent was the Revolution of February/March, in Russia 1917, due to the nature of Tsarism and the policies of Nicholas II? At the turn of the 20th century Russia was a vast, however, backward empire with an undemocratic political system. The Romanov dynasty had ruled for several centuries as an absolute monarchy, with the Tsar being the supreme autocrat ruler. His power was unquestionable, as it was alleged that God had given him the divine right to rule as desired. The Tsar exercised his power through a great bureaucracy, an army sworn to loyalty to the tsar and oppressive political policies. The tsarist regime repressed freedom of speech and press, freedom to form political parties, and generally most human rights. Its policies consisted of subordination of many ethnic minority groups and persecuting or exiling political opponents to Siberia. By the time Tsar Nicholas II came to power in 1894, Russian society had never been more divided, nor had any ruler been so ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Asp-99 donates a hydrogen bond not to Tyr-14 but to the steroid directly in the catalytic mechanism of Δ5-3-ketosteroid isomerase from Pseudomonas putida biotype B. AU - Choi, Gildon. AU - Ha, Nam Chul. AU - Kim, Suhng Wook. AU - Kim, Do Hyung. AU - Park, Songhee. AU - Oh, Byung Ha. AU - Choi, Kwan Yong. PY - 2000/2/8. Y1 - 2000/2/8. N2 - Δ5-3-ketosteroid isomerase (KSI) catalyzes the allylic isomerization of Δ5-3-ketosteroids at a rate approaching the diffusion limit by an intramolecular transfer of a proton. Despite the extensive studies on the catalytic mechanism, it still remains controversial whether the catalytic residue Asp-99 donates a hydrogen bond to the steroid or to Tyr-14. To clarify the role of Asp-99 in the catalysis, two single mutants of D99E and D99L and three double mutants of Y14F/D99E, Y14F/D99N, and Y14F/D99L have been prepared by site-directed mutagenesis. The D99E mutant whose side chain at position 99 is longer by an additional methylene group exhibits ...
Moscow built a 100-megaton bomb called the Tsar (officially the RDS-220), tested the day before Halloween, on October 30, 1961. The Tsar was deliberately tested to only half strength, 50-60 megatons, by removing the third stage. No bomber could survive if Tsar were tested to full strength. And at 100 megatons the Tsar would have covered vast swaths of Russia with radioactive fallout, though tested in far Novaya Zemlya beyond the Arctic Circle.. Tsar was a three-stage thermonuclear weapon. The first stage used fission to compress a thermonuclear second stage, just like in a normal H-bomb, except the first and second stages were more powerful, yielding 50-60 megatons, already twice as powerful as the biggest U.S. H-bomb ever built. Tsars thermonuclear second stage was designed to compress another thermonuclear third stage and to fission a uranium tamper. All three stages would release an estimated 100-150 megatons. The third stage would also, by fissioning uranium, produce enormous amounts of ...
0055] Examples of the other radiation-sensitive compound include diphenyliodonium trifluoromethanesulfonate, diphenyliodonium nonafluoro-n-butanesulfonate, diphenyliodonium p-toluenesulfonate, diphenyliodonium 10-camphorsulfonate, diphenyliodonium 2-trifluoromethylbenzenesulfonate, diphenyliodonium 4-trifluoromethylbenzenesulfonate, diphenyliodonium 2,4-difluorobenzenesulfonate, diphenyliodonium 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoro-2-(norbornan-2-yl)ethanesulfonate, diphenyliodonium 2-(5-t-butoxycarbonyloxybicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-yl)-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroeth- anesulfonate, diphenyliodonium 2-(6-t-butoxycarbonyloxybicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-yl)-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroeth- anesulfonate, diphenyliodonium 1,1-difluoro-2-(bicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-yl)ethanesulfonate, bis(4-t-butylphenyl)iodonium trifluoromethanesulfonate, bis(4-t-butylphenyl)iodonium nonafluoro-n-butanesulfonate, bis(4-t-butylphenyl)iodonium p-toluenesulfonate, bis(4-t-butylphenyl)iodonium 10-camphorsulfonate, bis(4-t-butylphenyl)iodonium ...
Given that over 80 million barreis of crude oil are consumed daily worldwide, it is unsurprising that petroleumhydrocarbons (PHCs) are among the most common contaminants of soils and groundwater. PHCs are water immiscible, i.e. they occur in the form of light nonaqueous phase liquids (LNAPL), and commonly display limited water solubilities and relatively high toxicities. Because of this they are difficult to remove from porous media once emplaced and have the potential to be long-lasting sources of ground water contamination. Biodegradation is widely favored as a technique for the treatment of PHC contamination. It offers cost advantages and has the ability to destroy contaminants instead of simply transferring them between media. Furthermore, it can be applied in situ such that treatment can occur with minimal disturbance to existing structures, be they natural or man made. This thesis seeks to shed light on some of the factors which infiuence the effectiveness of biodegradation in the ...

Comamonas testosteroni - WikipediaComamonas testosteroni - Wikipedia

Comamonas testosteroni is a Gram-negative soil bacterium. Strain I2gfp has been used in bioaugmentation trials, in attempts to ... Type strain of Comamonas testosteroni at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase. ... "Bioaugmentation of Activated Sludge by an Indigenous 3-Chloroaniline-Degrading Comamonas testosteroni Strain, I2gfp". Appl. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comamonas_testosteroni

KEGG PATHWAY: Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis - Comamonas testosteroni CNB-2KEGG PATHWAY: Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis - Comamonas testosteroni CNB-2

Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis - Comamonas testosteroni CNB-2 [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , ...
more infohttp://www.genome.jp/kegg-bin/show_pathway?ctt00010+CtCNB1_2792

Comamonas testosteroni (Talalay) Tamaoka et al. emend. Willems et al.Comamonas testosteroni (Talalay) Tamaoka et al. emend. Willems et al.

Genomic DNA from Comamonas testosteroni strain JS42 TypeStrain=False Application: ... Comamonas testosteroni (Talalay) Tamaoka et al. emend. Willems et al. ATCC® 700441D-5™ freeze-dried Total DNA: At least 5 µg in ... Comamonas testosteroni (Talalay) Tamaoka et al. emend. Willems et al. (ATCC® 700441D-5™) Strain Designations: Genomic DNA from ... Genomic DNA from Comamonas testosteroni strain JS42 [ATCC® 700441™] Biosafety Level 1 Biosafety classification is based on U.S ...
more infohttps://www.atcc.org/en/Global/Products/A/4/3/3/700441D-5.aspx

KEGG PATHWAY: Phosphotransferase system (PTS) - Comamonas testosteroni CNB-2KEGG PATHWAY: Phosphotransferase system (PTS) - Comamonas testosteroni CNB-2

Phosphotransferase system (PTS) - Comamonas testosteroni CNB-2 [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML ...
more infohttp://www.genome.jp/kegg-bin/show_pathway?ctt02060

RCSB PDB 









- 1FJH: THE CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF 3-ALPHA-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASE FROM COMAMONAS TESTOSTERONI, A MEMBER...RCSB PDB - 1FJH: THE CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF 3-ALPHA-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASE FROM COMAMONAS TESTOSTERONI, A MEMBER...

... hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/carbonyl reductase from Comamonas testosteroni shows a novel oligomerization pattern within the ... Comamonas testosteroni [TaxId: 285] B. d1fjhb_. Alpha and beta proteins (a/b) NAD(P)-binding Rossmann-fold domains NAD(P)- ... THE CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF 3-ALPHA-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASE FROM COMAMONAS TESTOSTERONI, A MEMBER OF THE SHORT CHAIN ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/explore/derivedData.do?structureId=1FJH

Steroid Degradation in Comamonas testosteroni TA441: Identification of the Entire β-Oxidation Cycle of the Cleaved B Ring |...Steroid Degradation in Comamonas testosteroni TA441: Identification of the Entire β-Oxidation Cycle of the Cleaved B Ring |...

Comamonas testosteroni TA441 degrades steroids via aromatization of the A ring, followed by degradation of 9,17-dioxo-1,2,3,4, ... Steroid Degradation in Comamonas testosteroni TA441: Identification of the Entire β-Oxidation Cycle of the Cleaved B Ring. ... Steroid Degradation in Comamonas testosteroni TA441: Identification of the Entire β-Oxidation Cycle of the Cleaved B Ring ... This study aims to uncover the whole steroid degradation process in Comamonas testosteroni TA441 as a model of steroid- ...
more infohttps://aem.asm.org/content/85/20/e01204-19

Steroid Degradation in Comamonas testosteroni TA441: Identification of the Entire β-Oxidation Cycle of the Cleaved B Ring |...Steroid Degradation in Comamonas testosteroni TA441: Identification of the Entire β-Oxidation Cycle of the Cleaved B Ring |...

Steroid Degradation in Comamonas testosteroni TA441: Identification of the Entire β-Oxidation Cycle of the Cleaved B Ring. ... Steroid Degradation in Comamonas testosteroni TA441: Identification of the Entire β-Oxidation Cycle of the Cleaved B Ring ... Steroid degradation in Comamonas testosteroni TA441: identification of the entire β-oxidation cycle of the cleaved B ring. Appl ... Steroid Degradation in Comamonas testosteroni TA441: Identification of the Entire β-Oxidation Cycle of the Cleaved B Ring ...
more infohttps://aem.asm.org/content/85/20/e01204-19/article-info

Involvement in Denitrification is Beneficial to the Biofilm Lifestyle of Comamonas testosteroni: A Mechanistic Study and Its...Involvement in Denitrification is Beneficial to the Biofilm Lifestyle of Comamonas testosteroni: A Mechanistic Study and Its...

In this study, using Comamonas testosteroni as a model organism, we demonstrated the involvement of Comamonas biofilms in ... Involvement in Denitrification is Beneficial to the Biofilm Lifestyle of Comamonas testosteroni: A Mechanistic Study and Its ... Comamonas is one of the most abundant microorganisms in biofilm communities driving wastewater treatment. Little has been known ... Our results showed that C. testosteroni could use nitrate as the sole electron acceptor for anaerobic growth. Under bulk ...
more infohttps://dr.ntu.edu.sg/handle/10220/38969

Design and evaluation of 16S rRNA sequence based oligonucleotide probes for the detection and quantification of Comamonas...Design and evaluation of 16S rRNA sequence based oligonucleotide probes for the detection and quantification of Comamonas...

... testosteroni subgroup. The FISH probe and one of the PCR primer pairs are suitable for quantification of C. testosteroni in ... testosteroni. Additionally, we have successfully used quantitative PCR to follow the C. testosteroni abundance during a ... This has been shown by analysis of samples from an enrichment of activated sludge on testosterone resulting in an increase in ... The oligonucleotides presented here provide a useful tool to study C. testosteroni population dynamics in mixed microbial ...
more infohttps://bmcmicrobiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2180-6-54

A new strain of Comamonas Testosteroni isolated from heavy-metal contaminated site in the Zambian Copperbelt: Adaption to...A new strain of Comamonas Testosteroni isolated from heavy-metal contaminated site in the Zambian Copperbelt: Adaption to...

A new strain of Comamonas Testosteroni isolated from heavy-metal contaminated site in the Zambian Copperbelt: Adaption to ...
more infohttp://scholar.sun.ac.za/handle/10019.1/46873

CCUG 1827 Strain Passport - StrainInfoCCUG 1827 Strain Passport - StrainInfo

and Comamonas testosteroni comb. nov., with an emended description of the genus Comamonas ... Comamonas testosteroni strain ATCC 11996 LysR-type transcriptional regulator (hsdR) gene, complete cds. ATCC 11996 T ... Comamonas testosteroni strain ATCC 11996 short-chain alcohol dehydrogenases gene, complete cds. ATCC 11996 T ... Comamonas testosteroni ATCC 11996 contig81, whole genome shotgun sequence. ATCC 11996 T ...
more infohttp://www.straininfo.net/strains/8322

CCM 1931 Strain Passport - StrainInfoCCM 1931 Strain Passport - StrainInfo

and Comamonas testosteroni comb. nov., with an emended description of the genus Comamonas ... Comamonas testosteroni strain ATCC 11996 LysR-type transcriptional regulator (hsdR) gene, complete cds. ATCC 11996 T ... Comamonas testosteroni strain ATCC 11996 short-chain alcohol dehydrogenases gene, complete cds. ATCC 11996 T ... Comamonas testosteroni ATCC 11996 contig81, whole genome shotgun sequence. ATCC 11996 T ...
more infohttp://www.straininfo.net/strains/8320

Proteins matched: Biphenyl BphD (MF 01688) | InterPro | EMBL-EBIProteins matched: Biphenyl BphD (MF 01688) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

Comamonas testosteroni. Loading... A0A076PQV4 2-hydroxy-6-oxo-6-phenylhexa-2,4-dienoate hydrolase. Comamonas testosteroni TK102 ...
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/signature/MF_01688/proteins-matched

RCSB PDB 









- 1OHS: CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF 5-3-KETOSTEROID ISOMERASE MUTANT Y14F/D38N FROM PSEUDOMONAS TESTOSTERONI...RCSB PDB - 1OHS: CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF 5-3-KETOSTEROID ISOMERASE MUTANT Y14F/D38N FROM PSEUDOMONAS TESTOSTERONI...

Crystal Structure of 5-3-Ketosteroid Isomerase Mutant Y14F/D38N from Pseudomonas Testosteroni Complexed with Androstanedione ... Comamonas testosteroni EC#: 5.3.3.1 IUBMB Mutation: Y14F, D38N, T83I Gene Name(s): ksi ... CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF 5-3-KETOSTEROID ISOMERASE MUTANT Y14F/D38N FROM PSEUDOMONAS TESTOSTERONI COMPLEXED WITH ANDROSTANEDIONE. * ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/explore/litView.do?structureId=1OHS

Equilenin - DrugBankEquilenin - DrugBank

Comamonas testosteroni. USteroid Delta-isomerase. Not Available. Pseudomonas putida. Absorption. Not Available. Volume of ...
more infohttps://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB03515

Regulation of Tetralin Biodegradation and Identification of Genes Essential for Expression of thn Operons | Journal of...Regulation of Tetralin Biodegradation and Identification of Genes Essential for Expression of thn Operons | Journal of...

strain ADP1), AF150928.2; for CatR (P. putida), A35118; for AphT (Comamonas testosteroni TA441), BAA88500; for BenM ( ... strain U2), AF036940.2; for NbzR (Comamonas sp. strain JS765), AY223675.1; for NahR (Pseudomonas putida AN10), AF039534.1; for ...
more infohttps://jb.asm.org/content/186/18/6101

Johan GorisJohan Goris

Bioaugmentation of activated sludge by an indigenous 3-chloroaniline-degrading Comamonas testosteroni strain, I2gfp. Nico Boon ...
more infohttps://biblio.ugent.be/person/801000994814?start=10&limit=10&sort=year.desc&sort=datecreated.desc

Frontiers | Isolation and Characterization of Phenanthrene Degrading Bacteria from Diesel Fuel-Contaminated Antarctic Soils |...Frontiers | Isolation and Characterization of Phenanthrene Degrading Bacteria from Diesel Fuel-Contaminated Antarctic Soils |...

Goyal, A. K., and Zylstra, G. J. (1997). Genetics of naphthalene and phenanthrene degradation by Comamonas testosteroni. J. Ind ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2017.01634/full

Effect of methyl-β-cyclodextrin on gene expression in microbial conversion of phytosterol | SpringerLinkEffect of methyl-β-cyclodextrin on gene expression in microbial conversion of phytosterol | SpringerLink

Horinouchi M, Hayashi T, Kudo T (2012) Steroid degradation in Comamonas testosteroni. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 129:4-14. doi: ... Steroid degradation gene cluster of Comamonas testosteroni consisting of 18 putative genes from meta-cleavage enzyme gene tesB ... Part 2. Reduction of androstenedione to testosterone by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 35:731-737. doi: ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00253-017-8288-3

SCOPe 2.07: Structural Classification of Proteins - extendedSCOPe 2.07: Structural Classification of Proteins - extended

Keywords: oxidoreductase, short chain dehydrogenase/oxidoreductase, sdr, comamonas testosteroni. Deposited on 2011-07-23, ...
more infohttp://scop.berkeley.edu/pdb/code=3zv4

Prephenate dehydrogenase - WikipediaPrephenate dehydrogenase - Wikipedia

Comamonas testosteroni, and nostoc sp. Plant organisms: phaseolus coccineus, phaseolus vulgaris, vicia faba, vigna radiata ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prephenate_dehydrogenase

Mammoth P Microbial Inoculant - Growcentia | GroWell HydroponicsMammoth P Microbial Inoculant - Growcentia | GroWell Hydroponics

Comamonas testosteroni. *Citrobacter freundii. *Enterobacter cloacae. Together, these 4 bacteria are 30 x more effective than ...
more infohttps://www.growell.co.uk/nutrients-boosters/enyzmes-beneficials/mammoth-p-microbial-innoculant.html

Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology: Table of ContentsIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology: Table of Contents

Comamonas testosteroni bacteraemia in a tertiary care hospital. p. 602. B Swain, S Rout. DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.167325 PMID: ...
more infohttp://www.ijmm.org/showbackissue.asp?issn=0255-0857

Expression Systems for the Production of Recombinant Pharmaceuticals | SpringerLinkExpression Systems for the Production of Recombinant Pharmaceuticals | SpringerLink

... and characterization of recombinant nitrile hydratase NI1 from Comamonas testosteroni. Protein Expr Purif 2003 May; 29(1): 70-6 ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.2165%2F00063030-200418010-00005
  • In this study, using Comamonas testosteroni as a model organism, we demonstrated the involvement of Comamonas biofilms in denitrification under bulk aerobic conditions and elucidated the influence of nitrate respiration on its biofilm lifestyle. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • The β-proteobacterial species Comamonas testosteroni is capable of biotransformation and also biodegradation of a range of chemical compounds and thus potentially useful in chemical manufacturing and bioremediation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Comamonas testosteroni is a ubiquitously occuring β-proteobacterial species which has been isolated from aquatic as well as terrestrial environments. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Due to the widespread environmental distribution and the potential relevance of C. testosteroni in biotransformation processes, it may be of interest to follow the population dynamics of this species over time in a mixed-species environment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fig. 1 shows a phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA sequences of species of the genera Comamonas and Delftia , with an emphasis on sequences of C. testosteroni isolates with more than 1200 bp length available from Ribosomal Database Project II. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Neighbour-joining tree of 16S rRNA gene sequences of species of the genera Comamonas and Delftia with an emphasis on Comamonas testosteroni corresponding to E. coli positions 135-1369. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The following study reports on the development of 16S rRNA sequence based oligonucleotide probes which are suitable for detection and quantification of Comamonas testosteroni in mixed cultures using PCR and/or fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). (biomedcentral.com)
  • A short survey of 16S rRNA sequence diversity of C. testosteroni was carried out. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Taking these factors together, this study reveals that nitrate reduction occurs in mature biofilms of C. testosteroni under bulk aerobic conditions, and the respiratory reduction of nitrate is beneficial to the biofilm lifestyle by providing more metabolic energy to maintain high viability and a higher level of c-di-GMP to reduce cell detachment. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • The oligonucleotides presented here provide a useful tool to study C. testosteroni population dynamics in mixed microbial communities. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Under bulk aerobic condition, biofilms of C. testosteroni were capable of reducing nitrate, and intriguingly, nitrate reduction significantly enhanced viability of the biofilm-cells and reduced cell detachment from the biofilms. (ntu.edu.sg)