A profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused. Coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION.
Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.
Traumatic injuries to the cranium where the integrity of the skull is not compromised and no bone fragments or other objects penetrate the skull and dura mater. This frequently results in mechanical injury being transmitted to intracranial structures which may produce traumatic brain injuries, hemorrhage, or cranial nerve injury. (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p417)
A scale that assesses the response to stimuli in patients with craniocerebral injuries. The parameters are eye opening, motor response, and verbal response.
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.
Fractures of the skull which may result from penetrating or nonpenetrating head injuries or rarely BONE DISEASES (see also FRACTURES, SPONTANEOUS). Skull fractures may be classified by location (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR), radiographic appearance (e.g., linear), or based upon cranial integrity (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, DEPRESSED).
Personal devices for protection of heads from impact, penetration from falling and flying objects, and from limited electric shock and burn.
An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.
A state of unconsciousness as a complication of diabetes mellitus. It occurs in cases of extreme HYPERGLYCEMIA or extreme HYPOGLYCEMIA as a complication of INSULIN therapy.
A nonspecific term used to describe transient alterations or loss of consciousness following closed head injuries. The duration of UNCONSCIOUSNESS generally lasts a few seconds, but may persist for several hours. Concussions may be classified as mild, intermediate, and severe. Prolonged periods of unconsciousness (often defined as greater than 6 hours in duration) may be referred to as post-traumatic coma (COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY). (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p418)
Head injuries which feature compromise of the skull and dura mater. These may result from gunshot wounds (WOUNDS, GUNSHOT), stab wounds (WOUNDS, STAB), and other forms of trauma.
Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.
Systems for assessing, classifying, and coding injuries. These systems are used in medical records, surveillance systems, and state and national registries to aid in the collection and reporting of trauma.
Severe HYPOGLYCEMIA induced by a large dose of exogenous INSULIN resulting in a COMA or profound state of unconsciousness from which the individual cannot be aroused.
Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)
Loss of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment combined with markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp344-5)
Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.
Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).
Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
Recurrent seizures causally related to CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Seizure onset may be immediate but is typically delayed for several days after the injury and may not occur for up to two years. The majority of seizures have a focal onset that correlates clinically with the site of brain injury. Cerebral cortex injuries caused by a penetrating foreign object (CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, PENETRATING) are more likely than closed head injuries (HEAD INJURIES, CLOSED) to be associated with epilepsy. Concussive convulsions are nonepileptic phenomena that occur immediately after head injury and are characterized by tonic and clonic movements. (From Rev Neurol 1998 Feb;26(150):256-261; Sports Med 1998 Feb;25(2):131-6)
Prolonged unconsciousness from which the individual cannot be aroused, associated with traumatic injuries to the BRAIN. This may be defined as unconsciousness persisting for 6 hours or longer. Coma results from injury to both cerebral hemispheres or the RETICULAR FORMATION of the BRAIN STEM. Contributing mechanisms include DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY and BRAIN EDEMA. (From J Neurotrauma 1997 Oct;14(10):699-713)
A relatively common sequela of blunt head injury, characterized by a global disruption of axons throughout the brain. Associated clinical features may include NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; DEMENTIA; and other disorders.
Accumulation of blood in the SUBDURAL SPACE between the DURA MATER and the arachnoidal layer of the MENINGES. This condition primarily occurs over the surface of a CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE, but may develop in the spinal canal (HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL, SPINAL). Subdural hematoma can be classified as the acute or the chronic form, with immediate or delayed symptom onset, respectively. Symptoms may include loss of consciousness, severe HEADACHE, and deteriorating mental status.
General or unspecified injuries to the neck. It includes injuries to the skin, muscles, and other soft tissues of the neck.
A snow sport which uses skis to glide over the snow. It does not include water-skiing.
Classification system for assessing impact injury severity developed and published by the American Association for Automotive Medicine. It is the system of choice for coding single injuries and is the foundation for methods assessing multiple injuries or for assessing cumulative effects of more than one injury. These include Maximum AIS (MAIS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), and Probability of Death Score (PODS).
Injuries caused by impact with a blunt object where there is no penetration of the skin.
Use of a metal casting, usually with a post in the pulp or root canal, designed to support and retain an artificial crown.
Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.
Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES due to TRAUMA. Hemorrhage may involve any part of the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the BASAL GANGLIA. Depending on the severity of bleeding, clinical features may include SEIZURES; APHASIA; VISION DISORDERS; MOVEMENT DISORDERS; PARALYSIS; and COMA.
General or unspecified injuries to the chest area.
Two-wheeled, engine-driven vehicles.
General or unspecified injuries to the soft tissue or bony portions of the face.
Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.
A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.
General or unspecified injuries involving the leg.
A scale that assesses the outcome of serious craniocerebral injuries, based on the level of regained social functioning.
Injuries involving the vertebral column.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A surgical specialty concerned with the treatment of diseases and disorders of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral and sympathetic nervous system.
Multiple physical insults or injuries occurring simultaneously.
Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.
Cognitive disorders including delirium, dementia, and other cognitive disorders. These may be the result of substance use, trauma, or other causes.
An 'accident' in a medical context often refers to an unintended event or harm that occurs suddenly and unexpectedly, resulting in injury or illness, and is typically not planned or intended.
General or unspecified injuries involving the arm.
The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)
General or unspecified injuries involving organs in the abdominal cavity.
Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.
Conditions characterized by persistent brain damage or dysfunction as sequelae of cranial trauma. This disorder may result from DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; BRAIN EDEMA; and other conditions. Clinical features may include DEMENTIA; focal neurologic deficits; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; AKINETIC MUTISM; or COMA.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The use of a bicycle for transportation or recreation. It does not include the use of a bicycle in studying the body's response to physical exertion (BICYCLE ERGOMETRY TEST see EXERCISE TEST).
Pathologic partial or complete loss of the ability to recall past experiences (AMNESIA, RETROGRADE) or to form new memories (AMNESIA, ANTEROGRADE). This condition may be of organic or psychologic origin. Organic forms of amnesia are usually associated with dysfunction of the DIENCEPHALON or HIPPOCAMPUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-7)
Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.
Injuries of tissue other than bone. The concept is usually general and does not customarily refer to internal organs or viscera. It is meaningful with reference to regions or organs where soft tissue (muscle, fat, skin) should be differentiated from bones or bone tissue, as "soft tissue injuries of the hand".
Falls due to slipping or tripping which may result in injury.
A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Accumulation of blood in the EPIDURAL SPACE between the SKULL and the DURA MATER, often as a result of bleeding from the MENINGEAL ARTERIES associated with a temporal or parietal bone fracture. Epidural hematoma tends to expand rapidly, compressing the dura and underlying brain. Clinical features may include HEADACHE; VOMITING; HEMIPARESIS; and impaired mental function.
A game whose object is to sink a ball into each of 9 or 18 successive holes on a golf course using as few strokes as possible.
Specialized hospital facilities which provide diagnostic and therapeutic services for trauma patients.
Increased pressure within the cranial vault. This may result from several conditions, including HYDROCEPHALUS; BRAIN EDEMA; intracranial masses; severe systemic HYPERTENSION; PSEUDOTUMOR CEREBRI; and other disorders.
Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Injuries resulting when a person is struck by particles impelled with violent force from an explosion. Blast causes pulmonary concussion and hemorrhage, laceration of other thoracic and abdominal viscera, ruptured ear drums, and minor effects in the central nervous system. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
General or unspecified injuries to the hand.
Brain injuries resulted from vigorous shaking of an infant or young child held by the chest, shoulders, or extremities causing extreme cranial acceleration. It is characterized by the intracranial and intraocular hemorrhages with no evident external trauma. Serious cases may result in death.
A collection of blood outside the BLOOD VESSELS. Hematoma can be localized in an organ, space, or tissue.
A condition characterized by a dry, waxy type of swelling (EDEMA) with abnormal deposits of MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the SKIN and other tissues. It is caused by a deficiency of THYROID HORMONES. The skin becomes puffy around the eyes and on the cheeks. The face is dull and expressionless with thickened nose and lips.
The anterior portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that contains mainly the nucleus with highly compact CHROMATIN material.
Wounds caused by objects penetrating the skin.
Injuries resulting in hemorrhage, usually manifested in the skin.
A serious complication of TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by extreme HYPERGLYCEMIA; DEHYDRATION; serum hyperosmolarity; and depressed consciousness leading to COMA in the absence of KETOSIS and ACIDOSIS.
A game in which a round inflated ball is advanced by kicking or propelling with any part of the body except the hands or arms. The object of the game is to place the ball in opposite goals.
Bleeding within the brain as a result of penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Traumatically induced hemorrhages may occur in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRUM; BRAIN STEM (see BRAIN STEM HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC); and CEREBELLUM.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.
Hyperextension injury to the neck, often the result of being struck from behind by a fast-moving vehicle, in an automobile accident. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)
Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.
Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)
'Home accidents' refer to unplanned and unintentional injuries or illnesses that occur within or around the home environment, encompassing a wide range of potential hazards and mishaps.
Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
Disruption of structural continuity of the body as a result of the discharge of firearms.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Simulation of symptoms of illness or injury with intent to deceive in order to obtain a goal, e.g., a claim of physical illness to avoid jury duty.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
General or unspecified injuries to the heart.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Vegetative state refers to the neurocognitive status of individuals with severe brain damage, in whom physiologic functions (sleep-wake cycles, autonomic control, and breathing) persist, but awareness (including all cognitive function and emotion) is abolished.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.
Aseptic or avascular necrosis of the femoral head. The major types are idiopathic (primary), as a complication of fractures or dislocations, and LEGG-CALVE-PERTHES DISEASE.
General or unspecified injuries to the posterior part of the trunk. It includes injuries to the muscles of the back.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Bleeding within the SKULL induced by penetrating and nonpenetrating traumatic injuries, including hemorrhages into the tissues of CEREBRUM; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM; as well as into the epidural, subdural and subarachnoid spaces of the MENINGES.
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
A competitive team sport played on a rectangular field. This is the American or Canadian version of the game and also includes the form known as rugby. It does not include non-North American football (= SOCCER).
Injuries sustained from incidents in the course of work-related activities.
A skull fracture characterized by inward depression of a fragment or section of cranial bone, often compressing the underlying dura mater and brain. Depressed cranial fractures which feature open skin wounds that communicate with skull fragments are referred to as compound depressed skull fractures.
A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.
The organic and psychogenic disturbances observed after closed head injuries (HEAD INJURIES, CLOSED). Post-concussion syndrome includes subjective physical complaints (i.e. headache, dizziness), cognitive, emotional, and behavioral changes. These disturbances can be chronic, permanent, or late emerging.
Bleeding from the vessels of the retina.
Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)
Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Harm or hurt to the ankle or ankle joint usually inflicted by an external source.
Secondary headache attributed to TRAUMA of the HEAD and/or the NECK.
Bleeding into the SUBARACHNOID SPACE due to CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Minor hemorrhages may be asymptomatic; moderate to severe hemorrhages may be associated with INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION and VASOSPASM, INTRACRANIAL.
Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
Injuries to blood vessels caused by laceration, contusion, puncture, or crush and other types of injuries. Symptoms vary by site and mode of injuries and may include bleeding, bruising, swelling, pain, and numbness. It does not include injuries secondary to pathologic function or diseases such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Efforts and designs to reduce the incidence of unexpected undesirable events in various environments and situations.
Equipment required for engaging in a sport (such as balls, bats, rackets, skis, skates, ropes, weights) and devices for the protection of athletes during their performance (such as masks, gloves, mouth pieces).
I'm sorry for any confusion, but 'England' is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom, known for its rich history, cultural heritage, and contributions to medical science. However, in a medical context, it may refer to the location of a patient, healthcare provider, or research study, but it is not a term with a specific medical meaning.
Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.
Services specifically designed, staffed, and equipped for the emergency care of patients.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Mechanical or anoxic trauma incurred by the infant during labor or delivery.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Scotland" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. Scotland is one of the four constituent countries of the United Kingdom, located in the northern part of Great Britain. If you have any questions related to healthcare or medical terminology, I would be happy to help answer those!
Compounds that increase urine volume by increasing the amount of osmotically active solute in the urine. Osmotic diuretics also increase the osmolarity of plasma.
Breaks in bones.
Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (BURNS, CHEMICAL), electricity (BURNS, ELECTRIC), or the like.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
General or unspecified injuries involving the face and jaw (either upper, lower, or both).
General or unspecified injuries involving the foot.
General or unspecified injuries involving the fingers.
A generalized seizure disorder characterized by recurrent major motor seizures. The initial brief tonic phase is marked by trunk flexion followed by diffuse extension of the trunk and extremities. The clonic phase features rhythmic flexor contractions of the trunk and limbs, pupillary dilation, elevations of blood pressure and pulse, urinary incontinence, and tongue biting. This is followed by a profound state of depressed consciousness (post-ictal state) which gradually improves over minutes to hours. The disorder may be cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (caused by an identified disease process). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p329)
Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.
Deeply perforating or puncturing type intraocular injuries.
A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.
Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.
The process of accepting patients. The concept includes patients accepted for medical and nursing care in a hospital or other health care institution.
A state of prolonged irreversible cessation of all brain activity, including lower brain stem function with the complete absence of voluntary movements, responses to stimuli, brain stem reflexes, and spontaneous respirations. Reversible conditions which mimic this clinical state (e.g., sedative overdose, hypothermia, etc.) are excluded prior to making the determination of brain death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp348-9)
The bone that forms the frontal aspect of the skull. Its flat part forms the forehead, articulating inferiorly with the NASAL BONE and the CHEEK BONE on each side of the face.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
Advanced and highly specialized care provided to medical or surgical patients whose conditions are life-threatening and require comprehensive care and constant monitoring. It is usually administered in specially equipped units of a health care facility.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
Abuse of children in a family, institutional, or other setting. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.
A two-person sport in which the fists are skillfully used to attack and defend.
Rooms occupied by one or more individuals during a stay in a health facility. The concept includes aspects of environment, design, care, or economics.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Automotive safety devices consisting of a bag designed to inflate upon collision and prevent passengers from pitching forward. (American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
Part of the back and base of the CRANIUM that encloses the FORAMEN MAGNUM.
Accumulation of blood in the SUBDURAL SPACE with acute onset of neurological symptoms. Symptoms may include loss of consciousness, severe HEADACHE, and deteriorating mental status.
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
Accumulation of blood in the SUBDURAL SPACE with delayed onset of neurological symptoms. Symptoms may include loss of consciousness, severe HEADACHE, and deteriorating mental status.
Dysfunction of one or more cranial nerves causally related to a traumatic injury. Penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NECK INJURIES; and trauma to the facial region are conditions associated with cranial nerve injuries.
Activities in which participants learn self-defense mainly through the use of hand-to-hand combat. Judo involves throwing an opponent to the ground while karate (which includes kung fu and tae kwon do) involves kicking and punching an opponent.
Using ice skates, roller skates, or skateboards in racing or other competition or for recreation.
A light and spongy (pneumatized) bone that lies between the orbital part of FRONTAL BONE and the anterior of SPHENOID BONE. Ethmoid bone separates the ORBIT from the ETHMOID SINUS. It consists of a horizontal plate, a perpendicular plate, and two lateral labyrinths.
An increase in the rate of speed.
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
Penetrating stab wounds caused by needles. They are of special concern to health care workers since such injuries put them at risk for developing infectious disease.
The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.
A republic consisting of an island group in Melanesia, in the southwest Pacific Ocean. Its capital is Suva. It was discovered by Abel Tasman in 1643 and was visited by Captain Cook in 1774. It was used by escaped convicts from Australia as early as 1804. It was annexed by Great Britain in 1874 but achieved independence in 1970. The name Fiji is of uncertain origin. In its present form it may represent that of Viti, the main island in the group. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p396 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p186)
Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.
Tests designed to measure intellectual functioning in children and adults.
Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.
Pulmonary injury following the breathing in of toxic smoke from burning materials such as plastics, synthetics, building materials, etc. This injury is the most frequent cause of death in burn patients.
Injuries caused by electric currents. The concept excludes electric burns (BURNS, ELECTRIC), but includes accidental electrocution and electric shock.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
A subset of VIRIDANS STREPTOCOCCI, but the species in this group differ in their hemolytic pattern and diseases caused. These species are often beta-hemolytic and produce pyogenic infections.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
Organic mental disorders in which there is impairment of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment and to respond to environmental stimuli. Dysfunction of the cerebral hemispheres or brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION may result in this condition.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Fractures of the bones in the orbit, which include parts of the frontal, ethmoidal, lacrimal, and sphenoid bones and the maxilla and zygoma.
A usually four-wheeled automotive vehicle designed for passenger transportation and commonly propelled by an internal-combustion engine using a volatile fuel. (Webster, 1973)
Restraining belts fastened to the frame of automobiles, aircraft, or other vehicles, and strapped around the person occupying the seat in the car or plane, intended to prevent the person from being thrown forward or out of the vehicle in case of sudden deceleration.
Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.
"Dislocation is a traumatic injury wherein the normal articulation between two bones at a joint is disrupted, resulting in the complete separation of the bone ends and associated soft tissues from their usual position."
Discharge of cerebrospinal fluid through the nose. Common etiologies include trauma, neoplasms, and prior surgery, although the condition may occur spontaneously. (Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1997 Apr;116(4):442-9)
A syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with LIVER FAILURE, including portal-systemic shunts. Clinical features include lethargy and CONFUSION (frequently progressing to COMA); ASTERIXIS; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; brisk oculovestibular reflexes; decorticate and decerebrate posturing; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes (see REFLEX, BABINSKI). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY may demonstrate triphasic waves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1117-20; Plum & Posner, Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed, p222-5)
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.
Traumatic injury to the abducens, or sixth, cranial nerve. Injury to this nerve results in lateral rectus muscle weakness or paralysis. The nerve may be damaged by closed or penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA or by facial trauma involving the orbit.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Child hospitalized for short term care.
The restoration to life or consciousness of one apparently dead. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A condition characterized by somnolence or coma in the presence of an acute infection with PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM (and rarely other Plasmodium species). Initial clinical manifestations include HEADACHES; SEIZURES; and alterations of mentation followed by a rapid progression to COMA. Pathologic features include cerebral capillaries filled with parasitized erythrocytes and multiple small foci of cortical and subcortical necrosis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p136)
Bleeding within the SKULL, including hemorrhages in the brain and the three membranes of MENINGES. The escape of blood often leads to the formation of HEMATOMA in the cranial epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid spaces.
Discharge of cerebrospinal fluid through the external auditory meatus or through the eustachian tube into the nasopharynx. This is usually associated with CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE involving the TEMPORAL BONE;), NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES; or other conditions, but may rarely occur spontaneously. (From Am J Otol 1995 Nov;16(6):765-71)
Training of the mentally or physically disabled in work skills so they may be returned to regular employment utilizing these skills.
A calcium-binding protein that is 92 AA long, contains 2 EF-hand domains, and is concentrated mainly in GLIAL CELLS. Elevation of S100B levels in brain tissue correlates with a role in neurological disorders.
A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.
Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

Patients who talk and deteriorate: a new look at an old problem. (1/7)

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: We sought to review established prognostic indicators applied to Asian population, and to identify new risk factors for deterioration in patients who talked and deteriorated after traumatic brain injury (TBI). This retrospective study used our prospectively maintained TBI database. From August 1999 to July 2001, 324 patients were admitted to the neurosurgical intensive care unit (ICU). Thirty-eight patients (11.8%) talked between injury and subsequent deterioration into coma. Independent outcome predictors were studied. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Fourteen patients had subdural haematomas, 9 extradural haematomas, 19 contusions/haematomas and 3 subarachnoid haemorrhages. 81.5% of the patients had mass lesions potentially requiring surgery. Twenty patients had good functional recovery at 6 months (Glasgow Outcome Score 4 and 5); 18 were dead or vegetative. Age, gender, type of intracranial lesion and presence of coagulopathy were significantly correlated with outcome. Intracranial haematomas continue to be most significant in patients who talk and deteriorate. Coagulopathy was the strongest prognostic predictor of poor outcome with fibrinolytic parameters being reliable prognostic markers of head injury. Early identification, continued monitoring and treatment of coagulopathy should be our new look at improving outcome of these patients.  (+info)

Recovery process of immediate prolonged posttraumatic coma following severe head injury without mass lesions. (2/7)

The recovery process of immediate posttraumatic coma was investigated in 24 patients with severe head injury. The correlation between poor outcome in the recovery process and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings was analyzed. MR imaging was performed within the first 7 days for all patients. The recovery process was classified into phase 1 for recovery to moderately disabled and phase 2 to good recovery (GR) according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale. The median of phase 1 was 21.0 days. Four patients did not recover to GR and had poor outcome. Twenty patients recovered to GR. Thirteen patients had short phase 2 of under 10 days and seven patients had long phase 2 of over 60 days. All patients had abnormal lesions on MR imaging considered to be diffuse axonal injury. The number of lesions ranged from two to 10, with a mean of five. Lesions in the dorsal upper brainstem were significantly associated with poor outcome (p < 0.05). The combination of focal lesions in the callosal splenium and dorsal upper brainstem was most common in patients with poor outcome. Patients with long phase 2 had significantly more lesions than patients with short phase 2.  (+info)

Search for clinical and neurophysiological prognostic patterns of brain coma outcomes in children. (3/7)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the possible predictive values of clinical examinations combined with the recordings of electroencephalography and brainstem auditory-evoked potentials in traumatic coma of pediatric patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 43 children in coma with severe acute head trauma were included in the study. They were investigated and treated in pediatric intensive care unit using standard evaluation and treatment protocol. Evaluation of coma was performed using Glasgow Coma Scale. Electroencephalography for 35 patients and brainstem auditory-evoked potentials for 24 patients were recorded. RESULTS: Glasgow coma scale statistic pool median was equal to 4 points as measured in presence of brain edema, meanwhile it was 6 as measured in absence of edema. In case of supratentorial damage, median duration of consciousness recovery was 10 days. In absence of above-mentioned supratentorial damage, recovery of the consciousness was earlier - median was 5 days. Determined duration of artificial lung ventilation was statistically significantly shorter for those who had edema (P=0.048). In 20 patients (57% of all cases), constant or alternating slow wave activity was observed during the first electroencephalographic recording. In other cases, "alpha coma" or low amplitude of arrhythmic activity and local slowing activity corresponding to brain damage seen on computerized tomography were recorded. For 24 patients, brainstem auditory-evoked potentials were recorded. In 9 cases, they were abnormal; in these cases, the consciousness of the patients recovered after 44 days or did not recover. CONCLUSIONS: Glasgow coma scale results alone may have limited prognostic value in absence of other objective neurophysiologic investigation data concerning the coma outcome in children. Prognosis may be worse if pathological brainstem auditory-evoked potentials correlate with pathological dynamic changes in electroencephalography and brain lesions, diagnosed during computerized tomography scan.  (+info)

Usefulness of functional MRI associated with PET scan and evoked potentials in the evaluation of brain functions after severe brain injury: preliminary results. (4/7)

 (+info)

Recovery of consciousness after brain injury: a mesocircuit hypothesis. (5/7)

 (+info)

Placebo-controlled trial of amantadine for severe traumatic brain injury. (6/7)

 (+info)

Disconnection of the ascending arousal system in traumatic coma. (7/7)

 (+info)

A coma is a deep state of unconsciousness in which an individual cannot be awakened, cannot respond to stimuli, and does not exhibit any sleep-wake cycles. It is typically caused by severe brain injury, illness, or toxic exposure that impairs the function of the brainstem and cerebral cortex.

In a coma, the person may appear to be asleep, but they are not aware of their surroundings or able to communicate or respond to stimuli. Comas can last for varying lengths of time, from days to weeks or even months, and some people may emerge from a coma with varying degrees of brain function and disability.

Medical professionals use various diagnostic tools and assessments to evaluate the level of consciousness and brain function in individuals who are in a coma, including the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), which measures eye opening, verbal response, and motor response. Treatment for coma typically involves supportive care to maintain vital functions, manage any underlying medical conditions, and prevent further complications.

Craniocerebral trauma, also known as traumatic brain injury (TBI), is a type of injury that occurs to the head and brain. It can result from a variety of causes, including motor vehicle accidents, falls, sports injuries, violence, or other types of trauma. Craniocerebral trauma can range in severity from mild concussions to severe injuries that cause permanent disability or death.

The injury typically occurs when there is a sudden impact to the head, causing the brain to move within the skull and collide with the inside of the skull. This can result in bruising, bleeding, swelling, or tearing of brain tissue, as well as damage to blood vessels and nerves. In severe cases, the skull may be fractured or penetrated, leading to direct injury to the brain.

Symptoms of craniocerebral trauma can vary widely depending on the severity and location of the injury. They may include headache, dizziness, confusion, memory loss, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, changes in vision or hearing, weakness or numbness in the limbs, balance problems, and behavioral or emotional changes. In severe cases, the person may lose consciousness or fall into a coma.

Treatment for craniocerebral trauma depends on the severity of the injury. Mild injuries may be treated with rest, pain medication, and close monitoring, while more severe injuries may require surgery, intensive care, and rehabilitation. Prevention is key to reducing the incidence of craniocerebral trauma, including measures such as wearing seat belts and helmets, preventing falls, and avoiding violent situations.

A closed head injury is a type of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that occurs when there is no penetration or breakage of the skull. The brain is encased in the skull and protected by cerebrospinal fluid, but when the head experiences a sudden impact or jolt, the brain can move back and forth within the skull, causing it to bruise, tear blood vessels, or even cause nerve damage. This type of injury can result from various incidents such as car accidents, sports injuries, falls, or any other event that causes the head to suddenly stop or change direction quickly.

Closed head injuries can range from mild (concussion) to severe (diffuse axonal injury, epidural hematoma, subdural hematoma), and symptoms may not always be immediately apparent. They can include headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, confusion, memory loss, difficulty concentrating, mood changes, sleep disturbances, and in severe cases, loss of consciousness, seizures, or even coma. It is essential to seek medical attention immediately if you suspect a closed head injury, as prompt diagnosis and treatment can significantly improve the outcome.

The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is a standardized tool used by healthcare professionals to assess the level of consciousness and neurological response in a person who has suffered a brain injury or illness. It evaluates three aspects of a patient's responsiveness: eye opening, verbal response, and motor response. The scores from these three categories are then added together to provide an overall GCS score, which can range from 3 (indicating deep unconsciousness) to 15 (indicating a normal level of consciousness). This scale helps medical professionals to quickly and consistently communicate the severity of a patient's condition and monitor their progress over time.

A brain injury is defined as damage to the brain that occurs following an external force or trauma, such as a blow to the head, a fall, or a motor vehicle accident. Brain injuries can also result from internal conditions, such as lack of oxygen or a stroke. There are two main types of brain injuries: traumatic and acquired.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is caused by an external force that results in the brain moving within the skull or the skull being fractured. Mild TBIs may result in temporary symptoms such as headaches, confusion, and memory loss, while severe TBIs can cause long-term complications, including physical, cognitive, and emotional impairments.

Acquired brain injury (ABI) is any injury to the brain that occurs after birth and is not hereditary, congenital, or degenerative. ABIs are often caused by medical conditions such as strokes, tumors, anoxia (lack of oxygen), or infections.

Both TBIs and ABIs can range from mild to severe and may result in a variety of physical, cognitive, and emotional symptoms that can impact a person's ability to perform daily activities and function independently. Treatment for brain injuries typically involves a multidisciplinary approach, including medical management, rehabilitation, and supportive care.

In medical terms, the "head" is the uppermost part of the human body that contains the brain, skull, face, eyes, nose, mouth, and ears. It is connected to the rest of the body by the neck and is responsible for many vital functions such as sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch, and thought processing. The head also plays a crucial role in maintaining balance, speech, and eating.

A wound is a type of injury that occurs when the skin or other tissues are cut, pierced, torn, or otherwise broken. Wounds can be caused by a variety of factors, including accidents, violence, surgery, or certain medical conditions. There are several different types of wounds, including:

* Incisions: These are cuts that are made deliberately, often during surgery. They are usually straight and clean.
* Lacerations: These are tears in the skin or other tissues. They can be irregular and jagged.
* Abrasions: These occur when the top layer of skin is scraped off. They may look like a bruise or a scab.
* Punctures: These are wounds that are caused by sharp objects, such as needles or knives. They are usually small and deep.
* Avulsions: These occur when tissue is forcibly torn away from the body. They can be very serious and require immediate medical attention.

Injuries refer to any harm or damage to the body, including wounds. Injuries can range from minor scrapes and bruises to more severe injuries such as fractures, dislocations, and head trauma. It is important to seek medical attention for any injury that is causing significant pain, swelling, or bleeding, or if there is a suspected bone fracture or head injury.

In general, wounds and injuries should be cleaned and covered with a sterile bandage to prevent infection. Depending on the severity of the wound or injury, additional medical treatment may be necessary. This may include stitches for deep cuts, immobilization for broken bones, or surgery for more serious injuries. It is important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully to ensure proper healing and to prevent complications.

A skull fracture is a break in one or more of the bones that form the skull. It can occur from a direct blow to the head, penetrating injuries like gunshot wounds, or from strong rotational forces during an accident. There are several types of skull fractures, including:

1. Linear Skull Fracture: This is the most common type, where there's a simple break in the bone without any splintering, depression, or displacement. It often doesn't require treatment unless it's near a sensitive area like an eye or ear.

2. Depressed Skull Fracture: In this type, a piece of the skull is pushed inward toward the brain. Surgery may be needed to relieve pressure on the brain and repair the fracture.

3. Diastatic Skull Fracture: This occurs along the suture lines (the fibrous joints between the skull bones) that haven't fused yet, often seen in infants and young children.

4. Basilar Skull Fracture: This involves fractures at the base of the skull. It can be serious due to potential injury to the cranial nerves and blood vessels located in this area.

5. Comminuted Skull Fracture: In this severe type, the bone is shattered into many pieces. These fractures usually require extensive surgical repair.

Symptoms of a skull fracture can include pain, swelling, bruising, bleeding (if there's an open wound), and in some cases, clear fluid draining from the ears or nose (cerebrospinal fluid leak). Severe fractures may cause brain injury, leading to symptoms like confusion, loss of consciousness, seizures, or neurological deficits. Immediate medical attention is necessary for any suspected skull fracture.

Head protective devices are equipment designed to protect the head from potential injuries or trauma. These devices often include helmets, hard hats, and bump caps. They are engineered to absorb the impact force, shield the head from sharp objects, or prevent contact with harmful substances. The specific design and construction of these devices vary depending on their intended use, such as for construction, sports, military, or healthcare purposes. It's important to choose and use a head protective device that is appropriate for the specific activity and follows established safety guidelines.

The Injury Severity Score (ISS) is a medical scoring system used to assess the severity of trauma in patients with multiple injuries. It's based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), which classifies each injury by body region on a scale from 1 (minor) to 6 (maximum severity).

The ISS is calculated by summing the squares of the highest AIS score in each of the three most severely injured body regions. The possible ISS ranges from 0 to 75, with higher scores indicating more severe injuries. An ISS over 15 is generally considered a significant injury, and an ISS over 25 is associated with a high risk of mortality. It's important to note that the ISS has limitations, as it doesn't consider the number or type of injuries within each body region, only the most severe one.

A diabetic coma is a serious and life-threatening condition that occurs when an individual with diabetes experiences severely high or low blood sugar levels, leading to unconsciousness. It is a medical emergency that requires immediate attention.

In the case of hyperglycemia (high blood sugar), the body produces excess amounts of urine to try to eliminate the glucose, leading to dehydration and a lack of essential nutrients in the body. This can result in a buildup of toxic byproducts called ketones, which can cause a condition known as diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). DKA can lead to a diabetic coma if left untreated.

On the other hand, hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) can also cause a diabetic coma. This occurs when the brain is not receiving enough glucose to function properly, leading to confusion, seizures, and eventually unconsciousness.

If you suspect someone is experiencing a diabetic coma, it is important to seek emergency medical attention immediately. While waiting for help to arrive, try to administer glucose or sugar to the individual if they are conscious and able to swallow. If they are unconscious, do not give them anything to eat or drink, as this could cause choking or further complications.

A brain concussion is a type of traumatic brain injury that is typically caused by a blow to the head or a violent shaking of the head and body. A concussion can also occur from a fall or accident that causes the head to suddenly jerk forward or backward.

The impact or forceful movement causes the brain to move back and forth inside the skull, which can result in stretching and damaging of brain cells, as well as disrupting the normal functioning of the brain. Concussions can range from mild to severe and may cause a variety of symptoms, including:

* Headache or a feeling of pressure in the head
* Temporary loss of consciousness
* Confusion or fogginess
* Amnesia surrounding the traumatic event
* Dizziness or "seeing stars"
* Ringing in the ears
* Nausea or vomiting
* Slurred speech
* Fatigue

In some cases, concussions may also cause more serious symptoms, such as seizures, difficulty walking, loss of balance, and changes in behavior or mood. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you suspect that you or someone else has a brain concussion. A healthcare professional can evaluate the severity of the injury and provide appropriate treatment and follow-up care.

Penetrating head injuries are a type of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that occurs when an object pierces the skull and enters the brain tissue. This can result in damage to specific areas of the brain, depending on the location and trajectory of the penetrating object. Penetrating head injuries can be caused by various objects, such as bullets, knives, or sharp debris from accidents. They are often severe and require immediate medical attention, as they can lead to significant neurological deficits, disability, or even death.

Athletic injuries are damages or injuries to the body that occur while participating in sports, physical activities, or exercise. These injuries can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

1. Trauma: Direct blows, falls, collisions, or crushing injuries can cause fractures, dislocations, contusions, lacerations, or concussions.
2. Overuse: Repetitive motions or stress on a particular body part can lead to injuries such as tendonitis, stress fractures, or muscle strains.
3. Poor technique: Using incorrect form or technique during exercise or sports can put additional stress on muscles, joints, and ligaments, leading to injury.
4. Inadequate warm-up or cool-down: Failing to properly prepare the body for physical activity or neglecting to cool down afterwards can increase the risk of injury.
5. Lack of fitness or flexibility: Insufficient strength, endurance, or flexibility can make individuals more susceptible to injuries during sports and exercise.
6. Environmental factors: Extreme weather conditions, poor field or court surfaces, or inadequate equipment can contribute to the risk of athletic injuries.

Common athletic injuries include ankle sprains, knee injuries, shoulder dislocations, tennis elbow, shin splints, and concussions. Proper training, warm-up and cool-down routines, use of appropriate protective gear, and attention to technique can help prevent many athletic injuries.

"Trauma severity indices" refer to various scoring systems used by healthcare professionals to evaluate the severity of injuries in trauma patients. These tools help standardize the assessment and communication of injury severity among different members of the healthcare team, allowing for more effective and consistent treatment planning, resource allocation, and prognosis estimation.

There are several commonly used trauma severity indices, including:

1. Injury Severity Score (ISS): ISS is an anatomical scoring system that evaluates the severity of injuries based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). The body is divided into six regions, and the square of the highest AIS score in each region is summed to calculate the ISS. Scores range from 0 to 75, with higher scores indicating more severe injuries.
2. New Injury Severity Score (NISS): NISS is a modification of the ISS that focuses on the three most severely injured body regions, regardless of their anatomical location. The three highest AIS scores are squared and summed to calculate the NISS. This scoring system tends to correlate better with mortality than the ISS in some studies.
3. Revised Trauma Score (RTS): RTS is a physiological scoring system that evaluates the patient's respiratory, cardiovascular, and neurological status upon arrival at the hospital. It uses variables such as Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), systolic blood pressure, and respiratory rate to calculate a score between 0 and 7.84, with lower scores indicating more severe injuries.
4. Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS): TRISS is a combined anatomical and physiological scoring system that estimates the probability of survival based on ISS or NISS, RTS, age, and mechanism of injury (blunt or penetrating). It uses logistic regression equations to calculate the predicted probability of survival.
5. Pediatric Trauma Score (PTS): PTS is a physiological scoring system specifically designed for children under 14 years old. It evaluates six variables, including respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, systolic blood pressure, capillary refill time, GCS, and temperature to calculate a score between -6 and +12, with lower scores indicating more severe injuries.

These scoring systems help healthcare professionals assess the severity of trauma, predict outcomes, allocate resources, and compare patient populations in research settings. However, they should not replace clinical judgment or individualized care for each patient.

An Insulin Coma is not a formal medical term, but it has been used in the past to describe a deliberate medical procedure known as Insulin Shock Therapy. This was a treatment for mental illness that involved administering large doses of insulin to induce hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), which could lead to a coma.

The idea behind this therapy, which was popular in the mid-20th century, was that the induced coma and subsequent recovery could have therapeutic effects on the brain and help alleviate symptoms of mental illnesses like schizophrenia. However, this treatment fell out of favor due to its significant risks and the development of more effective and safer treatments.

It's important to note that in current medical practice, inducing a coma with insulin is not a standard or recommended procedure due to the potential for severe harm, including brain damage and death.

Head and neck neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the head and neck region, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These tumors can develop in various sites, including the oral cavity, nasopharynx, oropharynx, larynx, hypopharynx, paranasal sinuses, salivary glands, and thyroid gland.

Benign neoplasms are slow-growing and generally do not spread to other parts of the body. However, they can still cause problems if they grow large enough to press on surrounding tissues or structures. Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, can invade nearby tissues and organs and may also metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body.

Head and neck neoplasms can have various symptoms depending on their location and size. Common symptoms include difficulty swallowing, speaking, or breathing; pain in the mouth, throat, or ears; persistent coughing or hoarseness; and swelling or lumps in the neck or face. Early detection and treatment of head and neck neoplasms are crucial for improving outcomes and reducing the risk of complications.

Unconsciousness is a state of complete awareness where a person is not responsive to stimuli and cannot be awakened. It is often caused by severe trauma, illness, or lack of oxygen supply to the brain. In medical terms, it is defined as a lack of response to verbal commands, pain, or other stimuli, indicating that the person's brain is not functioning at a level necessary to maintain wakefulness and awareness.

Unconsciousness can be described as having different levels, ranging from drowsiness to deep coma. The causes of unconsciousness can vary widely, including head injury, seizure, stroke, infection, drug overdose, or lack of oxygen supply to the brain. Depending on the cause and severity, unconsciousness may last for a few seconds or continue for an extended period, requiring medical intervention and treatment.

Traffic accidents are incidents that occur when a vehicle collides with another vehicle, a pedestrian, an animal, or a stationary object, resulting in damage or injury. These accidents can be caused by various factors such as driver error, distracted driving, drunk driving, speeding, reckless driving, poor road conditions, and adverse weather conditions. Traffic accidents can range from minor fender benders to severe crashes that result in serious injuries or fatalities. They are a significant public health concern and cause a substantial burden on healthcare systems, emergency services, and society as a whole.

Spinal cord injuries (SCI) refer to damage to the spinal cord that results in a loss of function, such as mobility or feeling. This injury can be caused by direct trauma to the spine or by indirect damage resulting from disease or degeneration of surrounding bones, tissues, or blood vessels. The location and severity of the injury on the spinal cord will determine which parts of the body are affected and to what extent.

The effects of SCI can range from mild sensory changes to severe paralysis, including loss of motor function, autonomic dysfunction, and possible changes in sensation, strength, and reflexes below the level of injury. These injuries are typically classified as complete or incomplete, depending on whether there is any remaining function below the level of injury.

Immediate medical attention is crucial for spinal cord injuries to prevent further damage and improve the chances of recovery. Treatment usually involves immobilization of the spine, medications to reduce swelling and pressure, surgery to stabilize the spine, and rehabilitation to help regain lost function. Despite advances in treatment, SCI can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life and ability to perform daily activities.

Reperfusion injury is a complex pathophysiological process that occurs when blood flow is restored to previously ischemic tissues, leading to further tissue damage. This phenomenon can occur in various clinical settings such as myocardial infarction (heart attack), stroke, or peripheral artery disease after an intervention aimed at restoring perfusion.

The restoration of blood flow leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory mediators, which can cause oxidative stress, cellular damage, and activation of the immune system. This results in a cascade of events that may lead to microvascular dysfunction, capillary leakage, and tissue edema, further exacerbating the injury.

Reperfusion injury is an important consideration in the management of ischemic events, as interventions aimed at restoring blood flow must be carefully balanced with potential harm from reperfusion injury. Strategies to mitigate reperfusion injury include ischemic preconditioning (exposing the tissue to short periods of ischemia before a prolonged ischemic event), ischemic postconditioning (applying brief periods of ischemia and reperfusion after restoring blood flow), remote ischemic preconditioning (ischemia applied to a distant organ or tissue to protect the target organ), and pharmacological interventions that scavenge ROS, reduce inflammation, or improve microvascular function.

Post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) is a type of epilepsy that is caused by brain injury or trauma. The head injury can be either traumatic (such as from a car accident, fall, or physical assault) or non-traumatic (such as stroke, infection, or brain tumor).

In PTE, the first seizure occurs within one week to one year after the initial injury. The seizures may be immediate (within the first 24 hours of the injury) or delayed (occurring more than one week after the injury).

PTE is characterized by recurrent seizures that are caused by abnormal electrical activity in the brain. These seizures can vary in severity and frequency, and may cause a range of symptoms such as convulsions, loss of consciousness, and altered sensations or emotions.

The diagnosis of PTE is typically made based on the patient's history of head trauma, along with the results of an electroencephalogram (EEG) and neuroimaging studies such as MRI or CT scans. Treatment for PTE may include medication to control seizures, as well as surgery or other interventions in some cases.

A post-head injury coma is a state of deep unconsciousness that occurs following a traumatic brain injury to the head. This condition is characterized by a complete loss of awareness and inability to respond to external stimuli or communicate. The individual is unable to move or speak, and there is no sleep-wake cycle.

The duration of a post-head injury coma can vary widely, from a few days to several weeks or even months, depending on the severity of the brain injury. Factors that influence the prognosis include the cause and location of the injury, the patient's age and overall health status, and the promptness and effectiveness of medical treatment.

Post-head injury coma is a serious medical emergency that requires immediate evaluation and management by a team of healthcare professionals, including neurosurgeons, neurologists, critical care specialists, and rehabilitation therapists. The goal of treatment is to minimize secondary brain damage, prevent complications, and promote recovery.

Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a type of traumatic brain injury that occurs when there is extensive damage to the nerve fibers (axons) in the brain. It is often caused by rapid acceleration or deceleration forces, such as those experienced during motor vehicle accidents or falls. In DAI, the axons are stretched and damaged, leading to disruption of communication between different parts of the brain. This can result in a wide range of symptoms, including cognitive impairment, loss of consciousness, and motor dysfunction. DAI is often difficult to diagnose and can have long-term consequences, making it an important area of study in traumatic brain injury research.

A subdural hematoma is a type of hematoma (a collection of blood) that occurs between the dura mater, which is the outermost protective covering of the brain, and the brain itself. It is usually caused by bleeding from the veins located in this potential space, often as a result of a head injury or trauma.

Subdural hematomas can be classified as acute, subacute, or chronic based on their rate of symptom progression and the time course of their appearance on imaging studies. Acute subdural hematomas typically develop and cause symptoms rapidly, often within hours of the head injury. Subacute subdural hematomas have a more gradual onset of symptoms, which can occur over several days to a week after the trauma. Chronic subdural hematomas may take weeks to months to develop and are often seen in older adults or individuals with chronic alcohol abuse, even after minor head injuries.

Symptoms of a subdural hematoma can vary widely depending on the size and location of the hematoma, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Common symptoms include headache, altered mental status, confusion, memory loss, weakness or numbness, seizures, and in severe cases, coma or even death. Treatment typically involves surgical evacuation of the hematoma, along with management of any underlying conditions that may have contributed to its development.

Neck injuries refer to damages or traumas that occur in any part of the neck, including soft tissues (muscles, ligaments, tendons), nerves, bones (vertebrae), and joints (facet joints, intervertebral discs). These injuries can result from various incidents such as road accidents, falls, sports-related activities, or work-related tasks. Common neck injuries include whiplash, strain or sprain of the neck muscles, herniated discs, fractured vertebrae, and pinched nerves, which may cause symptoms like pain, stiffness, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the neck, shoulders, arms, or hands. Immediate medical attention is necessary for proper diagnosis and treatment to prevent further complications and ensure optimal recovery.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "skiing" is not a medical term. It is a recreational activity that involves sliding down snow-covered slopes while standing on long, flat runners called skis. However, if you're interested, I can provide information about injuries that are commonly associated with skiing:

Skiing injuries can range from minor scrapes and bruises to more serious injuries such as fractures, dislocations, sprains, and strains. Some of the most common skiing injuries include:

1. Knee injuries: ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) tears are a common injury in skiers, often caused by landing awkwardly from jumps or falls.
2. Shoulder injuries: Dislocations and sprains can occur when skiers fall onto an outstretched arm.
3. Thumb injuries: Skiers can suffer from "skier's thumb" when they fall with their hand still in the ski pole strap, causing a ligament tear in the thumb.
4. Head injuries: Concussions and other head injuries can occur if skiers collide with objects or other people, or if they fall and hit their head on the ground. Wearing a helmet while skiing is highly recommended to reduce the risk of head injuries.
5. Fractures: Skiers can suffer fractures in various parts of the body, including the wrists, ankles, and hips, due to falls or collisions.

To prevent these injuries, it's essential to wear appropriate safety gear, such as helmets, wrist guards, and back protectors, and to receive proper instruction on skiing techniques and safety practices. Additionally, staying in good physical condition and being aware of one's limits can help reduce the risk of injury while skiing.

The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) is a standardized system used by healthcare professionals to classify the severity of traumatic injuries. The scale assigns a score from 1 to 6 to each injury, with 1 indicating minor injuries and 6 indicating maximal severity or currently untreatable injuries.

The AIS scores are based on anatomical location, type of injury, and physiological response to the injury. For example, a simple fracture may be assigned an AIS score of 2, while a life-threatening head injury may be assigned a score of 5 or 6.

The AIS is used in conjunction with other scoring systems, such as the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and the New Injury Severity Score (NISS), to assess the overall severity of injuries sustained in a traumatic event. These scores can help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care, triage, and resource allocation.

Nonpenetrating wounds are a type of trauma or injury to the body that do not involve a break in the skin or underlying tissues. These wounds can result from blunt force trauma, such as being struck by an object or falling onto a hard surface. They can also result from crushing injuries, where significant force is applied to a body part, causing damage to internal structures without breaking the skin.

Nonpenetrating wounds can cause a range of injuries, including bruising, swelling, and damage to internal organs, muscles, bones, and other tissues. The severity of the injury depends on the force of the trauma, the location of the impact, and the individual's overall health and age.

While nonpenetrating wounds may not involve a break in the skin, they can still be serious and require medical attention. If you have experienced blunt force trauma or suspect a nonpenetrating wound, it is important to seek medical care to assess the extent of the injury and receive appropriate treatment.

The post and core technique is a dental restorative procedure that involves the use of a post made of metal or other materials, which is placed inside the root canal of a severely damaged tooth, to provide support and retention for a dental core. The dental core is then built up using various materials such as composite resin, glass ionomer cement, or amalgam, to restore the missing portion of the tooth structure. This technique is often used as a foundation for a dental crown in cases where there is not enough remaining tooth structure to support the crown on its own. The post and core restoration helps to reinforce the tooth, prevent fractures, and improve the overall functionality and esthetics of the restored tooth.

Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the pressure inside the skull and is typically measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg). It's the measurement of the pressure exerted by the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), blood, and brain tissue within the confined space of the skull.

Normal ICP ranges from 5 to 15 mmHg in adults when lying down. Intracranial pressure may increase due to various reasons such as bleeding in the brain, swelling of the brain, increased production or decreased absorption of CSF, and brain tumors. Elevated ICP is a serious medical emergency that can lead to brain damage or even death if not promptly treated. Symptoms of high ICP may include severe headache, vomiting, altered consciousness, and visual changes.

A traumatic cerebral hemorrhage is a type of brain injury that results from a trauma or external force to the head, which causes bleeding in the brain. This condition is also known as an intracranial hemorrhage or epidural or subdural hematoma, depending on the location and extent of the bleeding.

The trauma can cause blood vessels in the brain to rupture, leading to the accumulation of blood in the skull and increased pressure on the brain. This can result in various symptoms such as headache, confusion, seizures, vomiting, weakness or numbness in the limbs, loss of consciousness, and even death if not treated promptly.

Traumatic cerebral hemorrhage is a medical emergency that requires immediate attention and treatment. Treatment options may include surgery to relieve pressure on the brain, medication to control seizures and reduce swelling, and rehabilitation to help with recovery. The prognosis for traumatic cerebral hemorrhage depends on various factors such as the severity of the injury, location of the bleeding, age and overall health of the patient, and timeliness of treatment.

Thoracic injuries refer to damages or traumas that occur in the thorax, which is the part of the body that contains the chest cavity. The thorax houses vital organs such as the heart, lungs, esophagus, trachea, and major blood vessels. Thoracic injuries can range from blunt trauma, caused by impacts or compressions, to penetrating trauma, resulting from stabbing or gunshot wounds. These injuries may cause various complications, including but not limited to:

1. Hemothorax - bleeding into the chest cavity
2. Pneumothorax - collapsed lung due to air accumulation in the chest cavity
3. Tension pneumothorax - a life-threatening condition where trapped air puts pressure on the heart and lungs, impairing their function
4. Cardiac tamponade - compression of the heart caused by blood or fluid accumulation in the pericardial sac
5. Rib fractures, which can lead to complications like punctured lungs or internal bleeding
6. Tracheobronchial injuries, causing air leaks and difficulty breathing
7. Great vessel injuries, potentially leading to massive hemorrhage and hemodynamic instability

Immediate medical attention is required for thoracic injuries, as they can quickly become life-threatening due to the vital organs involved. Treatment may include surgery, chest tubes, medications, or supportive care, depending on the severity and type of injury.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "motorcycles" are not a medical term. Motorcycles are vehicles with two wheels and an engine, typically operated by a rider. They are not a medical condition or procedure. If you have any questions about motorcycle safety or injuries related to motorcycle accidents, I would be happy to provide information on those topics from a medical perspective.

Facial injuries refer to any damage or trauma caused to the face, which may include the bones of the skull that form the face, teeth, salivary glands, muscles, nerves, and skin. Facial injuries can range from minor cuts and bruises to severe fractures and disfigurement. They can be caused by a variety of factors such as accidents, falls, sports-related injuries, physical assaults, or animal attacks.

Facial injuries can affect one or more areas of the face, including the forehead, eyes, nose, cheeks, ears, mouth, and jaw. Common types of facial injuries include lacerations (cuts), contusions (bruises), abrasions (scrapes), fractures (broken bones), and burns.

Facial injuries can have significant psychological and emotional impacts on individuals, in addition to physical effects. Treatment for facial injuries may involve simple first aid, suturing of wounds, splinting or wiring of broken bones, reconstructive surgery, or other medical interventions. It is essential to seek prompt medical attention for any facial injury to ensure proper healing and minimize the risk of complications.

Head movements refer to the voluntary or involuntary motion of the head in various directions. These movements can occur in different planes, including flexion (moving the head forward), extension (moving the head backward), rotation (turning the head to the side), and lateral bending (leaning the head to one side).

Head movements can be a result of normal physiological processes, such as when nodding in agreement or shaking the head to indicate disagreement. They can also be caused by neurological conditions, such as abnormal head movements in patients with Parkinson's disease or cerebellar disorders. Additionally, head movements may occur in response to sensory stimuli, such as turning the head toward a sound.

In a medical context, an examination of head movements can provide important clues about a person's neurological function and help diagnose various conditions affecting the brain and nervous system.

Chronic brain damage is a condition characterized by long-term, persistent injury to the brain that results in cognitive, physical, and behavioral impairments. It can be caused by various factors such as trauma, hypoxia (lack of oxygen), infection, toxic exposure, or degenerative diseases. The effects of chronic brain damage may not be immediately apparent and can worsen over time, leading to significant disability and reduced quality of life.

The symptoms of chronic brain damage can vary widely depending on the severity and location of the injury. They may include:

* Cognitive impairments such as memory loss, difficulty concentrating, trouble with problem-solving and decision-making, and decreased learning ability
* Motor impairments such as weakness, tremors, poor coordination, and balance problems
* Sensory impairments such as hearing or vision loss, numbness, tingling, or altered sense of touch
* Speech and language difficulties such as aphasia (problems with understanding or producing speech) or dysarthria (slurred or slow speech)
* Behavioral changes such as irritability, mood swings, depression, anxiety, and personality changes

Chronic brain damage can be diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, neurological evaluation, and imaging studies such as MRI or CT scans. Treatment typically focuses on managing symptoms and maximizing function through rehabilitation therapies such as occupational therapy, speech therapy, and physical therapy. In some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to address specific symptoms or underlying causes of the brain damage.

Leg injuries refer to damages or harm caused to any part of the lower extremity, including the bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, blood vessels, and other soft tissues. These injuries can result from various causes such as trauma, overuse, or degenerative conditions. Common leg injuries include fractures, dislocations, sprains, strains, contusions, and cuts. Symptoms may include pain, swelling, bruising, stiffness, weakness, or difficulty walking. The specific treatment for a leg injury depends on the type and severity of the injury.

The Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) is a widely used clinical measurement for assessing the outcome and recovery of patients who have suffered a traumatic brain injury (TBI) or other neurological disorders. It was first introduced in 1975 by Graham Jennett and colleagues at the University of Glasgow.

The GOS classifies the overall functional ability and independence of a patient into one of the following five hierarchical categories:

1. **Death:** The patient has died due to the injury or its complications.
2. **Vegetative State (VS):** The patient is unaware of their surroundings, shows no meaningful response to stimuli, and has minimal or absent brainstem reflexes. They may have sleep-wake cycles but lack higher cognitive functions.
3. **Severe Disability (SD):** The patient demonstrates considerable disability in their daily life, requiring assistance with personal care and activities. They might have cognitive impairments, communication difficulties, or physical disabilities that limit their independence.
4. **Moderate Disability (MD):** The patient has some disability but can live independently, manage their own affairs, and return to work in a sheltered environment. They may exhibit minor neurological or psychological deficits.
5. **Good Recovery (GR):** The patient has resumed normal life with minimal or no residual neurological or psychological deficits. They might have some minor problems with memory, concentration, or organizational skills but can perform their daily activities without assistance.

The Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOS-E) is an updated and more detailed version of the GOS, which further breaks down the original five categories into eight subcategories for a more nuanced assessment of patient outcomes.

Spinal injuries refer to damages or traumas that occur to the vertebral column, which houses and protects the spinal cord. These injuries can be caused by various factors such as trauma from accidents (motor vehicle, sports-related, falls, etc.), violence, or degenerative conditions like arthritis, disc herniation, or spinal stenosis.

Spinal injuries can result in bruising, fractures, dislocations, or compression of the vertebrae, which may then cause damage to the spinal cord and its surrounding tissues, nerves, and blood vessels. The severity of a spinal injury can range from mild, with temporary symptoms, to severe, resulting in permanent impairment or paralysis below the level of injury.

Symptoms of spinal injuries may include:
- Pain or stiffness in the neck or back
- Numbness, tingling, or weakness in the limbs
- Loss of bladder or bowel control
- Difficulty walking or maintaining balance
- Paralysis or loss of sensation below the level of injury
- In severe cases, respiratory problems and difficulty in breathing

Immediate medical attention is crucial for spinal injuries to prevent further damage and ensure proper treatment. Treatment options may include immobilization, surgery, medication, rehabilitation, and physical therapy.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

Neurosurgery, also known as neurological surgery, is a medical specialty that involves the diagnosis, surgical treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders of the nervous system. This includes the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system. Neurosurgeons use both traditional open and minimally invasive techniques to treat various conditions such as tumors, trauma, vascular disorders, infections, stroke, epilepsy, pain, and congenital anomalies. They work closely with other healthcare professionals including neurologists, radiologists, oncologists, and critical care specialists to provide comprehensive patient care.

Multiple trauma, also known as polytrauma, is a medical term used to describe severe injuries to the body that are sustained in more than one place or region. It often involves damage to multiple organ systems and can be caused by various incidents such as traffic accidents, falls from significant heights, high-energy collisions, or violent acts.

The injuries sustained in multiple trauma may include fractures, head injuries, internal bleeding, chest and abdominal injuries, and soft tissue injuries. These injuries can lead to a complex medical situation requiring immediate and ongoing care from a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, including emergency physicians, trauma surgeons, critical care specialists, nurses, rehabilitation therapists, and mental health providers.

Multiple trauma is a serious condition that can result in long-term disability or even death if not treated promptly and effectively.

Lung injury, also known as pulmonary injury, refers to damage or harm caused to the lung tissue, blood vessels, or air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs. This can result from various causes such as infection, trauma, exposure to harmful substances, or systemic diseases. Common types of lung injuries include acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), pneumonia, and chemical pneumonitis. Symptoms may include difficulty breathing, cough, chest pain, and decreased oxygen levels in the blood. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, oxygen therapy, or mechanical ventilation.

Delirium, Dementia, Amnestic, and Other Cognitive Disorders are conditions that affect cognitive abilities such as thinking, memory, perception, and judgment. Here are brief medical definitions of each:

1. Delirium: A serious disturbance in mental abilities that results in confused thinking and reduced awareness of the environment. It can cause hallucinations, delusions, and disorientation. Delirium often comes on suddenly and can be caused by various factors such as medication side effects, infection, or illness.
2. Dementia: A chronic and progressive decline in cognitive abilities that affects memory, language, problem-solving, and judgment. Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia, but other conditions such as vascular dementia, Lewy body dementia, and frontotemporal dementia can also cause it. Dementia can significantly interfere with daily life and activities.
3. Amnestic Disorders: A group of conditions that primarily affect memory. These disorders can be caused by brain injury, illness, or substance abuse. The most common amnestic disorder is Korsakoff's syndrome, which is caused by alcohol abuse and results in significant memory loss and confusion.
4. Other Cognitive Disorders: This category includes a range of conditions that affect cognitive abilities but do not fit into the categories of delirium, dementia, or amnestic disorders. Examples include mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which is a decline in cognitive abilities that does not interfere significantly with daily life, and various cognitive disorders caused by brain injury or disease.

It's important to note that these conditions can overlap and may co-occur with other mental health or neurological disorders. Proper diagnosis and treatment require a comprehensive evaluation by a qualified healthcare professional.

An "accident" is an unfortunate event that happens unexpectedly and unintentionally, typically resulting in damage or injury. In medical terms, an accident refers to an unplanned occurrence resulting in harm or injury to a person's body, which may require medical attention. Accidents can happen due to various reasons such as human error, mechanical failure, or environmental factors.

Examples of accidents that may require medical attention include:

1. Traffic accidents: These can result in injuries such as fractures, head trauma, and soft tissue injuries.
2. Workplace accidents: These can include falls, machinery malfunctions, or exposure to hazardous substances, resulting in injuries or illnesses.
3. Home accidents: These can include burns, cuts, falls, or poisoning, which may require medical treatment.
4. Sports accidents: These can result in injuries such as sprains, strains, fractures, or concussions.
5. Recreational accidents: These can occur during activities such as swimming, hiking, or biking and may result in injuries such as drowning, falls, or trauma.

Preventing accidents is crucial to maintaining good health and safety. This can be achieved through education, awareness, and the implementation of safety measures in various settings such as homes, workplaces, and roads.

Arm injuries refer to any damage or harm sustained by the structures of the upper limb, including the bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, nerves, and blood vessels. These injuries can occur due to various reasons such as trauma, overuse, or degenerative conditions. Common arm injuries include fractures, dislocations, sprains, strains, tendonitis, and nerve damage. Symptoms may include pain, swelling, bruising, limited mobility, numbness, or weakness in the affected area. Treatment varies depending on the type and severity of the injury, and may include rest, ice, compression, elevation, physical therapy, medication, or surgery.

The femoral head is the rounded, ball-like top portion of the femur (thigh bone) that fits into the hip socket (acetabulum) to form the hip joint. It has a smooth, articular cartilage surface that allows for smooth and stable articulation with the pelvis. The femoral head is connected to the femoral neck, which is a narrower section of bone that angles downward and leads into the shaft of the femur. Together, the femoral head and neck provide stability and range of motion to the hip joint.

Abdominal injuries refer to damages or traumas that occur in the abdomen, an area of the body that is located between the chest and the pelvis. This region contains several vital organs such as the stomach, liver, spleen, pancreas, small intestine, large intestine, kidneys, and reproductive organs. Abdominal injuries can range from minor bruises and cuts to severe internal bleeding and organ damage, depending on the cause and severity of the trauma.

Common causes of abdominal injuries include:

* Blunt force trauma, such as that caused by car accidents, falls, or physical assaults
* Penetrating trauma, such as that caused by gunshot wounds or stabbing
* Deceleration injuries, which occur when the body is moving at a high speed and suddenly stops, causing internal organs to continue moving and collide with each other or the abdominal wall

Symptoms of abdominal injuries may include:

* Pain or tenderness in the abdomen
* Swelling or bruising in the abdomen
* Nausea or vomiting
* Dizziness or lightheadedness
* Blood in the urine or stool
* Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath
* Rapid heartbeat or low blood pressure

Abdominal injuries can be life-threatening if left untreated, and immediate medical attention is necessary to prevent complications such as infection, internal bleeding, organ failure, or even death. Treatment may include surgery, medication, or other interventions depending on the severity and location of the injury.

An emergency service in a hospital is a department that provides immediate medical or surgical care for individuals who are experiencing an acute illness, injury, or severe symptoms that require immediate attention. The goal of an emergency service is to quickly assess, stabilize, and treat patients who require urgent medical intervention, with the aim of preventing further harm or death.

Emergency services in hospitals typically operate 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, and are staffed by teams of healthcare professionals including physicians, nurses, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and other allied health professionals. These teams are trained to provide rapid evaluation and treatment for a wide range of medical conditions, from minor injuries to life-threatening emergencies such as heart attacks, strokes, and severe infections.

In addition to providing emergency care, hospital emergency services also serve as a key point of entry for patients who require further hospitalization or specialized care. They work closely with other departments within the hospital, such as radiology, laboratory, and critical care units, to ensure that patients receive timely and appropriate treatment. Overall, the emergency service in a hospital plays a crucial role in ensuring that patients receive prompt and effective medical care during times of crisis.

A chronic brain injury, also known as a traumatic brain injury (TBI), is an injury to the brain that results in long-term or permanent impairment. It is caused by a significant blow to the head or body, or by a penetrating head injury that disrupts the normal functioning of the brain.

Chronic brain injuries can result in a wide range of physical, cognitive, and emotional symptoms, including:

* Persistent headaches or migraines
* Difficulty with memory, concentration, and decision-making
* Changes in mood, such as depression, anxiety, or irritability
* Difficulty with communication, including speaking and understanding language
* Sensory problems, such as vision or hearing loss
* Seizures
* Balance and coordination problems
* Weakness or paralysis on one side of the body

These symptoms can vary in severity and may not be immediately apparent following the initial injury. In some cases, they may not become apparent until days, weeks, or even months after the injury.

Chronic brain injuries are often classified as mild, moderate, or severe based on the level of consciousness loss and the presence of other neurological deficits. Mild TBIs, also known as concussions, may not cause long-term impairment, while moderate to severe TBIs can result in significant disability and require ongoing rehabilitation and support.

Treatment for chronic brain injuries typically involves a multidisciplinary approach that includes medical management of symptoms, physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech and language therapy, and counseling or psychotherapy. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to address structural damage to the brain.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Bicycling is defined in medical terms as the act of riding a bicycle. It involves the use of a two-wheeled vehicle that is propelled by pedaling, with the power being transferred to the rear wheel through a chain and sprocket system. Bicycling can be done for various purposes such as transportation, recreation, exercise, or sport.

Regular bicycling has been shown to have numerous health benefits, including improving cardiovascular fitness, increasing muscle strength and flexibility, reducing stress and anxiety, and helping with weight management. However, it is important to wear a helmet while bicycling to reduce the risk of head injury in case of an accident. Additionally, cyclists should follow traffic rules and be aware of their surroundings to ensure their safety and the safety of others on the road.

Amnesia is a condition characterized by memory loss, which can be temporary or permanent. It may result from brain damage or disease, and it can affect various aspects of memory, such as the ability to recall past events (retrograde amnesia), the ability to form new memories (anterograde amnesia), or both. Amnesia can also affect a person's sense of identity and their ability to learn new skills.

There are several types of amnesia, including:

1. Anterograde amnesia: This type of amnesia affects the ability to form new memories after an injury or trauma. People with anterograde amnesia may have difficulty learning new information and remembering recent events.
2. Retrograde amnesia: Retrograde amnesia affects the ability to recall memories that were formed before an injury or trauma. People with retrograde amnesia may have trouble remembering events, people, or facts from their past.
3. Transient global amnesia: This is a temporary form of amnesia that usually lasts for less than 24 hours. It is often caused by a lack of blood flow to the brain, and it can be triggered by emotional stress, physical exertion, or other factors.
4. Korsakoff's syndrome: This is a type of amnesia that is caused by alcohol abuse and malnutrition. It is characterized by severe memory loss, confusion, and disorientation.
5. Dissociative amnesia: This type of amnesia is caused by psychological factors, such as trauma or stress. People with dissociative amnesia may have trouble remembering important personal information or events that are emotionally charged.

The treatment for amnesia depends on the underlying cause. In some cases, memory may improve over time, while in other cases, it may be permanent. Treatment may involve medication, therapy, or rehabilitation to help people with amnesia cope with their memory loss and develop new skills to compensate for their memory impairments.

Eye injuries refer to any damage or trauma caused to the eye or its surrounding structures. These injuries can vary in severity and may include:

1. Corneal abrasions: A scratch or scrape on the clear surface of the eye (cornea).
2. Chemical burns: Occurs when chemicals come into contact with the eye, causing damage to the cornea and other structures.
3. Eyelid lacerations: Cuts or tears to the eyelid.
4. Subconjunctival hemorrhage: Bleeding under the conjunctiva, the clear membrane that covers the white part of the eye.
5. Hyphema: Accumulation of blood in the anterior chamber of the eye, which is the space between the cornea and iris.
6. Orbital fractures: Breaks in the bones surrounding the eye.
7. Retinal detachment: Separation of the retina from its underlying tissue, which can lead to vision loss if not treated promptly.
8. Traumatic uveitis: Inflammation of the uvea, the middle layer of the eye, caused by trauma.
9. Optic nerve damage: Damage to the optic nerve, which transmits visual information from the eye to the brain.

Eye injuries can result from a variety of causes, including accidents, sports-related injuries, violence, and chemical exposure. It is important to seek medical attention promptly for any suspected eye injury to prevent further damage and potential vision loss.

Soft tissue injuries refer to damages that occur in the body's connective tissues, such as ligaments, tendons, and muscles. These injuries can be caused by various events, including accidents, falls, or sports-related impacts. Common soft tissue injuries include sprains, strains, and contusions (bruises).

Sprains occur when the ligaments, which connect bones to each other, are stretched or torn. This usually happens in the joints like ankles, knees, or wrists. Strains, on the other hand, involve injuries to the muscles or tendons, often resulting from overuse or sudden excessive force. Contusions occur when blood vessels within the soft tissues get damaged due to a direct blow or impact, causing bleeding and subsequent bruising in the affected area.

Soft tissue injuries can cause pain, swelling, stiffness, and limited mobility. In some cases, these injuries may require medical treatment, including physical therapy, medication, or even surgery, depending on their severity and location. It is essential to seek proper medical attention for soft tissue injuries to ensure appropriate healing and prevent long-term complications or chronic pain.

An accidental fall is an unplanned, unexpected event in which a person suddenly and involuntarily comes to rest on the ground or other lower level, excluding intentional changes in position (e.g., jumping to catch a ball) and landings that are part of a planned activity (e.g., diving into a pool). Accidental falls can occur for various reasons, such as environmental hazards, muscle weakness, balance problems, visual impairment, or certain medical conditions. They are a significant health concern, particularly among older adults, as they can lead to serious injuries, loss of independence, reduced quality of life, and increased mortality.

Acute Lung Injury (ALI) is a medical condition characterized by inflammation and damage to the lung tissue, which can lead to difficulty breathing and respiratory failure. It is often caused by direct or indirect injury to the lungs, such as pneumonia, sepsis, trauma, or inhalation of harmful substances.

The symptoms of ALI include shortness of breath, rapid breathing, cough, and low oxygen levels in the blood. The condition can progress rapidly and may require mechanical ventilation to support breathing. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the injury, providing supportive care, and managing symptoms.

In severe cases, ALI can lead to Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), a more serious and life-threatening condition that requires intensive care unit (ICU) treatment.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

An epidural cranial hematoma is a specific type of hematoma, which is defined as an abnormal accumulation of blood in a restricted space, occurring between the dura mater (the outermost layer of the meninges that covers the brain and spinal cord) and the skull in the cranial region. This condition is often caused by trauma or head injury, which results in the rupture of blood vessels, allowing blood to collect in the epidural space. The accumulation of blood can compress the brain tissue and cause various neurological symptoms, potentially leading to serious complications if not promptly diagnosed and treated.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Golf" is not a medical term. It is a sport that involves hitting a small ball with various clubs into a series of holes on a course, typically in as few strokes as possible. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

A Trauma Center is a hospital that has specialized resources and capabilities to provide comprehensive care for severely injured patients. It is a designated facility that has met strict criteria established by the American College of Surgeons (ACS) and/or state or regional trauma systems. These criteria include having a dedicated trauma team, available 24/7, with specially trained healthcare professionals who can promptly assess, resuscitate, operate, and provide critical care to patients suffering from traumatic injuries.

Trauma centers are categorized into levels (I-V), based on the resources and capabilities they offer. Level I trauma centers have the highest level of resources and are capable of providing comprehensive care for all types of traumatic injuries, including conducting research and offering education in trauma care. In contrast, lower-level trauma centers may not have the same extent of resources but still provide essential trauma care services to their communities.

The primary goal of a trauma center is to ensure that severely injured patients receive prompt, high-quality care to minimize the risk of complications, reduce long-term disability, and improve overall outcomes.

Intracranial hypertension is a medical condition characterized by an increased pressure within the skull (intracranial space) that contains the brain, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and blood. Normally, the pressure inside the skull is carefully regulated to maintain a balance between the formation and absorption of CSF. However, when the production of CSF exceeds its absorption or when there is an obstruction in the flow of CSF, the pressure inside the skull can rise, leading to intracranial hypertension.

The symptoms of intracranial hypertension may include severe headaches, nausea, vomiting, visual disturbances such as blurred vision or double vision, and papilledema (swelling of the optic nerve disc). In some cases, intracranial hypertension can lead to serious complications such as vision loss, brain herniation, and even death if left untreated.

Intracranial hypertension can be idiopathic, meaning that there is no identifiable cause, or secondary to other underlying medical conditions such as brain tumors, meningitis, hydrocephalus, or certain medications. The diagnosis of intracranial hypertension typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies (such as MRI or CT scans), and lumbar puncture to measure the pressure inside the skull and assess the CSF composition. Treatment options may include medications to reduce CSF production, surgery to relieve pressure on the brain, or shunting procedures to drain excess CSF from the intracranial space.

Acute kidney injury (AKI), also known as acute renal failure, is a rapid loss of kidney function that occurs over a few hours or days. It is defined as an increase in the serum creatinine level by 0.3 mg/dL within 48 hours or an increase in the creatinine level to more than 1.5 times baseline, which is known or presumed to have occurred within the prior 7 days, or a urine volume of less than 0.5 mL/kg per hour for six hours.

AKI can be caused by a variety of conditions, including decreased blood flow to the kidneys, obstruction of the urinary tract, exposure to toxic substances, and certain medications. Symptoms of AKI may include decreased urine output, fluid retention, electrolyte imbalances, and metabolic acidosis. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the injury and providing supportive care, such as dialysis, to help maintain kidney function until the injury resolves.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Blast injuries are traumas that result from the exposure to blast overpressure waves, typically generated by explosions. These injuries can be categorized into primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injuries.

1. Primary Blast Injuries: These occur due to the direct effect of the blast wave on the body, which can cause barotrauma to organs with air-filled spaces such as the lungs, middle ear, and gastrointestinal tract. This can lead to conditions like pulmonary contusion, traumatic rupture of the eardrums, or bowel perforation.

2. Secondary Blast Injuries: These result from flying debris or objects that become projectiles due to the blast, which can cause penetrating trauma or blunt force injuries.

3. Tertiary Blast Injuries: These occur when individuals are thrown by the blast wind against solid structures or the ground, resulting in blunt force trauma, fractures, and head injuries.

4. Quaternary Blast Injuries: This category includes all other injuries or illnesses that are not classified under primary, secondary, or tertiary blast injuries. These may include burns, crush injuries, inhalation of toxic fumes, or psychological trauma.

It is important to note that blast injuries can be complex and often involve a combination of these categories, requiring comprehensive medical evaluation and management.

Hand injuries refer to any damage or harm caused to the structures of the hand, including the bones, joints, muscles, tendons, ligaments, nerves, blood vessels, and skin. These injuries can result from various causes such as trauma, overuse, or degenerative conditions. Examples of hand injuries include fractures, dislocations, sprains, strains, cuts, burns, and insect bites. Symptoms may vary depending on the type and severity of the injury, but they often include pain, swelling, stiffness, numbness, weakness, or loss of function in the hand. Proper diagnosis and treatment are crucial to ensure optimal recovery and prevent long-term complications.

Shaken Baby Syndrome (SBS), also known as Abusive Head Trauma, is a form of inflicted injury that occurs when a baby or young child is violently shaken. This can lead to severe brain damage, blindness, hearing loss, developmental delays, seizures, and even death. The shaking causes the baby's fragile brain to move back and forth inside the skull, resulting in bruised brain tissues, bleeding in the brain, and detachment of the retinas. It's important to note that even brief periods of shaking can result in severe consequences. SBS is a form of child abuse and should be reported immediately to authorities.

A hematoma is defined as a localized accumulation of blood in a tissue, organ, or body space caused by a break in the wall of a blood vessel. This can result from various causes such as trauma, surgery, or certain medical conditions that affect coagulation. The severity and size of a hematoma may vary depending on the location and extent of the bleeding. Symptoms can include swelling, pain, bruising, and decreased mobility in the affected area. Treatment options depend on the size and location of the hematoma but may include observation, compression, ice, elevation, or in some cases, surgical intervention.

Myxedema is not a term used in modern medicine to describe a specific medical condition. However, historically, it was used to refer to the severe form of hypothyroidism, a condition characterized by an underactive thyroid gland that doesn't produce enough thyroid hormones. In hypothyroidism, various body functions slow down, which can lead to symptoms such as fatigue, weight gain, cold intolerance, constipation, and dry skin.

Myxedema specifically refers to the physical signs of severe hypothyroidism, including swelling (edema) and thickening of the skin, particularly around the face, hands, and feet, as well as a puffy appearance of the face. The term myxedema coma was used to describe a rare but life-threatening complication of long-standing, untreated hypothyroidism, characterized by altered mental status, hypothermia, and other systemic manifestations.

Nowadays, healthcare professionals use more precise medical terminology to describe these conditions, such as hypothyroidism or myxedematous edema, rather than the outdated term myxedema.

A sperm head is the anterior (front) part of a spermatozoon, which contains the genetic material (DNA). It is covered by a protein layer called the acrosome, which plays a crucial role in fertilization. The sperm head is followed by the midpiece and the tail, which provide mobility to the sperm for its journey towards the egg.

Penetrating wounds are a type of traumatic injury that occurs when an object pierces through the skin and underlying tissues, creating a hole or cavity in the body. These wounds can vary in severity, depending on the size and shape of the object, as well as the location and depth of the wound.

Penetrating wounds are typically caused by sharp objects such as knives, bullets, or glass. They can damage internal organs, blood vessels, nerves, and bones, leading to serious complications such as bleeding, infection, organ failure, and even death if not treated promptly and properly.

The management of penetrating wounds involves a thorough assessment of the wound and surrounding tissues, as well as the identification and treatment of any associated injuries or complications. This may include wound cleaning and closure, antibiotics to prevent infection, pain management, and surgery to repair damaged structures. In some cases, hospitalization and close monitoring may be necessary to ensure proper healing and recovery.

A contusion is a medical term for a bruise. It's a type of injury that occurs when blood vessels become damaged or broken as a result of trauma to the body. This trauma can be caused by a variety of things, such as a fall, a blow, or a hit. When the blood vessels are damaged, blood leaks into the surrounding tissues, causing the area to become discolored and swollen.

Contusions can occur anywhere on the body, but they are most common in areas that are more likely to be injured, such as the knees, elbows, and hands. In some cases, a contusion may be accompanied by other injuries, such as fractures or sprains.

Most contusions will heal on their own within a few days or weeks, depending on the severity of the injury. Treatment typically involves rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE) to help reduce swelling and pain. In some cases, over-the-counter pain medications may also be recommended to help manage discomfort.

If you suspect that you have a contusion, it's important to seek medical attention if the injury is severe or if you experience symptoms such as difficulty breathing, chest pain, or loss of consciousness. These could be signs of a more serious injury and require immediate medical attention.

Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Coma (HHNC) is a serious complication of diabetes, specifically type 2, that occurs when blood glucose levels rise to extremely high levels, typically above 600 mg/dL. This condition is often accompanied by severe dehydration due to excessive urination and an inability to consume adequate fluids.

The term "hyperosmolar" refers to the high concentration of glucose in the blood, which increases the osmolality (or osmotic pressure) of the blood. This can lead to water moving out of cells and into the bloodstream to try to balance out the concentration, causing severe dehydration.

The term "nonketotic" means that there is no significant production of ketone bodies, which are produced when the body breaks down fat for energy in the absence of sufficient insulin. This differentiates HHNC from diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), another serious complication of diabetes.

The "coma" part of the term refers to the fact that HHNC can cause altered mental status, ranging from confusion and disorientation to coma, due to the effects of dehydration and high blood glucose levels on the brain.

HHNC is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment in a hospital setting. Treatment typically involves administering fluids to rehydrate the body, insulin to lower blood glucose levels, and addressing any other underlying conditions or complications. If left untreated, HHNC can be life-threatening.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "soccer" is not a medical term. It is the common name for the sport also known as football in many parts of the world. The official name of the sport in the United States and Canada is "soccer," which helps distinguish it from other forms of football that involve carrying the ball, such as American football or Canadian football.

If you have any medical questions or terms you'd like defined, I'd be happy to help!

A traumatic brain hemorrhage is a type of bleeding that occurs within the brain or in the spaces surrounding the brain as a result of trauma or injury. This condition can range from mild to severe, and it is often a medical emergency.

Trauma can cause blood vessels in the brain to rupture, leading to the leakage of blood into the brain tissue or the spaces surrounding the brain. The buildup of blood puts pressure on the delicate tissues of the brain, which can cause damage and result in various symptoms.

There are several types of traumatic brain hemorrhages, including:

1. Epidural hematoma: This occurs when blood accumulates between the skull and the dura mater, the tough outer covering of the brain. It is often caused by a skull fracture that damages an artery or vein.
2. Subdural hematoma: In this type, bleeding occurs between the dura mater and the next inner covering of the brain, called the arachnoid membrane. Subdural hematomas are usually caused by venous injuries but can also result from arterial damage.
3. Intraparenchymal hemorrhage: This refers to bleeding within the brain tissue itself, often due to the rupture of small blood vessels.
4. Subarachnoid hemorrhage: Bleeding occurs in the space between the arachnoid membrane and the innermost covering of the brain, called the pia mater. This type of hemorrhage is commonly caused by an aneurysm or a head injury.

Symptoms of a traumatic brain hemorrhage may include:

* Sudden severe headache
* Nausea and vomiting
* Confusion or disorientation
* Vision changes, such as double vision or blurred vision
* Balance problems or difficulty walking
* Slurred speech or difficulty communicating
* Seizures
* Loss of consciousness
* Weakness or numbness in the face, arms, or legs

Immediate medical attention is necessary if a traumatic brain hemorrhage is suspected. Treatment may involve surgery to relieve pressure on the brain and stop the bleeding, as well as medications to manage symptoms and prevent complications. The prognosis for a traumatic brain hemorrhage depends on various factors, including the location and severity of the bleed, the patient's age and overall health, and the promptness and effectiveness of treatment.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

Knee injuries refer to damages or harm caused to the structures surrounding or within the knee joint, which may include the bones (femur, tibia, and patella), cartilage (meniscus and articular cartilage), ligaments (ACL, PCL, MCL, and LCL), tendons (patellar and quadriceps), muscles, bursae, and other soft tissues. These injuries can result from various causes, such as trauma, overuse, degeneration, or sports-related activities. Symptoms may include pain, swelling, stiffness, instability, reduced range of motion, and difficulty walking or bearing weight on the affected knee. Common knee injuries include fractures, dislocations, meniscal tears, ligament sprains or ruptures, and tendonitis. Proper diagnosis and treatment are crucial to ensure optimal recovery and prevent long-term complications.

Whiplash injuries are a type of soft tissue injury to the neck that occurs when the head is suddenly and forcefully thrown backward (hyperextension) and then forward (hyperflexion). This motion is similar to the cracking of a whip, hence the term "whiplash."

Whiplash injuries are most commonly associated with rear-end automobile accidents, but they can also occur from sports accidents, physical abuse, or other traumatic events. The impact of these forces on the neck can cause damage to the muscles, ligaments, tendons, and other soft tissues in the neck, resulting in pain, stiffness, and limited mobility.

In some cases, whiplash injuries may also cause damage to the discs between the vertebrae in the spine or to the nerves exiting the spinal cord. These types of injuries can have more serious consequences and may require additional medical treatment.

Whiplash injuries are typically diagnosed based on a combination of physical examination, patient history, and imaging studies such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans. Treatment for whiplash injuries may include pain medication, physical therapy, chiropractic care, or in some cases, surgery.

Brain edema is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal accumulation of fluid in the brain, leading to an increase in intracranial pressure. This can result from various causes, such as traumatic brain injury, stroke, infection, brain tumors, or inflammation. The swelling of the brain can compress vital structures, impair blood flow, and cause neurological symptoms, which may range from mild headaches to severe cognitive impairment, seizures, coma, or even death if not treated promptly and effectively.

A neurological examination is a series of tests used to evaluate the functioning of the nervous system, including both the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) and peripheral nervous system (the nerves that extend from the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body). It is typically performed by a healthcare professional such as a neurologist or a primary care physician with specialized training in neurology.

During a neurological examination, the healthcare provider will assess various aspects of neurological function, including:

1. Mental status: This involves evaluating a person's level of consciousness, orientation, memory, and cognitive abilities.
2. Cranial nerves: There are 12 cranial nerves that control functions such as vision, hearing, smell, taste, and movement of the face and neck. The healthcare provider will test each of these nerves to ensure they are functioning properly.
3. Motor function: This involves assessing muscle strength, tone, coordination, and reflexes. The healthcare provider may ask the person to perform certain movements or tasks to evaluate these functions.
4. Sensory function: The healthcare provider will test a person's ability to feel different types of sensations, such as touch, pain, temperature, vibration, and proprioception (the sense of where your body is in space).
5. Coordination and balance: The healthcare provider may assess a person's ability to perform coordinated movements, such as touching their finger to their nose or walking heel-to-toe.
6. Reflexes: The healthcare provider will test various reflexes throughout the body using a reflex hammer.

The results of a neurological examination can help healthcare providers diagnose and monitor conditions that affect the nervous system, such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, or peripheral neuropathy.

A craniotomy is a surgical procedure where a bone flap is temporarily removed from the skull to access the brain. This procedure is typically performed to treat various neurological conditions, such as brain tumors, aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, or traumatic brain injuries. After the underlying brain condition is addressed, the bone flap is usually replaced and secured back in place with plates and screws. The purpose of a craniotomy is to provide access to the brain for diagnostic or therapeutic interventions while minimizing potential damage to surrounding tissues.

"Home accidents" is a general term that refers to unplanned events or mishaps that occur in the home environment, which may result in injury or illness. These types of accidents can happen in various areas of the home, such as the kitchen, bathroom, living room, or bedroom, and can be caused by a range of factors, including:

* Slips, trips, and falls on wet floors, uneven surfaces, or cluttered walkways
* Burns or scalds from hot stoves, ovens, or water
* Cuts or lacerations from sharp objects like knives or broken glass
* Poisoning from ingesting harmful substances like cleaning products or medications
* Strains or sprains from lifting heavy objects or performing repetitive movements
* Drowning in bathtubs, swimming pools, or other bodies of water within the home

Preventing home accidents involves identifying potential hazards and taking steps to minimize or eliminate them. This may include keeping walkways clear, using non-slip mats, properly storing sharp objects and harmful substances, installing safety devices like grab bars and railings, and ensuring that the home is well-lit and ventilated. Regular safety inspections and maintenance can also help prevent home accidents and keep the living environment safe and healthy.

A cerebral hemorrhage, also known as an intracranial hemorrhage or intracerebral hemorrhage, is a type of stroke that results from bleeding within the brain tissue. It occurs when a weakened blood vessel bursts and causes localized bleeding in the brain. This bleeding can increase pressure in the skull, damage nearby brain cells, and release toxic substances that further harm brain tissues.

Cerebral hemorrhages are often caused by chronic conditions like hypertension (high blood pressure) or cerebral amyloid angiopathy, which weakens the walls of blood vessels over time. Other potential causes include trauma, aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, illicit drug use, and brain tumors. Symptoms may include sudden headache, weakness, numbness, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, vision problems, loss of balance, and altered level of consciousness. Immediate medical attention is required to diagnose and manage cerebral hemorrhage through imaging techniques, supportive care, and possible surgical interventions.

Gunshot wounds are defined as traumatic injuries caused by the penetration of bullets or other projectiles fired from firearms into the body. The severity and extent of damage depend on various factors such as the type of firearm used, the distance between the muzzle and the victim, the size and shape of the bullet, and its velocity.

Gunshot wounds can be classified into two main categories:

1. Penetrating gunshot wounds: These occur when a bullet enters the body but does not exit, causing damage to the organs, tissues, and blood vessels along its path.

2. Perforating gunshot wounds: These happen when a bullet enters and exits the body, creating an entry and exit wound, causing damage to the structures it traverses.

Based on the mechanism of injury, gunshot wounds can also be categorized into low-velocity (less than 1000 feet per second) and high-velocity (greater than 1000 feet per second) injuries. High-velocity gunshot wounds are more likely to cause extensive tissue damage due to the transfer of kinetic energy from the bullet to the surrounding tissues.

Immediate medical attention is required for individuals with gunshot wounds, as they may experience significant blood loss, infection, and potential long-term complications such as organ dysfunction or disability. Treatment typically involves surgical intervention to control bleeding, remove foreign material, repair damaged structures, and manage infections if present.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Malingering is a psychological concept that refers to the deliberate and intentional production or exaggeration of physical or psychological symptoms, motivated by external incentives such as avoiding work or military duty, obtaining financial compensation, or evading criminal prosecution. It's important to note that malingering should be distinguished from other conditions where individuals may experience genuine symptoms but have limited insight into their illness, such as in certain psychiatric disorders.

Malingering is not a mental disorder itself, and it requires careful clinical evaluation to distinguish it from legitimate medical or psychological conditions. It's also worth mentioning that malingering is considered uncommon, and its diagnosis should be made with caution, as it can have significant legal and ethical implications.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

Heart injuries, also known as cardiac injuries, refer to any damage or harm caused to the heart muscle, valves, or surrounding structures. This can result from various causes such as blunt trauma (e.g., car accidents, falls), penetrating trauma (e.g., gunshot wounds, stabbing), or medical conditions like heart attacks (myocardial infarction) and infections (e.g., myocarditis, endocarditis).

Some common types of heart injuries include:

1. Contusions: Bruising of the heart muscle due to blunt trauma.
2. Myocardial infarctions: Damage to the heart muscle caused by insufficient blood supply, often due to blocked coronary arteries.
3. Cardiac rupture: A rare but life-threatening condition where the heart muscle tears or breaks open, usually resulting from severe trauma or complications from a myocardial infarction.
4. Valvular damage: Disruption of the heart valves' function due to injury or infection, leading to leakage (regurgitation) or narrowing (stenosis).
5. Pericardial injuries: Damage to the pericardium, the sac surrounding the heart, which can result in fluid accumulation (pericardial effusion), inflammation (pericarditis), or tamponade (compression of the heart by excess fluid).
6. Arrhythmias: Irregular heart rhythms caused by damage to the heart's electrical conduction system.

Timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment are crucial for managing heart injuries, as they can lead to severe complications or even be fatal if left untreated.

In epidemiology, the incidence of a disease is defined as the number of new cases of that disease within a specific population over a certain period of time. It is typically expressed as a rate, with the number of new cases in the numerator and the size of the population at risk in the denominator. Incidence provides information about the risk of developing a disease during a given time period and can be used to compare disease rates between different populations or to monitor trends in disease occurrence over time.

Persistent vegetative state (PVS) is a medical condition characterized by a prolonged disorder of consciousness. It's not the same as a coma. In PVS, a person may open their eyes, appear to be awake and have periods of sleep and wakefulness, but they do not show signs of awareness or cognition. They do not respond to stimuli, cannot communicate, and do not have any purposeful behaviors.

This condition can occur after a severe brain injury, such as from trauma, stroke, or lack of oxygen supply. The chance of recovery from PVS is very low, and if some recovery does occur, it's usually incomplete.

It's important to note that the term "persistent vegetative state" has been replaced in some clinical settings with "unresponsive wakefulness syndrome" due to the negative connotations associated with the term "vegetative".

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Myocardial reperfusion injury is a pathological process that occurs when blood flow is restored to the heart muscle (myocardium) after a period of ischemia or reduced oxygen supply, such as during a myocardial infarction (heart attack). The restoration of blood flow, although necessary to salvage the dying tissue, can itself cause further damage to the heart muscle. This paradoxical phenomenon is known as myocardial reperfusion injury.

The mechanisms behind myocardial reperfusion injury are complex and involve several processes, including:

1. Oxidative stress: The sudden influx of oxygen into the previously ischemic tissue leads to an overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can damage cellular structures, such as proteins, lipids, and DNA.
2. Calcium overload: During reperfusion, there is an increase in calcium influx into the cardiomyocytes (heart muscle cells). This elevated intracellular calcium level can disrupt normal cellular functions, leading to further damage.
3. Inflammation: Reperfusion triggers an immune response, with the recruitment of inflammatory cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes, to the site of injury. These cells release cytokines and other mediators that can exacerbate tissue damage.
4. Mitochondrial dysfunction: The restoration of blood flow can cause mitochondria, the powerhouses of the cell, to malfunction, leading to the release of pro-apoptotic factors and contributing to cell death.
5. Vasoconstriction and microvascular obstruction: During reperfusion, there may be vasoconstriction of the small blood vessels (microvasculature) in the heart, which can further limit blood flow and contribute to tissue damage.

Myocardial reperfusion injury is a significant concern because it can negate some of the benefits of early reperfusion therapy, such as thrombolysis or primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), used to treat acute myocardial infarction. Strategies to minimize myocardial reperfusion injury are an area of active research and include pharmacological interventions, ischemic preconditioning, and remote ischemic conditioning.

Femoral head necrosis, also known as avascular necrosis of the femoral head, is a medical condition that results from the interruption of blood flow to the femoral head, which is the rounded end of the thigh bone that fits into the hip joint. This lack of blood supply can cause the bone tissue to die, leading to the collapse of the femoral head and eventually resulting in hip joint damage or arthritis.

The condition can be caused by a variety of factors, including trauma, alcohol abuse, corticosteroid use, radiation therapy, and certain medical conditions such as sickle cell disease and lupus. Symptoms may include pain in the hip or groin, limited range of motion, and difficulty walking. Treatment options depend on the severity and progression of the necrosis and may include medication, physical therapy, or surgical intervention.

Back injuries refer to damages or traumas that affect the structures of the back, including the muscles, nerves, ligaments, bones, and other tissues. These injuries can occur due to various reasons such as sudden trauma (e.g., falls, accidents), repetitive stress, or degenerative conditions. Common types of back injuries include strains, sprains, herniated discs, fractured vertebrae, and spinal cord injuries. Symptoms may vary from mild discomfort to severe pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness, depending on the severity and location of the injury. Treatment options range from conservative measures like physical therapy and medication to surgical intervention in severe cases.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Traumatic Intracranial Hemorrhage (TIH) is a type of bleeding that occurs within the skull or inside the brain parenchyma as a result of traumatic injury. It can be further classified based on the location and type of bleeding, which includes:

1. Epidural hematoma (EDH): Bleeding between the dura mater and the inner table of the skull, usually caused by arterial bleeding from the middle meningeal artery after a temporal bone fracture.
2. Subdural hematoma (SDH): Bleeding in the potential space between the dura mater and the arachnoid membrane, often due to venous sinus or bridging vein injury. SDHs can be acute, subacute, or chronic based on their age and clinical presentation.
3. Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH): Bleeding into the subarachnoid space, which is filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). SAH is commonly caused by trauma but can also be secondary to aneurysmal rupture or arteriovenous malformations.
4. Intraparenchymal hemorrhage (IPH): Bleeding directly into the brain parenchyma, which can result from contusions, lacerations, or shearing forces during traumatic events.
5. Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH): Bleeding into the cerebral ventricles, often as a complication of IPH, SAH, or EDH. IVH can lead to obstructive hydrocephalus and increased intracranial pressure (ICP).

TIHs are medical emergencies requiring prompt diagnosis and management to prevent secondary brain injury and reduce morbidity and mortality. Imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are used for the detection and characterization of TIHs, while neurosurgical intervention may be necessary in specific cases.

Drug-Induced Liver Injury (DILI) is a medical term that refers to liver damage or injury caused by the use of medications or drugs. This condition can vary in severity, from mild abnormalities in liver function tests to severe liver failure, which may require a liver transplant.

The exact mechanism of DILI can differ depending on the drug involved, but it generally occurs when the liver metabolizes the drug into toxic compounds that damage liver cells. This can happen through various pathways, including direct toxicity to liver cells, immune-mediated reactions, or metabolic idiosyncrasies.

Symptoms of DILI may include jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), fatigue, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and dark urine. In severe cases, it can lead to complications such as ascites, encephalopathy, and bleeding disorders.

The diagnosis of DILI is often challenging because it requires the exclusion of other potential causes of liver injury. Liver function tests, imaging studies, and sometimes liver biopsies may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment typically involves discontinuing the offending drug and providing supportive care until the liver recovers. In some cases, medications that protect the liver or promote its healing may be used.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "football" is a popular sport and not a medical term. The term "football" refers to a group of sports that involve kicking a ball with the foot to score goals. The most popular types of football are soccer, American football, Canadian football, Australian rules football, and rugby football.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, I would be happy to help!

Occupational injuries refer to physical harm or damage occurring as a result of working in a specific job or occupation. These injuries can be caused by various factors such as accidents, exposure to hazardous substances, repetitive strain, or poor ergonomic conditions. They may include wounds, fractures, burns, amputations, hearing loss, respiratory problems, and other health issues directly related to the nature of work. It's important to note that occupational injuries are preventable with proper safety measures and adherence to regulations in the workplace.

A depressed skull fracture is a type of skull fracture where a piece of the skull bone is pushed inward (depressed) toward the brain. This type of fracture can potentially cause damage to the underlying brain tissue and may require surgical intervention for proper treatment and to reduce the risk of complications such as infection or increased intracranial pressure. Depressed skull fractures are often caused by high-force trauma, such as a car accident or a fall from significant height.

"Recovery of function" is a term used in medical rehabilitation to describe the process in which an individual regains the ability to perform activities or tasks that were previously difficult or impossible due to injury, illness, or disability. This can involve both physical and cognitive functions. The goal of recovery of function is to help the person return to their prior level of independence and participation in daily activities, work, and social roles as much as possible.

Recovery of function may be achieved through various interventions such as physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language therapy, and other rehabilitation strategies. The specific approach used will depend on the individual's needs and the nature of their impairment. Recovery of function can occur spontaneously as the body heals, or it may require targeted interventions to help facilitate the process.

It is important to note that recovery of function does not always mean a full return to pre-injury or pre-illness levels of ability. Instead, it often refers to the person's ability to adapt and compensate for any remaining impairments, allowing them to achieve their maximum level of functional independence and quality of life.

Post-concussion syndrome (PCS) is not strictly defined by the medical community using a specific set of symptoms or diagnostic tests. Instead, it is generally characterized as a complex disorder in which various symptoms persist for weeks to months after a concussion or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). These symptoms can include headaches, dizziness, memory and concentration problems, irritability, depression, anxiety, sleep disturbances, and intolerance to noise and light.

The diagnosis of PCS is typically made based on the patient's history, reported symptoms, and the exclusion of other possible causes for these symptoms. It's important to note that not everyone who experiences a concussion will develop PCS, and the severity and duration of symptoms can vary widely from person to person. Proper management, rest, and a gradual return to normal activities are crucial in the treatment and recovery of PCS.

A retinal hemorrhage is a type of bleeding that occurs in the blood vessels of the retina, which is the light-sensitive tissue located at the back of the eye. This condition can result from various underlying causes, including diabetes, high blood pressure, age-related macular degeneration, or trauma to the eye. Retinal hemorrhages can be categorized into different types based on their location and appearance, such as dot and blot hemorrhages, flame-shaped hemorrhages, or subhyaloid hemorrhages. Depending on the severity and cause of the hemorrhage, treatment options may vary from monitoring to laser therapy, medication, or even surgery. It is essential to consult an ophthalmologist for a proper evaluation and management plan if you suspect a retinal hemorrhage.

Carotid artery injuries refer to damages or traumas that affect the carotid arteries, which are a pair of major blood vessels located in the neck that supply oxygenated blood to the head and neck. These injuries can occur due to various reasons such as penetrating or blunt trauma, iatrogenic causes (during medical procedures), or degenerative diseases.

Carotid artery injuries can be categorized into three types:

1. Blunt carotid injury (BCI): This type of injury is caused by a sudden and severe impact to the neck, which can result in intimal tears, dissection, or thrombosis of the carotid artery. BCIs are commonly seen in motor vehicle accidents, sports-related injuries, and assaults.
2. Penetrating carotid injury: This type of injury is caused by a foreign object that penetrates the neck and damages the carotid artery. Examples include gunshot wounds, stab wounds, or other sharp objects that pierce the skin and enter the neck.
3. Iatrogenic carotid injury: This type of injury occurs during medical procedures such as endovascular interventions, surgical procedures, or the placement of central lines.

Symptoms of carotid artery injuries may include:

* Stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA)
* Neurological deficits such as hemiparesis, aphasia, or visual disturbances
* Bleeding from the neck or mouth
* Pulsatile mass in the neck
* Hypotension or shock
* Loss of consciousness

Diagnosis of carotid artery injuries may involve imaging studies such as computed tomography angiography (CTA), magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), or conventional angiography. Treatment options include endovascular repair, surgical repair, or anticoagulation therapy, depending on the severity and location of the injury.

An emergency is a sudden, unexpected situation that requires immediate medical attention to prevent serious harm, permanent disability, or death. Emergencies can include severe injuries, trauma, cardiac arrest, stroke, difficulty breathing, severe allergic reactions, and other life-threatening conditions. In such situations, prompt medical intervention is necessary to stabilize the patient's condition, diagnose the underlying problem, and provide appropriate treatment.

Emergency medical services (EMS) are responsible for providing emergency care to patients outside of a hospital setting, such as in the home, workplace, or public place. EMS personnel include emergency medical technicians (EMTs), paramedics, and other first responders who are trained to assess a patient's condition, provide basic life support, and transport the patient to a hospital for further treatment.

In a hospital setting, an emergency department (ED) is a specialized unit that provides immediate care to patients with acute illnesses or injuries. ED staff includes physicians, nurses, and other healthcare professionals who are trained to handle a wide range of medical emergencies. The ED is equipped with advanced medical technology and resources to provide prompt diagnosis and treatment for critically ill or injured patients.

Overall, the goal of emergency medical care is to stabilize the patient's condition, prevent further harm, and provide timely and effective treatment to improve outcomes and save lives.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Ankle injuries refer to damages or traumas that occur in the ankle joint and its surrounding structures, including bones, ligaments, tendons, and muscles. The ankle joint is a complex structure composed of three bones: the tibia (shinbone), fibula (lower leg bone), and talus (a bone in the foot). These bones are held together by various strong ligaments that provide stability and enable proper movement.

There are several types of ankle injuries, with the most common being sprains, strains, and fractures:

1. Ankle Sprain: A sprain occurs when the ligaments surrounding the ankle joint get stretched or torn due to sudden twisting, rolling, or forced movements. The severity of a sprain can range from mild (grade 1) to severe (grade 3), with partial or complete tearing of the ligament(s).
2. Ankle Strain: A strain is an injury to the muscles or tendons surrounding the ankle joint, often caused by overuse, excessive force, or awkward positioning. This results in pain, swelling, and difficulty moving the ankle.
3. Ankle Fracture: A fracture occurs when one or more bones in the ankle joint break due to high-impact trauma, such as a fall, sports injury, or vehicle accident. Fractures can vary in severity, from small cracks to complete breaks that may require surgery and immobilization for proper healing.

Symptoms of ankle injuries typically include pain, swelling, bruising, tenderness, and difficulty walking or bearing weight on the affected ankle. Immediate medical attention is necessary for severe injuries, such as fractures, dislocations, or significant ligament tears, to ensure appropriate diagnosis and treatment. Treatment options may include rest, ice, compression, elevation (RICE), immobilization with a brace or cast, physical therapy, medication, or surgery, depending on the type and severity of the injury.

Post-traumatic headache (PTH) is a secondary headache disorder that occurs following a traumatic injury to the head or neck. According to the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3), PTH can be classified into two types: acute and chronic.

Acute post-traumatic headache develops within seven days after the trauma, while chronic post-traumatic headache persists for more than three months after the injury. The headaches can have various characteristics, such as being tension-type or migraine-like, and may be accompanied by other symptoms like memory problems, difficulty concentrating, and mood changes.

The exact pathophysiology of PTH is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve a complex interplay between mechanical, vascular, and neuroinflammatory factors that result from the traumatic injury. Treatment for PTH typically involves a multidisciplinary approach, including pharmacologic therapy, physical therapy, behavioral interventions, and lifestyle modifications.

A traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (tSAH) is a type of bleeding within the subarachnoid space – the area between the brain and the thin tissues that cover the brain – which results from a head injury. This condition is typically caused by the rupture of small blood vessels in the brain due to trauma, leading to the accumulation of blood in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) surrounding the brain.

The buildup of blood in the subarachnoid space can cause increased intracranial pressure, irritation of the meninges (the membranes covering the brain), and vasospasms (constriction of blood vessels), which may further compromise blood flow to the brain. Symptoms of tSAH can include sudden onset of severe headache, nausea, vomiting, altered mental status, and in severe cases, loss of consciousness or even death. Immediate medical attention is necessary for proper diagnosis and management of this condition.

Peripheral nerve injuries refer to damage or trauma to the peripheral nerves, which are the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord. These nerves transmit information between the central nervous system (CNS) and the rest of the body, including sensory, motor, and autonomic functions. Peripheral nerve injuries can result in various symptoms, depending on the type and severity of the injury, such as numbness, tingling, weakness, or paralysis in the affected area.

Peripheral nerve injuries are classified into three main categories based on the degree of damage:

1. Neuropraxia: This is the mildest form of nerve injury, where the nerve remains intact but its function is disrupted due to a local conduction block. The nerve fiber is damaged, but the supporting structures remain intact. Recovery usually occurs within 6-12 weeks without any residual deficits.
2. Axonotmesis: In this type of injury, there is damage to both the axons and the supporting structures (endoneurium, perineurium). The nerve fibers are disrupted, but the connective tissue sheaths remain intact. Recovery can take several months or even up to a year, and it may be incomplete, with some residual deficits possible.
3. Neurotmesis: This is the most severe form of nerve injury, where there is complete disruption of the nerve fibers and supporting structures (endoneurium, perineurium, epineurium). Recovery is unlikely without surgical intervention, which may involve nerve grafting or repair.

Peripheral nerve injuries can be caused by various factors, including trauma, compression, stretching, lacerations, or chemical exposure. Treatment options depend on the type and severity of the injury and may include conservative management, such as physical therapy and pain management, or surgical intervention for more severe cases.

Prognosis is a medical term that refers to the prediction of the likely outcome or course of a disease, including the chances of recovery or recurrence, based on the patient's symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. It is an important aspect of clinical decision-making and patient communication, as it helps doctors and patients make informed decisions about treatment options, set realistic expectations, and plan for future care.

Prognosis can be expressed in various ways, such as percentages, categories (e.g., good, fair, poor), or survival rates, depending on the nature of the disease and the available evidence. However, it is important to note that prognosis is not an exact science and may vary depending on individual factors, such as age, overall health status, and response to treatment. Therefore, it should be used as a guide rather than a definitive forecast.

Hospitalization is the process of admitting a patient to a hospital for the purpose of receiving medical treatment, surgery, or other health care services. It involves staying in the hospital as an inpatient, typically under the care of doctors, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. The length of stay can vary depending on the individual's medical condition and the type of treatment required. Hospitalization may be necessary for a variety of reasons, such as to receive intensive care, to undergo diagnostic tests or procedures, to recover from surgery, or to manage chronic illnesses or injuries.

Neuropsychological tests are a type of psychological assessment that measures cognitive functions, such as attention, memory, language, problem-solving, and perception. These tests are used to help diagnose and understand the cognitive impact of neurological conditions, including dementia, traumatic brain injury, stroke, Parkinson's disease, and other disorders that affect the brain.

The tests are typically administered by a trained neuropsychologist and can take several hours to complete. They may involve paper-and-pencil tasks, computerized tasks, or interactive activities. The results of the tests are compared to normative data to help identify any areas of cognitive weakness or strength.

Neuropsychological testing can provide valuable information for treatment planning, rehabilitation, and assessing response to treatment. It can also be used in research to better understand the neural basis of cognition and the impact of neurological conditions on cognitive function.

Vascular system injuries refer to damages or disruptions to the body's vascular system, which is made up of the heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries. These injuries can occur due to various reasons such as trauma, disease, or surgical complications. They may result in bleeding, blockage of blood flow, or formation of blood clots, leading to serious consequences like tissue damage, organ failure, or even death if not treated promptly and appropriately.

Traumatic injuries to the vascular system can include cuts, tears, or bruises to the blood vessels, which can lead to internal or external bleeding. Blunt trauma can also cause damage to the blood vessels, leading to blockages or aneurysms.

Diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and inflammatory conditions can weaken the blood vessels and make them more prone to injury. Surgical complications, such as accidental cuts to blood vessels during operations, can also lead to vascular system injuries.

Treatment for vascular system injuries may include surgery, medication, or lifestyle changes, depending on the severity and location of the injury.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

Accident prevention is the systematic process of identifying, evaluating, and controlling hazards and risks in order to prevent or reduce the occurrence of unplanned and unwanted events, also known as accidents. It involves implementing measures and practices to promote safety, minimize potential injuries, and protect individuals, property, and the environment from harm.

Accident prevention can be achieved through various strategies such as:

1. Hazard identification and risk assessment: Identifying potential hazards in the workplace or environment and evaluating the level of risk they pose.
2. Implementing controls: Putting in place measures to eliminate or reduce the risks associated with identified hazards, such as engineering controls, administrative controls, and personal protective equipment.
3. Training and education: Providing employees and individuals with the necessary knowledge and skills to work safely and prevent accidents.
4. Regular inspections and maintenance: Conducting regular inspections of equipment and facilities to ensure they are in good working order and identifying any potential hazards before they become a risk.
5. Incident reporting and investigation: Encouraging employees and individuals to report incidents and conducting thorough investigations to identify root causes and prevent future occurrences.
6. Continuous improvement: Regularly reviewing and updating accident prevention measures to ensure they remain effective and up-to-date with changing circumstances.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sports Equipment" is not a term that typically has a medical definition. It generally refers to the physical items or gear used in sports and athletic activities, such as balls, bats, helmets, protective pads, etc. If you're looking for a term related to sports that has a medical definition, I'd be happy to help with that!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "England" is not a medical term or concept. It is one of the four constituent countries that make up the United Kingdom, along with Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. England is located in the southern part of Great Britain, which is the largest island of the British Isles.

If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you!

Protective devices, in the context of medical care, refer to equipment or products designed to prevent injury, harm, or infection to patients, healthcare workers, or others. They can include a wide range of items such as:

1. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE): Items worn by healthcare professionals to protect themselves from infectious materials or harmful substances, such as gloves, masks, face shields, gowns, and goggles.
2. Medical Devices: Equipment designed to prevent injury during medical procedures, such as tourniquets, safety needles, and bite blocks.
3. Patient Safety Devices: Items used to protect patients from harm, such as bed rails, pressure ulcer prevention devices, and fall prevention equipment.
4. Environmental Protection Devices: Equipment used to prevent the spread of infectious agents in healthcare settings, such as air purifiers, isolation rooms, and waste management systems.
5. Dental Protective Devices: Devices used in dental care to protect patients and dental professionals from injury or infection, such as dental dams, mouth mirrors, and high-speed evacuators.

The specific definition of protective devices may vary depending on the context and field of medicine.

Emergency Medical Services (EMS) is a system that provides immediate and urgent medical care, transportation, and treatment to patients who are experiencing an acute illness or injury that poses an immediate threat to their health, safety, or life. EMS is typically composed of trained professionals, such as emergency medical technicians (EMTs), paramedics, and first responders, who work together to assess a patient's condition, administer appropriate medical interventions, and transport the patient to a hospital or other medical facility for further treatment.

The goal of EMS is to quickly and effectively stabilize patients in emergency situations, prevent further injury or illness, and ensure that they receive timely and appropriate medical care. This may involve providing basic life support (BLS) measures such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), controlling bleeding, and managing airway obstructions, as well as more advanced interventions such as administering medications, establishing intravenous lines, and performing emergency procedures like intubation or defibrillation.

EMS systems are typically organized and managed at the local or regional level, with coordination and oversight provided by public health agencies, hospitals, and other healthcare organizations. EMS providers may work for private companies, non-profit organizations, or government agencies, and they may be dispatched to emergencies via 911 or other emergency response systems.

In summary, Emergency Medical Services (EMS) is a critical component of the healthcare system that provides urgent medical care and transportation to patients who are experiencing acute illnesses or injuries. EMS professionals work together to quickly assess, stabilize, and transport patients to appropriate medical facilities for further treatment.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Birth injuries refer to damages or injuries that a baby suffers during the birthing process. These injuries can result from various factors, such as mechanical forces during delivery, medical negligence, or complications during pregnancy or labor. Some common examples of birth injuries include:

1. Brachial plexus injuries: Damage to the nerves that control movement and feeling in the arms and hands, often caused by excessive pulling or stretching during delivery.
2. Cephalohematoma: A collection of blood between the skull and the periosteum (the membrane covering the bone), usually caused by trauma during delivery.
3. Caput succedaneum: Swelling of the soft tissues of the baby's scalp, often resulting from pressure on the head during labor and delivery.
4. Fractures: Broken bones, such as a clavicle or skull fracture, can occur due to mechanical forces during delivery.
5. Intracranial hemorrhage: Bleeding in or around the brain, which can result from trauma during delivery or complications like high blood pressure in the mother.
6. Perinatal asphyxia: A lack of oxygen supply to the baby before, during, or immediately after birth, which can lead to brain damage and other health issues.
7. Subconjunctival hemorrhage: Bleeding under the conjunctiva (the clear membrane covering the eye), often caused by pressure on the head during delivery.
8. Spinal cord injuries: Damage to the spinal cord, which can result in paralysis or other neurological issues, may occur due to excessive force during delivery or medical negligence.

It's important to note that some birth injuries are unavoidable and may not be a result of medical malpractice. However, if a healthcare provider fails to provide the standard of care expected during pregnancy, labor, or delivery, they may be held liable for any resulting injuries.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Scotland" is not a medical term or concept. It is one of the four constituent countries of the United Kingdom. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

Osmotic diuretics are a type of diuretic medication that increase the excretion of urine by increasing the osmolarity of filtrate in the renal tubules. This is achieved by the drugs being freely filtered through the glomerulus and then not being reabsorbed in the tubules, which creates an osmotic gradient that promotes the movement of water into the tubular lumen, thereby increasing urine production.

Examples of osmotic diuretics include mannitol and urea. These medications are primarily used to promote diuresis in patients with conditions such as cerebral edema or increased intracranial pressure, as well as in the treatment of acute renal failure. It is important to note that osmotic diuretics can lead to dehydration and electrolyte imbalances if not used carefully, so close monitoring of fluid and electrolyte levels is necessary during treatment.

A bone fracture is a medical condition in which there is a partial or complete break in the continuity of a bone due to external or internal forces. Fractures can occur in any bone in the body and can vary in severity from a small crack to a shattered bone. The symptoms of a bone fracture typically include pain, swelling, bruising, deformity, and difficulty moving the affected limb. Treatment for a bone fracture may involve immobilization with a cast or splint, surgery to realign and stabilize the bone, or medication to manage pain and prevent infection. The specific treatment approach will depend on the location, type, and severity of the fracture.

Burns are injuries to tissues caused by heat, electricity, chemicals, friction, or radiation. They are classified based on their severity:

1. First-degree burns (superficial burns) affect only the outer layer of skin (epidermis), causing redness, pain, and swelling.
2. Second-degree burns (partial-thickness burns) damage both the epidermis and the underlying layer of skin (dermis). They result in redness, pain, swelling, and blistering.
3. Third-degree burns (full-thickness burns) destroy the entire depth of the skin and can also damage underlying muscles, tendons, and bones. These burns appear white or blackened and charred, and they may be painless due to destroyed nerve endings.

Immediate medical attention is required for second-degree and third-degree burns, as well as for large area first-degree burns, to prevent infection, manage pain, and ensure proper healing. Treatment options include wound care, antibiotics, pain management, and possibly skin grafting or surgery in severe cases.

"Age distribution" is a term used to describe the number of individuals within a population or sample that fall into different age categories. It is often presented in the form of a graph, table, or chart, and can provide important information about the demographic structure of a population.

The age distribution of a population can be influenced by a variety of factors, including birth rates, mortality rates, migration patterns, and aging. Public health officials and researchers use age distribution data to inform policies and programs related to healthcare, social services, and other areas that affect the well-being of populations.

For example, an age distribution graph might show a larger number of individuals in the younger age categories, indicating a population with a high birth rate. Alternatively, it might show a larger number of individuals in the older age categories, indicating a population with a high life expectancy or an aging population. Understanding the age distribution of a population can help policymakers plan for future needs and allocate resources more effectively.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

Maxillofacial injuries, also known as facial trauma, refer to injuries that occur in the face and/or maxillofacial region. This region includes the bones of the upper jaw (maxilla), lower jaw (mandible), cheeks, eyes, nose, and forehead. Maxillofacial injuries can range from minor soft tissue injuries, such as lacerations or bruises, to more severe injuries involving fractures of the facial bones. These types of injuries may result from various causes, including motor vehicle accidents, sports-related injuries, interpersonal violence, and falls. Treatment for maxillofacial injuries typically involves a multidisciplinary approach, involving specialists such as oral and maxillofacial surgeons, plastic surgeons, and emergency medicine physicians.

Foot injuries refer to any damage or trauma caused to the various structures of the foot, including the bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, blood vessels, and nerves. These injuries can result from various causes such as accidents, sports activities, falls, or repetitive stress. Common types of foot injuries include fractures, sprains, strains, contusions, dislocations, and overuse injuries like plantar fasciitis or Achilles tendonitis. Symptoms may vary depending on the type and severity of the injury but often include pain, swelling, bruising, difficulty walking, and reduced range of motion. Proper diagnosis and treatment are crucial to ensure optimal healing and prevent long-term complications.

Finger injuries refer to any damage or trauma caused to the fingers, which can include cuts, bruises, dislocations, fractures, and sprains. These injuries can occur due to various reasons such as accidents, sports activities, falls, or direct blows to the finger. Symptoms of finger injuries may include pain, swelling, stiffness, deformity, numbness, or inability to move the finger. The treatment for finger injuries varies depending on the type and severity of the injury, but may include rest, immobilization, ice, compression, elevation, physical therapy, medication, or surgery. It is essential to seek medical attention promptly for proper diagnosis and treatment of finger injuries to prevent further complications and ensure optimal recovery.

Tonic-clonic epilepsy, also known as grand mal epilepsy, is a type of generalized seizure that affects the entire brain. This type of epilepsy is characterized by two distinct phases: the tonic phase and the clonic phase.

During the tonic phase, which usually lasts for about 10-20 seconds, the person loses consciousness and their muscles stiffen, causing them to fall to the ground. This can result in injuries if the person falls unexpectedly or hits an object on the way down.

The clonic phase follows immediately after the tonic phase and is characterized by rhythmic jerking movements of the limbs, face, and neck. These movements are caused by alternating contractions and relaxations of the muscles and can last for several minutes. The person may also lose bladder or bowel control during this phase.

After the seizure, the person may feel tired, confused, and disoriented. They may also have a headache, sore muscles, and difficulty remembering what happened during the seizure.

Tonic-clonic epilepsy can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, brain injury, infection, or stroke. It is typically diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as an electroencephalogram (EEG) or imaging studies. Treatment may include medication, surgery, or dietary changes, depending on the underlying cause and severity of the seizures.

Occupational accidents are defined as unexpected and unplanned events that occur in the context of work and lead to physical or mental harm. These accidents can be caused by a variety of factors, including unsafe working conditions, lack of proper training, or failure to use appropriate personal protective equipment. Occupational accidents can result in injuries, illnesses, or even death, and can have significant impacts on individuals, families, and communities. In many cases, occupational accidents are preventable through the implementation of effective safety measures and risk management strategies.

Penetrating eye injuries are a type of ocular trauma where a foreign object or substance pierces the outer layers of the eye and damages the internal structures. This can result in serious harm to various parts of the eye, such as the cornea, iris, lens, or retina, and may potentially cause vision loss or blindness if not promptly treated.

The severity of a penetrating eye injury depends on several factors, including the type and size of the object that caused the injury, the location of the wound, and the extent of damage to the internal structures. Common causes of penetrating eye injuries include sharp objects, such as metal shards or glass fragments, projectiles, such as pellets or bullets, and explosive materials.

Symptoms of a penetrating eye injury may include pain, redness, sensitivity to light, blurred vision, floaters, or the presence of a foreign body in the eye. If you suspect that you have sustained a penetrating eye injury, it is essential to seek immediate medical attention from an ophthalmologist or other healthcare professional with experience in treating eye trauma.

Treatment for penetrating eye injuries may include removing any foreign objects or substances from the eye, repairing damaged tissues, and administering medications to prevent infection and reduce inflammation. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair the injury and restore vision. Preventing eye injuries is crucial, and appropriate protective eyewear should be worn when engaging in activities that pose a risk of eye trauma.

Brain hypoxia is a medical condition characterized by a reduced supply of oxygen to the brain. The brain requires a continuous supply of oxygen to function properly, and even a brief period of hypoxia can cause significant damage to brain cells.

Hypoxia can result from various conditions, such as cardiac arrest, respiratory failure, carbon monoxide poisoning, or high altitude exposure. When the brain is deprived of oxygen, it can lead to a range of symptoms, including confusion, disorientation, seizures, loss of consciousness, and ultimately, brain death.

Brain hypoxia is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment to prevent long-term neurological damage or death. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of hypoxia, such as administering oxygen therapy, resuscitating the heart, or treating respiratory failure. In some cases, more invasive treatments, such as therapeutic hypothermia or mechanical ventilation, may be necessary to prevent further brain damage.

Neurosurgical procedures are operations that are performed on the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. These procedures are typically carried out by neurosurgeons, who are medical doctors with specialized training in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the nervous system. Neurosurgical procedures can be used to treat a wide range of conditions, including traumatic injuries, tumors, aneurysms, vascular malformations, infections, degenerative diseases, and congenital abnormalities.

Some common types of neurosurgical procedures include:

* Craniotomy: A procedure in which a bone flap is temporarily removed from the skull to gain access to the brain. This type of procedure may be performed to remove a tumor, repair a blood vessel, or relieve pressure on the brain.
* Spinal fusion: A procedure in which two or more vertebrae in the spine are fused together using bone grafts and metal hardware. This is often done to stabilize the spine and alleviate pain caused by degenerative conditions or spinal deformities.
* Microvascular decompression: A procedure in which a blood vessel that is causing pressure on a nerve is repositioned or removed. This type of procedure is often used to treat trigeminal neuralgia, a condition that causes severe facial pain.
* Deep brain stimulation: A procedure in which electrodes are implanted in specific areas of the brain and connected to a battery-operated device called a neurostimulator. The neurostimulator sends electrical impulses to the brain to help alleviate symptoms of movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease or dystonia.
* Stereotactic radiosurgery: A non-invasive procedure that uses focused beams of radiation to treat tumors, vascular malformations, and other abnormalities in the brain or spine. This type of procedure is often used for patients who are not good candidates for traditional surgery due to age, health status, or location of the lesion.

Neurosurgical procedures can be complex and require a high degree of skill and expertise. Patients considering neurosurgical treatment should consult with a qualified neurosurgeon to discuss their options and determine the best course of action for their individual situation.

Patient admission in a medical context refers to the process by which a patient is formally accepted and registered into a hospital or healthcare facility for treatment or further medical care. This procedure typically includes the following steps:

1. Patient registration: The patient's personal information, such as name, address, contact details, and insurance coverage, are recorded in the hospital's system.
2. Clinical assessment: A healthcare professional evaluates the patient's medical condition to determine the appropriate level of care required and develop a plan for treatment. This may involve consulting with other healthcare providers, reviewing medical records, and performing necessary tests or examinations.
3. Bed assignment: Based on the clinical assessment, the hospital staff assigns an appropriate bed in a suitable unit (e.g., intensive care unit, step-down unit, general ward) for the patient's care.
4. Informed consent: The healthcare team explains the proposed treatment plan and associated risks to the patient or their legal representative, obtaining informed consent before proceeding with any invasive procedures or significant interventions.
5. Admission orders: The attending physician documents the admission orders in the medical chart, specifying the diagnostic tests, medications, treatments, and care plans for the patient during their hospital stay.
6. Notification of family members or caregivers: Hospital staff informs the patient's emergency contact or next of kin about their admission and provides relevant information regarding their condition, treatment plan, and any necessary follow-up instructions.
7. Patient education: The healthcare team educates the patient on what to expect during their hospital stay, including potential side effects, self-care strategies, and discharge planning.

The goal of patient admission is to ensure a smooth transition into the healthcare facility, providing timely and appropriate care while maintaining open communication with patients, families, and caregivers throughout the process.

Brain death is a legal and medical determination that an individual has died because their brain has irreversibly lost all functions necessary for life. It is characterized by the absence of brainstem reflexes, unresponsiveness to stimuli, and the inability to breathe without mechanical support. Brain death is different from a vegetative state or coma, where there may still be some brain activity.

The determination of brain death involves a series of tests and examinations to confirm the absence of brain function. These tests are typically performed by trained medical professionals and may include clinical assessments, imaging studies, and electroencephalograms (EEGs) to confirm the absence of electrical activity in the brain.

Brain death is an important concept in medicine because it allows for the organ donation process to proceed, potentially saving the lives of others. In many jurisdictions, brain death is legally equivalent to cardiopulmonary death, which means that once a person has been declared brain dead, they are considered deceased and their organs can be removed for transplantation.

The frontal bone is the bone that forms the forehead and the upper part of the eye sockets (orbits) in the skull. It is a single, flat bone that has a prominent ridge in the middle called the superior sagittal sinus, which contains venous blood. The frontal bone articulates with several other bones, including the parietal bones at the sides and back, the nasal bones in the center of the face, and the zygomatic (cheek) bones at the lower sides of the orbits.

Cognitive disorders are a category of mental health disorders that primarily affect cognitive abilities including learning, memory, perception, and problem-solving. These disorders can be caused by various factors such as brain injury, degenerative diseases, infection, substance abuse, or developmental disabilities. Examples of cognitive disorders include dementia, amnesia, delirium, and intellectual disability. It's important to note that the specific definition and diagnostic criteria for cognitive disorders may vary depending on the medical source or classification system being used.

Intensive care is a specialized level of medical care that is provided to critically ill patients. It's usually given in a dedicated unit of a hospital called the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) or Critical Care Unit (CCU). The goal of intensive care is to closely monitor and manage life-threatening conditions, stabilize vital functions, and support organs until they recover or the patient can be moved to a less acute level of care.

Intensive care involves advanced medical equipment and technologies, such as ventilators to assist with breathing, dialysis machines for kidney support, intravenous lines for medication administration, and continuous monitoring devices for heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen levels, and other vital signs.

The ICU team typically includes intensive care specialists (intensivists), critical care nurses, respiratory therapists, and other healthcare professionals who work together to provide comprehensive, round-the-clock care for critically ill patients.

"Sex distribution" is a term used to describe the number of males and females in a study population or sample. It can be presented as a simple count, a percentage, or a ratio. This information is often used in research to identify any differences in health outcomes, disease prevalence, or response to treatment between males and females. Additionally, understanding sex distribution can help researchers ensure that their studies are representative of the general population and can inform the design of future studies.

Cerebrovascular circulation refers to the network of blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood and nutrients to the brain tissue, and remove waste products. It includes the internal carotid arteries, vertebral arteries, circle of Willis, and the intracranial arteries that branch off from them.

The internal carotid arteries and vertebral arteries merge to form the circle of Willis, a polygonal network of vessels located at the base of the brain. The anterior cerebral artery, middle cerebral artery, posterior cerebral artery, and communicating arteries are the major vessels that branch off from the circle of Willis and supply blood to different regions of the brain.

Interruptions or abnormalities in the cerebrovascular circulation can lead to various neurological conditions such as stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), and vascular dementia.

Child abuse is a broad term that refers to any form of physical, emotional, or sexual mistreatment or neglect that causes harm to a child's health, development, or dignity. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), child abuse includes:

1. Physical abuse: Non-accidental injuries caused by hitting, kicking, shaking, burning, or otherwise harming a child's body.
2. Sexual abuse: Any sexual activity involving a child, such as touching or non-touching behaviors, exploitation, or exposure to pornographic material.
3. Emotional abuse: Behaviors that harm a child's emotional well-being and self-esteem, such as constant criticism, humiliation, threats, or rejection.
4. Neglect: Failure to provide for a child's basic needs, including food, clothing, shelter, medical care, education, and emotional support.

Child abuse can have serious short-term and long-term consequences for the physical, emotional, and psychological well-being of children. It is a violation of their fundamental human rights and a public health concern that requires prevention, early detection, and intervention.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Play" and "Playthings" are not medical terms. "Play" is a fundamental aspect of child development, encompassing all types of activities that children engage in for enjoyment and recreation. These activities can include physical play (such as running, climbing, or riding a bike), social play (interacting with others), creative play (drawing, building, or pretending), and quiet play (reading, puzzles, or listening to music).

"Playthings," on the other hand, refer to objects or toys used during play. These can range from traditional toys like dolls, cars, and balls to more open-ended items like blocks, art supplies, or natural materials.

While there is no medical definition for "play" or "playthings," it's important to note that play has a significant role in children's physical, emotional, social, and cognitive development. Play allows children to explore their environment, learn new skills, develop problem-solving abilities, build relationships, and express themselves creatively. Access to diverse playthings can support and enhance these developmental processes.

'Boxing' is a combat sport that involves two competitors throwing punches at each other with gloved hands within a ring. According to medical definitions, boxing can pose several potential risks and injuries to the participants, including but not limited to:

1. Cuts and bruises from punches or headbutts
2. Fractures or dislocations of bones in the hands, wrists, or face
3. Concussions or traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) from blows to the head
4. Eye injuries, including retinal detachment and cataracts
5. Internal bleeding or organ damage
6. Long-term neurological problems, such as Parkinson's disease or chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE)

It is important for boxers to undergo regular medical evaluations and take measures to minimize the risks associated with the sport, such as wearing protective gear and using proper technique.

A patient room, also known as a patient suite or patient ward, is a designated space in a healthcare facility where patients receive care and treatment. It typically includes a bed, cabinets, and necessary medical equipment such as monitors, infusion pumps, and oxygen supply systems. Patient rooms may be private or shared, depending on the facility's design and the patient's needs and preferences. They are designed to provide a safe, comfortable, and healing environment for patients during their hospital stay.

The specific features of a patient room can vary depending on the type of healthcare facility and the level of care provided. For example, an intensive care unit (ICU) room may have more advanced medical equipment and monitoring capabilities than a general medical-surgical room. Similarly, a behavioral health unit room may be designed with safety features such as shatterproof windows and secure doors to ensure the safety of patients and staff.

Regardless of the type of patient room, it is important that they are clean, well-maintained, and equipped with the necessary resources to provide high-quality care to patients. Healthcare facilities should also prioritize patient comfort and privacy in the design of their patient rooms, as these factors can have a significant impact on patient outcomes and satisfaction.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

An air bag is a type of vehicle safety device that uses a inflatable cushion to protect occupants from collision forces in the event of a car accident. When a crash occurs, a sensor triggers the inflation of the air bag, which then rapidly deploys and fills the space between the driver or passenger and the steering wheel or dashboard. This helps to absorb the impact and reduce the risk of injury. Air bags are typically installed in the steering wheel, dashboard, and sides of the vehicle, and they can significantly improve safety in the event of a crash. However, air bags can also pose a risk of injury if they deploy improperly or in certain types of crashes, so it is important for drivers to understand how they work and when they are most effective.

The occipital bone is the single, posterior cranial bone that forms the base of the skull and encloses the brain. It articulates with the parietal bones anteriorly and the temporal bones laterally. The occipital bone also contains several important structures such as the foramen magnum, through which the spinal cord connects to the brain, and the external and internal occipital protuberances, which serve as attachment points for neck muscles.

A subdural hematoma is a type of brain injury in which blood accumulates between the dura mater (the outermost layer of the meninges, the protective coverings of the brain and spinal cord) and the brain. In the case of an acute subdural hematoma, the bleeding occurs suddenly and rapidly as a result of trauma, such as a severe head injury from a fall, motor vehicle accident, or assault. The accumulation of blood puts pressure on the brain, which can lead to serious complications, including brain damage or death, if not promptly diagnosed and treated. Acute subdural hematomas are considered medical emergencies and require immediate neurosurgical intervention.

Brain diseases, also known as neurological disorders, refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the brain and nervous system. These diseases can be caused by various factors such as genetics, infections, injuries, degeneration, or structural abnormalities. They can affect different parts of the brain, leading to a variety of symptoms and complications.

Some examples of brain diseases include:

1. Alzheimer's disease - a progressive degenerative disorder that affects memory and cognitive function.
2. Parkinson's disease - a movement disorder characterized by tremors, stiffness, and difficulty with coordination and balance.
3. Multiple sclerosis - a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the nervous system and can cause a range of symptoms such as vision loss, muscle weakness, and cognitive impairment.
4. Epilepsy - a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures.
5. Brain tumors - abnormal growths in the brain that can be benign or malignant.
6. Stroke - a sudden interruption of blood flow to the brain, which can cause paralysis, speech difficulties, and other neurological symptoms.
7. Meningitis - an infection of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
8. Encephalitis - an inflammation of the brain that can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or autoimmune disorders.
9. Huntington's disease - a genetic disorder that affects muscle coordination, cognitive function, and mental health.
10. Migraine - a neurological condition characterized by severe headaches, often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.

Brain diseases can range from mild to severe and may be treatable or incurable. They can affect people of all ages and backgrounds, and early diagnosis and treatment are essential for improving outcomes and quality of life.

A subdural hematoma (SDH) is a type of intracranial hemorrhage that occurs between the dura mater and the brain. When it becomes chronic, it means that the bleeding has occurred slowly over time, often over the course of several weeks or months. The blood gradually collects in the potential space between the dura and the arachnoid membrane, forming a clot.

A chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is typically characterized by the presence of liquefied blood, which can form a loculated collection that may exert mass effect on the underlying brain tissue. This can lead to symptoms such as headache, confusion, weakness, or even seizures, depending on the size and location of the hematoma.

CSDHs are often associated with underlying brain atrophy, which can create a larger potential space for blood to collect. They may also be seen in patients who are taking anticoagulant medications or have a bleeding disorder. Treatment typically involves surgical evacuation of the hematoma, although smaller CSDHs may be managed conservatively with close monitoring and repeat imaging.

Cranial nerve injuries refer to damages or trauma to one or more of the twelve cranial nerves (CN I through CN XII). These nerves originate from the brainstem and are responsible for transmitting sensory information (such as vision, hearing, smell, taste, and balance) and controlling various motor functions (like eye movement, facial expressions, swallowing, and speaking).

Cranial nerve injuries can result from various causes, including head trauma, tumors, infections, or neurological conditions. The severity of the injury may range from mild dysfunction to complete loss of function, depending on the extent of damage to the nerve. Treatment options vary based on the type and location of the injury but often involve a combination of medical management, physical therapy, surgical intervention, or rehabilitation.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Martial Arts" is not a medical term. It refers to various systems and traditions of combat and self-defense that are practiced as recreational activities, physical fitness, spiritual development, or as a profession. Examples include karate, judo, kung fu, taekwondo, and many others.

If you have any medical concerns or questions, I'd be happy to help if I can!

I am not aware of a specific medical definition for the term "skating." In general, skating refers to the act of moving on ice or a smooth surface using skates. There are several types of skating, including ice skating, roller skating, and inline skating. Skating can be a recreational activity, a form of transportation, or a competitive sport. It is not typically considered a medical term or concept. If you have any specific concerns about skating and its potential impact on health or physical well-being, I would recommend consulting with a healthcare professional for further guidance.

The ethmoid bone is a paired, thin, and lightweight bone that forms part of the skull's anterior cranial fossa and contributes to the formation of the orbit and nasal cavity. It is located between the frontal bone above and the maxilla and palatine bones below. The ethmoid bone has several important features:

1. Cribriform plate: This is the horizontal, sieve-like portion that forms part of the anterior cranial fossa and serves as the roof of the nasal cavity. It contains small openings (foramina) through which olfactory nerves pass.
2. Perpendicular plate: The perpendicular plate is a vertical structure that projects downward from the cribriform plate, forming part of the nasal septum and separating the left and right nasal cavities.
3. Superior and middle nasal conchae: These are curved bony projections within the lateral walls of the nasal cavity that help to warm, humidify, and filter incoming air.
4. Lacrimal bone: The ethmoid bone articulates with the lacrimal bone, forming part of the medial wall of the orbit.
5. Frontal process: This is a thin, vertical plate that articulates with the frontal bone above the orbit.
6. Sphenoidal process: The sphenoidal process connects the ethmoid bone to the sphenoid bone posteriorly.

The ethmoid bone plays a crucial role in protecting the brain and providing structural support for the eyes, as well as facilitating respiration by warming, humidifying, and filtering incoming air.

In the context of medicine and physiology, acceleration refers to the process of increasing or quickening a function or process. For example, heart rate acceleration is an increase in the speed at which the heart beats. It can also refer to the rate at which something increases, such as the acceleration of muscle strength during rehabilitation. In physics terms, acceleration refers to the rate at which an object changes its velocity, but this definition is not typically used in a medical context.

Artificial respiration is an emergency procedure that can be used to provide oxygen to a person who is not breathing or is breathing inadequately. It involves manually forcing air into the lungs, either by compressing the chest or using a device to deliver breaths. The goal of artificial respiration is to maintain adequate oxygenation of the body's tissues and organs until the person can breathe on their own or until advanced medical care arrives. Artificial respiration may be used in conjunction with cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in cases of cardiac arrest.

Needlestick injuries are sharp object injuries typically involving hollow-bore needles, which can result in exposure to bloodborne pathogens. They often occur during the use or disposal of contaminated needles in healthcare settings. These injuries pose a significant risk for transmission of infectious diseases such as HIV, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. It is essential to follow strict protocols for handling and disposing of needles and other sharp objects to minimize the risk of needlestick injuries.

"Length of Stay" (LOS) is a term commonly used in healthcare to refer to the amount of time a patient spends receiving care in a hospital, clinic, or other healthcare facility. It is typically measured in hours, days, or weeks and can be used as a metric for various purposes such as resource planning, quality assessment, and reimbursement. The length of stay can vary depending on the type of illness or injury, the severity of the condition, the patient's response to treatment, and other factors. It is an important consideration in healthcare management and can have significant implications for both patients and providers.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Fiji" is not a medical term. It is a country in the South Pacific Ocean, officially known as the Republic of Fiji, consisting of more than 300 islands. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

Induced hypothermia is a medically controlled lowering of the core body temperature to around 89.6-93.2°F (32-34°C) for therapeutic purposes. It is intentionally induced to reduce the metabolic rate and oxygen demand of organs, thereby offering protection during periods of low blood flow or inadequate oxygenation, such as during cardiac bypass surgery, severe trauma, or after a cardiac arrest. The deliberate induction and maintenance of hypothermia can help minimize tissue damage and improve outcomes in specific clinical scenarios. Once the risk has passed, the body temperature is gradually rewarmed to normal levels under controlled conditions.

The Wechsler Scales are a series of intelligence and neuropsychological tests used to assess various aspects of cognitive functioning in individuals across the lifespan. The scales include:

1. Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI): Designed for children aged 2 years 6 months to 7 years 3 months, it measures verbal (e.g., vocabulary, comprehension) and performance (e.g., visual-motor integration, spatial reasoning) abilities.
2. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC): Developed for children aged 6 to 16 years, it evaluates verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory, and processing speed.
3. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS): Created for adults aged 16 to 90 years, it assesses similar domains as the WISC but with more complex tasks.
4. Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS): Designed to measure various aspects of memory functioning in individuals aged 16 to 89 years, including visual and auditory immediate and delayed recall, working memory, and attention.
5. Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI): A brief version of the WAIS used for quicker intelligence screening in individuals aged 6 to 89 years.

These scales are widely used in clinical, educational, and research settings to identify strengths and weaknesses in cognitive abilities, diagnose learning disabilities and other neurodevelopmental disorders, monitor treatment progress, and provide recommendations for interventions and accommodations.

Nervous system diseases, also known as neurological disorders, refer to a group of conditions that affect the nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and muscles. These diseases can affect various functions of the body, such as movement, sensation, cognition, and behavior. They can be caused by genetics, infections, injuries, degeneration, or tumors. Examples of nervous system diseases include Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, migraine, stroke, and neuroinfections like meningitis and encephalitis. The symptoms and severity of these disorders can vary widely, ranging from mild to severe and debilitating.

Smoke inhalation injury is a type of damage that occurs to the respiratory system when an individual breathes in smoke, most commonly during a fire. This injury can affect both the upper and lower airways and can cause a range of symptoms, including coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest pain.

Smoke inhalation injury can also lead to more severe complications, such as chemical irritation of the airways, swelling of the throat and lungs, and respiratory failure. In some cases, it can even be fatal. The severity of the injury depends on several factors, including the duration and intensity of the exposure, the individual's underlying health status, and the presence of any pre-existing lung conditions.

Smoke inhalation injury is caused by a combination of thermal injury (heat damage) and chemical injury (damage from toxic substances present in the smoke). The heat from the smoke can cause direct damage to the airways, leading to inflammation and swelling. At the same time, the chemicals in the smoke can irritate and corrode the lining of the airways, causing further damage.

Some of the toxic substances found in smoke include carbon monoxide, cyanide, and various other chemicals released by burning materials. These substances can interfere with the body's ability to transport oxygen and can cause metabolic acidosis, a condition characterized by an excessively acidic environment in the body.

Treatment for smoke inhalation injury typically involves providing supportive care to help the individual breathe more easily, such as administering oxygen or using mechanical ventilation. In some cases, medications may be used to reduce inflammation and swelling in the airways. Severe cases of smoke inhalation injury may require hospitalization and intensive care.

Electric injuries refer to damage to the body caused by exposure to electrical energy. This can occur when a person comes into contact with an electrical source, such as a power line or outlet, and the electrical current passes through the body. The severity of the injury depends on various factors, including the voltage and amperage of the electrical current, the duration of exposure, and the path the current takes through the body.

Electric injuries can cause a range of symptoms and complications, including burns, cardiac arrest, muscle damage, nerve damage, and fractures or dislocations (if the victim is thrown by the electrical shock). In some cases, electric injuries can be fatal. Treatment typically involves supportive care to stabilize the patient's vital signs, as well as specific interventions to address any complications that may have arisen as a result of the injury. Prevention measures include following safety guidelines when working with electricity and being aware of potential electrical hazards in one's environment.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

A seizure is an uncontrolled, abnormal firing of neurons (brain cells) that can cause various symptoms such as convulsions, loss of consciousness, altered awareness, or changes in behavior. Seizures can be caused by a variety of factors including epilepsy, brain injury, infection, toxic substances, or genetic disorders. They can also occur without any identifiable cause, known as idiopathic seizures. Seizures are a medical emergency and require immediate attention.

Streptococcus milleri Group (SMG) is not a single species, but a group of closely related streptococcal species that are often difficult to distinguish from each other using conventional laboratory methods. The group includes Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus intermedius, and Streptococcus constellatus. These bacteria are part of the normal flora in the human mouth, upper respiratory tract, and gastrointestinal system. However, they can cause a variety of infectious diseases, particularly in immunocompromised individuals or when they invade deep tissues or sterile sites. Infections caused by SMG can range from mild to severe, including abscesses, endocarditis, and sepsis. Due to the complexity of identifying these organisms to the species level, they are often reported together as the Streptococcus milleri Group.

The Predictive Value of Tests, specifically the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV), are measures used in diagnostic tests to determine the probability that a positive or negative test result is correct.

Positive Predictive Value (PPV) is the proportion of patients with a positive test result who actually have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true positives divided by the total number of positive results (true positives + false positives). A higher PPV indicates that a positive test result is more likely to be a true positive, and therefore the disease is more likely to be present.

Negative Predictive Value (NPV) is the proportion of patients with a negative test result who do not have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true negatives divided by the total number of negative results (true negatives + false negatives). A higher NPV indicates that a negative test result is more likely to be a true negative, and therefore the disease is less likely to be present.

The predictive value of tests depends on the prevalence of the disease in the population being tested, as well as the sensitivity and specificity of the test. A test with high sensitivity and specificity will generally have higher predictive values than a test with low sensitivity and specificity. However, even a highly sensitive and specific test can have low predictive values if the prevalence of the disease is low in the population being tested.

Physiological monitoring is the continuous or intermittent observation and measurement of various body functions or parameters in a patient, with the aim of evaluating their health status, identifying any abnormalities or changes, and guiding clinical decision-making and treatment. This may involve the use of specialized medical equipment, such as cardiac monitors, pulse oximeters, blood pressure monitors, and capnographs, among others. The data collected through physiological monitoring can help healthcare professionals assess the effectiveness of treatments, detect complications early, and make timely adjustments to patient care plans.

Electroencephalography (EEG) is a medical procedure that records electrical activity in the brain. It uses small, metal discs called electrodes, which are attached to the scalp with paste or a specialized cap. These electrodes detect tiny electrical charges that result from the activity of brain cells, and the EEG machine then amplifies and records these signals.

EEG is used to diagnose various conditions related to the brain, such as seizures, sleep disorders, head injuries, infections, and degenerative diseases like Alzheimer's or Parkinson's. It can also be used during surgery to monitor brain activity and ensure that surgical procedures do not interfere with vital functions.

EEG is a safe and non-invasive procedure that typically takes about 30 minutes to an hour to complete, although longer recordings may be necessary in some cases. Patients are usually asked to relax and remain still during the test, as movement can affect the quality of the recording.

Consciousness disorders, also known as altered consciousness, refer to conditions that affect a person's awareness or perception of their surroundings, themselves, or their current state. These disorders can range from mild to severe and can be caused by various factors such as brain injury, illness, or the use of certain medications.

There are several types of consciousness disorders, including:

1. Coma: A state of deep unconsciousness in which a person is unable to respond to stimuli or communicate.
2. Vegetative State: A condition in which a person may have sleep-wake cycles and some automatic responses, but lacks awareness or the ability to interact with their environment.
3. Minimally Conscious State: A condition in which a person has some degree of awareness and may be able to respond to stimuli, but is unable to communicate or consistently interact with their environment.
4. Delirium: A state of confusion and altered consciousness that can occur suddenly and fluctuate over time. It is often caused by an underlying medical condition or the use of certain medications.
5. Locked-in Syndrome: A rare condition in which a person is fully conscious but unable to move or communicate due to complete paralysis of all voluntary muscles except for those that control eye movement.

Treatment for consciousness disorders depends on the underlying cause and may include medication, therapy, or surgery. In some cases, recovery may be possible with appropriate treatment and rehabilitation. However, in other cases, the disorder may be permanent or result in long-term disability.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Orbital fractures refer to breaks in the bones that make up the eye socket, also known as the orbit. These bones include the maxilla, zygoma, frontal bone, and palatine bone. Orbital fractures can occur due to trauma, such as a blunt force injury or a penetrating wound.

There are several types of orbital fractures, including:

1. Blowout fracture: This occurs when the thin bone of the orbital floor is broken, often due to a direct blow to the eye. The force of the impact can cause the eyeball to move backward, breaking the bone and sometimes trapping the muscle that moves the eye (the inferior rectus).
2. Blow-in fracture: This type of fracture involves the breakage of the orbital roof, which is the bone that forms the upper boundary of the orbit. It typically occurs due to high-impact trauma, such as a car accident or a fall from a significant height.
3. Direct fracture: A direct fracture happens when there is a break in one or more of the bones that form the walls of the orbit. This type of fracture can result from a variety of traumas, including motor vehicle accidents, sports injuries, and assaults.
4. Indirect fracture: An indirect fracture occurs when the force of an injury is transmitted to the orbit through tissues surrounding it, causing the bone to break. The most common type of indirect orbital fracture is a blowout fracture.

Orbital fractures can cause various symptoms, including pain, swelling, bruising, and double vision. In some cases, the fracture may also lead to enophthalmos (sinking of the eye into the orbit) or telecanthus (increased distance between the inner corners of the eyes). Imaging tests, such as CT scans, are often used to diagnose orbital fractures and determine the best course of treatment. Treatment may include observation, pain management, and in some cases, surgery to repair the fracture and restore normal function.

I believe there might be a bit of confusion in your question as "automobiles" is a general term used to describe wheeled motor vehicles for transportation, and it's not typically a medical term with its own specific definition. However, I can provide you with some automobile-related terms that have medical implications:

1. **Driving fitness**: This refers to the physical and mental abilities required to operate a vehicle safely. Various medical conditions or treatments can impact driving fitness, such as seizure disorders, sleep apnea, certain medications, or alcohol/substance use disorders.
2. **Driving simulator**: A device used in research and rehabilitation settings that presents a realistic driving environment for assessing and training individuals with various medical conditions or disabilities affecting their ability to drive.
3. **Adaptive automobile equipment**: Devices designed to assist people with disabilities in operating vehicles, such as hand controls, wheelchair lifts, or pedal extensions.
4. **Transportation disadvantage**: A situation where an individual's medical condition, disability, or lack of access to suitable transportation limits their ability to obtain necessary healthcare services.
5. **Motor vehicle crash (MVC) outcomes**: Medical consequences resulting from motor vehicle crashes, including injuries and fatalities. These outcomes are often studied in public health and injury prevention research.

If you have a specific medical term or concept related to automobiles that you would like me to define or explain, please provide more details, and I will be happy to help.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Seat Belts" are not a medical term. They are an automotive safety device designed to secure the occupants of a vehicle against harmful movement that may result during a collision or a sudden stop. Seat belts are typically made of webbing material and consist of a lap belt that goes across the hips and a shoulder belt that goes over the shoulder and chest. When used correctly, seat belts help to reduce the risk of serious injury or death in automobile accidents.

Practice guidelines, also known as clinical practice guidelines, are systematically developed statements that aim to assist healthcare professionals and patients in making informed decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances. They are based on a thorough evaluation of the available scientific evidence, consensus of expert opinion, and consideration of patient preferences. Practice guidelines can cover a wide range of topics, including diagnosis, management, prevention, and treatment options for various medical conditions. They are intended to improve the quality and consistency of care, reduce unnecessary variations in practice, and promote evidence-based medicine. However, they should not replace clinical judgment or individualized patient care.

A dislocation is a condition in which a bone slips out of its normal position in a joint. This can happen as a result of trauma or injury, such as a fall or direct blow to the body. Dislocations can cause pain, swelling, and limited mobility in the affected area. In some cases, a dislocation may also damage surrounding tissues, such as ligaments, tendons, and nerves.

Dislocations are typically treated by reducing the dislocation, which means putting the bone back into its normal position. This is usually done with the help of medication to relieve pain and relaxation techniques to help the person stay still during the reduction. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair damaged tissues or if the dislocation cannot be reduced through other methods. After the dislocation has been reduced, the joint may be immobilized with a splint or sling to allow it to heal properly.

It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you suspect that you have a dislocation. If left untreated, a dislocation can lead to further complications, such as joint instability and chronic pain.

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea is a condition where the cerebrospinal fluid, which surrounds and protects the brain and spinal cord, leaks through the nasal cavity. This occurs due to a defect or opening in the skull base or the thin bone that separates the brain from the nasal cavity, known as the cribriform plate.

CSF rhinorrhea can result from trauma, surgery, or spontaneously due to increased pressure in the brain. It is important to diagnose and treat this condition promptly because it increases the risk of meningitis, an infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. Treatment options include bed rest, hydration, stool softeners, and sometimes surgical repair of the defect.

Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric syndrome associated with liver dysfunction and/or portosystemic shunting. It results from the accumulation of toxic substances, such as ammonia and inflammatory mediators, which are normally metabolized by the liver. HE can present with a wide range of symptoms, including changes in sleep-wake cycle, altered mental status, confusion, disorientation, asterixis (flapping tremor), and in severe cases, coma. The diagnosis is based on clinical evaluation, neuropsychological testing, and exclusion of other causes of cognitive impairment. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying liver dysfunction, reducing ammonia production through dietary modifications and medications, and preventing further episodes with lactulose or rifaximin therapy.

Neuroprotective agents are substances that protect neurons or nerve cells from damage, degeneration, or death caused by various factors such as trauma, inflammation, oxidative stress, or excitotoxicity. These agents work through different mechanisms, including reducing the production of free radicals, inhibiting the release of glutamate (a neurotransmitter that can cause cell damage in high concentrations), promoting the growth and survival of neurons, and preventing apoptosis (programmed cell death). Neuroprotective agents have been studied for their potential to treat various neurological disorders, including stroke, traumatic brain injury, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and multiple sclerosis. However, more research is needed to fully understand their mechanisms of action and to develop effective therapies.

Risk assessment in the medical context refers to the process of identifying, evaluating, and prioritizing risks to patients, healthcare workers, or the community related to healthcare delivery. It involves determining the likelihood and potential impact of adverse events or hazards, such as infectious diseases, medication errors, or medical devices failures, and implementing measures to mitigate or manage those risks. The goal of risk assessment is to promote safe and high-quality care by identifying areas for improvement and taking action to minimize harm.

Consciousness is a complex and multifaceted concept that is difficult to define succinctly, but in a medical or neurological context, it generally refers to an individual's state of awareness and responsiveness to their surroundings. Consciousness involves a range of cognitive processes, including perception, thinking, memory, and attention, and it requires the integration of sensory information, language, and higher-order cognitive functions.

In medical terms, consciousness is often assessed using measures such as the Glasgow Coma Scale, which evaluates an individual's ability to open their eyes, speak, and move in response to stimuli. A coma is a state of deep unconsciousness where an individual is unable to respond to stimuli or communicate, while a vegetative state is a condition where an individual may have sleep-wake cycles and some automatic responses but lacks any meaningful awareness or cognitive function.

Disorders of consciousness can result from brain injury, trauma, infection, or other medical conditions that affect the functioning of the brainstem or cerebral cortex. The study of consciousness is a rapidly evolving field that involves researchers from various disciplines, including neuroscience, psychology, philosophy, and artificial intelligence.

The skull is the bony structure that encloses and protects the brain, the eyes, and the ears. It is composed of two main parts: the cranium, which contains the brain, and the facial bones. The cranium is made up of several fused flat bones, while the facial bones include the upper jaw (maxilla), lower jaw (mandible), cheekbones, nose bones, and eye sockets (orbits).

The skull also provides attachment points for various muscles that control chewing, moving the head, and facial expressions. Additionally, it contains openings for blood vessels, nerves, and the spinal cord to pass through. The skull's primary function is to protect the delicate and vital structures within it from injury and trauma.

In the context of healthcare, "safety" refers to the freedom from harm or injury that is intentionally designed into a process, system, or environment. It involves the prevention of adverse events or injuries, as well as the reduction of risk and the mitigation of harm when accidents do occur. Safety in healthcare aims to protect patients, healthcare workers, and other stakeholders from potential harm associated with medical care, treatments, or procedures. This is achieved through evidence-based practices, guidelines, protocols, training, and continuous quality improvement efforts.

The abducens nerve, also known as the sixth cranial nerve, is responsible for controlling the lateral rectus muscle of the eye, which allows for horizontal movement of the eye outwards. An injury to the abducens nerve can result in various symptoms related to eye movement and alignment.

Medical definition:

Abducens nerve injury refers to damage or trauma to the sixth cranial nerve, resulting in dysfunction of the lateral rectus muscle and subsequent impairment of horizontal gaze. The affected individual may experience difficulty in moving the eye outwards, double vision (diplopia), or a condition known as strabismus, where the eyes are misaligned and point in different directions. Abducens nerve injury can occur due to various reasons, such as head trauma, tumors, increased intracranial pressure, or neurological disorders like multiple sclerosis. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause and may include surgical intervention, eye patching, or prism lenses to manage symptoms and improve visual function.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

A "hospitalized child" refers to a minor (an individual who has not yet reached the age of majority, which varies by country but is typically 18 in the US) who has been admitted to a hospital for the purpose of receiving medical treatment and care. This term can encompass children of all ages, from infants to teenagers, and may include those who are suffering from a wide range of medical conditions or injuries, requiring various levels of care and intervention.

Hospitalization can be necessary for a variety of reasons, including but not limited to:

1. Acute illnesses that require close monitoring, such as pneumonia, meningitis, or sepsis.
2. Chronic medical conditions that need ongoing management, like cystic fibrosis, cancer, or congenital heart defects.
3. Severe injuries resulting from accidents, such as fractures, burns, or traumatic brain injuries.
4. Elective procedures, such as surgeries for orthopedic issues or to correct congenital abnormalities.
5. Mental health disorders that necessitate inpatient care and treatment.

Regardless of the reason for hospitalization, healthcare professionals strive to provide comprehensive, family-centered care to ensure the best possible outcomes for their young patients. This may involve working closely with families to address their concerns, providing education about the child's condition and treatment plan, and coordinating care across various disciplines and specialties.

Resuscitation is a medical term that refers to the process of reversing cardiopulmonary arrest or preventing further deterioration of someone in cardiac or respiratory arrest. It involves a series of interventions aimed at restoring spontaneous blood circulation and breathing, thereby preventing or minimizing tissue damage due to lack of oxygen.

The most common form of resuscitation is cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), which combines chest compressions to manually pump blood through the body with rescue breaths to provide oxygen to the lungs. In a hospital setting, more advanced techniques such as defibrillation, medication administration, and intubation may also be used as part of the resuscitation process.

The goal of resuscitation is to stabilize the patient's condition and prevent further harm while treating the underlying cause of the arrest. Successful resuscitation can lead to a full recovery or, in some cases, result in varying degrees of neurological impairment depending on the severity and duration of the cardiac or respiratory arrest.

Cerebral malaria is a severe form of malaria that affects the brain. It is caused by Plasmodium falciparum parasites, which are transmitted to humans through the bites of infected Anopheles mosquitoes. In cerebral malaria, the parasites infect and destroy red blood cells, leading to their accumulation in small blood vessels in the brain. This can cause swelling of the brain, impaired consciousness, seizures, coma, and even death if left untreated.

The medical definition of cerebral malaria is:

A severe form of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum parasites that affects the brain and results in altered mental status, seizures, coma, or other neurological symptoms. It is characterized by the sequestration of infected red blood cells in the cerebral microvasculature, leading to inflammation, endothelial activation, and disruption of the blood-brain barrier. Cerebral malaria can cause long-term neurological deficits or death if not promptly diagnosed and treated with appropriate antimalarial therapy.

Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is a type of stroke caused by bleeding within the brain or its surrounding tissues. It's a serious medical emergency that requires immediate attention and treatment. The bleeding can occur in various locations:

1. Epidural hematoma: Bleeding between the dura mater (the outermost protective covering of the brain) and the skull. This is often caused by trauma, such as a head injury.
2. Subdural hematoma: Bleeding between the dura mater and the brain's surface, which can also be caused by trauma.
3. Subarachnoid hemorrhage: Bleeding in the subarachnoid space, which is filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and surrounds the brain. This type of ICH is commonly caused by the rupture of an intracranial aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation.
4. Intraparenchymal hemorrhage: Bleeding within the brain tissue itself, which can be caused by hypertension (high blood pressure), amyloid angiopathy, or trauma.
5. Intraventricular hemorrhage: Bleeding into the brain's ventricular system, which contains CSF and communicates with the subarachnoid space. This type of ICH is often seen in premature infants but can also be caused by head trauma or aneurysm rupture in adults.

Symptoms of intracranial hemorrhage may include sudden severe headache, vomiting, altered consciousness, confusion, seizures, weakness, numbness, or paralysis on one side of the body, vision changes, or difficulty speaking or understanding speech. Rapid diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent further brain damage and potential long-term disabilities or death.

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) otorrhea is a condition characterized by the leakage of cerebrospinal fluid from the inner ear into the external auditory canal of the ear. CSF is a clear, colorless fluid that surrounds and protects the brain and spinal cord. It is normally contained within the subarachnoid space, which is a space between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater that surrounds the brain and spinal cord.

CSF otorrhea can occur as a result of a head injury, skull base fracture, or surgical procedure involving the ear or surrounding structures. It can also be caused by congenital defects or tumors in the area. CSF otorrhea is a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention, as it can lead to meningitis or other complications if left untreated.

Diagnosis of CSF otorrhea typically involves a physical examination and testing of any fluid draining from the ear for beta-2 transferrin, a protein that is present in CSF but not in other bodily fluids. Imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans may also be used to help identify the underlying cause of the CSF leak. Treatment may involve bed rest, hydration, and antibiotics to prevent infection. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair the site of the CSF leak.

Vocational rehabilitation is a process that aims to help individuals with disabilities, injuries, or illnesses to obtain and maintain suitable employment. It is a coordinated program of services that may include assessment, counseling, training, job development, and placement. The goal is to assist the individual in acquiring the necessary skills and abilities to return to work or to begin a new career path. This process often involves collaboration between healthcare professionals, vocational counselors, and employers to ensure that the individual's needs are met and that they are able to perform their job duties safely and effectively.

The S100 calcium binding protein beta subunit, also known as S100B, is a member of the S100 family of proteins. These proteins are characterized by their ability to bind calcium ions and play a role in intracellular signaling pathways. The S100B protein is made up of two subunits, alpha and beta, which form a homodimer. It is primarily expressed in astrocytes, a type of glial cell found in the central nervous system.

S100B has been shown to have both intracellular and extracellular functions. Inside cells, it regulates various processes such as the dynamics of cytoskeleton, calcium homeostasis and cell proliferation. Extracellularly, S100B acts as a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule, released from damaged or stressed cells, where it can interact with receptors on other cells to induce inflammatory responses, neuronal death and contribute to the pathogenesis of several neurological disorders.

Elevated levels of S100B in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or blood are associated with various central nervous system injuries such as traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, stroke, neurodegenerative diseases and some types of cancer. Therefore, it is considered a biomarker for these conditions.

Intubation, intratracheal is a medical procedure in which a flexible plastic or rubber tube called an endotracheal tube (ETT) is inserted through the mouth or nose, passing through the vocal cords and into the trachea (windpipe). This procedure is performed to establish and maintain a patent airway, allowing for the delivery of oxygen and the removal of carbon dioxide during mechanical ventilation in various clinical scenarios, such as:

1. Respiratory failure or arrest
2. Procedural sedation
3. Surgery under general anesthesia
4. Neuromuscular disorders
5. Ingestion of toxic substances
6. Head and neck trauma
7. Critical illness or injury affecting the airway

The process of intubation is typically performed by trained medical professionals, such as anesthesiologists, emergency medicine physicians, or critical care specialists, using direct laryngoscopy or video laryngoscopy to visualize the vocal cords and guide the ETT into the correct position. Once placed, the ETT is secured to prevent dislodgement, and the patient's respiratory status is continuously monitored to ensure proper ventilation and oxygenation.

A subarachnoid hemorrhage is a type of stroke that results from bleeding into the space surrounding the brain, specifically within the subarachnoid space which contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This space is located between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater, two of the three layers that make up the meninges, the protective covering of the brain and spinal cord.

The bleeding typically originates from a ruptured aneurysm, a weakened area in the wall of a cerebral artery, or less commonly from arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) or head trauma. The sudden influx of blood into the CSF-filled space can cause increased intracranial pressure, irritation to the brain, and vasospasms, leading to further ischemia and potential additional neurological damage.

Symptoms of a subarachnoid hemorrhage may include sudden onset of severe headache (often described as "the worst headache of my life"), neck stiffness, altered mental status, nausea, vomiting, photophobia, and focal neurological deficits. Rapid diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent further complications and improve the chances of recovery.

Squamous cell carcinoma is a type of skin cancer that begins in the squamous cells, which are flat, thin cells that form the outer layer of the skin (epidermis). It commonly occurs on sun-exposed areas such as the face, ears, lips, and backs of the hands. Squamous cell carcinoma can also develop in other areas of the body including the mouth, lungs, and cervix.

This type of cancer usually develops slowly and may appear as a rough or scaly patch of skin, a red, firm nodule, or a sore or ulcer that doesn't heal. While squamous cell carcinoma is not as aggressive as some other types of cancer, it can metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body if left untreated, making early detection and treatment important.

Risk factors for developing squamous cell carcinoma include prolonged exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or tanning beds, fair skin, a history of sunburns, a weakened immune system, and older age. Prevention measures include protecting your skin from the sun by wearing protective clothing, using a broad-spectrum sunscreen with an SPF of at least 30, avoiding tanning beds, and getting regular skin examinations.

Logistic models, specifically logistic regression models, are a type of statistical analysis used in medical and epidemiological research to identify the relationship between the risk of a certain health outcome or disease (dependent variable) and one or more independent variables, such as demographic factors, exposure variables, or other clinical measurements.

In contrast to linear regression models, logistic regression models are used when the dependent variable is binary or dichotomous in nature, meaning it can only take on two values, such as "disease present" or "disease absent." The model uses a logistic function to estimate the probability of the outcome based on the independent variables.

Logistic regression models are useful for identifying risk factors and estimating the strength of associations between exposures and health outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders, and predicting the probability of an outcome given certain values of the independent variables. They can also be used to develop clinical prediction rules or scores that can aid in decision-making and patient care.

An Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is a specialized hospital department that provides continuous monitoring and advanced life support for critically ill patients. The ICU is equipped with sophisticated technology and staffed by highly trained healthcare professionals, including intensivists, nurses, respiratory therapists, and other specialists.

Patients in the ICU may require mechanical ventilation, invasive monitoring, vasoactive medications, and other advanced interventions due to conditions such as severe infections, trauma, cardiac arrest, respiratory failure, or post-surgical complications. The goal of the ICU is to stabilize patients' condition, prevent further complications, and support organ function while the underlying illness is treated.

ICUs may be organized into different units based on the type of care provided, such as medical, surgical, cardiac, neurological, or pediatric ICUs. The length of stay in the ICU can vary widely depending on the patient's condition and response to treatment.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

Tendon injuries, also known as tendinopathies, refer to the damage or injury of tendons, which are strong bands of tissue that connect muscles to bones. Tendon injuries typically occur due to overuse or repetitive motion, causing micro-tears in the tendon fibers. The most common types of tendon injuries include tendinitis, which is inflammation of the tendon, and tendinosis, which is degeneration of the tendon's collagen.

Tendon injuries can cause pain, swelling, stiffness, and limited mobility in the affected area. The severity of the injury can vary from mild discomfort to severe pain that makes it difficult to move the affected joint. Treatment for tendon injuries may include rest, ice, compression, elevation (RICE) therapy, physical therapy, medication, or in some cases, surgery. Preventing tendon injuries involves warming up properly before exercise, using proper form and technique during physical activity, gradually increasing the intensity and duration of workouts, and taking regular breaks to rest and recover.

An air ambulance is a specially equipped aircraft that transports patients to medical facilities, often in situations requiring emergency medical care and rapid transport. These aircraft are staffed with trained medical professionals, such as paramedics or nurses, and are equipped with medical equipment and supplies necessary to provide critical care during transportation.

Air ambulances can be helicopters or fixed-wing airplanes, depending on the distance of the transport and the medical needs of the patient. Helicopter air ambulances are often used for short-distance transports, such as from an accident scene to a nearby hospital, while fixed-wing airplanes are typically used for longer distances, such as between hospitals in different cities or states.

Air ambulances provide a critical service in emergency situations and can help ensure that patients receive timely and appropriate medical care. They may be called upon in a variety of circumstances, including trauma cases, cardiac emergencies, stroke, and other serious medical conditions.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

Aspiration pneumonia is a type of pneumonia that occurs when foreign materials such as food, liquid, or vomit enter the lungs, resulting in inflammation or infection. It typically happens when a person inhales these materials involuntarily due to impaired swallowing mechanisms, which can be caused by various conditions such as stroke, dementia, Parkinson's disease, or general anesthesia. The inhalation of foreign materials can cause bacterial growth in the lungs, leading to symptoms like cough, chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing. Aspiration pneumonia can be a serious medical condition, particularly in older adults or individuals with weakened immune systems, and may require hospitalization and antibiotic treatment.

Cerebrovascular trauma refers to an injury or damage to the blood vessels of the brain. This type of trauma can include things like carotid artery dissection, vertebral artery dissection, and intracranial hemorrhage (bleeding in the brain). These types of injuries can be caused by blunt force trauma, penetrating trauma, or iatrogenic causes (caused unintentionally during medical procedures). Symptoms of cerebrovascular trauma can include headache, neck pain, altered level of consciousness, weakness or numbness in the face or extremities, and difficulty speaking or understanding speech. Treatment for cerebrovascular trauma depends on the severity and location of the injury, and may include medications to control blood pressure and prevent seizures, surgery to repair damaged blood vessels, or endovascular procedures to treat aneurysms or blockages in the blood vessels.

A Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) is a specialized hospital unit that provides intensive care to critically ill or injured infants, children, and adolescents. The PICU is equipped with advanced medical technology and staffed by healthcare professionals trained in pediatrics, including pediatric intensivists, pediatric nurses, respiratory therapists, and other specialists as needed.

The primary goal of the PICU is to closely monitor and manage the most critical patients, providing around-the-clock care and interventions to support organ function, treat life-threatening conditions, and prevent complications. The PICU team works together to provide family-centered care, keeping parents informed about their child's condition and involving them in decision-making processes.

Common reasons for admission to the PICU include respiratory failure, shock, sepsis, severe trauma, congenital heart disease, neurological emergencies, and post-operative monitoring after complex surgeries. The length of stay in the PICU can vary widely depending on the severity of the child's illness or injury and their response to treatment.

Tooth injuries are damages or traumas that affect the teeth's structure and integrity. These injuries can occur due to various reasons, such as accidents, sports-related impacts, falls, fights, or biting on hard objects. The severity of tooth injuries may range from minor chips and cracks to more severe fractures, luxations (displacement), or avulsions (complete tooth loss).

Tooth injuries are typically classified into two main categories:

1. Crown injuries: These involve damages to the visible part of the tooth, including chipping, cracking, or fracturing. Crown injuries may be further categorized as:
* Uncomplicated crown fracture: When only the enamel and dentin are affected without pulp exposure.
* Complicated crown fracture: When the enamel, dentin, and pulp are all exposed.
2. Root injuries: These involve damages to the tooth root or the supporting structures, such as the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. Root injuries may include luxations (displacements), intrusions (teeth pushed into the socket), extrusions (teeth partially out of the socket), or avulsions (complete tooth loss).

Immediate medical attention is necessary for severe tooth injuries, as they can lead to complications like infection, tooth decay, or even tooth loss if not treated promptly and appropriately. Treatment options may include dental fillings, crowns, root canal therapy, splinting, or reimplantation in the case of avulsions. Preventive measures, such as wearing mouthguards during sports activities, can help reduce the risk of tooth injuries.

A biological marker, often referred to as a biomarker, is a measurable indicator that reflects the presence or severity of a disease state, or a response to a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers can be found in various materials such as blood, tissues, or bodily fluids, and they can take many forms, including molecular, histologic, radiographic, or physiological measurements.

In the context of medical research and clinical practice, biomarkers are used for a variety of purposes, such as:

1. Diagnosis: Biomarkers can help diagnose a disease by indicating the presence or absence of a particular condition. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a biomarker used to detect prostate cancer.
2. Monitoring: Biomarkers can be used to monitor the progression or regression of a disease over time. For instance, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels are monitored in diabetes patients to assess long-term blood glucose control.
3. Predicting: Biomarkers can help predict the likelihood of developing a particular disease or the risk of a negative outcome. For example, the presence of certain genetic mutations can indicate an increased risk for breast cancer.
4. Response to treatment: Biomarkers can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a specific treatment by measuring changes in the biomarker levels before and after the intervention. This is particularly useful in personalized medicine, where treatments are tailored to individual patients based on their unique biomarker profiles.

It's important to note that for a biomarker to be considered clinically valid and useful, it must undergo rigorous validation through well-designed studies, including demonstrating sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and clinical relevance.

The brainstem is the lower part of the brain that connects to the spinal cord. It consists of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata. The brainstem controls many vital functions such as heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory and motor information between the cerebral cortex and the rest of the body. Additionally, several cranial nerves originate from the brainstem, including those that control eye movements, facial movements, and hearing.

A pupillary reflex is a type of reflex that involves the constriction or dilation of the pupils in response to changes in light or near vision. It is mediated by the optic and oculomotor nerves. The pupillary reflex helps regulate the amount of light that enters the eye, improving visual acuity and protecting the retina from excessive light exposure.

In a clinical setting, the pupillary reflex is often assessed as part of a neurological examination. A normal pupillary reflex consists of both direct and consensual responses. The direct response occurs when light is shone into one eye and the pupil of that same eye constricts. The consensual response occurs when light is shone into one eye, causing the pupil of the other eye to also constrict.

Abnormalities in the pupillary reflex can indicate various neurological conditions, such as brainstem injuries or diseases affecting the optic or oculomotor nerves.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

Excitatory amino acids (EAAs) are a type of neurotransmitter, which are chemical messengers that transmit signals in the brain and nervous system. The most important excitatory amino acids in the central nervous system are glutamate and aspartate. These neurotransmitters play crucial roles in various physiological functions such as learning, memory, and synaptic plasticity. However, excessive or prolonged activation of EAA receptors can lead to neuronal damage or death, which is thought to contribute to several neurological disorders, including stroke, epilepsy, and neurodegenerative diseases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Emergency treatment refers to the urgent medical interventions and care provided to individuals who are experiencing a severe injury, illness, or life-threatening condition. The primary aim of emergency treatment is to stabilize the patient's condition, prevent further harm, and provide immediate medical attention to save the patient's life or limb.

Emergency treatment may include various medical procedures, such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), airway management, administering medications, controlling bleeding, treating burns, immobilizing fractures, and providing pain relief. The specific emergency treatment provided will depend on the nature and severity of the patient's condition.

Emergency treatment is typically delivered in an emergency department (ED) or a similar setting, such as an urgent care center, ambulance, or helicopter transport. Healthcare professionals who provide emergency treatment include emergency physicians, nurses, paramedics, and other specialists trained in emergency medicine.

It's important to note that emergency treatment is different from routine medical care, which is usually provided on a scheduled basis and focuses on preventing, diagnosing, and managing chronic or ongoing health conditions. Emergency treatment, on the other hand, is provided in response to an acute event or crisis that requires immediate attention and action.

A sprain is a type of injury that occurs to the ligaments, which are the bands of tissue that connect two bones together in a joint. It's usually caused by a sudden twisting or wrenching movement that stretches or tears the ligament. The severity of a sprain can vary, from a minor stretch to a complete tear of the ligament.

A strain, on the other hand, is an injury to a muscle or tendon, which is the tissue that connects muscle to bone. Strains typically occur when a muscle or tendon is stretched beyond its limit or is forced to contract too quickly. This can result in a partial or complete tear of the muscle fibers or tendon.

Both sprains and strains can cause pain, swelling, bruising, and difficulty moving the affected joint or muscle. The severity of these symptoms will depend on the extent of the injury. In general, sprains and strains are treated with rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE) to reduce pain and inflammation, followed by rehabilitation exercises to restore strength and mobility.

"Foreign bodies" refer to any object or substance that is not normally present in a particular location within the body. These can range from relatively harmless items such as splinters or pieces of food in the skin or gastrointestinal tract, to more serious objects like bullets or sharp instruments that can cause significant damage and infection.

Foreign bodies can enter the body through various routes, including ingestion, inhalation, injection, or penetrating trauma. The location of the foreign body will determine the potential for harm and the necessary treatment. Some foreign bodies may pass through the body without causing harm, while others may require medical intervention such as removal or surgical extraction.

It is important to seek medical attention if a foreign body is suspected, as untreated foreign bodies can lead to complications such as infection, inflammation, and tissue damage.

The temporal bone is a paired bone that is located on each side of the skull, forming part of the lateral and inferior walls of the cranial cavity. It is one of the most complex bones in the human body and has several important structures associated with it. The main functions of the temporal bone include protecting the middle and inner ear, providing attachment for various muscles of the head and neck, and forming part of the base of the skull.

The temporal bone is divided into several parts, including the squamous part, the petrous part, the tympanic part, and the styloid process. The squamous part forms the lateral portion of the temporal bone and articulates with the parietal bone. The petrous part is the most medial and superior portion of the temporal bone and contains the inner ear and the semicircular canals. The tympanic part forms the lower and anterior portions of the temporal bone and includes the external auditory meatus or ear canal. The styloid process is a long, slender projection that extends downward from the inferior aspect of the temporal bone and serves as an attachment site for various muscles and ligaments.

The temporal bone plays a crucial role in hearing and balance, as it contains the structures of the middle and inner ear, including the oval window, round window, cochlea, vestibule, and semicircular canals. The stapes bone, one of the three bones in the middle ear, is entirely encased within the petrous portion of the temporal bone. Additionally, the temporal bone contains important structures for facial expression and sensation, including the facial nerve, which exits the skull through the stylomastoid foramen, a small opening in the temporal bone.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Great Britain" is not a medical concept or condition. It is a geographical and political term referring to the largest island in the British Isles, on which the majority of England, Scotland, and Wales are located. It's also used to refer to the political union of these three countries, which is called the United Kingdom. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition.

Social adjustment, in the context of mental health and psychology, refers to an individual's ability to adapt and function effectively within their social environment. It involves developing and maintaining positive relationships with others, fulfilling various social roles (such as being a family member, friend, or employee), and meeting the expectations and demands of one's social group.

Social adjustment can be affected by various factors, including an individual's personality traits, coping skills, mental and physical health status, and life experiences. Poor social adjustment can lead to feelings of isolation, loneliness, and dissatisfaction with life, as well as increased risk for mental health problems such as depression and anxiety.

Assessing social adjustment is an important aspect of mental health care, as it can provide valuable insights into an individual's overall functioning and quality of life. Treatments such as psychotherapy and social skills training may be used to help improve social adjustment in individuals who are struggling in this area.

Wrist injuries refer to damages or traumas affecting the structures of the wrist, including bones, ligaments, tendons, muscles, and cartilage. These injuries can occur due to various reasons such as falls, accidents, sports-related impacts, or repetitive stress. Common types of wrist injuries include fractures (such as scaphoid fracture), sprains (like ligament tears), strains (involving muscles or tendons), dislocations, and carpal tunnel syndrome. Symptoms may include pain, swelling, tenderness, bruising, limited mobility, and in severe cases, deformity or numbness. Immediate medical attention is necessary for proper diagnosis and treatment to ensure optimal recovery and prevent long-term complications.

Violence is not typically defined in medical terms, but it can be described as the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation. This definition is often used in public health and medical research to understand the impact of violence on health outcomes.

A "patient transfer" is a medical procedure that involves moving a patient from one location, piece of medical equipment, or healthcare provider to another. This can include:

1. Transferring a patient from a bed to a stretcher, wheelchair, or other mobility device.
2. Moving a patient from a hospital bed to a surgical table or imaging machine such as an MRI or CT scanner.
3. Transporting a patient between healthcare facilities, such as from a hospital to a rehabilitation center or long-term care facility.
4. Transferring a patient between medical teams during the course of their treatment, like when they are moved from the emergency department to the intensive care unit.

Patient transfers require careful planning and execution to ensure the safety and comfort of the patient, as well as to prevent any potential injuries or complications for both the patient and the healthcare providers involved in the process. Proper techniques, equipment, and communication are essential for a successful patient transfer.

Causality is the relationship between a cause and a result, where the cause directly or indirectly brings about the result. In the medical context, causality refers to determining whether an exposure (such as a drug, infection, or environmental factor) is the cause of a specific outcome (such as a disease or adverse event). Establishing causality often involves evaluating epidemiological data, laboratory studies, and clinical evidence using established criteria, such as those proposed by Bradford Hill. It's important to note that determining causality can be complex and challenging, particularly when there are multiple potential causes or confounding factors involved.

Forensic medicine, also known as legal medicine or medical jurisprudence, is a branch of medicine that deals with the application of medical knowledge to legal issues and questions. It involves the examination, interpretation, and analysis of medical evidence for use in courts of law. This may include determining the cause and manner of death, identifying injuries or diseases, assessing the effects of substances or treatments, and evaluating the competency or capacity of individuals. Forensic medicine is often used in criminal investigations and court cases, but it can also be applied to civil matters such as personal injury claims or medical malpractice suits.

A subdural hematoma is a type of intracranial hemorrhage, which means it involves bleeding within the skull. More specifically, a subdural hematoma occurs between the dura mater (the outermost layer of the meninges that covers the brain) and the brain itself. This condition is usually caused by trauma or injury to the head, which results in the rupture of blood vessels in the brain. The bleeding then forms a collection of blood in the subdural space, which can compress the brain and lead to various neurological symptoms.

Subdural hematomas can be acute, subacute, or chronic, depending on the time course of symptom onset and the rate of blood accumulation. Acute subdural hematomas typically result from severe head trauma and require immediate medical attention due to their rapid progression and potential for causing significant brain damage or even death. Chronic subdural hematomas, on the other hand, may develop more slowly over time and can sometimes be asymptomatic, although they still have the potential to cause long-term neurological problems if left untreated.

Treatment options for subdural hematomas depend on various factors, including the patient's age, overall health status, the severity of symptoms, and the size and location of the hematoma. In some cases, conservative management with close monitoring may be appropriate, while in other situations, surgical intervention may be necessary to alleviate pressure on the brain and prevent further damage.

Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury (VILI) is a type of lung injury that can occur in patients who require mechanical ventilation to assist their breathing. It's caused by the application of excessive pressure or volume to the lungs during the process of mechanical ventilation, which can lead to damage of the alveoli (tiny air sacs in the lungs). This can result in inflammation, increased permeability of the alveolar-capillary membrane, and potentially even progressive lung dysfunction.

The risk factors for VILI include high tidal volumes (the amount of air moved into and out of the lungs during each breath), high inspiratory pressures, and high levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). To minimize the risk of VILI, clinicians often use a lung protective ventilation strategy that involves using lower tidal volumes and limiting inspiratory pressures.

It's important to note that while mechanical ventilation is a lifesaving intervention for many critically ill patients, it is not without risks. VILI is one of the potential complications of this therapy, and clinicians must be mindful of this risk when managing mechanically ventilated patients.

Brain ischemia is the medical term used to describe a reduction or interruption of blood flow to the brain, leading to a lack of oxygen and glucose delivery to brain tissue. This can result in brain damage or death of brain cells, known as infarction. Brain ischemia can be caused by various conditions such as thrombosis (blood clot formation), embolism (obstruction of a blood vessel by a foreign material), or hypoperfusion (reduced blood flow). The severity and duration of the ischemia determine the extent of brain damage. Symptoms can range from mild, such as transient ischemic attacks (TIAs or "mini-strokes"), to severe, including paralysis, speech difficulties, loss of consciousness, and even death. Immediate medical attention is required for proper diagnosis and treatment to prevent further damage and potential long-term complications.

The parietal bone is one of the four flat bones that form the skull's cranial vault, which protects the brain. There are two parietal bones in the skull, one on each side, located posterior to the frontal bone and temporal bone, and anterior to the occipital bone. Each parietal bone has a squamous part, which forms the roof and sides of the skull, and a smaller, wing-like portion called the mastoid process. The parietal bones contribute to the formation of the coronal and lambdoid sutures, which are fibrous joints that connect the bones in the skull.

A confidence interval (CI) is a range of values that is likely to contain the true value of a population parameter with a certain level of confidence. It is commonly used in statistical analysis to express the uncertainty associated with estimates derived from sample data.

For example, if we calculate a 95% confidence interval for the mean height of a population based on a sample of individuals, we can say that we are 95% confident that the true population mean height falls within the calculated range. The width of the confidence interval gives us an idea of how precise our estimate is - narrower intervals indicate more precise estimates, while wider intervals suggest greater uncertainty.

Confidence intervals are typically calculated using statistical formulas that take into account the sample size, standard deviation, and level of confidence desired. They can be used to compare different groups or to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions in medical research.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United Arab Emirates" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country in the Middle East, which is a sovereign constitutional monarchy formed from a federation of seven emirates. The UAE is known for its modern cities such as Dubai and Abu Dhabi, and it has a diverse economy with significant oil reserves. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health topics, I would be happy to help answer those!

The Surgery Department in a hospital is a specialized unit where surgical procedures are performed. It is typically staffed by surgeons, anesthesiologists, nurse anesthetists, registered nurses, surgical technologists, and other healthcare professionals who work together to provide surgical care for patients. The department may include various sub-specialties such as cardiovascular surgery, neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery, pediatric surgery, plastic surgery, and trauma surgery, among others.

The Surgery Department is responsible for the preoperative evaluation and preparation of patients, the performance of surgical procedures, and the postoperative care and management of patients. This includes ordering and interpreting diagnostic tests, developing treatment plans, obtaining informed consent from patients, performing surgeries, managing complications, providing postoperative pain control and wound care, and coordinating with other healthcare providers to ensure continuity of care.

The Surgery Department is equipped with operating rooms that contain specialized equipment and instruments necessary for performing surgical procedures. These may include microscopes, endoscopes, imaging equipment, and other technology used to assist in the performance of surgeries. The department may also have dedicated recovery areas, such as post-anesthesia care units (PACUs) or intensive care units (ICUs), where patients can be monitored and cared for immediately after surgery.

Overall, the Surgery Department plays a critical role in the delivery of healthcare services in a hospital setting, providing specialized surgical care to patients with a wide range of medical conditions and injuries.

Guideline adherence, in the context of medicine, refers to the extent to which healthcare professionals follow established clinical practice guidelines or recommendations in their daily practice. These guidelines are systematically developed statements designed to assist practitioners and patient decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances. Adherence to evidence-based guidelines can help improve the quality of care, reduce unnecessary variations in practice, and promote optimal patient outcomes. Factors that may influence guideline adherence include clinician awareness, familiarity, agreement, self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and the complexity of the recommendation.

Triage is a medical term that refers to the process of prioritizing patients based on the severity of their condition or illness, and the resources available. The goal of triage is to ensure that the most critical patients receive care first, which can help reduce morbidity and mortality in emergency situations. This process is typically used in settings where there are more patients than can be treated immediately, such as during mass casualty incidents or in busy emergency departments. Triage nurses or doctors quickly assess each patient's condition, often using a standardized system, to determine the urgency of their medical needs and allocate resources accordingly.

In the context of medicine, particularly in anatomy and physiology, "rotation" refers to the movement of a body part around its own axis or the long axis of another structure. This type of motion is three-dimensional and can occur in various planes. A common example of rotation is the movement of the forearm bones (radius and ulna) around each other during pronation and supination, which allows the hand to be turned palm up or down. Another example is the rotation of the head during mastication (chewing), where the mandible moves in a circular motion around the temporomandibular joint.

Biomechanics is the application of mechanical laws to living structures and systems, particularly in the field of medicine and healthcare. A biomechanical phenomenon refers to a observable event or occurrence that involves the interaction of biological tissues or systems with mechanical forces. These phenomena can be studied at various levels, from the molecular and cellular level to the tissue, organ, and whole-body level.

Examples of biomechanical phenomena include:

1. The way that bones and muscles work together to produce movement (known as joint kinematics).
2. The mechanical behavior of biological tissues such as bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments under various loads and stresses.
3. The response of cells and tissues to mechanical stimuli, such as the way that bone tissue adapts to changes in loading conditions (known as Wolff's law).
4. The biomechanics of injury and disease processes, such as the mechanisms of joint injury or the development of osteoarthritis.
5. The use of mechanical devices and interventions to treat medical conditions, such as orthopedic implants or assistive devices for mobility impairments.

Understanding biomechanical phenomena is essential for developing effective treatments and prevention strategies for a wide range of medical conditions, from musculoskeletal injuries to neurological disorders.

Corneal wavefront aberration is a measurement of the irregularities in the shape and curvature of the cornea, which can affect the way light enters the eye and is focused on the retina. A wavefront aberration test uses a device to measure the refraction of light as it passes through the cornea and calculates the degree of any distortions or irregularities in the wavefront of the light. This information can be used to guide treatment decisions, such as the prescription for eyeglasses or contact lenses, or the planning of a surgical procedure to correct the aberration.

Corneal wavefront aberrations can be classified into two types: low-order and high-order aberrations. Low-order aberrations include myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), and astigmatism, which are common refractive errors that can be easily corrected with glasses or contact lenses. High-order aberrations are more complex irregularities in the wavefront of light that cannot be fully corrected with traditional eyeglasses or contact lenses. These may include coma, trefoil, and spherical aberration, among others.

High-order corneal wavefront aberrations can affect visual quality, causing symptoms such as glare, halos around lights, and decreased contrast sensitivity. They are often associated with conditions that cause changes in the shape of the cornea, such as keratoconus or corneal surgery. In some cases, high-order aberrations can be corrected with specialized contact lenses or refractive surgery procedures such as wavefront-guided LASIK or PRK.

A lung is a pair of spongy, elastic organs in the chest that work together to enable breathing. They are responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide through the process of respiration. The left lung has two lobes, while the right lung has three lobes. The lungs are protected by the ribcage and are covered by a double-layered membrane called the pleura. The trachea divides into two bronchi, which further divide into smaller bronchioles, leading to millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli, where the exchange of gases occurs.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "insurance" is not a medical term per se. It is an financial concept and a type of risk management where an individual or entity pays a premium to a insurance company in order to receive financial protection or reimbursement against potential losses. In the context of healthcare, insurance typically refers to health insurance, which is a type of coverage that pays for medical, surgical, or hospital costs. Health insurance can be obtained through an employer, purchased directly from an insurance company, or provided by the government.

Poisoning is defined medically as the harmful, sometimes fatal, effect produced by a substance when it is introduced into or absorbed by living tissue. This can occur through various routes such as ingestion, inhalation, injection, or absorption through the skin. The severity of poisoning depends on the type and amount of toxin involved, the route of exposure, and the individual's age, health status, and susceptibility. Symptoms can range from mild irritation to serious conditions affecting multiple organs, and may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, difficulty breathing, seizures, or unconsciousness. Immediate medical attention is required in cases of poisoning to prevent severe health consequences or death.

Quadriplegia, also known as tetraplegia, is a medical condition characterized by paralysis affecting all four limbs and the trunk of the body. It results from damage to the cervical spinal cord, typically at levels C1-C8, which controls signals to the muscles in the arms, hands, trunk, legs, and pelvic organs. The extent of quadriplegia can vary widely, ranging from weakness to complete loss of movement and sensation below the level of injury. Other symptoms may include difficulty breathing, bowel and bladder dysfunction, and sexual dysfunction. The severity and prognosis depend on the location and extent of the spinal cord injury.

Neurological diagnostic techniques are medical tests and examinations used to identify and diagnose conditions related to the nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and muscles. These techniques can be divided into several categories:

1. Clinical Examination: A thorough physical examination, including a neurological evaluation, is often the first step in diagnosing neurological conditions. This may involve assessing a person's mental status, muscle strength, coordination, reflexes, sensation, and gait.

2. Imaging Techniques: These are used to produce detailed images of the brain and nervous system. Common imaging techniques include:

- Computed Tomography (CT): This uses X-rays to create cross-sectional images of the brain and other parts of the body.
- Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): This uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to produce detailed images of the brain and other internal structures.
- Functional MRI (fMRI): This is a type of MRI that measures brain activity by detecting changes in blood flow.
- Positron Emission Tomography (PET): This uses small amounts of radioactive material to produce detailed images of brain function.
- Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT): This is a type of nuclear medicine imaging that uses a gamma camera and a computer to produce detailed images of brain function.

3. Electrophysiological Tests: These are used to measure the electrical activity of the brain and nervous system. Common electrophysiological tests include:

- Electroencephalography (EEG): This measures the electrical activity of the brain.
- Evoked Potentials (EPs): These measure the electrical response of the brain and nervous system to sensory stimuli, such as sound or light.
- Nerve Conduction Studies (NCS): These measure the speed and strength of nerve impulses.
- Electromyography (EMG): This measures the electrical activity of muscles.

4. Laboratory Tests: These are used to analyze blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and other bodily fluids for signs of neurological conditions. Common laboratory tests include:

- Complete Blood Count (CBC): This measures the number and type of white and red blood cells in the body.
- Blood Chemistry Tests: These measure the levels of various chemicals in the blood.
- Lumbar Puncture (Spinal Tap): This is used to collect cerebrospinal fluid for analysis.
- Genetic Testing: This is used to identify genetic mutations associated with neurological conditions.

5. Imaging Studies: These are used to produce detailed images of the brain and nervous system. Common imaging studies include:

- Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): This uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to produce detailed images of the brain and nervous system.
- Computed Tomography (CT): This uses X-rays to produce detailed images of the brain and nervous system.
- Functional MRI (fMRI): This measures changes in blood flow in the brain during cognitive tasks.
- Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI): This is used to assess white matter integrity in the brain.
- Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS): This is used to measure chemical levels in the brain.

Aberrometry is a medical diagnostic technique used to measure the amount and type of aberration or distortion in the optical system of the eye. It is often used to evaluate the quality of vision, particularly in cases where traditional methods of measuring visual acuity are not sufficient.

During an aberrometry test, the patient looks into a specialized instrument called a wavefront sensor while a series of light patterns are projected onto the retina. The sensor then measures how the light is distorted as it passes through the eye's optical system, including the cornea and lens. This information is used to create a detailed map of the eye's aberrations, which can help doctors identify any irregularities that may be contributing to visual symptoms such as blurred vision, glare, or halos around lights.

Aberrometry is often used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests to evaluate patients who are considering refractive surgery, such as LASIK or PRK. By identifying any abnormalities in the eye's optical system, doctors can determine whether a patient is a good candidate for surgery and make more informed decisions about how to proceed with treatment.

"Wistar rats" are a strain of albino rats that are widely used in laboratory research. They were developed at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, USA, and were first introduced in 1906. Wistar rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not have a fixed set of genetic characteristics like inbred strains.

Wistar rats are commonly used as animal models in biomedical research because of their size, ease of handling, and relatively low cost. They are used in a wide range of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and behavioral studies. Wistar rats are also used in safety testing of drugs, medical devices, and other products.

Wistar rats are typically larger than many other rat strains, with males weighing between 500-700 grams and females weighing between 250-350 grams. They have a lifespan of approximately 2-3 years. Wistar rats are also known for their docile and friendly nature, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory setting.

Hospital mortality is a term used to describe the number or rate of deaths that occur in a hospital setting during a specific period. It is often used as a measure of the quality of healthcare provided by a hospital, as a higher hospital mortality rate may indicate poorer care or more complex cases being treated. However, it's important to note that hospital mortality rates can be influenced by many factors, including the severity of illness of the patients being treated, patient demographics, and the availability of resources and specialized care. Therefore, hospital mortality rates should be interpreted with caution and in the context of other quality metrics.

A nonvital tooth is one that no longer has a living or viable pulp, which contains the nerves and blood vessels inside the tooth. This condition can occur due to various reasons such as tooth decay that has progressed deeply into the tooth, dental trauma, or previous invasive dental procedures. As a result, the tooth loses its sensitivity to temperature changes and may darken in color. Nonvital teeth typically require root canal treatment to remove the dead pulp tissue, disinfect the canals, and fill them with an inert material to preserve the tooth structure and function.

A stab wound is a type of penetrating trauma to the body caused by a sharp object such as a knife or screwdriver. The injury may be classified as either a stabbing or a puncture wound, depending on the nature of the object and the manner in which it was inflicted. Stab wounds typically involve a forceful thrusting motion, which can result in damage to internal organs, blood vessels, and other structures.

The depth and severity of a stab wound depend on several factors, including the type and length of the weapon used, the angle and force of the strike, and the location of the wound on the body. Stab wounds to vital areas such as the chest or abdomen can be particularly dangerous due to the risk of internal bleeding and infection.

Immediate medical attention is required for stab wounds, even if they appear minor at first glance. Treatment may involve wound cleaning, suturing, antibiotics, and in some cases, surgery to repair damaged tissues or organs. In severe cases, stab wounds can lead to shock, organ failure, and even death if left untreated.

"Sex factors" is a term used in medicine and epidemiology to refer to the differences in disease incidence, prevalence, or response to treatment that are observed between males and females. These differences can be attributed to biological differences such as genetics, hormones, and anatomy, as well as social and cultural factors related to gender.

For example, some conditions such as autoimmune diseases, depression, and osteoporosis are more common in women, while others such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are more prevalent in men. Additionally, sex differences have been observed in the effectiveness and side effects of various medications and treatments.

It is important to consider sex factors in medical research and clinical practice to ensure that patients receive appropriate and effective care.

Aftercare, in a medical context, refers to the ongoing care and support provided to a patient following a medical treatment, procedure, or hospitalization. The goal of aftercare is to promote recovery, prevent complications, manage symptoms, and ensure the overall well-being of the patient. Aftercare may include follow-up appointments with healthcare providers, medication management, physical therapy, wound care, lifestyle modifications, and psychological support. It is an essential part of the treatment process that helps patients transition back to their normal lives and maintain their health and wellness in the long term.

Medical survival rate is a statistical measure used to determine the percentage of patients who are still alive for a specific period of time after their diagnosis or treatment for a certain condition or disease. It is often expressed as a five-year survival rate, which refers to the proportion of people who are alive five years after their diagnosis. Survival rates can be affected by many factors, including the stage of the disease at diagnosis, the patient's age and overall health, the effectiveness of treatment, and other health conditions that the patient may have. It is important to note that survival rates are statistical estimates and do not necessarily predict an individual patient's prognosis.

A subdural effusion is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the potential space between the dura mater (the outermost layer of the meninges that covers the brain and spinal cord) and the arachnoid membrane (one of the three layers of the meninges that surround the brain and spinal cord) in the subdural space.

Subdural effusions can occur due to various reasons, including head trauma, infection, or complications from neurosurgical procedures. The fluid accumulation may result from bleeding (subdural hematoma), inflammation, or increased cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Depending on the underlying cause and the amount of fluid accumulated, subdural effusions can cause various symptoms, such as headaches, altered mental status, or neurological deficits.

Subdural effusions are often asymptomatic and may resolve independently; however, in some cases, medical intervention might be necessary to alleviate the pressure on the brain or address the underlying condition. Imaging techniques like computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans are typically used to diagnose and monitor subdural effusions.

Optic nerve injuries refer to damages or trauma inflicted on the optic nerve, which is a crucial component of the visual system. The optic nerve transmits visual information from the retina to the brain, enabling us to see. Injuries to the optic nerve can result in various visual impairments, including partial or complete vision loss, decreased visual acuity, changes in color perception, and reduced field of view.

These injuries may occur due to several reasons, such as:

1. Direct trauma to the eye or head
2. Increased pressure inside the eye (glaucoma)
3. Optic neuritis, an inflammation of the optic nerve
4. Ischemia, or insufficient blood supply to the optic nerve
5. Compression from tumors or other space-occupying lesions
6. Intrinsic degenerative conditions affecting the optic nerve
7. Toxic exposure to certain chemicals or medications

Optic nerve injuries are diagnosed through a comprehensive eye examination, including visual acuity testing, slit-lamp examination, dilated fundus exam, and additional diagnostic tests like optical coherence tomography (OCT) and visual field testing. Treatment options vary depending on the cause and severity of the injury but may include medications, surgery, or vision rehabilitation.

Oxygen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that constitutes about 21% of the earth's atmosphere. It is a crucial element for human and most living organisms as it is vital for respiration. Inhaled oxygen enters the lungs and binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells, which carries it to tissues throughout the body where it is used to convert nutrients into energy and carbon dioxide, a waste product that is exhaled.

Medically, supplemental oxygen therapy may be provided to patients with conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, heart failure, or other medical conditions that impair the body's ability to extract sufficient oxygen from the air. Oxygen can be administered through various devices, including nasal cannulas, face masks, and ventilators.

Reference values, also known as reference ranges or reference intervals, are the set of values that are considered normal or typical for a particular population or group of people. These values are often used in laboratory tests to help interpret test results and determine whether a patient's value falls within the expected range.

The process of establishing reference values typically involves measuring a particular biomarker or parameter in a large, healthy population and then calculating the mean and standard deviation of the measurements. Based on these statistics, a range is established that includes a certain percentage of the population (often 95%) and excludes extreme outliers.

It's important to note that reference values can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, race, and other demographic characteristics. Therefore, it's essential to use reference values that are specific to the relevant population when interpreting laboratory test results. Additionally, reference values may change over time due to advances in measurement technology or changes in the population being studied.

Pneumocephalus is a medical condition characterized by the presence of air or gas within the intracranial cavity, specifically within the cranial vault (the space enclosed by the skull and containing the brain). This can occur due to various reasons such as trauma, neurosurgical procedures, tumors, or infection. The accumulation of air in the cranium can lead to symptoms like headache, altered mental status, nausea, vomiting, and neurological deficits. It is essential to diagnose and treat pneumocephalus promptly to prevent further complications, such as meningitis or brain abscess. Treatment options may include surgery, bed rest with head elevation, or administration of oxygen to facilitate the reabsorption of air.

The cerebral cortex is the outermost layer of the brain, characterized by its intricate folded structure and wrinkled appearance. It is a region of great importance as it plays a key role in higher cognitive functions such as perception, consciousness, thought, memory, language, and attention. The cerebral cortex is divided into two hemispheres, each containing four lobes: the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. These areas are responsible for different functions, with some regions specializing in sensory processing while others are involved in motor control or associative functions. The cerebral cortex is composed of gray matter, which contains neuronal cell bodies, and is covered by a layer of white matter that consists mainly of myelinated nerve fibers.

Intracranial sinus thrombosis is a medical condition characterized by the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) within the intracranial venous sinuses, which are responsible for draining blood from the brain. The condition can lead to various neurological symptoms and complications, such as increased intracranial pressure, headaches, seizures, visual disturbances, and altered consciousness. Intracranial sinus thrombosis may result from various factors, including hypercoagulable states, infections, trauma, and malignancies. Immediate medical attention is necessary for proper diagnosis and treatment to prevent potential long-term neurological damage or even death.

The humeral head is the rounded, articular surface at the proximal end of the humerus bone in the human body. It forms the upper part of the shoulder joint and articulates with the glenoid fossa of the scapula to form the glenohumeral joint, allowing for a wide range of motion in the arm. The humeral head is covered with cartilage that helps to provide a smooth, lubricated surface for movement and shock absorption.

Radiation injuries refer to the damages that occur to living tissues as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation. These injuries can be acute, occurring soon after exposure to high levels of radiation, or chronic, developing over a longer period after exposure to lower levels of radiation. The severity and type of injury depend on the dose and duration of exposure, as well as the specific tissues affected.

Acute radiation syndrome (ARS), also known as radiation sickness, is the most severe form of acute radiation injury. It can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, fever, and skin burns. In more severe cases, it can lead to neurological damage, hemorrhage, infection, and death.

Chronic radiation injuries, on the other hand, may not appear until months or even years after exposure. They can cause a range of symptoms, including fatigue, weakness, skin changes, cataracts, reduced fertility, and an increased risk of cancer.

Radiation injuries can be treated with supportive care, such as fluids and electrolytes replacement, antibiotics, wound care, and blood transfusions. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged tissue or control bleeding. Prevention is the best approach to radiation injuries, which includes limiting exposure through proper protective measures and monitoring radiation levels in the environment.

A contracture, in a medical context, refers to the abnormal shortening and hardening of muscles, tendons, or other tissue, which can result in limited mobility and deformity of joints. This condition can occur due to various reasons such as injury, prolonged immobilization, scarring, neurological disorders, or genetic conditions.

Contractures can cause significant impairment in daily activities and quality of life, making it difficult for individuals to perform routine tasks like dressing, bathing, or walking. Treatment options may include physical therapy, splinting, casting, medications, surgery, or a combination of these approaches, depending on the severity and underlying cause of the contracture.

Sheltered workshops are defined in the medical field as protected work environments specifically designed for individuals with disabilities, such as intellectual or developmental disorders. These workshops provide job training and employment opportunities within a structured setting that is tailored to the individual's abilities and needs. The primary goal of sheltered workshops is to help individuals with disabilities develop vocational skills, build self-esteem, and promote independence while offering them a safe and supportive work environment.

In a sheltered workshop, participants are often engaged in simple tasks or repetitive activities, such as assembly, packaging, or sorting. They are typically supervised and guided by trained staff who can provide assistance and accommodations as needed. While some sheltered workshops may pay workers for their contributions, the wages are often lower than those received in competitive employment settings, and there may be limitations on the opportunities for career advancement.

It is important to note that the use of sheltered workshops has been a topic of debate within the disability community and among advocates. Some argue that segregated work environments can hinder the inclusion and integration of individuals with disabilities into mainstream society, while others believe that sheltered workshops provide valuable services and support for those who may not be ready or able to participate in competitive employment.

Population surveillance in a public health and medical context refers to the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of health-related data for a defined population over time. It aims to monitor the health status, identify emerging health threats or trends, and evaluate the impact of interventions within that population. This information is used to inform public health policy, prioritize healthcare resources, and guide disease prevention and control efforts. Population surveillance can involve various data sources, such as vital records, disease registries, surveys, and electronic health records.

The odds ratio (OR) is a statistical measure used in epidemiology and research to estimate the association between an exposure and an outcome. It represents the odds that an event will occur in one group versus the odds that it will occur in another group, assuming that all other factors are held constant.

In medical research, the odds ratio is often used to quantify the strength of the relationship between a risk factor (exposure) and a disease outcome. An OR of 1 indicates no association between the exposure and the outcome, while an OR greater than 1 suggests that there is a positive association between the two. Conversely, an OR less than 1 implies a negative association.

It's important to note that the odds ratio is not the same as the relative risk (RR), which compares the incidence rates of an outcome in two groups. While the OR can approximate the RR when the outcome is rare, they are not interchangeable and can lead to different conclusions about the association between an exposure and an outcome.

Hypoglycemia is a medical condition characterized by an abnormally low level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. Generally, hypoglycemia is defined as a blood glucose level below 70 mg/dL (3.9 mmol/L), although symptoms may not occur until the blood sugar level falls below 55 mg/dL (3.0 mmol/L).

Hypoglycemia can occur in people with diabetes who are taking insulin or medications that increase insulin production, as well as those with certain medical conditions such as hormone deficiencies, severe liver illnesses, or disorders of the adrenal glands. Symptoms of hypoglycemia include sweating, shaking, confusion, rapid heartbeat, and in severe cases, loss of consciousness or seizures.

Hypoglycemia is typically treated by consuming fast-acting carbohydrates such as fruit juice, candy, or glucose tablets to rapidly raise blood sugar levels. If left untreated, hypoglycemia can lead to serious complications, including brain damage and even death.

Alcoholic intoxication, also known as alcohol poisoning, is a condition that occurs when a person consumes a large amount of alcohol in a short period of time. This can lead to an increase in the concentration of alcohol in the blood, which can affect the normal functioning of the body's organs and systems.

The symptoms of alcoholic intoxication can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but they may include:

* Confusion or disorientation
* Slurred speech
* Poor coordination
* Staggering or difficulty walking
* Vomiting
* Seizures
* Slow or irregular breathing
* Low body temperature (hypothermia)
* Pale or blue-tinged skin
* Unconsciousness or coma

Alcoholic intoxication can be a medical emergency and requires immediate treatment. If you suspect that someone has alcohol poisoning, it is important to seek medical help right away. Treatment may include supportive care, such as providing fluids and oxygen, and monitoring the person's vital signs. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.

It is important to note that alcoholic intoxication can occur even at relatively low levels of alcohol consumption, especially in people who are not used to drinking or who have certain medical conditions. It is always best to drink in moderation and to be aware of the potential risks associated with alcohol consumption.

Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain refers to a condition characterized by a reduced supply of oxygen (hypoxia) and blood flow (ischemia) to the brain. This can lead to serious damage or death of brain cells, depending on the severity and duration of the hypoxic-ischemic event.

Hypoxia occurs when there is insufficient oxygen available to meet the metabolic needs of the brain tissue. Ischemia results from a decrease in blood flow, which can be caused by various factors such as cardiac arrest, stroke, or severe respiratory distress. When both hypoxia and ischemia occur together, they can have a synergistic effect, leading to more severe brain damage.

Brain Hypoxia-Ischemia can result in neurological deficits, cognitive impairment, and physical disabilities, depending on the area of the brain affected. Treatment typically focuses on addressing the underlying cause of the hypoxia-ischemia and providing supportive care to minimize secondary damage. In some cases, therapeutic hypothermia may be used to reduce metabolic demands and protect vulnerable brain tissue.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sports" is not a medical term. It refers to physical activities that are governed by a set of rules and often engaged in competitively. However, there are fields such as Sports Medicine and Exercise Science that deal with various aspects of physical activity, fitness, and sports-related injuries or conditions. If you have any questions related to these areas, I'd be happy to try to help!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Norway" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country in Northern Europe, known officially as the Kingdom of Norway. If you have any questions about medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to help!

Intelligence tests are standardized procedures used to assess various aspects of an individual's cognitive abilities, such as their problem-solving skills, logical reasoning, verbal comprehension, and spatial relations. These tests provide a quantitative measurement of intelligence, often reported as an Intelligence Quotient (IQ) score. It is important to note that intelligence is a multifaceted concept, and intelligence tests measure only certain aspects of it. They should not be considered the sole determinant of an individual's overall intellectual capabilities or potential.

Corneal topography is a non-invasive medical imaging technique used to create a detailed map of the surface curvature of the cornea, which is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. This procedure provides valuable information about the shape and condition of the cornea, helping eye care professionals assess various eye conditions such as astigmatism, keratoconus, and other corneal abnormalities. It can also be used in contact lens fitting, refractive surgery planning, and post-surgical evaluation.

Astigmatism is a common eye condition that occurs when the cornea or lens has an irregular shape, causing blurred or distorted vision. The cornea and lens are typically smooth and curved uniformly in all directions, allowing light to focus clearly on the retina. However, if the cornea or lens is not smoothly curved and has a steeper curve in one direction than the other, it causes light to focus unevenly on the retina, leading to astigmatism.

Astigmatism can cause blurred vision at all distances, as well as eye strain, headaches, and fatigue. It is often present from birth and can be hereditary, but it can also develop later in life due to eye injuries or surgery. Astigmatism can be corrected with glasses, contact lenses, or refractive surgery such as LASIK.

Radiography is a diagnostic technique that uses X-rays, gamma rays, or similar types of radiation to produce images of the internal structures of the body. It is a non-invasive procedure that can help healthcare professionals diagnose and monitor a wide range of medical conditions, including bone fractures, tumors, infections, and foreign objects lodged in the body.

During a radiography exam, a patient is positioned between an X-ray machine and a special film or digital detector. The machine emits a beam of radiation that passes through the body and strikes the film or detector, creating a shadow image of the internal structures. Denser tissues, such as bones, block more of the radiation and appear white on the image, while less dense tissues, such as muscles and organs, allow more of the radiation to pass through and appear darker.

Radiography is a valuable tool in modern medicine, but it does involve exposure to ionizing radiation, which can carry some risks. Healthcare professionals take steps to minimize these risks by using the lowest possible dose of radiation necessary to produce a diagnostic image, and by shielding sensitive areas of the body with lead aprons or other protective devices.

An axon is a long, slender extension of a neuron (a type of nerve cell) that conducts electrical impulses (nerve impulses) away from the cell body to target cells, such as other neurons or muscle cells. Axons can vary in length from a few micrometers to over a meter long and are typically surrounded by a myelin sheath, which helps to insulate and protect the axon and allows for faster transmission of nerve impulses.

Axons play a critical role in the functioning of the nervous system, as they provide the means by which neurons communicate with one another and with other cells in the body. Damage to axons can result in serious neurological problems, such as those seen in spinal cord injuries or neurodegenerative diseases like multiple sclerosis.

Facial paralysis is a loss of facial movement due to damage or dysfunction of the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII). This nerve controls the muscles involved in facial expressions, such as smiling, frowning, and closing the eyes. Damage to one side of the facial nerve can cause weakness or paralysis on that side of the face.

Facial paralysis can result from various conditions, including:

1. Bell's palsy - an idiopathic (unknown cause) inflammation of the facial nerve
2. Trauma - skull fractures, facial injuries, or surgical trauma to the facial nerve
3. Infections - Lyme disease, herpes zoster (shingles), HIV/AIDS, or bacterial infections like meningitis
4. Tumors - benign or malignant growths that compress or invade the facial nerve
5. Stroke - damage to the brainstem where the facial nerve originates
6. Congenital conditions - some people are born with facial paralysis due to genetic factors or birth trauma

Symptoms of facial paralysis may include:

* Inability to move one or more parts of the face, such as the eyebrows, eyelids, mouth, or cheeks
* Drooping of the affected side of the face
* Difficulty closing the eye on the affected side
* Changes in saliva and tear production
* Altered sense of taste
* Pain around the ear or jaw
* Speech difficulties due to weakened facial muscles

Treatment for facial paralysis depends on the underlying cause. In some cases, such as Bell's palsy, spontaneous recovery may occur within a few weeks to months. However, physical therapy, medications, and surgical interventions might be necessary in other situations to improve function and minimize complications.

Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult (RDSa or ARDS), also known as Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, is a severe form of acute lung injury characterized by rapid onset of widespread inflammation in the lungs. This results in increased permeability of the alveolar-capillary membrane, pulmonary edema, and hypoxemia (low oxygen levels in the blood). The inflammation can be triggered by various direct or indirect insults to the lung, such as sepsis, pneumonia, trauma, or aspiration.

The hallmark of ARDS is the development of bilateral pulmonary infiltrates on chest X-ray, which can resemble pulmonary edema, but without evidence of increased left atrial pressure. The condition can progress rapidly and may require mechanical ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to maintain adequate oxygenation and prevent further lung injury.

The management of ARDS is primarily supportive, focusing on protecting the lungs from further injury, optimizing oxygenation, and providing adequate nutrition and treatment for any underlying conditions. The use of low tidal volumes and limiting plateau pressures during mechanical ventilation have been shown to improve outcomes in patients with ARDS.

Critical care, also known as intensive care, is a medical specialty that deals with the diagnosis and management of life-threatening conditions that require close monitoring and organ support. Critical care medicine is practiced in critical care units (ICUs) or intensive care units of hospitals. The goal of critical care is to prevent further deterioration of the patient's condition, to support failing organs, and to treat any underlying conditions that may have caused the patient to become critically ill.

Critical care involves a multidisciplinary team approach, including intensivists (specialist doctors trained in critical care), nurses, respiratory therapists, pharmacists, and other healthcare professionals. The care provided in the ICU is highly specialized and often involves advanced medical technology such as mechanical ventilation, dialysis, and continuous renal replacement therapy.

Patients who require critical care may have a wide range of conditions, including severe infections, respiratory failure, cardiovascular instability, neurological emergencies, and multi-organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Critical care is an essential component of modern healthcare and has significantly improved the outcomes of critically ill patients.

Hip injuries refer to damages or harm caused to the hip joint or its surrounding structures, including bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, and cartilage. These injuries can occur due to various reasons such as falls, accidents, sports-related activities, or degenerative conditions. Common hip injuries include fractures, dislocations, strains, sprains, bursitis, and labral tears. Symptoms may include pain, swelling, bruising, stiffness, limited mobility, and inability to bear weight on the affected leg. Proper diagnosis and treatment are crucial to ensure optimal recovery and prevent long-term complications.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Regression analysis is a statistical technique used in medicine, as well as in other fields, to examine the relationship between one or more independent variables (predictors) and a dependent variable (outcome). It allows for the estimation of the average change in the outcome variable associated with a one-unit change in an independent variable, while controlling for the effects of other independent variables. This technique is often used to identify risk factors for diseases or to evaluate the effectiveness of medical interventions. In medical research, regression analysis can be used to adjust for potential confounding variables and to quantify the relationship between exposures and health outcomes. It can also be used in predictive modeling to estimate the probability of a particular outcome based on multiple predictors.

Disability Evaluation is the process of determining the nature and extent of a person's functional limitations or impairments, and assessing their ability to perform various tasks and activities in order to determine eligibility for disability benefits or accommodations. This process typically involves a medical examination and assessment by a licensed healthcare professional, such as a physician or psychologist, who evaluates the individual's symptoms, medical history, laboratory test results, and functional abilities. The evaluation may also involve input from other professionals, such as vocational experts, occupational therapists, or speech-language pathologists, who can provide additional information about the person's ability to perform specific tasks and activities in a work or daily living context. Based on this information, a determination is made about whether the individual meets the criteria for disability as defined by the relevant governing authority, such as the Social Security Administration or the Americans with Disabilities Act.

Memory disorders are a category of cognitive impairments that affect an individual's ability to acquire, store, retain, and retrieve memories. These disorders can be caused by various underlying medical conditions, including neurological disorders, psychiatric illnesses, substance abuse, or even normal aging processes. Some common memory disorders include:

1. Alzheimer's disease: A progressive neurodegenerative disorder that primarily affects older adults and is characterized by a decline in cognitive abilities, including memory, language, problem-solving, and decision-making skills.
2. Dementia: A broader term used to describe a group of symptoms associated with a decline in cognitive function severe enough to interfere with daily life. Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia, but other causes include vascular dementia, Lewy body dementia, and frontotemporal dementia.
3. Amnesia: A memory disorder characterized by difficulties in forming new memories or recalling previously learned information due to brain damage or disease. Amnesia can be temporary or permanent and may result from head trauma, stroke, infection, or substance abuse.
4. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI): A condition where an individual experiences mild but noticeable memory or cognitive difficulties that are greater than expected for their age and education level. While some individuals with MCI may progress to dementia, others may remain stable or even improve over time.
5. Korsakoff's syndrome: A memory disorder often caused by alcohol abuse and thiamine deficiency, characterized by severe short-term memory loss, confabulation (making up stories to fill in memory gaps), and disorientation.

It is essential to consult a healthcare professional if you or someone you know experiences persistent memory difficulties, as early diagnosis and intervention can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

A kidney, in medical terms, is one of two bean-shaped organs located in the lower back region of the body. They are essential for maintaining homeostasis within the body by performing several crucial functions such as:

1. Regulation of water and electrolyte balance: Kidneys help regulate the amount of water and various electrolytes like sodium, potassium, and calcium in the bloodstream to maintain a stable internal environment.

2. Excretion of waste products: They filter waste products from the blood, including urea (a byproduct of protein metabolism), creatinine (a breakdown product of muscle tissue), and other harmful substances that result from normal cellular functions or external sources like medications and toxins.

3. Endocrine function: Kidneys produce several hormones with important roles in the body, such as erythropoietin (stimulates red blood cell production), renin (regulates blood pressure), and calcitriol (activated form of vitamin D that helps regulate calcium homeostasis).

4. pH balance regulation: Kidneys maintain the proper acid-base balance in the body by excreting either hydrogen ions or bicarbonate ions, depending on whether the blood is too acidic or too alkaline.

5. Blood pressure control: The kidneys play a significant role in regulating blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which constricts blood vessels and promotes sodium and water retention to increase blood volume and, consequently, blood pressure.

Anatomically, each kidney is approximately 10-12 cm long, 5-7 cm wide, and 3 cm thick, with a weight of about 120-170 grams. They are surrounded by a protective layer of fat and connected to the urinary system through the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

Foltz, Eldon L.; Schmidt, Richard P. (1956). "The Role of the Reticular Formation in the Coma of Head Injury". Journal of ... In order to study the limbic system Foltz became a post-doctoral fellow at The National Institute of Mental Health. Foltz' ... "coma of head injury." He studied monkeys with electrodes implanted in the reticular system and also cortical electrodes. He ... At the University of Washington, Foltz received a John R. and Mary Markle scholarship in Medical Science to support his coma ...
... he received a head injury during a horse-riding accident in Lutsk, Ukraine. He died on 12 August 2015 while in a coma in a ... In December 2010, he ranked 41st on the Kyiv Post's list of the richest people in Ukraine. In the 2012 Ukrainian parliamentary ... He was the founder and head of the parliamentary group People's Will since its foundation on 27 February 2014 (until 27 ... in Russian)/(website has automatic Google Translate option) Short bio, LIGA "#41 Richest: Ihor Yeremeyev, 42". Kyiv Post. 17 ...
There is a huge range of potential causes including head injury, interruption of blood circulation, impaired oxygenation or ... It is distinguished from the much stronger states of unresponsiveness of stupor and coma. Obtundation typically occurs as a ... carbon dioxide toxicity (hypercapnia), central nervous system (CNS) infections, drug intoxication or withdrawal, post-seizure ... "The Difference Between Lethargy, Obtundation, Stupor, and Coma , Time of Care". 2017-11-29. Retrieved 2022-03-26. The ...
Bong suffered severe head injuries, including post-traumatic amnesia. Tong suffered the most severe of injuries. After three ... days in hospital, he slipped into a coma and was pronounced brain dead on 18 December 2009. He was taken off life support on 25 ... He was recalled from his post in Singapore with effect from 5 January 2010 and the case had been referred to the Romanian ... On 27 March 2013, a Bucharest district court found Ionescu guilty of manslaughter, negligent bodily injury and leaving the ...
A post mortem examination showed that she had suffered multiple head injuries. Cantat admitted to hitting her four times; ... The following morning Marie Trintignant was found in a coma in her bed and died a few days later. ... He later alleged she had fallen and hit her head on a radiator, and that this impact, not his blows, rendered her unconscious. ... French post-punk music groups, French garage rock groups, Musical groups established in 1980). ...
... post-apocalyptic, and zombie films. In 1980, O'Brien suffered a head injury which left him in a coma for three days and ... Later that year, while staying in Parisian hotel, he slipped in the bathroom and hit his head. He was in a coma for three days ... It took him nearly four years to recover from his injuries though he would have limited mobility for the rest of his life. This ... He made his return to acting in the 1980s post-apocalyptic films The New Gladiators and 2020 Texas Gladiators directed by Lucio ...
PTA Scale and Glasgow Coma Scale as predictors of neuropsychological outcome following extremely severe blunt head injury. ... Russell W.R. Cerebral involvement in head injury. Brain 1932, 55, 549-603. Symonds & Russell (1943). Accidental head injuries: ... Use of the Westmead PTA scale to monitor recovery of memory after mild head injury. Brain Injury, 18(6), 603-614. Shores, E. A ... The Westmead Post-traumatic Amnesia Scale (WPTAS) is a brief bedside standardised test that measures length of post-traumatic ...
... covered with bruises and with a deep wound to the head, which caused a traumatic brain injury. She was found there by her ... "La Veneno", en coma tras ser hallada con un golpe en la cabeza y numerosas contusiones". Diario ABC (in Spanish). Madrid. 7 ... A second post mortem reached the same verdict.[citation needed] While she was hospitalised in the intensive care unit, people ... She was taken by ambulance to the Hospital Universitario La Paz, where she was placed in an induced coma as a preventative ...
"Jaswant Singh in coma after severe head injury, condition 'highly critical'". Zee News. 8 August 2014. Archived from the ... Post the event, Singh found himself marginalized within the party. In the elections of 2014, his party decided not to field him ... On 7 August 2014, Jaswant Singh suffered a fall in the bathroom of residence and suffered a serious head injury. In June 2020 ... and being treated for Sepsis with Multiorgan Dysfunction Syndrome and effects of Severe Head Injury old (Optd) had a cardiac ...
If the traumatic brain injury is severe enough, it can lead to an initial coma, which is then followed by a time of post- ... Traumatic brain injury happens when the head suffers from a sharp blow, or suddenly accelerates or decelerates. In these cases ... People who have been subject to a traumatic event that has included death of others or a possibility of death or severe injury ... Post traumatic amnesia typically resolves itself gradually, however it will leave a mild, but permanent deficit in the ...
... he died after being hospitalized in coma for ten days, as result of a head injury sustained in a traffic accident in Jerusalem ... "Holocaust survivor Zev Birger's lasting imprint on Jerusalem". The Jerusalem Post , JPost.com. Retrieved 2021-03-29. The ... Zev, his brother Mordecai and his father were loaded onto a freight train headed for Germany. Zev later said that he and his ...
... of people with closed head trauma, depending on severity. Post-traumatic amnesia (PTA), a confusional state with impaired ... Coma is a state in which the patient is totally unconscious and cannot be aroused even with strong stimuli. Persistent ... the more severe the head injury, the greater the risk of developing AD. Some evidence indicates that a head injury may interact ... Symptoms that may occur after a concussion - a minor form of traumatic brain injury - are referred to as post-concussion ...
He was reported to be in a coma with a severe head injury and listed in critical condition. Wilson was declared dead from his ... Jaguar granted Wilson a contract extension until post-season testing ended in December to convince the team to retain him. ... Pockrass, Bob; Oreovicz, John (23 August 2015). "Justin Wilson in coma after suffering severe head injury during race". ESPN. ... He was the first driver to die from injuries sustained in an IndyCar race since Dan Wheldon in 2011. As of 2023[update], it is ...
Web Editor (11854 Posts). "As Sanaullah Haq went into a deep coma, protests began being launched in Azad Kashmir , CanIndia ... Haq was attacked in the early hours of 3 May 2013, and suffered serious head injuries. The officials said that he was hit with ... Sanaullah died on 9 May 2013 and according to doctors he died from multiple organ failure resulting from severe head injuries. ... "Prisoner in Coma after attack in Jammu". Zeenews.india.com. 3 May 2013. Retrieved 13 May 2013. "Sanaullah Haq death: Pakistan ...
... coma, post-head injury MeSH C10.900.300.218 - cranial nerve injuries MeSH C10.900.300.218.150 - abducens nerve injury MeSH ... coma MeSH C10.597.606.358.800.200.100 - brain death MeSH C10.597.606.358.800.200.200 - coma, post-head injury MeSH C10.597. ... head injuries, closed MeSH C10.900.300.350.300 - brain concussion MeSH C10.900.300.350.300.500 - post-concussion syndrome MeSH ... brain injury, chronic MeSH C10.228.140.199.600 - diffuse axonal injury MeSH C10.228.140.199.650 - epilepsy, post-traumatic MeSH ...
... coma, post-head injury MeSH C21.866.260.237 - cranial nerve injuries MeSH C21.866.260.237.162 - abducens nerve injury MeSH ... coma, post-head injury MeSH C21.866.915.300.400 - cranial nerve injuries MeSH C21.866.915.300.400.100 - abducens nerve injury ... optic nerve injuries MeSH C21.866.915.300.450 - head injuries, closed MeSH C21.866.915.300.475 - head injuries, penetrating ... head injuries, closed MeSH C21.866.260.538 - head injuries, penetrating MeSH C21.866.260.616 - intracranial hemorrhage, ...
Yeimo suffered severe head injuries and fell into a coma. The next day, people from the village of Eneratoli, Paniai Regency ... "Palace denies 2014 Papua killings constitute gross human rights violation". The Jakarta Post. "Komnas HAM: TNI dan Polri ...
Non-hereditary causes of cerebellar degeneration include chronic alcohol use disorder, head injury, paraneoplastic and non- ... These include reversible cerebellar ataxia, dementia, peripheral neuropathy, psychosis and coma. Most of the neurological ... normal pressure hydrocephalus and infectious or post-infectious cerebellitis.[citation needed] Ataxia may depend on hereditary ... Tremor of the head and trunk (titubation) may be seen in individuals with cerebellar ataxia. Dysmetria is thought to be caused ...
"Clinical outcome and cognitive impairment in patients with severe head injuries treated with barbiturate coma". Acta ... This can lead to post-ICU PTSD after hospital discharge. Patients that develop ICU delirium are at 120 times greater risk of ... An induced coma - also known as a medically induced coma (MIC), barbiturate-induced coma, or drug-induced coma - is a temporary ... Nordby HK, Nesbakken R (1984). "The effect of high dose barbiturate decompression after severe head injury. A controlled ...
Actor Teruyoshi Uchimura and Wong Ka Kui both fell off a broken stage and sustained massive head injuries. Wong was sent to the ... Beyond's first album in the post Ka Kui era was 2nd Floor Back Suite (二樓後座). In 1997 the album Please Let Go of Your Hands also ... He fell into a coma and died one week later at aged 31. The death occurred at the prime of the band's career, with the ... "Beyond's Wong Ka-kui: 5 things you didn't know about the Hong Kong singer". South China Morning Post. 29 June 2018. Retrieved 5 ...
Reperfusion injury is classified as the damage that ensues after restoration of blood supply to ischemic tissue. Due to ... If hypoxia lasts for long periods of time, coma, seizures, and even brain death may occur. Symptoms of brain hypoxia are ... Other causes associated with brain hypoxia include drowning, strangling, choking, cardiac arrest, head trauma, and ... This procedure was suggested to be beneficial based on its effects post cardiac arrest. Evidence supporting the use of ...
"Schumacher Head Injury Skiing". Snow Industry News. Archived from the original on 27 April 2015. Retrieved 20 April 2015. Noble ... In December 2013, Schumacher suffered a severe brain injury in a skiing accident. He was placed in a medically induced coma ... At the post-race press conference, after equalling the number of wins (41) won by his idol Senna, Schumacher broke into tears. ... Schumacher was put into a medically induced coma because of traumatic brain injury. By March 2014, there were small encouraging ...
In February 1999, Moran fell off a cliff during a skiing race, suffering a head injury. Despite being in a coma for almost a ... "U.S. Freestyle Skiing Team is still trying to get over rough spots". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 22, 2022. " ... However, the injury forced him to retire from the sport. In 2008, Moran gained a degree with the University of Utah, and later ...
Mae was wearing a seatbelt and sustained minor injuries. She attended to Cheng, holding his head until two off-duty paramedics ... There was also a "Get well soon" card on MySpace for Cheng that fans from all over the world could sign by posting comments. ... Following the release, a rumor started to spread in early May that Cheng had awakened fully from his coma but this was denied ... A few months later, in October, Răzvan Rădulescu (aka DJ Hefe) of the Romanian nu metal band Coma released a compilation album ...
Her cousin was put in a medically induced coma to treat his head injury and regained consciousness a few days later. Footage of ... "This Viral Video Of an Israeli Soldier Trying to Arrest a Palestinian Boy Says a lot". The Washington Post. 31 August 2015. ... According to the Tamimi family, during the protest Ahed's 15-year-old cousin Mohammed Tamimi was shot in the head at close ... Her mother was also charged with incitement and assault after posting a video in which the indictment claims Tamimi urged ...
Barbie had suffered a severe head injury in an automobile accident, sending her into a months-long coma. The concert they ... Louis Post-Dispatch at Newspapers.com". Newspapers.com. Retrieved 2019-03-28. "The Lee Strasberg Theatre & Film Institute". www ... By 2003, he was back in the role of screenwriter, becoming Head Writer for the Nickelodeon TV show LazyTown. Shot in Iceland on ...
On 1 September 2006, the band announced via a bulletin and blog-post on MySpace that they were splitting up. The news came just ... He regained consciousness on 27 July and was released from the hospital, but required a metal plate in his head. Briggs turned ... Leeson was in a coma, and listed in critical condition for three weeks following surgery to remove a piece of skull that was ... himself in to police when the extent of Leeson's injuries was reported in the news. Briggs was sentenced to eight months in ...
... where Captain Blazkowicz suffers a head injury in 1946 that leaves him in a vegetative state for 14 years in a Polish asylum. ... Blazkowicz spends the next five months in a coma as a result of his grave wounds. In the intro of The New Colossus, the player ... The New Order establishes a new timeline that alters the previously perceived post-war profile, ... Also in The New Colossus, a German Jewish scientist, Set Roth, rescues B.J.'s head after he was beheaded by Frau Engel at the ...
On 16 May 2013, Michael sustained a head injury when he fell from his moving car on the M1 motorway, near St Albans in ... The Huffington Post. Retrieved 27 December 2016 "George Michael planned to release new album in 2017". NME. 26 December 2016. ... Michael fell into a coma in 2011 during a bout with pneumonia, but later recovered. He performed his final concert at London's ... Casciato, Paul (21 May 2013). "Singer George Michael under observation for head injuries". Reuters. Archived from the original ...
... caused by repetitive head injuries, for example in boxing or other contact sports A severe injury may lead to a coma or death ... Malignant post traumatic cerebral swelling can develop unexpectedly in stable patients after an injury, as can post-traumatic ... A head injury is any injury that results in trauma to the skull or brain. The terms traumatic brain injury and head injury are ... Head injuries include both injuries to the brain and those to other parts of the head, such as the scalp and skull. Head ...
Foltz, Eldon L.; Schmidt, Richard P. (1956). "The Role of the Reticular Formation in the Coma of Head Injury". Journal of ... In order to study the limbic system Foltz became a post-doctoral fellow at The National Institute of Mental Health. Foltz ... "coma of head injury." He studied monkeys with electrodes implanted in the reticular system and also cortical electrodes. He ... At the University of Washington, Foltz received a John R. and Mary Markle scholarship in Medical Science to support his coma ...
Amantadine accelerated the pace of functional recovery during active treatment in patients with post-traumatic disorders of ... Brain Injuries / complications * Brain Injuries / drug therapy* * Coma, Post-Head Injury / drug therapy* ... Placebo-controlled trial of amantadine for severe traumatic brain injury N Engl J Med. 2012 Mar 1;366(9):819-26. doi: 10.1056/ ... Conclusions: Amantadine accelerated the pace of functional recovery during active treatment in patients with post-traumatic ...
The greatest challenge associated with endocrine complications in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) is early ... coma, and death. Hepatic failure, hypokalemia, and malnutrition are risk factors for osmotic demyelination. ... encoded search term (Post Head Injury Endocrine Complications) and Post Head Injury Endocrine Complications What to Read Next ... Signs and symptoms of post-head injury endocrine complications. Common post-TBI findings, such as lethargy, fatigue, and slowed ...
Opioids may also obscure the clinical course in a patient with a head injury. Avoid the use of OXYCONTIN in patients with ... There have been post-marketing reports of difficulty in swallowing OXYCONTIN tablets. These reports included choking, gagging, ... MAOI interactions with opioids may manifest as serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity (e.g., respiratory depression, coma) [see ... Risks Of Use In Patients With Increased Intracranial Pressure, Brain Tumors, Head Injury, Or Impaired Consciousness. In ...
Head injury. Increased intracranial pressure, brain tumors; monitor. Seizure disorders. CNS depression. Impaired consciousness ... Monitor bowel motility in post-op patients. Drug or alcohol abusers. Renal or hepatic impairment; avoid if severe. Reevaluate ... coma, shock; avoid. Biliary tract disease. Acute pancreatitis. Avoid in peptic ulcer disease. Coagulation abnormalities. ...
Rollover accident injuries are one of the most critical, and they can cause great damage to you and your vehicle. Find out what ... Head injuries can lead to severe conditions like coma, memory loss, and loss of limb functionality. ... A passengers head is the most exposed body part in accidents which can hit the side post, steering wheel, window, and roof. ... Brain and head damage. These include skull fractures, traumatic brain injury, concussions, and contusions. ...
... age and initial coma score.. Keywords: head injury, early posttraumatic seizure, outcome. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice ... admission coma score, and Glasgow outcome score in patients with non-penetrating head injury.. Results: Eighty six (10.2%) of ... of head injured patients (p=0.00000). Traffic accident was the leading cause of head injuries (58%), while fall from height ( ... Early posttraumatic seizure worsened outcome of head injury, the case mortality rate being 27.9% and 19.2% in patients with and ...
... month post-injury on subsequent post-injury quality of life (HRQoL) in a general injury pop ... and significant head injury (loss of consciousness, amnesia or a Glasgow coma scale of ,15) were excluded due to difficulty ... To demonstrate the impact of psychological morbidity 1 month post-injury on subsequent post-injury quality of life (HRQoL) in a ... or for specific injuries such as burns [23], head injuries [24] or spinal cord injuries [25]. However, many injuries admitted ...
... also known as acquired brain injury, head injury, or brain injury, causes substantial disability and mortality. It occurs when ... Disability rating scale for severe head trauma: coma to community. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1982 Mar. 63(3):118-23. [QxMD MEDLINE ... Persistent post-traumatic headache attributed to mild traumatic brain injury: Deep phenotyping and treatment patterns. ... Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as acquired brain injury, head injury, or brain injury, causes substantial disability ...
There are approximately 1.4 million attendances at A&E with head injuries in the UK, and of those 50% will be children ... Here is a useful link to view information about the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). ... Share this post. Head injuries are a common problem in the childrens emergency department and indeed across emergency ... "Usually when a head injury occurs, the primary injury is something which has happened and has happened at the point of injury ...
Rock star Wong Ka-kui was recording a Japanese TV show when he fell off a stage and sustained massive head injuries. His death ... sustaining massive head injuries and falling into a coma.. Chinas got talent: the musicians trying to make it big in the West ...
12-year-old survives serious head injury after being put into induced coma. Posted on October 14, 2022 by John Saccenti - ... Just post your celebration online (Facebook, Instagram or Twitter) and be sure to tag the post #DonatetoCelebrateTKC ... Posted on October 14, 2022 by John Saccenti - Health, Sponsored. For Emma Topp, what began as chest pain during gym class ... Posted on November 29, 2022 by Colette Doudin - Health, Sponsored. Starting in 2023, even more New Jerseyans will be able to ...
2023: 5th International Agronursing Conference (5th IANC) In Conjunction with 1st International Post Graduate Nursing Student ... ACCURACY OF GLASGOW COMA SCALE (GCS) COMPONENTS AS PREDICTORS OF MORTALITY OF MODERATE AND SEVERE HEAD INJURY CLIENTS * Riki ... ACCURACY OF GLASGOW COMA SCALE (GCS) COMPONENTS AS PREDICTORS OF MORTALITY OF MODERATE AND SEVERE HEAD INJURY CLIENTS. UNEJ e- ... The population is the medical record data of head injury patients admitted in the period January to December 2020 at Dr. Iskak ...
Recent Posts. * Reflections From an NACD Mom & Coach * Sanjanas Journey * NACDs Annual Eastern European Event in Transylvania ... Coma/Head Injuries: "Camron". by NACD International on November 30, 1996 with No Comments ... He sustained serious head injuries and was comatose for four months. After 10 weeks at our … Read More ...
By definition, TBI requires that there be a head injury, or any physical assault to the head leading to injury of the scalp, ... However, not all head trauma is associated with TBI. Source for information on Traumatic Brain Injury: Gale Encyclopedia of ... is the result of physical trauma to the head causing damage to the brain. This damage can be focal, or restricted to a single ... Traumatic brain injury Definition Traumatic brain injury (TBI) ... brain injury with a post-resuscitation Glasgow Coma Score less ...
This type of injury is called an "open" head injury and may only damage a specific area of the brain. After an injury, the ... How well the person does post injury will depend on a number of factors. Some of these factors are related to the individuals ... person may be in a prolonged period of unconsciousness or coma, which may result in severe damage to the brain.. Not very long ... Every persons injury and recovery is unique due to reaction to injury, pre-injury personality, past experiences, learning ...
"His head hit the ground and he sustained a very serious injury, which caused a loss of brain tissue," Batista said during the ... Lucas was already in coma. His heart stopped beating twice, and they performed an emergency operation." It was at that moment ... Recent Posts. See All. Fatima: Sacrifice and Penance. ...
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research aims to publish findings of doctors at grass root level and post graduate students ... Conclusion: Post-traumatic early cerebral infarction is common in head injuries and can lead to neurological deterioration. MRI ... ACR Head Injury Institute; ACR Head Injury Institute. Imaging evidence and recommendations for traumatic brain injury: ... and severe head injury (38.8%, 7 out of 18 cases), while 23.5% of patients (4 out of 17 patients) in the mild head injury ...
COMA POSTRAUMATISMO DE LA CABEZA. COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY. COMA PÓS-TRAUMATISMO DA CABEÇA. ... OPTIC NERVE INJURIES. TRAUMATISMOS DO NERVO ÓPTICO. TRAUMATISMOS PENETRANTES DE LA CABEZA. HEAD INJURIES, PENETRATING. ... BRAIN INJURY, CHRONIC. LESÃO CEREBRAL CRÔNICA. TRAUMATISMO DEL NERVIO ABDUCENTE. ABDUCENS NERVE INJURY. TRAUMATISMO DO NERVO ... CAROTID ARTERY INJURIES. LESÕES DAS ARTÉRIAS CARÓTIDAS. TRAUMATISMOS DEL NERVIO CRANEAL. CRANIAL NERVE INJURIES. TRAUMATISMOS ...
COMA POSTRAUMATISMO DE LA CABEZA. COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY. COMA PÓS-TRAUMATISMO DA CABEÇA. ... OPTIC NERVE INJURIES. TRAUMATISMOS DO NERVO ÓPTICO. TRAUMATISMOS PENETRANTES DE LA CABEZA. HEAD INJURIES, PENETRATING. ... BRAIN INJURY, CHRONIC. LESÃO CEREBRAL CRÔNICA. TRAUMATISMO DEL NERVIO ABDUCENTE. ABDUCENS NERVE INJURY. TRAUMATISMO DO NERVO ... CAROTID ARTERY INJURIES. LESÕES DAS ARTÉRIAS CARÓTIDAS. TRAUMATISMOS DEL NERVIO CRANEAL. CRANIAL NERVE INJURIES. TRAUMATISMOS ...
COMA POSTRAUMATISMO DE LA CABEZA. COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY. COMA PÓS-TRAUMATISMO DA CABEÇA. ... OPTIC NERVE INJURIES. TRAUMATISMOS DO NERVO ÓPTICO. TRAUMATISMOS PENETRANTES DE LA CABEZA. HEAD INJURIES, PENETRATING. ... BRAIN INJURY, CHRONIC. LESÃO CEREBRAL CRÔNICA. TRAUMATISMO DEL NERVIO ABDUCENTE. ABDUCENS NERVE INJURY. TRAUMATISMO DO NERVO ... CAROTID ARTERY INJURIES. LESÕES DAS ARTÉRIAS CARÓTIDAS. TRAUMATISMOS DEL NERVIO CRANEAL. CRANIAL NERVE INJURIES. TRAUMATISMOS ...
COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY COMA POSTRAUMATISMO DE LA CABEZA COMA PÓS-TRAUMATISMO DA CABEÇA ... HEAD INJURIES, PENETRATING TRAUMATISMOS PENETRANTES DE LA CABEZA TRAUMATISMOS CRANIANOS PENETRANTES HEADACHE DISORDERS ... DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY TRAUMATISMO AXONAL DIFUSO LESÃO AXONAL DIFUSA DIPEPTIDYL PEPTIDASE I DIPEPTIDIL PEPTIDASA I DIPEPTIDIL ... FACIAL NERVE INJURIES TRAUMATISMOS DEL NERVIO FACIAL TRAUMATISMOS DO NERVO FACIAL FEMORAL NEUROPATHY NEUROPATIA FEMORAL ...
COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY COMA POSTRAUMATISMO DE LA CABEZA COMA PÓS-TRAUMATISMO DA CABEÇA ... HEAD INJURIES, PENETRATING TRAUMATISMOS PENETRANTES DE LA CABEZA TRAUMATISMOS CRANIANOS PENETRANTES HEADACHE DISORDERS ... DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY TRAUMATISMO AXONAL DIFUSO LESÃO AXONAL DIFUSA DIPEPTIDYL PEPTIDASE I DIPEPTIDIL PEPTIDASA I DIPEPTIDIL ... FACIAL NERVE INJURIES TRAUMATISMOS DEL NERVIO FACIAL TRAUMATISMOS DO NERVO FACIAL FEMORAL NEUROPATHY NEUROPATIA FEMORAL ...
COMA PÓS-TRAUMATISMO DA CABEÇA COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY COMA POSTRAUMATISMO DE LA CABEZA ... HEAD INJURIES, PENETRATING TRAUMATISMOS PENETRANTES DE LA CABEZA TRAUMATISMOS DO NERVO FACIAL FACIAL NERVE INJURIES ... BRAIN INJURY, CHRONIC TRAUMATISMO CEREBRAL CRÔNICO LESÕES DAS ARTÉRIAS CARÓTIDAS CAROTID ARTERY INJURIES TRAUMATISMOS DE LA ... OPTIC NERVE INJURIES TRAUMATISMOS DEL NERVIO OPTICO TRAUMATISMOS DOS NERVOS CRANIANOS CRANIAL NERVE INJURIES TRAUMATISMOS DEL ...
COMA POSTRAUMATISMO DE LA CABEZA. COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY. COMA PÓS-TRAUMATISMO DA CABEÇA. ... OPTIC NERVE INJURIES. TRAUMATISMOS DO NERVO ÓPTICO. TRAUMATISMOS PENETRANTES DE LA CABEZA. HEAD INJURIES, PENETRATING. ... BRAIN INJURY, CHRONIC. LESÃO CEREBRAL CRÔNICA. TRAUMATISMO DEL NERVIO ABDUCENTE. ABDUCENS NERVE INJURY. TRAUMATISMO DO NERVO ... CAROTID ARTERY INJURIES. LESÕES DAS ARTÉRIAS CARÓTIDAS. TRAUMATISMOS DEL NERVIO CRANEAL. CRANIAL NERVE INJURIES. TRAUMATISMOS ...
COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY COMA POSTRAUMATISMO DE LA CABEZA COMA PÓS-TRAUMATISMO DA CABEÇA ... HEAD INJURIES, PENETRATING TRAUMATISMOS PENETRANTES DE LA CABEZA TRAUMATISMOS CRANIANOS PENETRANTES HEADACHE DISORDERS ... DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY TRAUMATISMO AXONAL DIFUSO LESÃO AXONAL DIFUSA DIPEPTIDYL PEPTIDASE I DIPEPTIDIL PEPTIDASA I DIPEPTIDIL ... FACIAL NERVE INJURIES TRAUMATISMOS DEL NERVIO FACIAL TRAUMATISMOS DO NERVO FACIAL FEMORAL NEUROPATHY NEUROPATIA FEMORAL ...
COMA PÓS-TRAUMATISMO DA CABEÇA COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY COMA POSTRAUMATISMO DE LA CABEZA ... HEAD INJURIES, PENETRATING TRAUMATISMOS PENETRANTES DE LA CABEZA TRAUMATISMOS DO NERVO FACIAL FACIAL NERVE INJURIES ... BRAIN INJURY, CHRONIC TRAUMATISMO CEREBRAL CRÔNICO LESÕES DAS ARTÉRIAS CARÓTIDAS CAROTID ARTERY INJURIES TRAUMATISMOS DE LA ... OPTIC NERVE INJURIES TRAUMATISMOS DEL NERVIO OPTICO TRAUMATISMOS DOS NERVOS CRANIANOS CRANIAL NERVE INJURIES TRAUMATISMOS DEL ...
COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY COMA POSTRAUMATISMO DE LA CABEZA COMA PÓS-TRAUMATISMO DA CABEÇA ... HEAD INJURIES, PENETRATING TRAUMATISMOS PENETRANTES DE LA CABEZA TRAUMATISMOS CRANIANOS PENETRANTES HEADACHE DISORDERS ... DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY TRAUMATISMO AXONAL DIFUSO LESÃO AXONAL DIFUSA DIPEPTIDYL PEPTIDASE I DIPEPTIDIL PEPTIDASA I DIPEPTIDIL ... FACIAL NERVE INJURIES TRAUMATISMOS DEL NERVIO FACIAL TRAUMATISMOS DO NERVO FACIAL FEMORAL NEUROPATHY NEUROPATIA FEMORAL ...
COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY COMA POSTRAUMATISMO DE LA CABEZA COMA PÓS-TRAUMATISMO DA CABEÇA ... HEAD INJURIES, PENETRATING TRAUMATISMOS PENETRANTES DE LA CABEZA TRAUMATISMOS CRANIANOS PENETRANTES HEADACHE DISORDERS ... DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY TRAUMATISMO AXONAL DIFUSO LESÃO AXONAL DIFUSA DIPEPTIDYL PEPTIDASE I DIPEPTIDIL PEPTIDASA I DIPEPTIDIL ... FACIAL NERVE INJURIES TRAUMATISMOS DEL NERVIO FACIAL TRAUMATISMOS DO NERVO FACIAL FEMORAL NEUROPATHY NEUROPATIA FEMORAL ...
COMA PÓS-TRAUMATISMO DA CABEÇA COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY COMA POSTRAUMATISMO DE LA CABEZA ... HEAD INJURIES, PENETRATING TRAUMATISMOS PENETRANTES DE LA CABEZA TRAUMATISMOS DO NERVO FACIAL FACIAL NERVE INJURIES ... BRAIN INJURY, CHRONIC TRAUMATISMO CEREBRAL CRÔNICO LESÕES DAS ARTÉRIAS CARÓTIDAS CAROTID ARTERY INJURIES TRAUMATISMOS DE LA ... OPTIC NERVE INJURIES TRAUMATISMOS DEL NERVIO OPTICO TRAUMATISMOS DOS NERVOS CRANIANOS CRANIAL NERVE INJURIES TRAUMATISMOS DEL ...
  • The 29-year-old nanny received multiple head injuries in the crash and was initially placed in a medically induced coma and flown to a hospital in Grand Junction, the report states. (aspentimes.com)
  • Brown suffered internal injuries, broken bones, lacerations and a head injury that required her to be placed in a medically induced coma for a week. (mickeynews.com)
  • Both were transported to Seton Hays, and Pedro was admitted to the ICU with severe head injuries, possible permanent brain damage, and has been placed in a medically induced coma. (sanmarcostx.gov)
  • Spinal cord injuries can also lead to paralysis, which can be temporary or permanent. (spiritone.com)
  • When the body strikes the ground, it can result in wrist bone fractures, spinal cord injuries, and head/brain injuries. (kitaylaw.com)
  • New Zealand jockey Taiki Yanagida is in intensive care being treated for serious head and spinal injuries following a fall during a race at Cambridge on Wednesday. (racingonline.com)
  • At this stage Taiki is in the ICU at Waikato Hospital still with head and spinal injuries. (racingonline.com)
  • An injury to the mind can create lasting, life-altering signs and symptoms like amnesia, equilibrium concerns, persistent migraines, as well as gradually devastating seizures. (healthandbalancewellness.com)
  • The patient went home on post-transplant day 16 but was readmitted the following day with fever and dyspnea requiring endotracheal intubation, followed by altered mental status, seizures, and acute flaccid paralysis consistent with WNV encephalitis. (cdc.gov)
  • Left unchecked, head injuries and TBI can result in bleeding within the brain, seizures, or coma. (johnston-lawfirm.com)
  • See Pediatric Concussion and Other Traumatic Brain Injuries , a Critical Images slideshow, to help identify the signs and symptoms of TBI, determine the type and severity of injury, and initiate appropriate treatment. (medscape.com)
  • Symptoms, complaints, and neurological or behavioral changes following TBI depend on the location (s) of the brain injury and on the total volume of injured brain. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Patients with moderate head injury are likely to suffer from a number of residual symptoms. (uhsussex.nhs.uk)
  • The symptoms of a closed head injury may develop slowly over time. (massworkerscompensation.com)
  • A worker may suffer post concussion syndrome, a complex disorder involving headaches, dizziness, memory loss and other symptoms that last for months after a closed head injury. (massworkerscompensation.com)
  • If you or a loved one has suffered a closed head injury or experienced symptoms of post concussion syndrome after a workplace injury, talk to a workplace injury attorney at Kantrovitz & Associates, P.C., about the workers' compensation benefits you are entitled to receive, including lost wages, medical treatment expenses and vocational rehabilitation costs. (massworkerscompensation.com)
  • Workers who suffer post concussion syndrome may have ongoing symptoms of mild traumatic brain injury such as headaches, dizziness, sleep problems, fatigue, insomnia and loss of concentration and memory. (massworkerscompensation.com)
  • They may suffer a closed head injury and ongoing symptoms of post concussion syndrome. (massworkerscompensation.com)
  • Drivers who drive for a living may bang their head against a windshield and suffer a closed head injury in an automobile accident that doesn't shatter the glass, but causes a brain injury and the symptoms of post concussion syndrome. (massworkerscompensation.com)
  • In a state of shock, victims have a tendency to downplay their injuries or the symptoms they suffer in the immediate aftermath. (johnston-lawfirm.com)
  • Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ), Quality of Life After Brain Injury and Glasgow Outcome Score-Extended reflecting injury-related functional limitations at 6 and 12 months were collected. (bmj.com)
  • Methods TRACK-TBI is a prospective study of patients with acute mTBI (Glasgow Coma Scale=13-15) who were enrolled ≤24 hours of injury at an emergency department of level 1 trauma centres and followed for 12 months. (bmj.com)
  • Head injuries cause immediate death in 25% of acute traumatic injuries. (medscape.com)
  • The population is the medical record data of head injury patients admitted in the period January to December 2020 at Dr. Iskak Tulungagung Hospital. (unej.ac.id)
  • In a Facebook post , the Jackson County, West Virginia, Sheriff's Department announced that Daniel Palmer III, 55, has been charged with attempted murder and malicious wounding following the June 10, 2020, incident. (deseret.com)
  • The greatest challenge associated with endocrine complications in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) is early recognition of these subtle problems. (medscape.com)
  • Common post-TBI findings, such as lethargy, fatigue, and slowed mental processing time, also are associated with endocrine complications. (medscape.com)
  • She had no immediate post-transplant complications, received no blood products, and was discharged home on day 3. (cdc.gov)
  • The least severe and most common type of TBI is termed a concussion, which is technically defined as a brief loss of consciousness after a head injury without any physical evidence of damage on an imaging study such as a CT or MRI scan. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In common parlance, concussion may refer to any minor injury to the head or brain. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It's important to obtain the appropriate medical damages and full workers' compensation benefits if you have sustained a closed head injury or suffered post concussion syndrome after a workplace injury. (massworkerscompensation.com)
  • According to the Mayo Clinic, the risk of developing post concussion syndrome increases with age, and women are more likely to be diagnosed with post concussion syndrome than men. (massworkerscompensation.com)
  • What Jobs Are Associated With Closed Head Injuries and Post Concussion Syndrome? (massworkerscompensation.com)
  • Any workplace in which a worker may be struck in the head can cause a closed head injury and post concussion syndrome. (massworkerscompensation.com)
  • A closed head injury or post concussion syndrome can put an employee out of work for an extended period of time or leave him or her unable to return to a former job. (massworkerscompensation.com)
  • Cerebral concussion is defined as an altered mental state that may or may not include loss of consciousness that occurs as a result of head trauma. (medscape.com)
  • Concussion is also known as mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). (medscape.com)
  • Diffuse axonal injury, or shear injury, may follow contrecoup injury even if there is no damage to the skull or obvious bleeding into the brain tissue. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Secondary injuries after TBI, including diffuse axonal injury (DAI) often occur, and proper treatments are needed in this regard. (traumamon.com)
  • Taking certain medications with fentanyl may increase the risk of serious or life-threatening breathing problems, sedation, or coma. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A moderate head injury is defined as loss of consciousness for between 15 minutes and six hours, or a period of post-traumatic amnesia of up to 24 hours. (uhsussex.nhs.uk)
  • The severity of injuries depends on factors such as whether the passengers were wearing a seatbelt, how many times the vehicle tripped, etc. (spiritone.com)
  • Consequences of TBI can be relatively subtle or completely devastating, related to the severity and mechanism of injury. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Each individual with a TBI will have unique mental and physical abilities and challenges based on the type and severity of the injury. (brainline.org)
  • [ 9 ] Permanent disability in survivors ranges from 10-100%, depending on the severity of the injuries. (medscape.com)
  • What are primary and secondary head injuries? (futurelearn.com)
  • Home / Healthcare & Medicine / Emergency and Urgent Care for Children: a Survival Guide / What are primary and secondary head injuries? (futurelearn.com)
  • Usually when a head injury occurs, the primary injury is something which has happened and has happened at the point of injury and there is little which we could do to prevent or alter the course of that. (futurelearn.com)
  • The primary injury has occurred and nothing we can do can alter that. (futurelearn.com)
  • The primary cause of this crash was Mr. Fegan failing to stop at the posted stop sign, fail(ing) to yield right of way to an approaching vehicle, and inattentive … driving by possibly manipulating an electronic handheld device while operating a motor vehicle," CSP Trooper Brett Williams wrote in the report. (aspentimes.com)
  • Closed head injuries are classified as either primary or secondary. (medscape.com)
  • A primary injury results from the initial anatomical and physiological insult, which is usually direct trauma to the head, regardless of cause. (medscape.com)
  • The primary injury usually causes structural changes, such as epidural hematoma , subdural hematoma , subarachnoid hemorrhage , intraventricular hemorrhage, or cerebral contusion . (medscape.com)
  • Methods: A retrospective analysis of age, sex, mechanism of injury, type and onset of unprovoked seizure occurring within one week of injury, admission coma score, and Glasgow outcome score in patients with non-penetrating head injury. (ajol.info)
  • Here is a useful link to view information about the Glasgow Coma Scale ( GCS) . (futurelearn.com)
  • The Glasgow coma scale (GCS) was administered at admission, in the first 24 and 48 hours, at one week post-trauma and at discharge. (traumamon.com)
  • In moderate and severe head injury clients with multiple traumas, there may be difficulty calculating GCS scores due to facial trauma to the eyes and mouth. (unej.ac.id)
  • This study aims to analyze the ability of GCS components as a predictor of mortality for moderate and severe head injury clients. (unej.ac.id)
  • She died several days later in hospital in a deep coma, and a post-mortem examination showed she had suffered multiple head injuries. (mirandolina.ro)
  • Even with a helmet, bicyclists can suffer traumatic head and brain injuries that can result in brain damage, coma, and death. (kitaylaw.com)
  • The organ donor, a New York City resident, was hospitalized on August 23 after a traumatic head injury and underwent emergency evacuation of an epidural hematoma, during which he received one unit of packed red blood cells (PRBCs). (cdc.gov)
  • Because some degree of healing does occur to the brain post injury, a person may recover various skills and abilities during the first six months to two years post injury. (brainline.org)
  • The victim who was shot in the stomach and head continues to recover from his injuries. (justice.gov)
  • What are the injuries one can suffer if involved in a rollover accident? (spiritone.com)
  • They may suffer post-traumatic stress disorder or other psychological issues that require therapy or medications. (kitaylaw.com)
  • Laborers, roofers, painters and maintenance workers working on scaffoldings, ladders, or elevated platforms may suffer a closed head injury in a fall from a height. (massworkerscompensation.com)
  • Road accidents cause catastrophic injuries and claim nearly 35,000 lives each ear in the USA . (spiritone.com)
  • Rollover accidents can cause your body to experience impacts on different parts, and the injuries caused by those impacts can be of several degrees. (spiritone.com)
  • A passenger's head is the most exposed body part in accidents which can hit the side post, steering wheel, window, and roof. (spiritone.com)
  • One of the most dangerous kinds of injuries in accidents, internal injuries cause organs to bleed into the abdomen. (spiritone.com)
  • Bicycle accidents are unique events that result in very different injuries than car or truck collisions . (kitaylaw.com)
  • This can lead to injuries that you will almost exclusively find in bicycle accidents. (kitaylaw.com)
  • Head injuries are some of the most common results of bicycle accidents. (kitaylaw.com)
  • Major accidents can lead to permanent injuries, disabilities, and the wrongful death of a loved one. (kitaylaw.com)
  • What Portion of Bike Accidents Lead To Head Injuries? (healthandbalancewellness.com)
  • Trauma also may result from a penetrating injury such as a gunshot wound. (brainline.org)
  • [ 12 ] Alcohol or drug use contributes to as many of 38% of cases of severe head trauma in younger patients. (medscape.com)
  • Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as acquired brain injury, head injury, or brain injury, causes substantial disability and mortality. (medscape.com)
  • TBI is sometimes known as acquired brain injury. (encyclopedia.com)
  • By definition, TBI requires that there be a head injury, or any physical assault to the head leading to injury of the scalp, skull, or brain. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Closed head injury refers to TBI in which the head is hit by or strikes an object without breaking the skull. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In a penetrating head injury, an object such as a bullet fractures the skull and enters brain tissue. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Diffuse brain damage associated with closed head injury may result from back-and-forth movement of the brain against the inside of the bony skull. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Coup," or French for "blow," refers to the brain injury directly under the point of maximum impact to the skull. (encyclopedia.com)
  • For example, coup-contrecoup injury may occur in a rear-end collision, with high speed stops, or with violent shaking of a baby, because the brain and skull are of different densities, and therefore travel at different speeds. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Closed head injuries can result in serious brain injuries, even though the skull isn't penetrated or fractured. (massworkerscompensation.com)
  • Contusions, concussions, and skull fractures can all occur as a result and may cause traumatic brain injuries (TBI). (johnston-lawfirm.com)
  • however, the pituitary stalk, connected to the anterior pituitary and hypothalamus, is vulnerable to the effects of TBI, especially in patients with associated facial fractures, cranial nerve injuries, and dysautonomia. (medscape.com)
  • Amantadine hydrochloride is one of the most commonly prescribed medications for patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness after traumatic brain injury. (nih.gov)
  • We enrolled 184 patients who were in a vegetative or minimally conscious state 4 to 16 weeks after traumatic brain injury and who were receiving inpatient rehabilitation. (nih.gov)
  • Amantadine accelerated the pace of functional recovery during active treatment in patients with post-traumatic disorders of consciousness. (nih.gov)
  • All patients with TBI should undergo a baseline hormone evaluation at the time of hospital or intensive care unit (ICU) discharge, as well as at 3 months and 12 months post-TBI. (medscape.com)
  • Monitor bowel motility in post-op patients. (empr.com)
  • Results: Eighty six (10.2%) of 845 head injured patients developed early posttraumatic seizure. (ajol.info)
  • The frequency of seizure increased significantly with decreasing age (p=0.00002) and coma score (p=0.00009) in the seizure group and also in relation to the entire sample (n=845) of head injured patients (p=0.00000). (ajol.info)
  • Pedestrian vehicular injury and falls were the commonest mechanisms of injury in children, while older patients were most frequently involved as passengers in auto-crash. (ajol.info)
  • Early posttraumatic seizure worsened outcome of head injury, the case mortality rate being 27.9% and 19.2% in patients with and without posttraumatic seizure respectively. (ajol.info)
  • This varies significantly with patients\' age and initial coma score. (ajol.info)
  • Depending on the length of time in coma, these patients tend to have more serious physical deficits. (uhsussex.nhs.uk)
  • In the control group, two patients (10%) died during the first week post-trauma, but there was no mortality in the glibenclamide group (P = 0.48). (traumamon.com)
  • Approximately 15% of these patients succumb to the injury upon arrival to the emergency department. (medscape.com)
  • [ 7 , 9 ] Patients with severe head injury have a 30-50% mortality rate, and those who survive are often left with severe neurological deficits that may include a persistent vegetative state. (medscape.com)
  • Guidelines exist for the evaluation and management of pediatric head trauma, including the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) protocol, but limited evidence exists for when hemophilia patients present to the emergency department (ED), specifically with head trauma. (bvsalud.org)
  • The objective of this study is to conduct a retrospective chart review to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of ICH, and to describe computed tomography (CT) scan use in hemophilia patients who present to Phoenix Children's Hospital (PCH) ED with head trauma from January 1, 2007 to June 1, 2019. (bvsalud.org)
  • Using these data, we propose a new algorithm to aid clinicians in determining the need for CT scan in pediatric hemophilia patients who present to the ED with head trauma. (bvsalud.org)
  • Objectives Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation, which may impact recovery from mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). (bmj.com)
  • [ 10 ] Penetrating intracranial injuries have worse outcomes than closed head injuries. (medscape.com)
  • The most concerning risk is for life-threatening bleeding, including intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), which is caused by head trauma. (bvsalud.org)
  • However, when we talk about secondary injuries , we are talking about the result of that injury so either in expanding bleed or swelling within the brain. (futurelearn.com)
  • However, we can try to address the secondary injuries, which may for example be the result of expanding bleed or of brain swelling, in order to prevent additional injury to the brain. (futurelearn.com)
  • A secondary injury results from hypotension, hypoxia, acidosis, edema, or other subsequent factors that can secondarily damage brain tissue (see Secondary injuries). (medscape.com)
  • Traumatic brain injury is caused by trauma to the brain, which might occur when the head strikes a hard surface such as a windshield during an automobile during an automobile accident. (brainline.org)
  • Hospitalised injuries result in substantial reductions in HRQoL up to 12 months later. (springer.com)
  • Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the result of physical trauma to the head causing damage to the brain. (encyclopedia.com)
  • After an injury, the person may be in a prolonged period of unconsciousness or coma, which may result in severe damage to the brain. (brainline.org)
  • A brief period of unconsciousness, or just feeling sick and dizzy, may result from a person banging their head getting into the car, walking into the top of a low door way, or slipping over in the street. (uhsussex.nhs.uk)
  • Brain injuries can result in cognitive difficulties, loss of memory, confusion, and impairments of motor function. (kitaylaw.com)
  • You may be eligible for temporary total disability, partial disability or permanent and total disability benefits as a result of a workplace injury involving a closed head injury. (massworkerscompensation.com)
  • Close to three million people seek emergency medical treatment as a result of head injuries that result in TBI. (johnston-lawfirm.com)
  • [ 15 ] Injuries to the central nervous system tend to be the most costly on a per-patient basis because they often result in debilitating physical, psychological, and psychosocial deficits that, in turn, require extensive long-term rehabilitation and care. (medscape.com)
  • In the United States, the incidence of closed head injury is estimated to be approximately 200 cases per 100,000 persons per year. (medscape.com)
  • If the physical trauma to the head ruptures a major blood vessel, the resulting bleeding into or around the brain is called a hematoma. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is an injury to the brain caused by a trauma to the head (head injury). (uhsussex.nhs.uk)
  • If a vehicle strikes a bicyclist and then rolls over the individual, it can lead to broken bones, crush injuries, internal damage, and death. (kitaylaw.com)
  • Broken bones in the head or face can threaten the mind, eyes, nasal flows, as well as jaw. (healthandbalancewellness.com)
  • Gualbert was rushed to Jamaica Hospital where he was in a coma for three months after his diving accident and underwent numerous surgeries. (newyorkinjurycasesblog.com)
  • Obesity and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) are associated with inflammation, but little is known about whether obesity moderates the relationship between mTBI and inflammatory response. (bmj.com)
  • Obese participants had elevated markers of systemic inflammation up to 6 months post-mTBI and higher symptomatology up to 1 year post-mTBI. (bmj.com)
  • Fegan's 5-year-old son and 29-year-old nanny sustained serious injuries in the crash. (aspentimes.com)
  • The worker suffered serious injuries and may never be able to work again. (ferncroft.im)
  • While a helmet can't guarantee the prevention of head injuries, it can significantly reduce the risk. (kitaylaw.com)
  • Head injury significantly contributes to deaths from trauma. (medscape.com)
  • An increasing intracerebral pressure is an important sign to recognise, as early intervention prevents additional injury to the brain and can prevent the more serious brain damage and death from head injuries. (futurelearn.com)
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) , head injuries and TBI are a leading health concern throughout the U.S. and one of the most common causes of disability and death. (johnston-lawfirm.com)
  • The patient can be kept in hospital overnight for observation, and then discharged if there are no further obvious medical injuries. (uhsussex.nhs.uk)
  • He had been revovering from a coma in Kenyetta hospital. (partnersforcare.org)
  • The popular jockey was knocked unconscious in the accident and was placed in an induced coma at the track before being transported to Waikato Hospital. (racingonline.com)
  • The daughter has non incapacitating injuries and has been released from the hospital. (sanmarcostx.gov)
  • If you were struck in the head by an object at work or fell and hit your head, you may have suffered a closed head injury. (massworkerscompensation.com)
  • A construction worker may be struck in the head by a moving object, a piece of heavy equipment or a dropped tool. (massworkerscompensation.com)
  • The British former Formula One driver was swarmed by the safety crew after he was struck in the head and his car veered left and directly into an interior wall at the raceway in Pennsylvania. (plaintruthtoday.com)
  • His head hit the ground and he sustained a very serious injury, which caused a loss of brain tissue," Batista said during the press conference at the Fatima Shrine. (fatimafamily.org)
  • Twenty-five years ago today, the frontman of Hong Kong's biggest rock band was filming a television show in Tokyo when he plunged three metres off a stage, sustaining massive head injuries and falling into a coma. (scmp.com)
  • The man fell over three metres and received serious head injuries that led to him being in a coma for six weeks. (ferncroft.im)
  • Some of these factors are related to the individual's skills, abilities, and age before the injury. (brainline.org)
  • The type and intensity of support will vary from person to person depending upon the individual's pre- and post injury skills and abilities, as well as the job tasks, work environment, and existing supports in the workplace. (brainline.org)
  • Despite all security preventative measures in position, mind injury as well as brain injury from biking crashes can develop disastrous damages or create an individual's unfortunate fatality. (healthandbalancewellness.com)
  • Cuts to the face, head, as well as hairline can likewise damage an individual's look. (healthandbalancewellness.com)
  • Head injuries are a common problem in the children's emergency department and indeed across emergency departments. (futurelearn.com)
  • An accident that involves a vehicle or other object forcing a bicycle to the ground will come with certain common injuries. (kitaylaw.com)
  • In the event that a bicyclist suffers a traumatic brain injury, emotional trauma can be even more severe. (kitaylaw.com)
  • You may be eligible for compensation for your physical injuries, emotional suffering, and financial losses through the driver's insurance company or another party. (kitaylaw.com)
  • Contrecoup," or French for "against the blow," refers to the brain injury opposite the point of maximum impact. (encyclopedia.com)
  • When even a seemingly minor bump, blow or jolt to the head happens, it can disrupt the neural transmitters in the brain. (johnston-lawfirm.com)