The examination, therapy or surgery of the cervix and vagina by means of a specially designed endoscope introduced vaginally.
A malignancy arising in uterine cervical epithelium and confined thereto, representing a continuum of histological changes ranging from well-differentiated CIN 1 (formerly, mild dysplasia) to severe dysplasia/carcinoma in situ, CIN 3. The lesion arises at the squamocolumnar cell junction at the transformation zone of the endocervical canal, with a variable tendency to develop invasive epidermoid carcinoma, a tendency that is enhanced by concomitant human papillomaviral infection. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.
Instruments inserted into the vagina for examination of the tissues of the vagina and cervix by means of a magnifying lens.
Abnormal development of immature squamous EPITHELIAL CELLS of the UTERINE CERVIX, a term used to describe premalignant cytological changes in the cervical EPITHELIUM. These atypical cells do not penetrate the epithelial BASEMENT MEMBRANE.
The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.
Cytological preparation of cells collected from a mucosal surface and stained with Papanicolaou stain.
Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.
A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
Division of tissues by a high-frequency current applied locally with a metal instrument or needle. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
A genus of DNA viruses in the family PAPILLOMAVIRIDAE. They preferentially infect the anogenital and ORAL MUCOSA in humans and primates, causing both malignant and benign neoplasms. Cutaneous lesions are also seen.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
Diagnosis of the type and, when feasible, the cause of a pathologic process by means of microscopic study of cells in an exudate or other form of body fluid. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Pathological processes of the UTERINE CERVIX.
Neoplasms of the SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in tissue composed of squamous elements.
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Nonoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide, formulated primarily as a component of vaginal foams and creams.
Methods to identify and characterize cancer in the early stages of disease and predict tumor behavior.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.
The excision of a cone of tissue, especially of the CERVIX UTERI.
Pathological processes of the VULVA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Pathological processes of the VAGINA.
A technique of measuring the dielectric properties of materials, which vary over a range of frequencies depending on the physical properties of the material. The technique involves measuring, over a range of frequencies, ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE and phase shift of an electric field as it passes through the material.
Methods used to study CELLS.
Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The sorting out and classification of patients or casualties to determine priority of need and proper place of treatment.
The geographical area of Africa comprising ANGOLA; BOTSWANA; LESOTHO; MALAWI; MOZAMBIQUE; NAMIBIA; SOUTH AFRICA; SWAZILAND; ZAMBIA; and ZIMBABWE.
DNA probes specific for the identification of human papilloma virus.
A type of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS especially associated with malignant tumors of the CERVIX and the RESPIRATORY MUCOSA.
Tumors or cancer of the VAGINA.
A type of human papillomavirus especially associated with malignant tumors of the genital and RESPIRATORY MUCOSA.
The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
A scraping, usually of the interior of a cavity or tract, for removal of new growth or other abnormal tissue, or to obtain material for tissue diagnosis. It is performed with a curet (curette), a spoon-shaped instrument designed for that purpose. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Dorland, 27th ed)
Personal care items used during MENSTRUATION.
A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.
Sexually transmitted form of anogenital warty growth caused by the human papillomaviruses.
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel to improve the quality of patient care and outcomes. The clinical audit was formally introduced in 1993 into the United Kingdom's National Health Service.
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Screening for cervical cancer: a review of women's attitudes, knowledge, and behaviour. (1/413)

The United Kingdom (UK) cervical screening programme has been successful in securing participation of a high proportion of targeted women, and has seen a fall in mortality rates of those suffering from cervical cancer. There remains, however, a significant proportion of unscreened women and, of women in whom an abnormality is detected, many will not attend for colposcopy. The present work reviews the psychological consequences of receiving an abnormal cervical smear result and of secondary screening and treatment, and examines reasons for women's non-participation in the screening programme. Psychological theories of screening behavior are used to elucidate women's reactions and to suggest methods of increasing participation, of improving the quality of the service, and of reducing women's anxiety. A literature search identified studies that examine factors influencing women's participation in the screening programme, their psychological reaction to the receipt of an abnormal cervical smear result, and experiences of colposcopy. Reasons for non-participation include administrative failures, unavailability of a female screener, inconvenient clinic times, lack of awareness of the test's indications and benefits, considering oneself not to be at risk of developing cervical cancer, and fear of embarrassment, pain, or the detection of cancer. The receipt of an abnormal result and referral for colposcopy cause high levels of distress owing to limited understanding of the meaning of the smear test; many women believe the test aims to detect existing cervical cancer. The quality of the cervical screening service can be enhanced by the provision of additional information, by improved quality of communication, and by consideration of women's health beliefs. This may result in increased participation in, and satisfaction with, the service.  (+info)

Factors influencing default at a hospital colposcopy clinic. (2/413)

OBJECTIVE: To identify factors reducing compliance at diagnosis, treatment, and review stages among women referred with abnormal cervical smears to a hospital colposcopy clinic. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of sociodemographic data from hospital notes of the attenders and defaulters during one year (1989-90) and prospective collection of information by structured interviews of a sample of defaulters and attenders during five months (May-September 1990). SETTING: One hospital colposcopy clinic. PATIENTS: 238 women defaulting on two consecutive occasions and 188 attending regularly (retrospective analysis) and a subset of 40 defaulters and 24 attenders (interview sample). MAIN MEASURES: Sociodemographic data and interview responses about attitudes, behaviour, choice, accessibility cultural understanding, communications, and emotional response. RESULTS: 22 (12%) women defaulted at diagnosis, 24(13%) at treatment, 39(21%) at the first check up after treatment, and 84(45%) at the review stage; 19(10%) defaulted from the first check up after diagnostic examination revealed no need for treatment. Age and social class differed between the two groups. 181(76%) defaulters were under 30 compared with 91(48%) attenders; 14(6%) compared with 41(23%) were over 40(p < 0.001). The proportion of women in social classes 4 and 5 was 33%(20/60) for defaulters and 21%(25/120) for attenders (p < 0.05) and unemployed was 66%(158/238) and 36%(68/188) respectively. 63(28%) defaulters were pregnant compared with 11(6%) attenders (p < 0.001). More defaulters came from gynaecology or antenatal clinics. Most defaulters (93%) had child care responsibilities and they knew and understood less about colposcopy. Their explicit reasons for defaulting included child care commitments and fear and their implicit reasons lack of understanding, inaccessibility of information, and staff attitudes. CONCLUSIONS: Compliance may be improved by promoting women's understanding of treatment and encouraging health professionals to develop a service more sensitive to the various needs of women in different socioeconomic groups.  (+info)

Is default from colposcopy a problem, and if so what can we do? A systematic review of the literature. (3/413)

It has been reported that many women referred to outpatient colposcopy clinics fail to attend for their appointments. The aim of this paper is to search the literature to assess the extent of default from colposcopy and to identify interventions, suitable for implementation within primary care, to reduce the proportion of women defaulting. Searches were performed on MEDLINE, PsychLIT, Bids and Cancerlit from 1986 to September 1997 using the terms colposcopy or cervical/Pap smear in association with default, non-attendance, adherence, patient compliance, treatment refusal, patient dropouts, attendance, barriers or intervention. The inclusion criteria for primary papers were that they contained data that enables the calculation of default rates for colposcopy or the results of interventions aimed at improving the default rates. Thirteen publications describing default rates and four describing interventions were included as primary papers. Combining the data from these studies suggests default rates of 3%, 11%, and 12% for assessment/treatment visits, first review, and second review respectively. The intervention studies suggested a need to tailor the intervention to the population and the type of information to suit the individual. Varying definitions make comparison of default rates difficult, and the use of a crude non-attendance rate may result in an overestimate of default rates. The vast majority of women invited to colposcopy eventually attend. It is questionable if there is a need for interventions to increase compliance. Where necessary, greater cooperation across the primary/secondary care interface and use of the extended primary care team may be a more cost-effective means of increasing compliance.  (+info)

HPV testing in the evaluation of the minimally abnormal Papanicolaou smear. (4/413)

Minor cytologic abnormalities of the cervix, such as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), are vastly more common than high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or invasive cancer. Current guidelines for the management of ASCUS include repeating the Papanicolaou (Pap) smear at specific intervals, referring all patients for colposcopy or using an adjunctive test such as hybrid capture human papillomavirus (HPV) testing or cervicography. The usefulness of the Pap smear is limited by its considerable false-negative rate and its dependence on clinician and laboratory performance. Colposcopy is a highly sensitive procedure, but many patients with ASCUS have normal colposcopic findings. The hybrid capture test not only measures quantitative HPV load but also detects both oncogenic and nononcogenic HPV types, thereby increasing the probability that serious cervical disease is not missed. Hybrid capture sampling is simple to perform, and positive results are strongly associated with cervical dysplasia. HPV testing in women with ASCUS can be used as an adjunctive test to identify those with HPV-associated disease; it can also serve as a quality assurance measure. Together, repeat Pap smears and HPV testing should identify most patients with underlying cervical dysplasia. Combined testing may also minimize the number of unnecessary colposcopic examinations in women who have no disease.  (+info)

A matched prospective study of human immunodeficiency virus serostatus, human papillomavirus DNA, and cervical lesions detected by cytology and colposcopy. (5/413)

OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence and type of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in the genital tract of human-immunodeficiency-virus- (HIV) seropositive and -seronegative women matched for cytology and to examine prospectively the relationship of HPV DNA, colposcopic findings and cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) in these matched seropositive and seronegative cohorts. METHODS: A matched prospective study of HIV-seropositive and -seronegative women undergoing cytologic screening, colposcopy, and testing for HPV DNA and other infections at each visit. RESULTS: Twenty-three HIV-seropositive women were matched with 23 seronegative women by cervical cytology reading, lifetime number of sexual partners, age, and follow-up length. Fourteen pairs of these women had follow-up visits every 4 months, for 56 and 53 total visits in seropositive and seronegative women, respectively. After matching, the groups had a similar overall prevalence of HPV DNA and of HPV oncogenic (high risk) types at baseline. On follow up, HIV-seropositive women were more likely than seronegative women to develop SIL (38% vs. 10%), less likely to have negative cytology (34% vs. 60%, overall P = 0.03), more visits with HPV DNA detected (68% vs. 40% P = 0.04), and more visits with multiple HPV DNA types detected (18% vs. 0%, P = 0.02). Colposcopic lesions in the seropositive women were more likely to have sharp borders or mosaicism or to be thick white (P = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: After matching for baseline Papanicolaou smear readings, these data suggest that over time seropositive women have more visits that yield abnormal cytology, more persistent HPV DNA detection, and more colposcopic abnormalities than seronegative women.  (+info)

The effects of three nonoxynol-9 preparations on vaginal flora and epithelium. (6/413)

To evaluate the effects of nonoxynol-9 (N-9) on the vaginal flora and epithelium, 48 women (16 in each group) were evaluated by use of quantitative vaginal cultures and colposcopy. at baseline and at 0.5, 4, 24, 48, and 72 h after insertion of one of three N-9 preparations (4% gel [Conceptrol], 3.5% gel [Advantage-24], or a 28% vaginal contraceptive film). The proportion positive for H2O2+ or H2O2- lactobacilli did not change significantly with any of the preparations, but lactobacilli concentrations decreased transiently. Both the proportion of women with Gardnerella vaginalis and the concentration of G. vaginalis decreased transiently. The proportion of women with Escherichia coli increased with the 4% gel, and the concentration increased with all preparations. The number with anaerobic gram-negative rods increased, although the concentrations decreased. Symptoms and colposcopic abnormalities were rare. Changes in levels of vaginal bacteria were transient after single applications of N-9, but adverse effects may be enhanced with frequent, chronic use.  (+info)

Cervical screening interval: costing the options in one health authority. (7/413)

BACKGROUND: This is a study of the costs of the cervical screening programme in one health authority with a mixed three and five year, and thus inequitable, cervical screening interval. The costs of three year and five yearly screening are compared, and considered in terms of likely numbers of averted cases of and deaths from cervical cancer. METHODS: The study uses an activity-based costing procedure to calculate the component and total costs of the cervical screening programme. RESULTS: The main costs of the cervical screening programme are the costs of taking and processing smears. In 1994-1995 the total cost of a three year recall policy was 768 570 pound silver per 100000 eligible women and that of a five year recall policy was 476768 pound silver per 100000 eligible women. Best estimates of the numbers of cases of and deaths from invasive cervical cancer averted by three over five yearly screening are 1.4 and 0.7 per 100000 eligible women, respectively. Because of uncertainty regarding colposcopy costs a sensitivity analysis was carried out, giving a range of cost differences between three and five yearly screening of 278477 pound silver and 351 768 pound silver. CONCLUSIONS: The health service costs of three yearly screening are considerably greater than those of five yearly screening. Despite this, a significant proportion of smear-takers are screening more frequently than five yearly, with implications for anxiety of screened women, as well as health service costs.  (+info)

Variations in vaginal epithelial surface appearance determined by colposcopic inspection in healthy, sexually active women. (8/413)

A total of 107 sexually active women, aged 18-35 years, was recruited through family planning clinics in four centres in different countries. Each woman underwent two or three gentle but thorough and systematic vaginal inspections using a consistent technique with colposcopic magnification over a 4-6 month period to look for changes in vaginal and cervical appearance which might be related to sexual intercourse, tampon use, contraceptive method used, cigarette smoking or other environmental factors. Obvious changes in appearance were photographed at x10 magnification. These 'appearances' or 'conditions' were classified according to a modification of the recommendations of a workshop sponsored by the World Health Organization, the Population Council and the Conrad Program. Most of these alterations in the appearance of the vaginal epithelium were judged to be of such minor clinical importance that they have been termed 'conditions' or 'changes in appearance' rather than 'lesions'. In all, 56 'conditions' or 'appearances' were noted in 314 inspections, the commonest being petechiae (53.6%). Potentially significant conditions justifying the term 'lesions' (three microulcerations, two ecchymoses, five abrasions and one mucosal tear; 3.5% of inspections) usually healed spontaneously and disappeared rapidly. The incidence of these conditions was highest when the inspections followed intercourse in the previous 24 h (25.2 versus 14.2%; P < 0.0008), or tampon use (32.4 versus 15.9%; P < 0. 0001). These processes may be regarded as a reflection of regular minor trauma to the vaginal epithelium.  (+info)

Colposcopy is a medical procedure in which a colposcope, which is a type of microscope, is used to examine the cervix, vagina, and vulva for signs of disease or abnormalities. The colposcope allows the healthcare provider to see these areas in greater detail than is possible with the naked eye. During the procedure, the provider may take a small sample of tissue (biopsy) for further examination under a microscope.

Colposcopy is often used to investigate abnormal Pap test results or to follow up on women who have been diagnosed with certain types of cervical dysplasia (abnormal cell growth). It can also be used to diagnose and monitor other conditions, such as genital warts, inflammation, or cancer.

It is important to note that colposcopy is a diagnostic procedure and not a treatment. If abnormalities are found during the exam, additional procedures may be necessary to remove or treat them.

Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is a term used to describe the abnormal growth and development of cells on the surface of the cervix. These changes are usually caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, which is a common sexually transmitted infection. CIN is not cancer, but it can develop into cancer if left untreated.

The term "intraepithelial" refers to the fact that the abnormal cells are found in the epithelium, or the lining of the cervix. The term "neoplasia" means abnormal growth or development of cells. CIN is further classified into three grades based on the severity of the cell changes:

* CIN 1: Mild dysplasia (abnormal cell growth) affecting the lower third of the epithelium.
* CIN 2: Moderate dysplasia affecting the lower two-thirds of the epithelium.
* CIN 3: Severe dysplasia or carcinoma in situ, which means that the abnormal cells are found in the full thickness of the epithelium and have a high risk of progressing to invasive cancer if not treated.

It's important to note that CIN can regress on its own without treatment, especially in younger women. However, some cases may progress to invasive cervical cancer if left untreated. Regular Pap testing is recommended to detect and monitor any abnormal cell changes in the cervix. If CIN is detected, further diagnostic procedures such as a colposcopy or biopsy may be performed to determine the extent of the abnormality and guide treatment decisions.

A vaginal smear, also known as a Pap test or Pap smear, is a medical procedure in which a sample of cells is collected from the cervix (the lower part of the uterus that opens into the vagina) and examined under a microscope. The purpose of this test is to detect abnormal cells, including precancerous changes, that may indicate the presence of cervical cancer or other conditions such as infections or inflammation.

During the procedure, a speculum is inserted into the vagina to allow the healthcare provider to visualize the cervix. A spatula or brush is then used to gently scrape cells from the surface of the cervix. The sample is spread onto a microscope slide and sent to a laboratory for analysis.

Regular Pap smears are recommended for women as part of their routine healthcare, as they can help detect abnormalities at an early stage when they are more easily treated. The frequency of Pap smears may vary depending on age, medical history, and other factors. It is important to follow the recommendations of a healthcare provider regarding the timing and frequency of Pap smears.

Uterine cervical neoplasms, also known as cervical cancer or cervical dysplasia, refer to abnormal growths or lesions on the lining of the cervix that have the potential to become cancerous. These growths are usually caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and can be detected through routine Pap smears.

Cervical neoplasms are classified into different grades based on their level of severity, ranging from mild dysplasia (CIN I) to severe dysplasia or carcinoma in situ (CIN III). In some cases, cervical neoplasms may progress to invasive cancer if left untreated.

Risk factors for developing cervical neoplasms include early sexual activity, multiple sexual partners, smoking, and a weakened immune system. Regular Pap smears and HPV testing are recommended for early detection and prevention of cervical cancer.

A colposcope is a medical device used during a colposcopy exam to help a healthcare professional closely examine the cervix, vagina, and vulva for signs of disease or abnormalities. It's essentially a binocular microscope with a bright light that allows the practitioner to magnify and illuminate the area of interest.

The term 'colposcopes' refers to these medical instruments in general. They are commonly used to investigate abnormal Pap test results, genital warts, cervical dysplasia (precancerous changes in the cells), or other potential issues. The colposcope does not enter the body; it simply provides a magnified view of the external and internal surfaces of the reproductive organs.

Uterine cervical dysplasia is a condition characterized by abnormal cell growth on the lining of the cervix, which is the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina. It is also known as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN).

Cervical dysplasia can be caused by certain strains of human papillomavirus (HPV), a common sexually transmitted infection. The abnormal cells may develop into cancerous cells over time, although not all cases of cervical dysplasia will progress to cancer.

Cervical dysplasia is typically detected through a Pap test or HPV test, which are screening tests used to detect precancerous changes in the cervix. Depending on the severity and extent of the abnormal cells, treatment options may include close monitoring, surgical removal of the affected tissue, or more extensive surgery.

It is important for women to receive regular Pap tests and HPV tests as recommended by their healthcare provider to detect and treat cervical dysplasia early, before it has a chance to progress to cancer.

The cervix uteri, often simply referred to as the cervix, is the lower part of the uterus (womb) that connects to the vagina. It has an opening called the external os through which menstrual blood exits the uterus and sperm enters during sexual intercourse. During childbirth, the cervix dilates or opens to allow for the passage of the baby through the birth canal.

The Papanicolaou (Pap) test, also known as the Pap smear, is a screening procedure for detecting precancerous and cancerous cells in the cervix. It involves collecting cells from the cervix and examining them under a microscope to look for any abnormalities. The test is typically recommended for women aged 21-65 as part of routine pelvic exams, with the frequency depending on age and risk factors.

The Pap test was developed by Georgios Papanikolaou in the early 20th century and has since become a widely used and important tool in preventing cervical cancer. The test is usually performed in a healthcare provider's office and takes only a few minutes to complete. It is a relatively simple, safe, and painless procedure that can help detect cervical abnormalities at an early stage, when they are most treatable.

Papillomavirus infections are a group of diseases caused by various types of human papillomaviruses (HPVs). These viruses infect the skin and mucous membranes, and can cause benign growths such as warts or papillomas, as well as malignant growths like cervical cancer.

There are more than 100 different types of HPVs, and they can be classified into low-risk and high-risk types based on their potential to cause cancer. Low-risk HPV types, such as HPV-6 and HPV-11, commonly cause benign genital warts and respiratory papillomas. High-risk HPV types, such as HPV-16 and HPV-18, are associated with an increased risk of developing cancer, including cervical, anal, penile, vulvar, and oropharyngeal cancers.

HPV infections are typically transmitted through sexual contact, and most sexually active individuals will acquire at least one HPV infection during their lifetime. In many cases, the immune system is able to clear the virus without any symptoms or long-term consequences. However, persistent high-risk HPV infections can lead to the development of cancer over time.

Prevention measures for HPV infections include vaccination against high-risk HPV types, safe sex practices, and regular screening for cervical cancer in women. The HPV vaccine is recommended for both boys and girls aged 11-12 years old, and can also be given to older individuals up to age 45 who have not previously been vaccinated or who have not completed the full series of shots.

Papillomaviridae is a family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses that primarily infect the epithelial cells of mammals, birds, and reptiles. The name "papillomavirus" comes from the Latin word "papilla," which means nipple or small projection, reflecting the characteristic wart-like growths (papillomas) that these viruses can cause in infected host tissues.

The family Papillomaviridae includes more than 200 distinct papillomavirus types, with each type being defined by its specific DNA sequence. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs), which are the most well-studied members of this family, are associated with a range of diseases, from benign warts and lesions to malignant cancers such as cervical, anal, penile, vulvar, and oropharyngeal cancers.

Papillomaviruses have a circular, double-stranded DNA genome that is approximately 8 kbp in size. The viral genome encodes several early (E) proteins involved in viral replication and oncogenesis, as well as late (L) proteins that form the viral capsid. The life cycle of papillomaviruses is tightly linked to the differentiation program of their host epithelial cells, with productive infection occurring primarily in the differentiated layers of the epithelium.

In summary, Papillomaviridae is a family of DNA viruses that infect epithelial cells and can cause a variety of benign and malignant diseases. Human papillomaviruses are a significant public health concern due to their association with several cancer types.

Electrosurgery is a surgical procedure that uses high-frequency electrical currents to cut, coagulate, or fulgurate tissue. It is often used in surgical procedures as an alternative to traditional scalpels and electrocautery. The electrical currents are delivered through a specialized instrument called an electrosurgical unit (ESU) that can be set to produce different forms of energy, including cutting, coagulation, or blended currents.

During the procedure, the ESU is used to apply electrical energy to the target tissue, which responds by heating up and vaporizing, allowing for precise cuts to be made. The heat generated during the procedure also helps to seal off blood vessels and nerve endings, reducing bleeding and minimizing post-operative pain.

Electrosurgery is commonly used in a variety of surgical procedures, including dermatology, gynecology, urology, orthopedics, and general surgery. It offers several advantages over traditional surgical techniques, such as reduced blood loss, shorter operating times, and faster recovery times for patients. However, it also requires specialized training and equipment to ensure safe and effective use.

Medical mass screening, also known as population screening, is a public health service that aims to identify and detect asymptomatic individuals in a given population who have or are at risk of a specific disease. The goal is to provide early treatment, reduce morbidity and mortality, and prevent the spread of diseases within the community.

A mass screening program typically involves offering a simple, quick, and non-invasive test to a large number of people in a defined population, regardless of their risk factors or symptoms. Those who test positive are then referred for further diagnostic tests and appropriate medical interventions. Examples of mass screening programs include mammography for breast cancer detection, PSA (prostate-specific antigen) testing for prostate cancer, and fecal occult blood testing for colorectal cancer.

It is important to note that mass screening programs should be evidence-based, cost-effective, and ethically sound, with clear benefits outweighing potential harms. They should also consider factors such as the prevalence of the disease in the population, the accuracy and reliability of the screening test, and the availability and effectiveness of treatment options.

Alphapapillomavirus is a genus of Papillomaviridae, a family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses that infect the skin and mucous membranes of humans and other animals. Members of this genus are known to cause various types of benign and malignant tumors in humans, including skin warts, genital warts, and cancers of the cervix, anus, penis, vulva, and oropharynx.

The Alphapapillomavirus genus is further divided into several species, each containing multiple types or strains of the virus. Some of the most well-known and studied types of Alphapapillomavirus include:

* Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 and 18, which are associated with a high risk of cervical cancer and other anogenital cancers
* HPV type 6 and 11, which are commonly found in genital warts and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis
* HPV types 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58, which are also associated with an increased risk of cervical cancer and other malignancies.

Preventive measures such as vaccination against high-risk HPV types have been shown to significantly reduce the incidence of cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases. Regular screening for cervical cancer and other precancerous lesions is also an important part of prevention and early detection.

A tumor virus infection is a condition in which a person's cells become cancerous or transformed due to the integration and disruption of normal cellular functions by a viral pathogen. These viruses are also known as oncoviruses, and they can cause tumors or cancer by altering the host cell's genetic material, promoting uncontrolled cell growth and division, evading immune surveillance, and inhibiting apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Examples of tumor viruses include:

1. DNA tumor viruses: These are double-stranded DNA viruses that can cause cancer in humans. Examples include human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV).
2. RNA tumor viruses: Also known as retroviruses, these single-stranded RNA viruses can cause cancer in humans. Examples include human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

Tumor virus infections are responsible for approximately 15-20% of all cancer cases worldwide, making them a significant public health concern. Prevention strategies, such as vaccination against HPV and HBV, have been shown to reduce the incidence of associated cancers.

Cytodiagnosis is the rapid, initial evaluation and diagnosis of a disease based on the examination of individual cells obtained from a body fluid or tissue sample. This technique is often used in cytopathology to investigate abnormalities such as lumps, bumps, or growths that may be caused by cancerous or benign conditions.

The process involves collecting cells through various methods like fine-needle aspiration (FNA), body fluids such as urine, sputum, or washings from the respiratory, gastrointestinal, or genitourinary tracts. The collected sample is then spread onto a microscope slide, stained, and examined under a microscope for abnormalities in cell size, shape, structure, and organization.

Cytodiagnosis can provide crucial information to guide further diagnostic procedures and treatment plans. It is often used as an initial screening tool due to its speed, simplicity, and cost-effectiveness compared to traditional histopathological methods that require tissue biopsy and more extensive processing. However, cytodiagnosis may not always be able to distinguish between benign and malignant conditions definitively; therefore, additional tests or follow-up evaluations might be necessary for a conclusive diagnosis.

Uterine cervical diseases refer to conditions that affect the cervix, which is the lower part of the uterus that opens into the vagina. These diseases can range from minor abnormalities to more serious conditions, such as:

1. Cervical dysplasia: This is a precancerous condition characterized by the presence of abnormal cells on the cervix. It is usually caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV) and can be detected through a Pap test.
2. Cervical cancer: This is a malignant tumor that develops in the cervical tissue. The most common type of cervical cancer is squamous cell carcinoma, which arises from the cells lining the surface of the cervix.
3. Cervicitis: This is an inflammation of the cervix, which can be caused by infections, irritants, or allergies. Symptoms may include vaginal discharge, pain, and bleeding.
4. Cervical polyps: These are benign growths that develop on the cervix. They are usually small and asymptomatic but can cause abnormal vaginal bleeding or discharge.
5. Cervical incompetence: This is a condition where the cervix begins to open prematurely during pregnancy, leading to a risk of miscarriage or preterm labor.

It's important to note that regular screening and early detection can help prevent or manage many cervical diseases, including cervical cancer.

Squamous cell neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that originate from squamous cells, which are flat, scale-like cells that make up the outer layer of the skin and the lining of mucous membranes. These neoplasms can be benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous). When malignant, they are called squamous cell carcinomas.

Squamous cell carcinomas often develop in areas exposed to excessive sunlight or ultraviolet radiation, such as the skin, lips, and mouth. They can also occur in other areas of the body, including the cervix, anus, and lungs. Risk factors for developing squamous cell carcinoma include fair skin, a history of sunburns, exposure to certain chemicals or radiation, and a weakened immune system.

Symptoms of squamous cell carcinomas may include rough or scaly patches on the skin, a sore that doesn't heal, a wart-like growth, or a raised bump with a central depression. Treatment for squamous cell carcinomas typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, along with radiation therapy or chemotherapy in some cases. Early detection and treatment can help prevent the spread of the cancer to other parts of the body.

Nonoxynol is a surfactant, or surface-active agent, that has been used in various medical and consumer products. It is a type of chemical compound known as a polyoxyethylene alkyl ether, which means it contains a hydrophilic (water-attracting) ethylene oxide group and a hydrophobic (water-repelling) alkyl group.

In the medical field, Nonoxynol has been used as a spermicide in various forms of birth control, such as creams, gels, films, and sponges. It works by disrupting the membrane of sperm cells, preventing them from fertilizing an egg. However, its use as a spermicide has declined due to concerns about its potential to cause irritation and inflammation in the genital area, which may increase the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV transmission.

It's important to note that Nonoxynol is not currently recommended for use as a spermicide or microbicide due to its potential health risks. Always consult with a healthcare professional before using any medical product.

Early detection of cancer refers to the identification of malignant cells or tumors in their initial stages, before they have had a chance to grow and spread. This is typically achieved through various screening methods and tests that are designed to detect specific types of cancers. The goal of early detection is to increase the chances of successful treatment and improve the overall prognosis for patients.

Some common methods used for early cancer detection include:

1. Regular screenings such as mammograms, colonoscopies, and Pap tests, which can help identify precancerous or cancerous cells in their earliest stages.
2. Imaging tests like CT scans, MRIs, and PET scans, which can help detect tumors that may not be visible through other screening methods.
3. Blood tests that look for specific biomarkers or tumor markers, which can indicate the presence of cancer in the body.
4. Genetic testing to identify individuals who may be at higher risk of developing certain types of cancer due to inherited genetic mutations.

It's important to note that while early detection is an important tool in the fight against cancer, it is not a guarantee of successful treatment or cure. However, it can significantly improve the odds of successful treatment and increase the chances of survival for many patients.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

A biopsy is a medical procedure in which a small sample of tissue is taken from the body to be examined under a microscope for the presence of disease. This can help doctors diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as cancer, infections, or autoimmune disorders. The type of biopsy performed will depend on the location and nature of the suspected condition. Some common types of biopsies include:

1. Incisional biopsy: In this procedure, a surgeon removes a piece of tissue from an abnormal area using a scalpel or other surgical instrument. This type of biopsy is often used when the lesion is too large to be removed entirely during the initial biopsy.

2. Excisional biopsy: An excisional biopsy involves removing the entire abnormal area, along with a margin of healthy tissue surrounding it. This technique is typically employed for smaller lesions or when cancer is suspected.

3. Needle biopsy: A needle biopsy uses a thin, hollow needle to extract cells or fluid from the body. There are two main types of needle biopsies: fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy. FNA extracts loose cells, while a core needle biopsy removes a small piece of tissue.

4. Punch biopsy: In a punch biopsy, a round, sharp tool is used to remove a small cylindrical sample of skin tissue. This type of biopsy is often used for evaluating rashes or other skin abnormalities.

5. Shave biopsy: During a shave biopsy, a thin slice of tissue is removed from the surface of the skin using a sharp razor-like instrument. This technique is typically used for superficial lesions or growths on the skin.

After the biopsy sample has been collected, it is sent to a laboratory where a pathologist will examine the tissue under a microscope and provide a diagnosis based on their findings. The results of the biopsy can help guide further treatment decisions and determine the best course of action for managing the patient's condition.

Spermatocidal agents are substances or chemicals that have the ability to destroy or inhibit sperm cells, making them non-functional. These agents are often used in spermicides, which are a type of contraceptive method. Spermicides work by physically blocking the cervix and killing any sperm that come into contact with the spermicidal agent. Common spermatocidal agents include Nonoxynol-9, Benzalkonium chloride, and Chlorhexidine gluconate. It's important to note that while spermicides can provide some protection against pregnancy, they are not considered a highly effective form of birth control when used alone.

Conization is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of a cone-shaped piece of tissue from the cervix. It is typically performed to diagnose or treat abnormal or precancerous cells in the cervix, and is also known as a cone biopsy or a cervical conization.

The procedure is usually done under general anesthesia, and involves using a surgical instrument such as a scalpel or a laser to remove a cone-shaped piece of tissue from the cervix. The tissue is then sent to a laboratory for examination under a microscope to determine whether there are any abnormal or precancerous cells present.

Conization may be recommended in cases where Pap tests or other screening methods have detected abnormal cells in the cervix, or if there are suspicious-looking areas that cannot be fully evaluated with a colposcopy (a procedure that uses a special magnifying device to examine the cervix). It may also be used as a treatment for certain types of cervical dysplasia (abnormal cell growth) or early-stage cervical cancer.

It's important to note that conization is a surgical procedure and, like any surgery, carries some risks such as bleeding, infection, and damage to surrounding tissues. However, these complications are generally rare and can be effectively managed with appropriate medical care.

Vulvar diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the vulva, which is the external female genital area including the mons pubis, labia majora and minora, clitoris, and the vaginal opening. These conditions can cause various symptoms such as itching, burning, pain, soreness, irritation, or abnormal growths or lesions. Some common vulvar diseases include:

1. Vulvitis: inflammation of the vulva that can be caused by infection, allergies, or irritants.
2. Lichen sclerosus: a chronic skin condition that causes thin, white patches on the vulva.
3. Lichen planus: an inflammatory condition that affects the skin and mucous membranes, including the vulva.
4. Vulvar cancer: a rare type of cancer that develops in the tissues of the vulva.
5. Genital warts: caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, these are small growths or bumps on the vulva.
6. Pudendal neuralgia: a nerve condition that causes pain in the vulvar area.
7. Vestibulodynia: pain or discomfort in the vestibule, the area surrounding the vaginal opening.

It is important to consult a healthcare professional if experiencing any symptoms related to vulvar diseases for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Viral DNA refers to the genetic material present in viruses that consist of DNA as their core component. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is one of the two types of nucleic acids that are responsible for storing and transmitting genetic information in living organisms. Viruses are infectious agents much smaller than bacteria that can only replicate inside the cells of other organisms, called hosts.

Viral DNA can be double-stranded (dsDNA) or single-stranded (ssDNA), depending on the type of virus. Double-stranded DNA viruses have a genome made up of two complementary strands of DNA, while single-stranded DNA viruses contain only one strand of DNA.

Examples of dsDNA viruses include Adenoviruses, Herpesviruses, and Poxviruses, while ssDNA viruses include Parvoviruses and Circoviruses. Viral DNA plays a crucial role in the replication cycle of the virus, encoding for various proteins necessary for its multiplication and survival within the host cell.

Vaginal diseases refer to various medical conditions that affect the vagina, which is the female reproductive organ that extends from the cervix (the lower part of the uterus) to the external part of the genitalia (vulva). These diseases can cause a range of symptoms, including discharge, itching, burning, pain, and discomfort. Some common vaginal diseases include:

1. Vaginitis: It is an inflammation or infection of the vagina that can cause abnormal discharge, itching, and irritation. The most common causes of vaginitis are bacterial vaginosis, yeast infections, and trichomoniasis.
2. Vulvovaginitis: It is an inflammation or infection of both the vagina and vulva that can cause redness, swelling, itching, and pain. The causes of vulvovaginitis are similar to those of vaginitis and include bacterial infections, yeast infections, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
3. Vaginal dryness: It is a common condition that affects many women, especially after menopause. It can cause discomfort during sexual intercourse and lead to other symptoms such as itching and burning.
4. Vaginal cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that develop in the vagina due to various reasons, including inflammation, injury, or congenital abnormalities.
5. Vaginal cancer: It is a rare type of cancer that affects the vagina. The most common symptoms include abnormal vaginal bleeding, discharge, and pain during sexual intercourse.
6. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs): Several STIs, such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, genital herpes, and human papillomavirus (HPV), can affect the vagina and cause various symptoms, including discharge, pain, and sores.

It is essential to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of vaginal diseases to receive proper diagnosis and treatment.

Dielectric spectroscopy is a type of material characterization technique that measures the dielectric properties of a material as a function of frequency. The dielectric property of a material refers to its ability to store electrical energy in the form of polarization when an external electric field is applied. In dielectric spectroscopy, the material's response to an alternating electric field is measured, and the resulting complex permittivity (which includes both real and imaginary components) is used to characterize the material's dielectric behavior.

The technique involves applying a small amplitude AC voltage to the material while measuring the current flow through it. The frequency of the applied voltage can be varied over a wide range, typically from millihertz to gigahertz. By analyzing the phase shift and amplitude of the resulting current, the complex permittivity of the material can be determined as a function of frequency.

Dielectric spectroscopy is widely used in materials science, physics, chemistry, and biology to study the structure, dynamics, and composition of various materials, including polymers, ceramics, glasses, colloids, and biological tissues. The technique can provide valuable information about the material's molecular mobility, relaxation processes, conductivity, and other dielectric properties, which can be used for quality control, process monitoring, and fundamental research.

Cytological techniques refer to the methods and procedures used to study individual cells, known as cytopathology. These techniques are used in the diagnosis and screening of various medical conditions, including cancer. The most common cytological technique is the Pap test, which involves collecting cells from the cervix and examining them for abnormalities. Other cytological techniques include fine-needle aspiration (FNA), which involves using a thin needle to withdraw cells from a tumor or lump, and body fluids analysis, which involves examining cells present in various bodily fluids such as urine, sputum, and pleural effusions. These techniques allow for the examination of cellular structure, morphology, and other characteristics to help diagnose and monitor diseases.

Acetic acid is an organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH. It is a colorless liquid with a pungent, vinegar-like smell and is the main component of vinegar. In medical terms, acetic acid is used as a topical antiseptic and antibacterial agent, particularly for the treatment of ear infections, external genital warts, and nail fungus. It can also be used as a preservative and solvent in some pharmaceutical preparations.

Triage is a medical term that refers to the process of prioritizing patients based on the severity of their condition or illness, and the resources available. The goal of triage is to ensure that the most critical patients receive care first, which can help reduce morbidity and mortality in emergency situations. This process is typically used in settings where there are more patients than can be treated immediately, such as during mass casualty incidents or in busy emergency departments. Triage nurses or doctors quickly assess each patient's condition, often using a standardized system, to determine the urgency of their medical needs and allocate resources accordingly.

"Southern Africa" is a geographical region that includes several countries located in the southernmost part of the African continent. The specific countries that are included in this region can vary depending on the source, but it generally consists of Angola, Botswana, Eswatini (Swaziland), Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

In medical terms, "Southern Africa" may be used to describe the epidemiology, distribution, or prevalence of various diseases or health conditions in this specific region. For example, a study might examine the burden of HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa, which has been disproportionately affected by this epidemic compared to other parts of the world. Similarly, researchers might investigate the prevalence of malaria or tuberculosis in Southern Africa, as these diseases are also significant public health challenges in this region.

It's worth noting that while "Southern Africa" is a useful geographical and medical designation, it does not encompass all of the countries on the African continent, and there can be significant variation in disease patterns and health outcomes within this region as well.

DNA probes for HPV (Human Papillomavirus) are specific DNA sequences that are used in diagnostic tests to detect and identify the presence of HPV DNA in a sample. HPV is a viral infection that can cause various types of cancer, including cervical, anal, and oropharyngeal cancers.

DNA probes for HPV work by binding to complementary sequences of HPV DNA in the sample. This binding can be detected and measured using various methods, such as hybridization, amplification, or labeling techniques. The use of DNA probes for HPV can help identify the specific type of HPV that is present in a sample, which can inform clinical management and treatment decisions.

It's important to note that not all HPV infections lead to cancer, and most HPV infections resolve on their own without causing any harm. However, certain high-risk types of HPV are more strongly associated with an increased risk of developing cancer, so identifying the presence and type of HPV infection can be useful for monitoring and managing patients who may be at higher risk.

Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) is a specific type of human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is a DNA virus that infects the skin and mucous membranes, and there are over 200 types of HPV. Some types of HPV can cause warts, while others are associated with an increased risk of certain cancers.

HPV16 is one of the high-risk types of HPV and is strongly associated with several types of cancer, including cervical, anal, penile, vulvar, and oropharyngeal (throat) cancers. HPV16 is responsible for about 50% of all cervical cancers and is the most common high-risk type of HPV found in these cancers.

HPV16 is typically transmitted through sexual contact, and most people who are sexually active will acquire at least one type of HPV at some point in their lives. While HPV infections are often harmless and clear up on their own without causing any symptoms or health problems, high-risk types like HPV16 can lead to cancer if left untreated.

Fortunately, there are vaccines available that protect against HPV16 and other high-risk types of HPV. These vaccines have been shown to be highly effective in preventing HPV-related cancers and precancerous lesions. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends routine HPV vaccination for both boys and girls starting at age 11 or 12, although the vaccine can be given as early as age 9. Catch-up vaccinations are also recommended for older individuals who have not yet been vaccinated.

Vaginal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the vagina. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). The two main types of vaginal neoplasms are:

1. Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN): This is a condition where the cells on the inner lining of the vagina become abnormal but have not invaded deeper tissues. VAIN can be low-grade or high-grade, depending on the severity of the cell changes.
2. Vaginal cancer: This is a malignant tumor that arises from the cells in the vagina. The two main types of vaginal cancer are squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type, accounting for about 85% of all cases.

Risk factors for vaginal neoplasms include human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, smoking, older age, history of cervical cancer or precancerous changes, and exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) in utero. Treatment options depend on the type, stage, and location of the neoplasm but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Human papillomavirus 18 (HPV-18) is a specific type of human papillomavirus (HPV), which is a group of more than 200 related viruses. HPV is named for the warts (papillomas) some types can cause.

HPV-18 is one of the high-risk types of HPV that are linked to several types of cancer, including cervical, anal, vaginal, vulvar, and oropharyngeal (throat) cancers. HPV-18 along with HPV-16 are responsible for about 70% of all cervical cancers.

HPV is passed from one person to another during skin-to-skin contact, usually during sexual activity. Most sexually active people will have an HPV infection at some point in their lives, but most will never know it because the virus often causes no symptoms and goes away on its own. However, when HPV doesn't go away, it can cause serious health problems, including cancer.

There are vaccines available to protect against HPV-18 and other high-risk types of HPV. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that all boys and girls get the HPV vaccine at age 11 or 12, but it can be given as early as age 9 and until age 26 for those who have not yet received it. The vaccine is most effective when given before becoming sexually active.

**Referral:**
A referral in the medical context is the process where a healthcare professional (such as a general practitioner or primary care physician) sends or refers a patient to another healthcare professional who has specialized knowledge and skills to address the patient's specific health condition or concern. This could be a specialist, a consultant, or a facility that provides specialized care. The referral may involve transferring the patient's care entirely to the other professional or may simply be for a consultation and advice.

**Consultation:**
A consultation in healthcare is a process where a healthcare professional seeks the opinion or advice of another professional regarding a patient's medical condition. This can be done in various ways, such as face-to-face meetings, phone calls, or written correspondence. The consulting professional provides their expert opinion to assist in the diagnosis, treatment plan, or management of the patient's condition. The ultimate decision and responsibility for the patient's care typically remain with the referring or primary healthcare provider.

Virology is the study of viruses, their classification, and their effects on living organisms. It involves the examination of viral genetic material, viral replication, how viruses cause disease, and the development of antiviral drugs and vaccines to treat or prevent virus infections. Virologists study various types of viruses that can infect animals, plants, and microorganisms, as well as understand their evolution and transmission patterns.

Curettage is a medical procedure that involves scraping or removing tissue from the lining of an organ or body cavity, typically performed using a curette, which is a long, thin surgical instrument with a looped or sharp end. In gynecology, curettage is often used to remove tissue from the uterus during a procedure called dilation and curettage (D&C) to diagnose or treat abnormal uterine bleeding, or to remove residual placental or fetal tissue following a miscarriage or abortion. Curettage may also be used in other medical specialties to remove damaged or diseased tissue from areas such as the nose, throat, or skin.

Menstrual hygiene products are items used by menstruating individuals to absorb or collect blood and maintain cleanliness and comfort during menstruation. These products typically include sanitary napkins, tampons, menstrual cups, and reusable cloth pads. They are designed to be safe, comfortable, and effective in managing menstrual flow and preventing leakage, while also being convenient and discreet to use. It is essential to maintain proper menstrual hygiene to prevent discomfort, skin irritation, and infection during menstruation.

Carcinoma in situ is a medical term used to describe the earliest stage of cancer, specifically a type of cancer that begins in the epithelial tissue, which is the tissue that lines the outer surfaces of organs and body structures. In this stage, the cancer cells are confined to the layer of cells where they first developed and have not spread beyond that layer into the surrounding tissues or organs.

Carcinoma in situ can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, cervix, breast, lung, prostate, bladder, and other areas. It is often detected through routine screening tests, such as Pap smears for cervical cancer or mammograms for breast cancer.

While carcinoma in situ is not invasive, it can still be a serious condition because it has the potential to develop into an invasive cancer if left untreated. Treatment options for carcinoma in situ may include surgery, radiation therapy, or other forms of treatment, depending on the location and type of cancer. It is important to consult with a healthcare provider to determine the best course of action for each individual case.

'Condylomata Acuminata' is the medical term for genital warts, which are growths or bumps that appear on the genital area. They are caused by certain types of the human papillomavirus (HPV). Genital warts can vary in appearance, and they may be small, flat, and difficult to see or large, cauliflower-like, and easily visible.

The warts can appear on the vulva, vagina, cervix, rectum, anus, penis, or scrotum. They are usually painless but can cause discomfort during sexual intercourse. In some cases, genital warts can lead to serious health problems, such as cervical cancer in women.

It is important to note that not all people with HPV will develop genital warts, and many people with HPV are asymptomatic and unaware they have the virus. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends routine HPV vaccination for both boys and girls aged 11-12 years to prevent HPV infection and related diseases, including genital warts.

Anxiety: A feeling of worry, nervousness, or unease, typically about an imminent event or something with an uncertain outcome. In a medical context, anxiety refers to a mental health disorder characterized by feelings of excessive and persistent worry, fear, or panic that interfere with daily activities. It can also be a symptom of other medical conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, or substance abuse disorders. Anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and phobias.

A precancerous condition, also known as a premalignant condition, is a state of abnormal cellular growth and development that has a higher-than-normal potential to progress into cancer. These conditions are characterized by the presence of certain anomalies in the cells, such as dysplasia (abnormal changes in cell shape or size), which can indicate an increased risk for malignant transformation.

It is important to note that not all precancerous conditions will eventually develop into cancer, and some may even regress on their own. However, individuals with precancerous conditions are often at a higher risk of developing cancer compared to the general population. Regular monitoring and appropriate medical interventions, if necessary, can help manage this risk and potentially prevent or detect cancer at an early stage when it is more treatable.

Examples of precancerous conditions include:

1. Dysplasia in the cervix (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or CIN)
2. Atypical ductal hyperplasia or lobular hyperplasia in the breast
3. Actinic keratosis on the skin
4. Leukoplakia in the mouth
5. Barrett's esophagus in the digestive tract

Regular medical check-ups, screenings, and lifestyle modifications are crucial for individuals with precancerous conditions to monitor their health and reduce the risk of cancer development.

A clinical audit is a quality improvement process that involves systematically evaluating and improving the care delivered to patients. It is based on comparing current practice against evidence-based standards or guidelines, identifying gaps between current and desired practice, and implementing changes to close those gaps. Clinical audits can focus on various aspects of healthcare delivery, including clinical outcomes, patient safety, patient experience, and clinical processes. The aim of a clinical audit is to ensure that patients receive high-quality care that meets best practice standards, leading to improved health outcomes and patient satisfaction.

The vagina is the canal that joins the cervix (the lower part of the uterus) to the outside of the body. It also is known as the birth canal because babies pass through it during childbirth. The vagina is where sexual intercourse occurs and where menstrual blood exits the body. It has a flexible wall that can expand and retract. During sexual arousal, the vaginal walls swell with blood to become more elastic in order to accommodate penetration.

It's important to note that sometimes people use the term "vagina" to refer to the entire female genital area, including the external structures like the labia and clitoris. But technically, these are considered part of the vulva, not the vagina.

The development of colposcopy involved experimentation on Jewish inmates from Auschwitz. Most women undergo a colposcopy to ... Colposcopy and Treatment of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A Beginner's Manual (IARC Screening Group) Atlas of colposcopy ... developed by the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, most recently in 2017. Colposcopy is not generally ... principles and practice (IARC Screening Group) American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology Women & Babies Colposcopy ...
Colposcopy. KCCA Ugandan Hospitals Richard Kanyerezi International Hospital Dr. Ian Clarke Nakasero Hospital Asiimwe, Peninah ( ...
Colposcopy. Menstruation occurs typically monthly, lasts 3-7 days, and involves up to 80 ml blood. Bleeding in excess of this ...
Hebeht, P., Welch, I., & Jackson, B. (1976). Colposcopy-What Is It?. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing. 5(3 ...
ISBN 0-07-145892-1. Bosze, Peter; David M. Luesley (2004). Eagc Course Book on Colposcopy. Informa Health Care. p. 66. ISBN 963 ...
American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology) (2011-12-28). Modern Colposcopy Textbook and Atlas. Lippincott Williams ...
Vaginal cysts Vaginal tumors Up to 26 layers have been seen - see Pathology, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical; ... Mayeaux EJ, Cox TJ (2011). Modern Colposcopy Textbook and Atlas. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 978-1451153835. Retrieved ... Modern Colposcopy Textbook and Atlas. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 9781451153835. "Vaginal Cytology: Introduction and ... Mayeaux, E. J.; Cox, J. Thomas (2011-12-28). Modern Colposcopy Textbook and Atlas. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN ...
Mayeaux EJ, Cox JT (2011). Modern Colposcopy Textbook and Atlas. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 978-1-4511-5383-5. Kurman ... Saslow D (2012). "American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for ...
Kesic, Vesna (2004). "Chapter 14: Colposcopy of the vulva, perineum, and anal canal" (PDF). In Bősze, Péter; Luesley, David M ... or a physician trained in colposcopy, examination, or biopsy of this region. At a minimum, a digital rectal exam is performed. ... eds.). EAGC Course Book on Colposcopy. European Academy of Gynaecological Cancer (EAGC). Primed-X Press. pp. 126-163. ISBN 978- ...
"LIST OF COLPOSCOPY TRAINING CENTERS" (PDF). Fogsi.org. Retrieved 14 February 2019. "Can Protect Foundation - Free Breast and ... She is the Founder of Colposcopy center for cervical cancer screening - It is the only center recognized for training of ... Doctors for colposcopy by FOGSI in Uttarakhand established in 2002. Sumita has been founder president of Can Protect Foundation ...
Prendiville W, Sankaranarayanan R (2017). "Anatomy of the uterine cervix and the transformation zone". Colposcopy and Treatment ...
ISBN 978-9986-437-30-7. Čigriejienė, V. M.; Sadauskas, Vacys (1998). Kolposkopijos pagrindai [Basics of Colposcopy] (in ...
Maggiore's doctors recommended further evaluation with colposcopy; Maggiore writes that she instead followed a naturopathic ...
Baggish, Michael S. (15 September 2018). Colposcopy of the Cervix, Vagina, and Vulva: A Comprehensive Textbook. Mosby. ISBN ... Hinselmann of Berlin". Hinselmann was the physician who developed colposcopy. Importantly, Wirths also asserted medical control ...
Unlike colposcopy, cervicography does not have a current CPT/HCPCS code and typically is not covered by most medical insurance ... Other related procedures are speculoscopy and colposcopy. The procedure is considered a screening test for cervical cancer and ... of colposcopy/biopsy may have missed cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Stafl A. Cervicography: a new method for ... thus increasing the number of colposcopies needed). Whether cervicography could have a role in countries where Pap smear ...
In 2010, she was given the Lifetime Achievement Award by the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP) for ... 1: S13 "2010 Lifetime Achievement Award Recipients". American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology. Archived from the ...
He served as president of the British Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology until 1988; as president of the British ... "About us". British Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology. Retrieved 4 July 2017. "Past Annual Orators". Society for ... as chair of the International Federation for Cervical Pathology and Colposcopy from 1993 to 1996; and as chair of the Scottish ...
Sellors JW (2003). "Chapter 4: An introduction to colposcopy: indications for colposcopy, instrumentation, principles and ... This is often done through colposcopy, a magnified visual inspection of the cervix aided by using a dilute acetic acid (e.g. ... Yet, women are recommended to practice vigilant prevention and follow-up care including Pap screenings/colposcopy, with ... known as colposcopy. The treatment of low-grade lesions may adversely affect subsequent fertility and pregnancy. Personal ...
"Detection of Cervical Infections in Colposcopy Clinic Patients". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 39 (8): 2946-2950. doi: ...
ISBN 978-0-443-06850-8. International Federation for Cervical Pathology and Colposcopy (IFCPC) classification. References: -" ...
They do not perform as well as Pap smear screening and colposcopy. At this point, these techniques have not been validated by ... If the abnormality requires closer scrutiny, the patient may be referred for detailed inspection of the cervix by colposcopy, ... In the developed world, cervical biopsy guided by colposcopy is considered the "gold standard" for diagnosing cervical ... 2012). "American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical ...
... indications for colposcopy, instrumentation, principles and documentation of results". Colposcopy and treatment of cervical ... ISBN 978-3-640-86284-9. Sellors JW, Sankaranarayanan R (eds.). "Chapter 4: An introduction to colposcopy: ...
A colposcopy with directed biopsy is the standard for disease detection. Endocervical brush sampling at the time of Pap smear ... An abnormal Pap smear result may lead to a recommendation for colposcopy of the cervix, an in office procedure during which the ... A biopsy is taken of any abnormal appearing areas.[citation needed] Colposcopy is usually very painful and so researchers have ... ISBN 978-1-4160-2973-1. "Colposcopy and treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: a beginners manual". screening.iarc.fr ...
Documentation of Acute Injuries Using Photo-colposcopy". Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. 14 (4): 175-180. doi: ...
Other diagnostic procedures used are the pap test, colposcopy and biopsy. Other procedures are used to aid in diagnosis: chest ...
During colposcopy, Lugol's iodine is applied to the vagina and cervix. Normal vaginal tissue stains brown due to its high ... Similar to the method of staining mentioned above regarding a colposcopy, alveolar mucosa has a high glycogen content that ...
p. Atlantis and Colposcopy, Saint Francis saw the scissors, Washing Lines II. ISBN 9781431409853. Awerbuck (2013). Washing ... The Odyssey The Gonjon Pin and Other Stories Sweet Water Mami Wata The Sea Three Poems in Anthology Atlantis and Colposcopy The ...
Based on the results of the test, those with higher risk strains of HPV will be referred for colposcopy, while those with lower ... Some of the follow-up options include surveillance, histological diagnosis via colposcopy/biopsy, or removal of the abnormal ... June 2012). "Performance characteristics of Pap test, VIA, VILI, HR-HPV testing, cervicography, and colposcopy in diagnosis of ... colposcopy, treatments for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and endometrial assessment". American Family Physician. 87 (12): ...
1993). "Triage of patients with abnormal smears in the absence of colposcopy". Trop. Geogr. Med. 45: 157-158. Olaleye, DO; ... 1991). "Management of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia where colposcopy is not available". Cent. Afr. J. Med. 1991 (37): 7-11 ...
Internal injuries to the cervix and vagina can be visualized using colposcopy. Using colposcopy has increased the detection of ...
The development of colposcopy involved experimentation on Jewish inmates from Auschwitz. Most women undergo a colposcopy to ... Colposcopy and Treatment of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A Beginners Manual (IARC Screening Group) Atlas of colposcopy ... developed by the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, most recently in 2017. Colposcopy is not generally ... principles and practice (IARC Screening Group) American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology Women & Babies Colposcopy ...
A colposcopy is a special way of looking at the cervix. It uses a light and a low-powered microscope to make the cervix appear ... colposcopy; LSIL - colposcopy; HSIL - colposcopy; Low-grade colposcopy; High-grade colposcopy; Carcinoma in situ - colposcopy; ... colposcopy; Pap smear - colposcopy; HPV - colposcopy; Human papilloma virus - colposcopy; Cervix - colposcopy; Colposcopy ... colposcopy; CIN - colposcopy; Precancerous changes of the cervix - colposcopy; Cervical cancer - colposcopy; Squamous ...
The Colposcopy Clinic diagnoses, treats and educates women with abnormal Pap tests, precancerous disorders of the cervix, ... What to Expect: Colposcopy. ​​A colposcopy examination takes a closer look at the cervix. Your doctor likely referred you to ... 5th Floor, Gynecology Colposcopy Clinic. 76 Grenville Street, Toronto ON. Learn more about the Colposcopy Clinic at Womens ... Colposcopy is similar to a Pap test. The doctor will insert a speculum into your vagina. A speculum is a metal device that is ...
A colposcopy helps to examine your cervix, vagina or vulva. A biopsy can be done during the procedure to check for cervical, ... What to expect during a colposcopy. For a colposcopy, you lie down on the exam table and place your feet in stirrups, just as ... Benefits and risks of a colposcopy. The benefit of a colposcopy is that youll find out if you have any abnormal cells that may ... How to prepare for a colposcopy. Ask your doctor what you should do to prepare for a colposcopy. Most women undergoing this ...
Family Physicians Colposcopy Practices. Paul R. Gordon and Barry D. Weiss. The Journal of the American Board of Family ... Family Physicians Colposcopy Practices Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from American Board of Family ...
Thank you for registering for ASCCPs online didactic Comprehensive Colposcopy course.. Everything you need - course videos, ...
A colposcopy is a diagnostic procedure designed to examine the cervix, the opening to the womb from the vagina. ... When is a colposcopy necessary?. A colposcopy procedure is sometimes carried out after a cervical smear test. A cervical smear ... Does a colposcopy mean I have cancer?. No, having a colposcopy does not mean that you have cancer. It is a diagnostic procedure ... What is a Colposcopy?. A colposcopy is a diagnostic procedure designed to examine the cervix, the opening to the womb from the ...
Colposcopy. A colposcopy is a simple examination that is carried out in the same way as a smear test. A doctor or nurse will ... Colposcopy nurses (queries about the colposcopy examination). Tel: 01 - 817 6844, 817 6874 or 817 2518 ... Colposcopy Unit,. The Rotunda Hospital,. Parnell Square,. Dublin 1.. The referral form will be reviewed by a doctor and an ... The colposcopy service in the Rotunda operates in association with CervicalCheck, the national cervical screening programme. ...
Why have I been invited to colposcopy?. If this is your first colposcopy appointment. Youre usually invited for colposcopy ... What is colposcopy?. Colposcopy is an examination to take a closer look at your cervix. It checks to see if there are cell ... Colposcopy normally happens in a hospital or local clinic. A colposcopy appointment usually takes 10-20 minutes. It might be ... If this is your second or follow-up colposcopy appointment. You could be going to a second or follow-up colposcopy appointment ...
Indications of colposcopy Description of a colposcope Ancillary instruments for colposcopy Consumables required for colposcopy ... Colposcopy setup Steps of a colposcopic examination Inadequate colposcopy Exposing the cervix properly Using the endocervical ... Atlas of Colposcopy: Principles and Practice. Filter by language: English / 丫斏 / Fran ais / Espa ol / Portugu s. Quiz. *Age: 40 ... Colposcopy report (2011 IFCPC nomenclature): IFCPC nomenclature:. - General assessment:. Adequacy: ----. Adequate. Inadequate ...
Indications of colposcopy Description of a colposcope Ancillary instruments for colposcopy Consumables required for colposcopy ... Colposcopy setup Steps of a colposcopic examination Inadequate colposcopy Exposing the cervix properly Using the endocervical ... Colposcopy report (2011 IFCPC nomenclature): IFCPC nomenclature:. - General assessment:. Adequacy: ----. Adequate. Inadequate ... Atlas of Colposcopy: Principles and Practice. Filter by language: English / 丫斏. Quiz. *Age: 41 ...
This involved performing colposcopy. With the introduction of certification for colposcopists in 1998, most GU Medicine ... The provision of a colposcopy service by GU Medicine nurse practitioners or doctors is achievable but requires appropriate ... a GU Medicine-based colposcopy service was introduced at Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge, UK, to assess young women with post ... clinicians stopped providing a colposcopy service. As certification is not required for using the colposcope to diagnose and ...
... colposcopy is more sensitive for detecting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+) in women who are human papillomavirus ... The researchers found that DSI digital colposcopy identified more CIN2+ lesions in HPV16+ women than in non-16 hrHPV+ women (P= ... "The sensitivity of DSI colposcopy for CIN2+ is higher in HPV16+ than in non-16 hrHPV+ women," the authors write. "Furthermore, ... HealthDay News) - Dynamic spectral imaging (DSI) colposcopy is more sensitive for detecting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia ...
The Colposcopy Atsm The colposcopy ATSM. There is a proposal to change the current advanced training module in colposcopy to ...
The colposcopy department examines women who are referred from the cytology department with abnormal cervical samples as well ... in the colposcopy clinic or GP surgery) until this happens. ...
Why have I been referred for colposcopy?. You have been referred for a colposcopy because you have recently attended your GP or ... How long would I have to wait to receive an appointment for colposcopy?. Once we have received the colposcopy referral from ... The British Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cytology. NHS Cervical Screening Program. Cervical screening colposcopy leaflet ... Colposcopy. It is required as part of the NHS Cervical Screening Programme to investigate women who have had abnormal cervical ...
Colposcopy - Aftercare following treatment - v4.1 10.2017 Page last updated: 04 February 2020 ...
Ask the Expert: Colposcopy. On September 20, 2020 by admin With 0 Comments - cancer ...
Find out what happens before, during and after a colposcopy ... A colposcopy is done in the same way as a cervical screening ... After colposcopy. After having a colposcopy examination you:. *will be able to go home as soon as you feel ready, usually ... The colposcopy examination. Colposcopy is done by a specialist called a colposcopist. This may be a doctor or a nurse. ... Contact the colposcopy clinic before your appointment if you:. *have your period - you may need to reschedule your appointment ...
Colposcopy is a procedure to closely examine your cervix, vagina and vulva for signs of disease. During colposcopy, our ... Cancer Screening - Pap smear, HPV Test and Colposcopy. Cancer Screening : Pap smear, HPV Test, colposcopy. Cancer can be ... Home Hebbal Specialities Obstetrics-and-gynaecology Cancer-screening-pap-smear-HPV-Test-Colposcopy ... Colposcopy is recommended if your Pap test result is abnormal. As cervical cancer detected through screening tends to be ...
SI707C: Cervix, Various Lesions, Colposcopy, Laser Vapourisation/Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure/Laser Excision of ... SI707C: Cervix, Various Lesions, Colposcopy, Laser Vapourisation/Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure/Laser Excision of ... SI707C: Cervix, Various Lesions, Colposcopy, Laser Vapourisation/Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure/Laser Excision of ...
... comparable to or were preferred to colposcopy images, but disagreement in interpretation between TVDC and colposcopy for the ... Results: Colposcopy and magnification for visualization of the cervix were preferred by all physicians, in spite of low ... Next, physicians assessed images from a clinical trial involving imaging of cervix by the TVDC and with standard colposcopy. To ... Accuracy among physicians interpreting TVDC images ranged from 25%-100%, while accuracy with colposcopy images ranged from 38%- ...
A colposcopy allows your md to look at the... Read More. Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone ... You must do the next step which is colposcopy to treat the lesions and to prevent... Read More. Created for people with ongoing ... says that with close monitor, Pap tests & colposcopy and no HPV partner, the virus might go and Id be cured! Is this true ? Is ... Ive had a negative smear after having treatment for cin2 with the HPV virus and been called back in for a colposcopy within 2 ...
Harsh Vardhan congratulated the Indian Society of Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology for pioneering training in colposcopy and ... Harsh Vardhan addresses 17th World Congress for Cervical Pathology and Colposcopy By India Education Diary Bureau Admin On Jul ... The event organised by Indian Society of Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology was inaugurated by Honble Vice President Shri ... professors of medical science and stalwarts of medical fraternity specializing in Cervical Pathology and Colposcopy through ...
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Your healthcare provider uses colposcopy to view the opening to the uterus, called the cervix, and the vagina. Your provider ... Colposcopy. What is colposcopy?. Your healthcare provider uses colposcopy to view the opening to the uterus, called the cervix ... after a colposcopy The recovery process will vary if you have a colposcopy with a biopsy. It will depend on the type of biopsy ... Why might I need a colposcopy?. Your provider may do a colposcopy if they find problems or abnormal cells during a pelvic exam ...
... Anyone can, with safe natural methods, conveniently eliminate HPV disease and complications, such as bad ... Atypical Cells Colposcopy - Back Pain After Colposcopy. What is Biopsies Colposcopy? *Can I Have A Colposcopy While On My ... Colposcopy Biopsy Bleeding, and Colposcopy Biopsy Pain. Colposcopy Cervix - Colposcopy Cervix. "This easy-read book provides ... Colposcopy Biopsy Results, and Colposcopy Biopsy Results How Long. Colposcopy Complications - Colposcopy Complications. No ...
Colposcopy Q & A. What is a colposcopy?. A colposcopy is a way of looking at a magnified view of the vagina and cervix. It ... When would I need a colposcopy?. When a Pap smear from the cervix or vagina shows abnormal cells, a colposcopy is usually the ... What is the recovery time for a colposcopy?. If a patient has a colposcopy without a biopsy, they should feel fine right away ... What is the follow up after a colposcopy?. If a biopsy is performed during the colposcopy, the results are known in about one ...
  • Colposcopies also may be performed to look for lesions on the anus, though this procedure is usually performed by a colorectal specialist. (cancercenter.com)
  • Colposcopy is a procedure to closely examine your cervix, vagina and vulva for signs of disease. (manipalhospitals.com)
  • Results: Colposcopy and magnification for visualization of the cervix were preferred by all physicians, in spite of low frequency of in-house use or referrals for the procedure. (duke.edu)
  • If a patient has a colposcopy without a biopsy, they should feel fine right away and return to normal activity the same day as the procedure. (sfwomenshealthcare.com)
  • A colposcopy is an office procedure that allows your doctor to visualize the cervix more closely using a magnifying instrument (colposcope) in order to identify abnormal cervical tissue that cannot be seen with the naked eye. (macarthurmc.com)
  • Colposcopy is a procedure that gives your healthcare provider a magnified view of your cervix. (spectrumhealthlakeland.org)
  • A colposcopy is an in-office diagnostic procedure that a doctor uses to examine the inside of the vagina, vulva, and cervix for concerns such as cell changes, growths, and inflammation. (interimpartner.se)
  • have sex for 4 to 6 weeks Colposcopy Procedure. (interimpartner.se)
  • What do I need to do after my colposcopy procedure? (interimpartner.se)
  • Your doctor may also perform the LEEP procedure during a colposcopy. (interimpartner.se)
  • A colposcopy is a simple procedure used to look at the cervix, the lower part of the womb at the top of the vagina. (interimpartner.se)
  • Colposcopy is a safe and straightforward procedure with few side-effects. (colposcopy.co.uk)
  • Colposcopy is a procedure done to take a closer look at the cervix and vagina. (gyngwinnett.com)
  • How painful is a colposcopy procedure? (gyngwinnett.com)
  • Although there's a chance that you may feel a slight burning or stinging sensation during the procedure, a colposcopy is relatively painless. (gyngwinnett.com)
  • Talk to one of our doctors at Gynecology Associates of Gwinnett to know if colposcopy is a procedure you may need. (gyngwinnett.com)
  • Colposcopy is a procedure that allows your doctor to thoroughly check your cervix, vagina, and vulva for any indications of disease. (hueyandweprin.com)
  • The full colposcopy procedure usually takes about 10-20 minutes. (hueyandweprin.com)
  • If a biopsy does not occur during your colposcopy, no special aftercare is needed, but you may experience 1-2 days of light vaginal bleeding after the procedure. (hueyandweprin.com)
  • Call your doctor if you experience any of the above symptoms after your colposcopy procedure. (hueyandweprin.com)
  • If you are interested in a colposcopy or want to learn more about this procedure, schedule an appointment with an Ob/Gyn specialist at Huey & Weprin Ob/Gyn. (hueyandweprin.com)
  • A colposcopy is a non-surgical procedure that can be performed right in your doctor's office. (draliabadi.com)
  • Having a colposcopy can provoke some anxiety and as we mentioned earlier, most patients find the procedure uncomfortable. (draliabadi.com)
  • Colposcopy is a procedure that uses a special microscope (called a colposcope) to look into the vagina and to look very closely at the cervix (the opening to the uterus, or womb). (midlandsgynaecology.co.uk)
  • The main goal of colposcopy is to prevent cervical cancer by detecting and treating precancerous lesions early. (wikipedia.org)
  • Colposcopy is done using a colposcope, which provides a magnified and illuminated view of the areas, allowing the colposcopist to visually distinguish normal from abnormal appearing tissue, such as damaged or abnormal changes in the tissue (lesions), and take directed biopsies for further pathological examination if needed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The researchers found that DSI digital colposcopy identified more CIN2+ lesions in HPV16+ women than in non-16 hrHPV+ women ( P =0.032 regardless of final histology and P =0.009 among women with CIN2+). (empr.com)
  • Data showed that the sensitivity of DSI colposcopy to detect CIN2+ lesions was 97% in HPV16+ women, compared with 74% in non-16 hrHPV+ women ( P =0.009). (empr.com)
  • You must do the next step which is colposcopy to treat the lesions and to prevent. (healthtap.com)
  • Dr. Harsh Vardhan congratulated the Indian Society of Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology for pioneering training in colposcopy and treatment of precancerous lesions of the cervix and for bringing the prestigious World Congress for the first time to Asia. (indiaeducationdiary.in)
  • ASCUS HPV Positive Colposcopy is a general item simply because it is of interest when contemplating ASCUS Of Cervix With Negative High Risk HPV, ASCUS Pap, and ASCUS Pap Causes. (pap-test-cures.com)
  • When must you review ASCUS HPV Positive Colposcopy? (pap-test-cures.com)
  • ASCUS HPV Negative Guidelines is a commonplace proposition due to the fact that it relates to ASCUS HPV Negative Guidelines, ASCUS HPV Positive Colposcopy, and ASCUS No HPV. (healinghpvnaturally.com)
  • At the Colposcopy Clinic, healthcare experts on your team work with you to ensure you get the best care possible. (uhn.ca)
  • Someone will call you to give you a time for your first appointment at the Colposcopy Clinic, located at Women's College Hospital​. (uhn.ca)
  • A small minority (2-5%) of all women screened will require further investigation or treatment at a dedicated colposcopy clinic. (rotunda.ie)
  • Colposcopy normally happens in a hospital or local clinic. (jostrust.org.uk)
  • On some occasions, the abnormality may return to normal without any intervention but it is very important that you have the follow up (in the colposcopy clinic or GP surgery) until this happens. (airedale-trust.nhs.uk)
  • You have been referred for a colposcopy because you have recently attended your GP or clinic and you either have an abnormal smear or there's another reason for further investigation. (homerton.nhs.uk)
  • Once we have received the colposcopy referral from your GP or clinic, you should receive details of your appointment via the post. (homerton.nhs.uk)
  • Once we have received the colposcopy referral from your GP or clinic, you will receive details of your appointment within three to five days. (wuth.nhs.uk)
  • Does this clinic perform colposcopy? (cdc.gov)
  • Colposcopy Biopsy Aftercare is a reasonable care due to the concern that it is crucial when thinking about Colposcopy Biopsy Aftercare, Colposcopy Biopsy Bleeding, and Colposcopy Biopsy Pain. (colposcopy-treatments.com)
  • For a few days after your colposcopy, you may have a brownish vaginal discharge, or light bleeding if you had a biopsy. (interimpartner.se)
  • Other reasons for a patient to have a colposcopy include assessment of diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure in utero, immunosuppression, abnormal appearance of the cervix or as a part of a sexual assault forensic examination. (wikipedia.org)
  • A colposcopy is a type of examination that helps your doctor take a closer look at the cervix, vagina and vulva. (cancercenter.com)
  • A colposcopy is a simple examination that is carried out in the same way as a smear test. (rotunda.ie)
  • Colposcopy is an examination to take a closer look at your cervix. (jostrust.org.uk)
  • A colposcopy examination is safe during pregnancy. (interimpartner.se)
  • Colposcopy is a detailed examination of the neck of the womb. (colposcopy.co.uk)
  • It's natural to feel nervous about a medical examination but, for most women, colposcopy is painless. (colposcopy.co.uk)
  • After your colposcopy, Mr Thomas Ind will explain the examination findings. (colposcopy.co.uk)
  • Colposcopy is a detailed examination of the cervix using a special microscope called a colposcope. (wuth.nhs.uk)
  • If you have received abnormal pap smear results, a colposcopy may be recommended by your doctor for further examination of your cervix, vagina, or vulva. (hueyandweprin.com)
  • HealthDay News) - Dynamic spectral imaging (DSI) colposcopy is more sensitive for detecting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+) in women who are human papillomavirus type 16-positive (HPV16+) than for women who are non-16 high-risk (hr) HPV+, according to a study published online Feb. 3 in BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology . (empr.com)
  • There is a proposal to change the current advanced training module in colposcopy to make it more relevant to trainees in obstetrics and gynaecology. (bsccp.org.uk)
  • A colposcopy (pronounced kol-POSS-kuh-pee) is a screening test your OB-GYN can use to examine your c+ervix, vulva, and vagina for signs of illness, such as cervical cancer, human papillomavirus, or genital warts. (draliabadi.com)
  • Other reasons a woman may need a colposcopy is when, during a pelvic exam, the cervix, vagina, or vulva ('lips,' or opening to the vagina) looks abnormal to the doctor. (midlandsgynaecology.co.uk)
  • Even if you're pregnant, you can still have a colposcopy with external cervical or vaginal biopsies. (cancercenter.com)
  • Biopsies Colposcopy is a frequently identified appeal clearly because it appertains to Can A Colposcopy Detect Cervical Cancer, Can A Colposcopy Detect STDs, and Can A Colposcopy Mess Up Your Period. (colposcopy-treatments.com)
  • Could this be a dilemma: Biopsies Colposcopy? (colposcopy-treatments.com)
  • Why is this bothersome: Biopsies Colposcopy? (colposcopy-treatments.com)
  • My first period after my colposcopy and biopsies lasted longer, and I had spotting for an extra week. (interimpartner.se)
  • During colposcopy, our gynaecologist uses a special instrument called a colposcope. (manipalhospitals.com)
  • With regard to Mr. Pisal I was initially reluctant to see a male gynaecologist for colposcopy. (london-colposcopy.com)
  • We offer private colposcopy by an expert consultant gynaecologist, at one of our specialist clinics in Central London. (colposcopy.co.uk)
  • It's okay to use sanitary pads for bleeding in the days following your colposcopy. (cancercenter.com)
  • As certification is not required for using the colposcope to diagnose and manage other ano-genital conditions, a GU Medicine-based colposcopy service was introduced at Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK, to assess young women with post-coital bleeding (PCB). (bmj.com)
  • The colposcopy department examines women who are referred from the cytology department with abnormal cervical samples as well as women referred by their GPs with signs and symptoms of abnormal vaginal bleeding or of pre-cancerous changes to their cervix. (airedale-trust.nhs.uk)
  • If a biopsy is performed in addition to the colposcopy, the patient may experience some pain, vaginal bleeding, and dark discharge for a few days. (sfwomenshealthcare.com)
  • Colposcopy HPV Pictures is a usually identified questioning in light of the fact that it is of interest when considering Bleeding After Colposcopy And Biopsy, Bleeding After Colposcopy And Biopsy, and Burning After Colposcopy Biopsy. (colposcopy-treatments.com)
  • After a colposcopy, you may have dark vaginal discharge for up to three days, and some bleeding for up to a week. (interimpartner.se)
  • For patient education information, see the Cancer Center and the Women's Health Center , as well as Vaginal Bleeding , Colposcopy , Cervical Cancer , and Bladder Control Problems . (medscape.com)
  • To evaluate the conization results performed due to human papillomavirus (HPV), smear, colposcopy results or clinician's decision and determine the factors that predict ≥CIN2. (bvsalud.org)
  • Your healthcare provider may have other reasons to recommend colposcopy. (aultcare.com)
  • While it is possible for doctors to recommend colposcopy for HPV patients, there are several other reasons why a person may need it. (gyngwinnett.com)
  • Colposcopy can be used to diagnose things such as cervical cancer, vulvar cancer, vaginal cancer, Genital warts (different from anal warts ), inflammation of the cervix and Precancerous changes in the tissue of both the vagina and cervix. (pbgs-ny.com)
  • The International Federation of Cervical Pathology and Colposcopy (IFCPC), IARC, and the United Nations Population Fund - Eastern Europe Central Asia office (UNFPA-EECA) held an OSCE (see photo) for the first 25 candidates who had completed the online lectures and practical hands-on components of the course. (who.int)
  • This empowered 7 skilled colposcopists to become clinical trainers to oversee trainees become skilled colposcopists by adopting the global standards of the IFCPC-IARC-UNFPA training course in colposcopy and management of cervical precancers. (who.int)
  • When using this method of diagnosis, specimen collection must occur prior to acetic acid or iodine use if colposcopy is to follow. (medscape.com)
  • If you get your period unexpectedly before your appointment, alert the medical office so your doctor can decide whether to proceed with the colposcopy on the scheduled date. (cancercenter.com)
  • A colposcopy appointment usually takes 10-20 minutes. (jostrust.org.uk)
  • If treatment is offered to you on the same day as your colposcopy, it's okay to ask for time to think and to ask for it to happen at another appointment. (jostrust.org.uk)
  • How long would I have to wait to receive an appointment for colposcopy? (homerton.nhs.uk)
  • You can get a colposcopy while on your period, however, it is best to schedule an appointment when you are not menstruating. (hueyandweprin.com)
  • Colposcopy is done to detect cervical cancer and changes that may lead to cervical cancer. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Colposcopy And ECC is a legitimate proposal in light of the fact that it is of concern when thinking about Colposcopy And HPV Positive, Colposcopy And HPV Positive, and Colposcopy And LEEP. (colposcopy-treatments.com)
  • Colposcopy Vs LEEP is a frequently identified questioning due to the reason that it is pertinent to Colposcopy Vs LEEP, Colposcopy Vs LEEP, and Colposcopy What To Expect. (colposcopy-treatment-cures.com)
  • Afra Zaal, MD, of the University Medical Center Utrecht in the Netherlands, and associates conducted a prospective clinical trial involving 177 adult women (age 18 years or older) with an intact cervix, referred for colposcopy at three clinics, to investigate the agreement between conventional colposcopic impression, DSI colposcopy, and histology. (empr.com)
  • If your doctor notices anything unusual during the colposcopy, they will perform what is known as a colposcopic biopsy for further testing. (hueyandweprin.com)
  • This comprehensive and concise manual covers all these aspects and serves as a useful handbook for acquiring the necessary skills for the visual recognition and interpretation of colposcopic findings and for developing the personal and professional attributes required for competence in colposcopy. (who.int)
  • You may have a colposcopy in your healthcare provider's office or during a hospital stay. (aultcare.com)
  • Colposcopy is normally done in your healthcare provider's office. (spectrumhealthlakeland.org)
  • Colposcopy HPV Pictures is a legitimate proposition due to the concern that it is of interest when contemplating Cervical Dysplasia Colposcopy, Cervical Dysplasia Colposcopy, and Cervical Procedures Colposcopy. (colposcopy-treatments.com)
  • Colposcopy and tissue biopsy have long been held as the gold standard [on] which clinical management of cervical dysplasia is based," explained Dr. Jones. (medscape.com)
  • These findings support [the notion] that significant dysplasia is generally identified by colposcopy and biopsy, with the proviso that the degree of dysplasia may be underestimated by biopsy alone," said Dr. Jones. (medscape.com)
  • Women Centre has a dedicated dysplasia/colposcopy department, ensuring all referrals are seen within 2 weeks. (womencentre.com.au)
  • A colposcopy is a way of looking at the cervix through a special magnifying device called a colposcope. (desertsageobgyn.com)
  • Colposcopy is a method of investigating the cervix using a specially designed microscope known as a colposcope. (colposcopy.co.uk)
  • The biopsy will confirm if the abnormal tissue found during the colposcopy is a mild infection which may likely resolve itself over the next few months, or if the abnormal tissue represents a more advanced stage and has a higher chance of developing into cervical cancer. (sfwomenshealthcare.com)
  • Infection After Colposcopy Treatment is a universal care by reason of the point that it is of interest when evaluating Getting A Colposcopy, Getting Pregnant After Colposcopy, and Going For A Colposcopy. (colposcopy-treatment-cures.com)
  • There is a very small risk of infection when you have a colposcopy. (midlandsgynaecology.co.uk)
  • What are the risks of a colposcopy? (aultcare.com)
  • Colposcopy Results Normal is a normally noted question thanks to the reason that it is crucial when relating to Colposcopy Results Time, Colposcopy Risks, and Colposcopy Risks. (colposcopy-treatment-cures.com)
  • If you have any queries about being referred to the colposcopy unit please contact the nurses office on 020 8510 5039. (homerton.nhs.uk)
  • CervicalCheck has established a network of quality assured colposcopy clinics in the event that a woman requires further investigation following a smear test. (rotunda.ie)
  • After you have a colposcopy, your vagina may feel a little sore for a couple of days.If you had a biopsy, you may also have spotting or dark-colored vaginal discharge.Use a pad, panty-liner, or tampon - unless your doctor or nurse tells you not to use tampons. (interimpartner.se)
  • At colposcopy, the colposcopist looks at your cervix using a special microscope on a stand with a light. (jostrust.org.uk)
  • Colposcopy And HPV Positive is a continually mentioned care because it applies to Abnormal Smear Test HPV, Abnormal Smear Test Results HPV, and About HPV Virus. (healinghpvnaturally.com)
  • If you are not sure whether you need a colposcopy, or are concerned about your symptoms or your smear test result, contact your GP or ask our experienced team for advice. (colposcopy.co.uk)
  • Unless the person has a visible lesion, colposcopy for this population does not detect a recurrence of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The benefit of a colposcopy is that you'll find out if you have any abnormal cells that may indicate precancer or cancer. (cancercenter.com)
  • The results from your colposcopy reveal whether there are precancerous cells or cancer. (cancercenter.com)
  • Colposcopy helps find out whether changed cells need to be removed to stop cervical cancer from happening. (jostrust.org.uk)
  • Further research into patient attitudes, physician motivation, physician experience with colposcopy and clinical decision-making is required prior to implementation if gains in reduction of cervical cancer incidence and deaths are to be realized. (duke.edu)
  • Areas of the cervix that are concerning for pre-cancer or cancer can then be biopsied (sampled) during the colposcopy. (macarthurmc.com)
  • During colposcopy, Mr Ind can identify any abnormal areas, so that they can be treated before cancer can develop. (colposcopy.co.uk)
  • Colposcopy was first described by Hans Hinselman of Germany in 1925 as a screening tool for cervical cancer . (medscape.com)
  • Although a colposcopy can help identify signs of cancer, only a colposcopy of the cervix accompanied by a biopsy can confirm cancer. (hueyandweprin.com)
  • Colposcopy is used to follow up on abnormal cervical cancer screening tests (e.g. (draliabadi.com)
  • This colposcopy manual was developed in the context of the cervical cancer screening research studies of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the related technical support provided to national programmes. (who.int)
  • Colposcopy is done when results of cervical cancer screening tests show abnormal changes in the cells of the cervix. (maygrant.com)
  • In 2011, the American Cancer Society, the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and the American Society for Clinical Pathology updated their screening guidelines regarding early diagnosis of cervical cancer and its precursors. (medscape.com)
  • This panel included 13 experts from the Society of Gynecologic Oncology, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American Cancer Society, American Society of Cytopathology, College of American Pathologists, and American Society for Clinical Pathology. (medscape.com)
  • Although primary HPV screening at age 25 to 29 years may increase cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 detection, further research is needed to determine the effect of increased number of colposcopies, integration with screening before age 25 years, and actual effect on cancer prevention. (medscape.com)
  • Colposcopy may also be done when your provider sees abnormal areas on your cervix during a pelvic exam. (medlineplus.gov)
  • For a colposcopy, you lie down on the exam table and place your feet in stirrups, just as you would for a pelvic exam. (cancercenter.com)
  • Your provider may do a colposcopy if they find problems or abnormal cells during a pelvic exam or Pap test. (aultcare.com)
  • Acute pelvic inflammatory disease Certain factors or conditions may interfere with a colposcopy. (interimpartner.se)
  • Your gynecologist may recommend a Colposcopy if your pelvic exam and Pap test appear abnormal. (pbgs-ny.com)
  • When you have a colposcopy, you will lie on an exam table just like you do when you have a regular pelvic exam. (midlandsgynaecology.co.uk)
  • You may be able to take ibuprofen or acetaminophen (Tylenol) before the colposcopy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Stop using vaginal medicines, creams or other such products, including tampons, for a day or two before the colposcopy. (cancercenter.com)
  • The colposcopy may be used to keep track of HPV, and to look for abnormal changes that can come back after treatment. (medlineplus.gov)
  • You might be offered treatment to remove the changed cells and for it to happen on the same day as your colposcopy. (jostrust.org.uk)
  • Abnormal Colposcopy Biopsy Results is a prevailing solicitation considering that it is applicable to Abnormal Colposcopy Biopsy Results, Abnormal Colposcopy Biopsy Results Treatment, and Abnormal Pap Cells Colposcopy. (colposcopy-treatments.com)
  • Abnormal Pap Test Colposcopy is a continually mentioned probe because it is of interest when relating to Abnormal Pap Test HPV, Abnormal Pap Test Results, and Abnormal Pap Test Treatment. (pap-test-cures.com)
  • If at 6 or 18 months after treatment the test is positive for hrHPV the individual should be referred to colposcopy. (interimpartner.se)
  • Dr. Jones and colleagues were interested in determining whether the addition of endocervical brush cytology and PCR-HPV identification and typing, to treatment in accordance with the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP) guidelines, would improve the current clinical management of this patient population. (medscape.com)
  • Colposcopy can be performed safely during pregnancy, although any further treatment to the cervix is usually left until after the baby is born. (colposcopy.co.uk)
  • After Colposcopy Tissue Discharge. (colposcopy-treatments.com)
  • Colposcopy Scraping is a commonplace investigation in view of the reason that it relates to Colposcopy Side Effects, Colposcopy Side Effects, and Colposcopy Side Effects Discharge. (colposcopy-treatment-cures.com)
  • After a colposcopy, it's normal to experience some spotting or brownish discharge for the next few days. (interimpartner.se)
  • A pathologist examines the tissue sample taken during the colposcopy under a microscope. (cancercenter.com)
  • The healthcare provider may take a small sample of tissue for further study if they see abnormal tissue during a colposcopy. (aultcare.com)
  • A biopsy may be taken at the same time as a colposcopy where a small piece of tissue is removed from the cervix and studied for more information. (sfwomenshealthcare.com)
  • If your OB-GYN finds abnormal cells during a colposcopy, they can perform a biopsy to obtain a sample of tissue for further testing for additional test results. (draliabadi.com)
  • They were evaluated with simultaneous colposcopy and biopsy, endocervical brush cytology, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-HPV testing. (medscape.com)
  • Effect of Pap Smear Cytology, HPV Genotyping on the Concordance of Colposcopy and Conization Results. (bvsalud.org)
  • For women positive for the 12 high-risk HPV genotypes other than HPV 16/18, the use of HPV 16/18 genotyping and reflex cytology reasonably balances disease detection with the number of screening tests and colposcopies needed to achieve that detection. (medscape.com)
  • The colposcopy and the biopsy should not affect your pregnancy or your ability to get pregnant. (cancercenter.com)
  • Read more about having a colposcopy if you're pregnant. (interimpartner.se)
  • You will have your colposcopy in a hospital out-patient department. (interimpartner.se)
  • Colposcopy is not generally performed for people with pap test results showing low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) or less. (wikipedia.org)
  • To check physician interpretation of images from the clinical trial, biopsy or histologic confirmation was used for positive results, while colposcopy was used as the reference standard for negative results. (duke.edu)
  • If a biopsy is performed during the colposcopy, the results are known in about one week. (sfwomenshealthcare.com)
  • Colposcopy Results, What can they Show? (draliabadi.com)
  • Age, HPV genotypes , conization , and colposcopy results of the patients were recorded. (bvsalud.org)
  • With the introduction of certification for colposcopists in 1998, most GU Medicine clinicians stopped providing a colposcopy service. (bmj.com)
  • Most women need a colposcopy following an abnormal cervical smear result. (colposcopy.co.uk)