A surgical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of disorders and abnormalities of the COLON; RECTUM; and ANAL CANAL.
The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.
Pathological developments in the RECTUM region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).
Excision of a portion of the colon or of the whole colon. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
Pathological processes in the COLON region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).
Surgery performed on the digestive system or its parts.
Breakdown of the connection and subsequent leakage of effluent (fluids, secretions, air) from a SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS of the digestive, respiratory, genitourinary, and cardiovascular systems. Most common leakages are from the breakdown of suture lines in gastrointestinal or bowel anastomosis.
Preliminary administration of a drug preceding a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure. The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. It does not include PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION.
Surgery which could be postponed or not done at all without danger to the patient. Elective surgery includes procedures to correct non-life-threatening medical problems as well as to alleviate conditions causing psychological stress or other potential risk to patients, e.g., cosmetic or contraceptive surgery.
The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.
A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.
Placement of one of the surgeon's gloved hands into the ABDOMINAL CAVITY to perform manual manipulations that facilitate the laparoscopic procedures.
Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision.
Gauze material used to absorb body fluids during surgery. Referred to as GOSSYPIBOMA if accidentally retained in the body following surgery.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Agents that are used to stimulate evacuation of the bowels.
Interventions to provide care prior to, during, and immediately after surgery.
A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic that is administered intravenously or intramuscularly. The drug is highly resistant to a broad spectrum of beta-lactamases and is active against a wide range of both aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms.
Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.
Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Process of preserving a dead body to protect it from decay.
The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
The administration of medication or fluid directly into localized lesions, by means of gravity flow or INFUSION PUMPS.
The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.
Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.
The course of learning of an individual or a group. It is a measure of performance plotted over time.
Inflammation of a DIVERTICULUM or diverticula.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A condition caused by the lack of intestinal PERISTALSIS or INTESTINAL MOTILITY without any mechanical obstruction. This interference of the flow of INTESTINAL CONTENTS often leads to INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION. Ileus may be classified into postoperative, inflammatory, metabolic, neurogenic, and drug-induced.
The period during a surgical operation.
The application of electronic, computerized control systems to mechanical devices designed to perform human functions. Formerly restricted to industry, but nowadays applied to artificial organs controlled by bionic (bioelectronic) devices, like automated insulin pumps and other prostheses.
The period following a surgical operation.
A technique of closing incisions and wounds, or of joining and connecting tissues, in which staples are used as sutures.
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Use of antibiotics before, during, or after a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure to prevent infectious complications.
Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.
A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon.
A group of autosomal-dominant inherited diseases in which COLON CANCER arises in discrete adenomas. Unlike FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI with hundreds of polyps, hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal neoplasms occur much later, in the fourth and fifth decades. HNPCC has been associated with germline mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes. It has been subdivided into Lynch syndrome I or site-specific colonic cancer, and LYNCH SYNDROME II which includes extracolonic cancer.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Pain during the period after surgery.
A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.
Discrete tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the COLON. These POLYPS are connected to the wall of the colon either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.
The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
Surgical procedures aimed at affecting metabolism and producing major WEIGHT REDUCTION in patients with MORBID OBESITY.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the sigmoid flexure.
A specialty in which manual or operative procedures are used in the treatment of disease, injuries, or deformities.
Benign neoplasms derived from glandular epithelium. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.

Does the subspecialty of the surgeon performing primary colonic resection influence the outcome of patients with hepatic metastases referred for resection? (1/111)

OBJECTIVE: To compare resection rates and outcome of patients subsequently referred with hepatic metastases whose initial colon cancers were resected by surgeons with different specialty interests. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Variation in practice among noncolorectal specialist surgeons has led to recommendations that colorectal cancers should be treated by surgeons trained in colorectal surgery or surgical oncology. METHODS: The resectability of metastases, the frequency and pattern of recurrence after resection, and the length of survival were compared in patients referred to a single center for resection of colorectal hepatic metastases. The patients were divided into those whose colorectal resection had been performed by general surgeons (GS) with other subspecialty interests (n = 108) or by colorectal specialists (CS; n = 122). RESULTS No differences were observed with respect to age, sex, tumor stage, site of primary tumor, or frequency of synchronous metastases. Comparing the GS group with the CS group, resectable disease was identified in 26% versus 66%, with tumor recurrence after a median follow-up of 19 months in 75% versus 44%, respectively. Recurrences involving bowel or lymph nodes accounted for 55% versus 24% of all recurrences, with respective median survivals of 14 months versus 26 months. CONCLUSION: Fewer patients referred by general surgeons had resectable liver disease. After surgery, recurrent tumor was more likely to develop in the GS group; their overall outcome was worse than that of the CS group. This observation is partly explained by a lower local recurrence rate in the CS group.  (+info)

Preoperative radiotherapy combined with total mesorectal excision for resectable rectal cancer. (2/111)

BACKGROUND: Short-term preoperative radiotherapy and total mesorectal excision have each been shown to improve local control of disease in patients with resectable rectal cancer. We conducted a multicenter, randomized trial to determine whether the addition of preoperative radiotherapy increases the benefit of total mesorectal excision. METHODS: We randomly assigned 1861 patients with resectable rectal cancer either to preoperative radiotherapy (5 Gy on each of five days) followed by total mesorectal excision (924 patients) or to total mesorectal excision alone (937 patients). The trial was conducted with the use of standardization and quality-control measures to ensure the consistency of the radiotherapy, surgery, and pathological techniques. RESULTS: Of the 1861 patients randomly assigned to one of the two treatment groups, 1805 were eligible to participate. The overall rate of survival at two years among the eligible patients was 82.0 percent in the group assigned to both radiotherapy and surgery and 81.8 percent in the group assigned to surgery alone (P=0.84). Among the 1748 patients who underwent a macroscopically complete local resection, the rate of local recurrence at two years was 5.3 percent. The rate of local recurrence at two years was 2.4 percent in the radiotherapy-plus-surgery group and 8.2 percent in the surgery-only group (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Short-term preoperative radiotherapy reduces the risk of local recurrence in patients with rectal cancer who undergo a standardized total mesorectal excision.  (+info)

Use of surgical procedures and adjuvant therapy in rectal cancer treatment: a population-based study. (3/111)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the use of surgical procedures by tumor location and compliance with adjuvant therapy recommendations by tumor stage. The study was conducted in a population-based setting to identify target patient groups for improved care. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Rectal cancer therapy potentially involves similar patients receiving different treatments. Low anterior resection (LAR), sparing the anal sphincter, and abdominoperineal resection (APR), ablating the anal sphincter, offer equivalent local recurrence and survival rates but may differ in quality of life measurements. The 1990 NIH Consensus Conference recommended that patients with stage II and III rectal cancer receive radiation and chemotherapy in conjunction with surgical resection, but this is not uniformly applied. To interpret the use of these therapies, information on tumor location in the rectum, which is rarely known in population-based studies, is necessary. Patient, hospital, or surgeon characteristics may influence which procedure is performed and whether adjuvant therapy is given. METHODS: Information about primary, invasive rectal adenocarcinomas diagnosed between 1994 to 1996 in 13 California counties was obtained from the regional cancer registry. Tumor location, determined from abstracted medical text, was divided into the upper, middle, and lower rectum. Hospitals were characterized by teaching status, number of beds, and cancer center designation. Surgeons were categorized as general or colorectal surgeons. Factors associated with a higher use of LAR versus APR in patients with middle and lower rectum tumors and factors associated with a higher use of NIH-recommended therapy in patients with stage II and III disease were separately analyzed. RESULTS: Among 637 eligible patients, APR was used in 22% of those with middle rectum tumors and 55% of those with lower rectum tumors. Factors significantly associated with a higher use of LAR included female gender, middle rectum location, and treatment in a major teaching hospital versus a nonteaching hospital. Recommended therapy was received by 44% of patients with stage II disease and 60% of those with stage III disease. Factors significantly associated with higher compliance with NIH recommendations included age younger than 60 versus older than 75, age 60 to 75 years versus older than 75, tumor location in the middle or lower rectum versus the upper rectum, stage III disease, and treatment at a teaching hospital versus a nonteaching hospital. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with similar rectal cancers receive different treatments independent of tumor stage or location. This may result in more APRs performed for middle and lower rectum tumors than necessary and less adequate treatment for stage II and III tumors than recommended.  (+info)

Management of obstetric anal sphincter injury: a systematic review & national practice survey. (4/111)

BACKGROUND: We aim to establish the evidence base for the recognition and management of obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASI) and to compare this with current practice amongst UK obstetricians and coloproctologists. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature and a postal questionnaire survey of consultant obstetricians, trainee obstetricians and consultant coloproctologists was carried out. RESULTS: We found a wide variation in experience of repairing acute anal sphincter injury. The group with largest experience were consultant obstetricians (46.5% undertaking > or = 5 repairs/year), whilst only 10% of responding colorectal surgeons had similar levels of experience (p < 0.001). There was extensive misunderstanding in terms of the definition of obstetric anal sphincter injuries. Overall, trainees had a greater knowledge of the correct classification (p < 0.01). Observational studies suggest that a new 'overlap' repair using PDS sutures with antibiotic cover gives better functional results. However, our literature search found only one randomised controlled trial (RCT) on the technique of repair of OASI, which showed no difference in incidence of anal incontinence at three months. Despite this, there was a wide variation in practice, with 337(50%) consultants, 82 (55%) trainees and 80 (89%) coloproctologists already using the 'overlap' method for repair of a torn EAS (p < 0.001). Although over 50% of colorectal surgeons would undertake long-term follow-up of their patients, this was the practice of less than 10% of obstetricians (p < 0.001). Whilst over 70% of coloproctologists would recommend an elective caesarean section in a subsequent pregnancy, only 22% of obstetric consultants and 14% of trainees (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: An agreed classification of OASI, development of national guidelines, formalised training, multidisciplinary management and further definitive research is strongly recommended.  (+info)

Dose surgical sub-specialization influence survival in patients with colorectal cancer? (5/111)

AIM: To perform a review of patients with colorectal cancer to a community hospital and to compare the risk-adjusted survival between patients managed in general surgical units versus a colorectal unit. METHODS: The study evaluated all patients with colorectal cancer referred to either general surgical units or a colorectal unit from 1/1996 to 6/2001. These results were compared to a historical control group treated within general surgical units at the same hospital from 1/1989 to 12/1994. A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis compared the overall survivals (all-cause mortality) between the groups. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine the influence of a number of independent variables on survival. These variables included age, ASA score, disease stage, emergency surgery, adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, disease location, and surgical unit. RESULTS: There were 974 patients involved in this study. There were no significant differences in the demographic details for the three groups. Patients in the colorectal group were more likely to have rectal cancer and Stage I cancers, and less likely to have Stage II cancers. Patients treated in the colorectal group had a significantly higher overall 5-year survival when compared with the general surgical group and the historical control group (56 % versus 45 % and 40 % respectively, P<0.01). Survival regression analysis identified age, ASA score, disease stage, adjuvant chemotherapy, and treatment in a colorectal unit (Hazards ratio: 0.67; 95 % CI: 0.53 to 0.84, P =0.0005), as significant independent predictors of survival. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that there may be a survival advantage for patients with colon and rectal cancers being treated within a specialist colorectal surgical unit.  (+info)

Referral letters to colorectal surgeons: the impact of peer-mediated feedback. (6/111)

BACKGROUND: General practitioners (GPs) select few patients for specialist investigation. Having selected a patient, the GP writes a referral letter which serves primarily to convey concerns about the patient and offer background information. Referral letters to specialists sometimes provide an inadequate amount of information. The content of referral letters to colorectal surgeons can now be scored based on the views of GPs about the ideal content of referral letters. AIM: To determine if written feedback about the contents of GP referral letters mediated by local peers was acceptable to GPs and how this feedback influenced the content and variety of their referrals. DESIGN: A non-randomised control trial. SETTING: GPs in North Nottinghamshire. METHOD: In a controlled trial, 26 GPs were offered written feedback about the documented contents of their colorectal referral letters over 1 year. The feedback was designed and mediated by two nominated local GPs. The contents of referral letters were measured in the year before and 6 months after feedback. GPs were asked about the style of the feedback. The contents of referral letters and the proportion of patients with organic pathology were compared for the feedback GPs and other local GPs who could be identified as having used the same hospital for their referrals in the period before and after feedback. RESULTS: All GPs declared the method of feedback to be acceptable but raised concerns about their own performance, and some were upset by the experience. None withdrew from the project. There was a difference of 7.1 points (95% confidence interval = 1.9 to 12.2) in the content scores between the feedback group and the controls after adjusting for baseline differences between the groups. Of the GPs who referred to the same hospital before and after feedback, the feedback GPs referred more patients with organic pathology than other local colleagues. CONCLUSIONS: GPs welcome feedback about the details appearing on their referral letters, although peer comparisons may not always lead to changes in practice. However, in some cases feedback improves the content of GP referral letters and may also impact on the type of patients referred for investigation by specialists.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetics and tissue penetration of single-dose cefotetan used for antimicrobial prophylaxis in patients undergoing colorectal surgery. (7/111)

The pharmacokinetics and tissue penetration of cefotetan were studied after a single injection of 2 g given intravenously for antimicrobial prophylaxis to 16 consecutive patients undergoing colorectal surgery. Concentrations in tissue greater than or equal to the MIC for 90% of the main pathogens tested were considered adequate. The elimination half-life at beta phase was 4.6 +/- 1.4 h, the total body clearance was 0.75 +/- 0.19 ml/kg/min, and the volume of distribution was 260 +/- 71 ml/kg. At the time of incision (33 +/- 16 min after the injection), cefotetan concentrations were 14.2 +/- 7 micrograms/g in abdominal-wall fat, 16.4 +/- 1 micrograms/g in epiploic fat, and 163 +/- 62 mg/liter in serum. At the time of surgical anastomosis (151 +/- 54 min), cefotetan concentrations were 33.3 +/- 6 micrograms/g in the colonic wall and 73 +/- 34 mg/liter in serum. Upon closure of the abdomen (216 +/- 76 min), cefotetan concentrations were 6.3 +/- 3 micrograms/g in abdominal-wall fat, 6.1 +/- 4 micrograms/g in epiploic fat, and 64 +/- 38 mg/liter in serum. Cefotetan tissue penetration was 10% into abdominal and epiploic fat and 46% into the colonic wall. Levels in tissue were compared with the MIC for 90% of the most frequently encountered pathogenic germs (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacteroides fragilis, and Escherichia coli). Adequate concentrations in tissue were obtained up to anastomosis but not upon closure. The authors therefore recommend the injection of an additional dose of 1 g before closure in order to ensure optimal efficacy throughout the surgical procedure.  (+info)

Anterior resection for rectal cancer with mesorectal excision: a prospective evaluation of 622 patients. (8/111)

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to review the operative results and oncological outcomes of anterior resection for rectal and rectosigmoid cancer. Comparison was made between patients with total mesorectal excision (TME) for mid and distal cancer and partial mesorectal excision (PME) for proximal cancer, when a 4- to 5-cm mesorectal margin could be achieved. Risk factors for local recurrence and survival were also analyzed. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Anterior resection has become the preferred treatment option rectal cancer. TME with sharp dissection has been shown to be associated with a low local recurrence rate. Controversies still exist as to the need for TME in more proximal tumor. METHODS: Resection of primary rectal and rectosigmoid cancer was performed in 786 patients from August 1993 to July 2002. Of these, 622 patients (395 men and 227 women; median age, 67 years) underwent anterior resection. The technique of perimesorectal dissection was used. Patients with mid and distal rectal cancer were treated with TME while PME was performed for those with more proximal tumors. Prospective data on the postoperative results and oncological outcomes were reviewed. Risk factors for anastomotic leakage, local recurrence, and survival of the patients were analyzed with univariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: The median level of the tumor was 8 cm from the anal verge (range, 2.5-20 cm) and curative resection was performed in 563 patients (90.5%). TME was performed in 396 patients (63.7%). Significantly longer median operating time, more blood loss, and a longer hospital stay were found in patients with TME. The overall operative mortality and morbidity rates were 1.8% and 32.6%, respectively, and there were no significant differences between those of TME and PME. Anastomotic leak occurred in 8.1% and 1.3% of patients with TME and PME, respectively (P < 0.001). Independent factors for a higher anastomotic leakage rate were TME, the male gender, the absence of stoma, and the increased blood loss. The 5-year actuarial local recurrence rate was 9.7%. The advanced stage of the disease and the performance of coloanal anastomosis were independent factors for increased local recurrence. The 5-year cancer-specific survival was 74.5%. The independent factors for poor survival were the advanced stage of the disease and the presence of lymphovascular and perineural invasion. CONCLUSIONS: Anterior resection with mesorectal excision is a safe option and can be performed in the majority of patients with rectal cancer. The local recurrence rate was 9.7% and the cancer-specific survival was 74.5%. When the tumor requires a TME, this procedure is more complex and has a higher leakage rate than in those higher tumors where PME provides adequate mesorectal clearance. By performing TME in patients with mid and distal rectal cancer, the local control and survival of these patients are similar to those of patients with proximal cancers where adequate clearance can be achieved by PME.  (+info)

Colorectal surgery is a medical specialty that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of disorders affecting the colon, rectum, and anus. This can include conditions such as colorectal cancer, inflammatory bowel disease (such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis), diverticulitis, and anal fistulas or fissures.

The surgical procedures performed by colorectal surgeons may involve minimally invasive techniques, such as laparoscopic or robotic-assisted surgery, or more traditional open surgery. These procedures can range from removing polyps during a colonoscopy to complex resections of the colon, rectum, or anus.

Colorectal surgeons also work closely with other medical specialists, such as gastroenterologists, oncologists, and radiologists, to provide comprehensive care for their patients.

The rectum is the lower end of the digestive tract, located between the sigmoid colon and the anus. It serves as a storage area for feces before they are eliminated from the body. The rectum is about 12 cm long in adults and is surrounded by layers of muscle that help control defecation. The mucous membrane lining the rectum allows for the detection of stool, which triggers the reflex to have a bowel movement.

Rectal diseases refer to conditions that affect the structure or function of the rectum, which is the lower end of the large intestine, just above the anus. The rectum serves as a storage area for stool before it is eliminated from the body. Some common rectal diseases include:

1. Hemorrhoids: Swollen veins in the rectum or anus that can cause pain, itching, bleeding, and discomfort.
2. Rectal cancer: Abnormal growth of cells in the rectum that can invade and destroy nearby tissue and spread to other parts of the body.
3. Anal fissures: Small tears in the lining of the anus that can cause pain, bleeding, and itching.
4. Rectal prolapse: A condition where the rectum slips outside the anus, causing discomfort, fecal incontinence, and other symptoms.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): A group of chronic inflammatory conditions that affect the digestive tract, including the rectum, such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
6. Rectal abscess: A collection of pus in the rectum caused by an infection, which can cause pain, swelling, and fever.
7. Fistula-in-ano: An abnormal connection between the rectum and the skin around the anus, which can cause drainage of pus or stool.
8. Rectal foreign bodies: Objects that are accidentally or intentionally inserted into the rectum and can cause injury, infection, or obstruction.

These are just a few examples of rectal diseases, and there are many other conditions that can affect the rectum. If you experience any symptoms related to the rectum, it is important to seek medical attention from a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

A colectomy is a surgical procedure in which all or part of the large intestine (colon) is removed. This surgery may be performed to treat or prevent various medical conditions, including colon cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, diverticulitis, and severe obstructions or injuries of the colon.

There are several types of colectomies, depending on how much of the colon is removed:

* Total colectomy: Removal of the entire colon.
* Partial colectomy: Removal of a portion of the colon.
* Hemicolectomy: Removal of one half of the colon.
* Sigmoidectomy: Removal of the sigmoid colon, which is the part of the colon that is closest to the rectum.

After the affected portion of the colon is removed, the remaining ends of the intestine are reconnected, allowing stool to pass through the digestive system as usual. In some cases, a temporary or permanent colostomy may be necessary, in which a surgical opening (stoma) is created in the abdominal wall and the end of the colon is attached to it, allowing stool to be collected in a pouch outside the body.

Colectomies are major surgeries that require general anesthesia and hospitalization. The recovery time can vary depending on the type of colectomy performed and the individual's overall health, but typically ranges from several weeks to a few months. Complications of colectomy may include bleeding, infection, leakage from the surgical site, bowel obstruction, and changes in bowel habits or function.

Colorectal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the colon or rectum, which can be benign or malignant. These growths can arise from the inner lining (mucosa) of the colon or rectum and can take various forms such as polyps, adenomas, or carcinomas.

Benign neoplasms, such as hyperplastic polyps and inflammatory polyps, are not cancerous but may need to be removed to prevent the development of malignant tumors. Adenomas, on the other hand, are precancerous lesions that can develop into colorectal cancer if left untreated.

Colorectal cancer is a malignant neoplasm that arises from the uncontrolled growth and division of cells in the colon or rectum. It is one of the most common types of cancer worldwide and can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system.

Regular screening for colorectal neoplasms is recommended for individuals over the age of 50, as early detection and removal of precancerous lesions can significantly reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer.

Colonic diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the colon, also known as the large intestine or large bowel. The colon is the final segment of the digestive system, responsible for absorbing water and electrolytes, and storing and eliminating waste products.

Some common colonic diseases include:

1. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): This includes conditions such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, which cause inflammation and irritation in the lining of the digestive tract.
2. Diverticular disease: This occurs when small pouches called diverticula form in the walls of the colon, leading to symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel movements.
3. Colorectal cancer: This is a type of cancer that develops in the colon or rectum, often starting as benign polyps that grow and become malignant over time.
4. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): This is a functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel movements, but without any underlying structural or inflammatory causes.
5. Constipation: This is a common condition characterized by infrequent bowel movements, difficulty passing stools, or both.
6. Infectious colitis: This occurs when the colon becomes infected with bacteria, viruses, or parasites, leading to symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever.

Treatment for colonic diseases varies depending on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include medications, lifestyle changes, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

The digestive system is a series of organs that work together to convert food into nutrients and energy. Digestive system surgical procedures involve operations on any part of the digestive system, including the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, pancreas, and gallbladder. These procedures can be performed for a variety of reasons, such as to treat diseases, repair damage, or remove cancerous growths.

Some common digestive system surgical procedures include:

1. Gastric bypass surgery: A procedure in which the stomach is divided into two parts and the smaller part is connected directly to the small intestine, bypassing a portion of the stomach and upper small intestine. This procedure is used to treat severe obesity.
2. Colonoscopy: A procedure in which a flexible tube with a camera on the end is inserted into the rectum and colon to examine the lining for polyps, cancer, or other abnormalities.
3. Colectomy: A procedure in which all or part of the colon is removed, often due to cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, or diverticulitis.
4. Gastrostomy: A procedure in which a hole is made through the abdominal wall and into the stomach to create an opening for feeding. This is often done for patients who have difficulty swallowing.
5. Esophagectomy: A procedure in which all or part of the esophagus is removed, often due to cancer. The remaining esophagus is then reconnected to the stomach or small intestine.
6. Liver resection: A procedure in which a portion of the liver is removed, often due to cancer or other diseases.
7. Pancreatectomy: A procedure in which all or part of the pancreas is removed, often due to cancer or chronic pancreatitis.
8. Cholecystectomy: A procedure in which the gallbladder is removed, often due to gallstones or inflammation.

These are just a few examples of digestive system surgical procedures. There are many other types of operations that can be performed on the digestive system depending on the specific needs and condition of each patient.

An anastomotic leak is a medical condition that occurs after a surgical procedure where two hollow organs or vessels are connected (anastomosed). It refers to the failure of the connection, resulting in a communication between the inside of the connected structures and the outside, which can lead to the escape of fluids, such as digestive contents or blood, into the surrounding tissues.

Anastomotic leaks can occur in various parts of the body where anastomoses are performed, including the gastrointestinal tract, vasculature, and respiratory system. The leakage can cause localized or systemic infection, inflammation, sepsis, organ failure, or even death if not promptly diagnosed and treated.

The risk of anastomotic leaks depends on several factors, such as the patient's overall health, the type and location of the surgery, the quality of the surgical technique, and the presence of any underlying medical conditions that may affect wound healing. Treatment options for anastomotic leaks vary depending on the severity and location of the leak, ranging from conservative management with antibiotics and bowel rest to surgical intervention, such as drainage, revision of the anastomosis, or resection of the affected segment.

Premedication is the administration of medication before a medical procedure or surgery to prevent or manage pain, reduce anxiety, minimize side effects of anesthesia, or treat existing medical conditions. The goal of premedication is to improve the safety and outcomes of the medical procedure by preparing the patient's body in advance. Common examples of premedication include administering antibiotics before surgery to prevent infection, giving sedatives to help patients relax before a procedure, or providing medication to control acid reflux during surgery.

Elective surgical procedures are operations that are scheduled in advance because they do not involve a medical emergency. These surgeries are chosen or "elective" based on the patient's and doctor's decision to improve the patient's quality of life or to treat a non-life-threatening condition. Examples include but are not limited to:

1. Aesthetic or cosmetic surgery such as breast augmentation, rhinoplasty, etc.
2. Orthopedic surgeries like knee or hip replacements
3. Cataract surgery
4. Some types of cancer surgeries where the tumor is not spreading or causing severe symptoms
5. Gastric bypass for weight loss

It's important to note that while these procedures are planned, they still require thorough preoperative evaluation and preparation, and carry risks and benefits that need to be carefully considered by both the patient and the healthcare provider.

The colon, also known as the large intestine, is a part of the digestive system in humans and other vertebrates. It is an organ that eliminates waste from the body and is located between the small intestine and the rectum. The main function of the colon is to absorb water and electrolytes from digested food, forming and storing feces until they are eliminated through the anus.

The colon is divided into several regions, including the cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, and anus. The walls of the colon contain a layer of muscle that helps to move waste material through the organ by a process called peristalsis.

The inner surface of the colon is lined with mucous membrane, which secretes mucus to lubricate the passage of feces. The colon also contains a large population of bacteria, known as the gut microbiota, which play an important role in digestion and immunity.

Laparoscopy is a surgical procedure that involves the insertion of a laparoscope, which is a thin tube with a light and camera attached to it, through small incisions in the abdomen. This allows the surgeon to view the internal organs without making large incisions. It's commonly used to diagnose and treat various conditions such as endometriosis, ovarian cysts, infertility, and appendicitis. The advantages of laparoscopy over traditional open surgery include smaller incisions, less pain, shorter hospital stays, and quicker recovery times.

Hand-assisted laparoscopy (HAL) is a surgical technique that combines the principles of traditional open surgery and minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery. In HAL, a small incision is made, typically in the abdomen, through which the surgeon's hand can be introduced into the abdominal cavity while maintaining a pneumoperitoneum (insufflation of carbon dioxide gas to create a working space). This approach allows the surgeon to use their hands to perform complex surgical procedures with the aid of laparoscopic instruments, which are inserted through other small incisions.

The hand-assisted technique provides several advantages over traditional laparoscopy, including improved tactile feedback, enhanced dexterity, and more precise dissection and manipulation of tissues. This approach is often used in complex urological, gynecological, and general surgical procedures, such as nephrectomy (removal of the kidney), colectomy (removal of part of the colon), and gastrectomy (removal of part of the stomach).

Hand-assisted laparoscopy offers several benefits over traditional open surgery, including smaller incisions, reduced postoperative pain, shorter hospital stays, quicker recovery times, and improved cosmetic outcomes. However, HAL still requires general anesthesia and carries the risks associated with any surgical procedure, such as infection, bleeding, and injury to surrounding tissues or organs.

A surgical wound infection, also known as a surgical site infection (SSI), is defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as an infection that occurs within 30 days after surgery (or within one year if an implant is left in place) and involves either:

1. Purulent drainage from the incision;
2. Organisms isolated from an aseptically obtained culture of fluid or tissue from the incision;
3. At least one of the following signs or symptoms of infection: pain or tenderness, localized swelling, redness, or heat; and
4. Diagnosis of surgical site infection by the surgeon or attending physician.

SSIs can be classified as superficial incisional, deep incisional, or organ/space infections, depending on the depth and extent of tissue involvement. They are a common healthcare-associated infection and can lead to increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs.

Surgical sponges are absorbent, sterile materials used in medical procedures to soak up bodily fluids and help maintain a clean surgical field. They are typically made from gauze material and come in various sizes and shapes to accommodate different surgical needs. Surgical sponges are carefully counted before and after a procedure to ensure that none are accidentally left inside the patient's body.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

Cathartics are a type of medication that stimulates bowel movements and evacuates the intestinal tract. They are often used to treat constipation or to prepare the bowel for certain medical procedures, such as colonoscopies. Common cathartic medications include laxatives, enemas, and suppositories.

Cathartics work by increasing the muscle contractions of the intestines, which helps to move stool through the digestive tract more quickly. They may also increase the amount of water in the stool, making it softer and easier to pass. Some cathartics, such as bulk-forming laxatives, work by absorbing water and swelling in the intestines, which helps to bulk up the stool and stimulate a bowel movement.

While cathartics can be effective at relieving constipation, they should be used with caution. Overuse of cathartics can lead to dependence on them for bowel movements, as well as electrolyte imbalances and other complications. It is important to follow the instructions carefully when using cathartic medications and to speak with a healthcare provider if constipation persists or worsens.

Perioperative care is a multidisciplinary approach to the management of patients before, during, and after surgery with the goal of optimizing outcomes and minimizing complications. It encompasses various aspects such as preoperative evaluation and preparation, intraoperative monitoring and management, and postoperative recovery and rehabilitation. The perioperative period begins when a decision is made to pursue surgical intervention and ends when the patient has fully recovered from the procedure. This care is typically provided by a team of healthcare professionals including anesthesiologists, surgeons, nurses, physical therapists, and other specialists as needed.

Cefotetan is a type of antibiotic known as a cephalosporin, which is used to treat various bacterial infections. It works by interfering with the bacteria's ability to form a cell wall, leading to the death of the bacteria. Cefotetan has a broad spectrum of activity and is effective against many different types of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

Cefotetan is often used to treat intra-abdominal infections, gynecological infections, skin and soft tissue infections, and bone and joint infections. It is administered intravenously or intramuscularly, and the dosage and duration of treatment will depend on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Like all antibiotics, cefotetan can cause side effects, including diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and allergic reactions. It may also increase the risk of bleeding, particularly in patients with impaired kidney function or those taking blood thinners. Therefore, it is important to be closely monitored by a healthcare provider while taking this medication.

Surgical anastomosis is a medical procedure that involves the connection of two tubular structures, such as blood vessels or intestines, to create a continuous passage. This technique is commonly used in various types of surgeries, including vascular, gastrointestinal, and orthopedic procedures.

During a surgical anastomosis, the ends of the two tubular structures are carefully prepared by removing any damaged or diseased tissue. The ends are then aligned and joined together using sutures, staples, or other devices. The connection must be secure and leak-free to ensure proper function and healing.

The success of a surgical anastomosis depends on several factors, including the patient's overall health, the location and condition of the structures being joined, and the skill and experience of the surgeon. Complications such as infection, bleeding, or leakage can occur, which may require additional medical intervention or surgery.

Proper postoperative care is also essential to ensure the success of a surgical anastomosis. This may include monitoring for signs of complications, administering medications to prevent infection and promote healing, and providing adequate nutrition and hydration.

Preoperative care refers to the series of procedures, interventions, and preparations that are conducted before a surgical operation. The primary goal of preoperative care is to ensure the patient's well-being, optimize their physical condition, reduce potential risks, and prepare them mentally and emotionally for the upcoming surgery.

Preoperative care typically includes:

1. Preoperative assessment: A thorough evaluation of the patient's overall health status, including medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and diagnostic imaging, to identify any potential risk factors or comorbidities that may impact the surgical procedure and postoperative recovery.
2. Informed consent: The process of ensuring the patient understands the nature of the surgery, its purpose, associated risks, benefits, and alternative treatment options. The patient signs a consent form indicating they have been informed and voluntarily agree to undergo the surgery.
3. Preoperative instructions: Guidelines provided to the patient regarding their diet, medication use, and other activities in the days leading up to the surgery. These instructions may include fasting guidelines, discontinuing certain medications, or arranging for transportation after the procedure.
4. Anesthesia consultation: A meeting with the anesthesiologist to discuss the type of anesthesia that will be used during the surgery and address any concerns related to anesthesia risks, side effects, or postoperative pain management.
5. Preparation of the surgical site: Cleaning and shaving the area where the incision will be made, as well as administering appropriate antimicrobial agents to minimize the risk of infection.
6. Medical optimization: Addressing any underlying medical conditions or correcting abnormalities that may negatively impact the surgical outcome. This may involve adjusting medications, treating infections, or managing chronic diseases such as diabetes.
7. Emotional and psychological support: Providing counseling, reassurance, and education to help alleviate anxiety, fear, or emotional distress related to the surgery.
8. Preoperative holding area: The patient is transferred to a designated area near the operating room where they are prepared for surgery by changing into a gown, having intravenous (IV) lines inserted, and receiving monitoring equipment.

By following these preoperative care guidelines, healthcare professionals aim to ensure that patients undergo safe and successful surgical procedures with optimal outcomes.

Embalming is a process used in mortuary science, where the preservation and disinfection of human remains are carried out for the purpose of delaying decomposition and preserving the appearance of the body. This procedure typically involves the removal of bodily fluids and replacement with chemical preservatives, such as formaldehyde, which help to prevent the decay of tissues.

The goal of embalming is to make it possible to view the deceased person during funerals or memorial services, allowing friends and family members an opportunity for closure and remembrance. It also enables the body to be transported over long distances without risking health hazards associated with decomposition.

There are different methods of embalming, but all share the common objective of maintaining the dignity and integrity of the deceased while providing a safe and respectful way to handle and display the body.

Postoperative care refers to the comprehensive medical treatment and nursing attention provided to a patient following a surgical procedure. The goal of postoperative care is to facilitate the patient's recovery, prevent complications, manage pain, ensure proper healing of the incision site, and maintain overall health and well-being until the patient can resume their normal activities.

This type of care includes monitoring vital signs, managing pain through medication or other techniques, ensuring adequate hydration and nutrition, helping the patient with breathing exercises to prevent lung complications, encouraging mobility to prevent blood clots, monitoring for signs of infection or other complications, administering prescribed medications, providing wound care, and educating the patient about postoperative care instructions.

The duration of postoperative care can vary depending on the type and complexity of the surgical procedure, as well as the individual patient's needs and overall health status. It may be provided in a hospital setting, an outpatient surgery center, or in the patient's home, depending on the level of care required.

Infusions and intralesional treatments are medical procedures that involve introducing medications or therapeutic substances directly into the body or a specific location in the body. Although they are different in their administration methods and applications, I will provide separate definitions for both infusions and intralesional treatments for clarity.

Infusion:
An infusion is a medical procedure where a liquid medication or fluid is introduced directly into a vein (intravenous infusion) or subcutaneously (subcutaneous infusion) using a sterile needle or catheter. This method allows the medication to bypass the gastrointestinal tract and enter the bloodstream directly, ensuring rapid absorption and a higher bioavailability of the drug. Infusions are commonly used for administering various medications, including antibiotics, chemotherapeutic agents, immunoglobulins, and other therapeutic proteins.

Intralesional:
An intralesional treatment is a medical procedure where a medication or therapeutic substance is injected directly into a specific lesion or area of inflammation within the body. This method targets the therapy to the site of action, often leading to higher concentrations of the drug at the affected area and minimizing systemic exposure and potential side effects. Intralesional treatments are commonly used for various conditions, including skin disorders, cancerous and noncancerous tumors, and joint inflammation. Examples of intralesional therapies include the injection of corticosteroids into a inflamed joint or the use of immunotherapy to treat certain types of melanoma.

"Length of Stay" (LOS) is a term commonly used in healthcare to refer to the amount of time a patient spends receiving care in a hospital, clinic, or other healthcare facility. It is typically measured in hours, days, or weeks and can be used as a metric for various purposes such as resource planning, quality assessment, and reimbursement. The length of stay can vary depending on the type of illness or injury, the severity of the condition, the patient's response to treatment, and other factors. It is an important consideration in healthcare management and can have significant implications for both patients and providers.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Rectal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the tissues of the rectum, which can be benign or malignant. They are characterized by uncontrolled cell division and can invade nearby tissues or spread to other parts of the body (metastasis). The most common type of rectal neoplasm is rectal cancer, which often begins as a small polyp or growth in the lining of the rectum. Other types of rectal neoplasms include adenomas, carcinoids, and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Regular screenings are recommended for early detection and treatment of rectal neoplasms.

Intraoperative care refers to the medical care and interventions provided to a patient during a surgical procedure. This care is typically administered by a team of healthcare professionals, including anesthesiologists, surgeons, nurses, and other specialists as needed. The goal of intraoperative care is to maintain the patient's physiological stability throughout the surgery, minimize complications, and ensure the best possible outcome.

Intraoperative care may include:

1. Anesthesia management: Administering and monitoring anesthetic drugs to keep the patient unconscious and free from pain during the surgery.
2. Monitoring vital signs: Continuously tracking the patient's heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, body temperature, and other key physiological parameters to ensure they remain within normal ranges.
3. Fluid and blood product administration: Maintaining adequate intravascular volume and oxygen-carrying capacity through the infusion of fluids and blood products as needed.
4. Intraoperative imaging: Utilizing real-time imaging techniques, such as X-ray, ultrasound, or CT scans, to guide the surgical procedure and ensure accurate placement of implants or other devices.
5. Neuromonitoring: Using electrophysiological methods to monitor the functional integrity of nerves and neural structures during surgery, particularly in procedures involving the brain, spine, or peripheral nerves.
6. Intraoperative medication management: Administering various medications as needed for pain control, infection prophylaxis, or the treatment of medical conditions that may arise during the surgery.
7. Temperature management: Regulating the patient's body temperature to prevent hypothermia or hyperthermia, which can have adverse effects on surgical outcomes and overall patient health.
8. Communication and coordination: Ensuring effective communication among the members of the surgical team to optimize patient care and safety.

A "learning curve" is not a medical term per se, but rather a general concept that is used in various fields including medicine. It refers to the process of acquiring new skills or knowledge in a specific task or activity, and the improvement in performance that comes with experience and practice over time.

In a medical context, a learning curve may refer to the rate at which healthcare professionals acquire proficiency in a new procedure, technique, or technology. It can also describe how quickly patients learn to manage their own health conditions or treatments. The term is often used to evaluate the effectiveness of training programs and to identify areas where additional education or practice may be necessary.

It's important to note that individuals may have different learning curves depending on factors such as prior experience, innate abilities, motivation, and access to resources. Therefore, it's essential to tailor training and support to the needs of each learner to ensure optimal outcomes.

Diverticulitis is a medical condition characterized by the inflammation or infection of one or more diverticula, which are small pouches that form in the wall of the colon (large intestine). The condition most commonly affects the sigmoid colon, which is the part of the colon located in the lower left abdomen.

Diverticulitis occurs when these pouches become inflamed or infected, often as a result of a small piece of stool or undigested food getting trapped inside them. This can cause symptoms such as:

* Severe abdominal pain and tenderness, particularly in the lower left side of the abdomen
* Fever and chills
* Nausea and vomiting
* Constipation or diarrhea
* Bloating and gas
* Loss of appetite

Diverticulitis can range from mild to severe, and in some cases, it may require hospitalization and surgery. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to clear the infection, as well as a liquid diet to allow the colon to rest and heal. In more severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the affected portion of the colon.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Ileus is a condition characterized by a lack of intestinal motility or paralysis of the bowel, leading to obstruction of the digestive tract. It is not caused by a physical blockage but rather by a disruption of the normal muscular contractions (peristalsis) that move food through the intestines. This can result in abdominal distention, vomiting, and absence of bowel movements or gas passage. Ileus can be a complication of various surgical procedures, intra-abdominal infections, or other medical conditions. It is essential to diagnose and treat ileus promptly to prevent further complications such as tissue damage, sepsis, or even death.

The intraoperative period is the phase of surgical treatment that refers to the time during which the surgery is being performed. It begins when the anesthesia is administered and the patient is prepared for the operation, and it ends when the surgery is completed, the anesthesia is discontinued, and the patient is transferred to the recovery room or intensive care unit (ICU).

During the intraoperative period, the surgical team, including surgeons, anesthesiologists, nurses, and other healthcare professionals, work together to carry out the surgical procedure safely and effectively. The anesthesiologist monitors the patient's vital signs, such as heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and body temperature, throughout the surgery to ensure that the patient remains stable and does not experience any complications.

The surgeon performs the operation, using various surgical techniques and instruments to achieve the desired outcome. The surgical team also takes measures to prevent infection, control bleeding, and manage pain during and after the surgery.

Overall, the intraoperative period is a critical phase of surgical treatment that requires close collaboration and communication among members of the healthcare team to ensure the best possible outcomes for the patient.

Robotics, in the medical context, refers to the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, and application of robots in medical fields. These machines are capable of performing a variety of tasks that can aid or replicate human actions, often with high precision and accuracy. They can be used for various medical applications such as surgery, rehabilitation, prosthetics, patient care, and diagnostics. Surgical robotics, for example, allows surgeons to perform complex procedures with increased dexterity, control, and reduced fatigue, while minimizing invasiveness and improving patient outcomes.

The postoperative period is the time following a surgical procedure during which the patient's response to the surgery and anesthesia is monitored, and any complications or adverse effects are managed. This period can vary in length depending on the type of surgery and the individual patient's needs, but it typically includes the immediate recovery phase in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) or recovery room, as well as any additional time spent in the hospital for monitoring and management of pain, wound healing, and other aspects of postoperative care.

The goals of postoperative care are to ensure the patient's safety and comfort, promote optimal healing and rehabilitation, and minimize the risk of complications such as infection, bleeding, or other postoperative issues. The specific interventions and treatments provided during this period will depend on a variety of factors, including the type and extent of surgery performed, the patient's overall health and medical history, and any individualized care plans developed in consultation with the patient and their healthcare team.

Surgical stapling is a medical technique that uses specialized staplers to place linear staple lines to close surgical incisions, connect or remove organs and tissues during surgical procedures. Surgical staples are made of titanium or stainless steel and can be absorbable or non-absorbable. They provide secure, fast, and accurate wound closure, reducing the risk of infection and promoting faster healing compared to traditional suturing methods.

The surgical stapler consists of a handle, an anvil, and a cartridge containing multiple staples. The device is loaded with staple cartridges and used to approximate tissue edges before deploying the staples. Once the staples are placed, the stapler is removed, leaving the staple line in place.

Surgical stapling has various applications, including gastrointestinal anastomosis, lung resection, vascular anastomosis, and skin closure. It is widely used in different types of surgeries, such as open, laparoscopic, and robotic-assisted procedures. The use of surgical stapling requires proper training and expertise to ensure optimal patient outcomes.

An adenoma is a benign (noncancerous) tumor that develops from glandular epithelial cells. These types of cells are responsible for producing and releasing fluids, such as hormones or digestive enzymes, into the surrounding tissues. Adenomas can occur in various organs and glands throughout the body, including the thyroid, pituitary, adrenal, and digestive systems.

Depending on their location, adenomas may cause different symptoms or remain asymptomatic. Some common examples of adenomas include:

1. Colorectal adenoma (also known as a polyp): These growths occur in the lining of the colon or rectum and can develop into colorectal cancer if left untreated. Regular screenings, such as colonoscopies, are essential for early detection and removal of these polyps.
2. Thyroid adenoma: This type of adenoma affects the thyroid gland and may result in an overproduction or underproduction of hormones, leading to conditions like hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) or hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid).
3. Pituitary adenoma: These growths occur in the pituitary gland, which is located at the base of the brain and controls various hormonal functions. Depending on their size and location, pituitary adenomas can cause vision problems, headaches, or hormonal imbalances that affect growth, reproduction, and metabolism.
4. Liver adenoma: These rare benign tumors develop in the liver and may not cause any symptoms unless they become large enough to press on surrounding organs or structures. In some cases, liver adenomas can rupture and cause internal bleeding.
5. Adrenal adenoma: These growths occur in the adrenal glands, which are located above the kidneys and produce hormones that regulate stress responses, metabolism, and blood pressure. Most adrenal adenomas are nonfunctioning, meaning they do not secrete excess hormones. However, functioning adrenal adenomas can lead to conditions like Cushing's syndrome or Conn's syndrome, depending on the type of hormone being overproduced.

It is essential to monitor and manage benign tumors like adenomas to prevent potential complications, such as rupture, bleeding, or hormonal imbalances. Treatment options may include surveillance with imaging studies, medication to manage hormonal issues, or surgical removal of the tumor in certain cases.

Antibiotic prophylaxis refers to the use of antibiotics to prevent infection from occurring in the first place, rather than treating an existing infection. This practice is commonly used before certain medical procedures or surgeries that have a high risk of infection, such as joint replacements, heart valve surgery, or organ transplants. The goal of antibiotic prophylaxis is to reduce the risk of infection by introducing antibiotics into the body before bacteria have a chance to multiply and cause an infection.

The choice of antibiotic for prophylaxis depends on several factors, including the type of procedure being performed, the patient's medical history and allergies, and the most common types of bacteria that can cause infection in that particular situation. The antibiotic is typically given within one hour before the start of the procedure, and may be continued for up to 24 hours afterward, depending on the specific guidelines for that procedure.

It's important to note that antibiotic prophylaxis should only be used when it is truly necessary, as overuse of antibiotics can contribute to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Therefore, the decision to use antibiotic prophylaxis should be made carefully and in consultation with a healthcare provider.

Fluid therapy, in a medical context, refers to the administration of fluids into a patient's circulatory system for various therapeutic purposes. This can be done intravenously (through a vein), intraosseously (through a bone), or subcutaneously (under the skin). The goal of fluid therapy is to correct or prevent imbalances in the body's fluids and electrolytes, maintain or restore blood volume, and support organ function.

The types of fluids used in fluid therapy can include crystalloids (which contain electrolytes and water) and colloids (which contain larger molecules like proteins). The choice of fluid depends on the patient's specific needs and condition. Fluid therapy is commonly used in the treatment of dehydration, shock, sepsis, trauma, surgery, and other medical conditions that can affect the body's fluid balance.

Proper administration of fluid therapy requires careful monitoring of the patient's vital signs, urine output, electrolyte levels, and overall clinical status to ensure that the therapy is effective and safe.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Intraoperative complications refer to any unforeseen problems or events that occur during the course of a surgical procedure, once it has begun and before it is completed. These complications can range from minor issues, such as bleeding or an adverse reaction to anesthesia, to major complications that can significantly impact the patient's health and prognosis.

Examples of intraoperative complications include:

1. Bleeding (hemorrhage) - This can occur due to various reasons such as injury to blood vessels or organs during surgery.
2. Infection - Surgical site infections can develop if the surgical area becomes contaminated during the procedure.
3. Anesthesia-related complications - These include adverse reactions to anesthesia, difficulty maintaining the patient's airway, or cardiovascular instability.
4. Organ injury - Accidental damage to surrounding organs can occur during surgery, leading to potential long-term consequences.
5. Equipment failure - Malfunctioning surgical equipment can lead to complications and compromise the safety of the procedure.
6. Allergic reactions - Patients may have allergies to certain medications or materials used during surgery, causing an adverse reaction.
7. Prolonged operative time - Complications may arise if a surgical procedure takes longer than expected, leading to increased risk of infection and other issues.

Intraoperative complications require prompt identification and management by the surgical team to minimize their impact on the patient's health and recovery.

Metronidazole is an antibiotic and antiprotozoal medication. It is primarily used to treat infections caused by anaerobic bacteria and certain parasites. Metronidazole works by interfering with the DNA of these organisms, which inhibits their ability to grow and multiply.

It is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, creams, and gels, and is often used to treat conditions such as bacterial vaginosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, amebiasis, giardiasis, and pseudomembranous colitis.

Like all antibiotics, metronidazole should be taken only under the direction of a healthcare provider, as misuse can lead to antibiotic resistance and other complications.

A colonoscopy is a medical procedure used to examine the large intestine, also known as the colon and rectum. It is performed using a flexible tube with a tiny camera on the end, called a colonoscope, which is inserted into the rectum and gently guided through the entire length of the colon.

The procedure allows doctors to visually inspect the lining of the colon for any abnormalities such as polyps, ulcers, inflammation, or cancer. If any polyps are found during the procedure, they can be removed immediately using special tools passed through the colonoscope. Colonoscopy is an important tool in the prevention and early detection of colorectal cancer, which is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide.

Patients are usually given a sedative to help them relax during the procedure, which is typically performed on an outpatient basis in a hospital or clinic setting. The entire procedure usually takes about 30-60 minutes to complete, although patients should plan to spend several hours at the medical facility for preparation and recovery.

Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Neoplasms (HNPCC), also known as Lynch Syndrome, is a genetic disorder that significantly increases the risk of developing colorectal cancer and other types of cancer. It is characterized by the mutation in genes responsible for repairing mistakes in the DNA replication process, specifically the mismatch repair genes (MMR).

HNPCC is typically inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, meaning that a person has a 50% chance of inheriting the mutated gene from an affected parent. The syndrome is associated with the development of colorectal cancer at a younger age, usually before 50 years old, and often in the proximal colon. Individuals with HNPCC also have an increased risk for other cancers, including endometrial, stomach, small intestine, ovary, kidney, brain, and skin (sebaceous gland tumors).

Regular surveillance and screening are crucial for early detection and management of colorectal neoplasms in individuals with HNPCC. This typically includes colonoscopies starting at a younger age and performed more frequently than in the general population. Genetic counseling and testing may also be recommended for family members who may have inherited the mutated gene.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Postoperative pain is defined as the pain or discomfort experienced by patients following a surgical procedure. It can vary in intensity and duration depending on the type of surgery performed, individual pain tolerance, and other factors. The pain may be caused by tissue trauma, inflammation, or nerve damage resulting from the surgical intervention. Proper assessment and management of postoperative pain is essential to promote recovery, prevent complications, and improve patient satisfaction.

"Recovery of function" is a term used in medical rehabilitation to describe the process in which an individual regains the ability to perform activities or tasks that were previously difficult or impossible due to injury, illness, or disability. This can involve both physical and cognitive functions. The goal of recovery of function is to help the person return to their prior level of independence and participation in daily activities, work, and social roles as much as possible.

Recovery of function may be achieved through various interventions such as physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language therapy, and other rehabilitation strategies. The specific approach used will depend on the individual's needs and the nature of their impairment. Recovery of function can occur spontaneously as the body heals, or it may require targeted interventions to help facilitate the process.

It is important to note that recovery of function does not always mean a full return to pre-injury or pre-illness levels of ability. Instead, it often refers to the person's ability to adapt and compensate for any remaining impairments, allowing them to achieve their maximum level of functional independence and quality of life.

Colonic polyps are abnormal growths that protrude from the inner wall of the colon (large intestine). They can vary in size, shape, and number. Most colonic polyps are benign, meaning they are not cancerous. However, some types of polyps, such as adenomas, have a higher risk of becoming cancerous over time if left untreated.

Colonic polyps often do not cause any symptoms, especially if they are small. Larger polyps may lead to symptoms like rectal bleeding, changes in bowel habits, abdominal pain, or iron deficiency anemia. The exact cause of colonic polyps is not known, but factors such as age, family history, and certain medical conditions (like inflammatory bowel disease) can increase the risk of developing them.

Regular screening exams, such as colonoscopies, are recommended for individuals over the age of 50 to detect and remove polyps before they become cancerous. If you have a family history of colonic polyps or colorectal cancer, your doctor may recommend earlier or more frequent screenings.

Clinical competence is the ability of a healthcare professional to provide safe and effective patient care, demonstrating the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required for the job. It involves the integration of theoretical knowledge with practical skills, judgment, and decision-making abilities in real-world clinical situations. Clinical competence is typically evaluated through various methods such as direct observation, case studies, simulations, and feedback from peers and supervisors.

A clinically competent healthcare professional should be able to:

1. Demonstrate a solid understanding of the relevant medical knowledge and its application in clinical practice.
2. Perform essential clinical skills proficiently and safely.
3. Communicate effectively with patients, families, and other healthcare professionals.
4. Make informed decisions based on critical thinking and problem-solving abilities.
5. Exhibit professionalism, ethical behavior, and cultural sensitivity in patient care.
6. Continuously evaluate and improve their performance through self-reflection and ongoing learning.

Maintaining clinical competence is essential for healthcare professionals to ensure the best possible outcomes for their patients and stay current with advances in medical science and technology.

Colonic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the large intestine, also known as the colon. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). The two most common types of colonic neoplasms are adenomas and carcinomas.

Adenomas are benign tumors that can develop into cancer over time if left untreated. They are often found during routine colonoscopies and can be removed during the procedure.

Carcinomas, on the other hand, are malignant tumors that invade surrounding tissues and can spread to other parts of the body. Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, and colonic neoplasms are a significant risk factor for developing this type of cancer.

Regular screenings for colonic neoplasms are recommended for individuals over the age of 50 or those with a family history of colorectal cancer or other risk factors. Early detection and removal of colonic neoplasms can significantly reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer.

The double-blind method is a study design commonly used in research, including clinical trials, to minimize bias and ensure the objectivity of results. In this approach, both the participants and the researchers are unaware of which group the participants are assigned to, whether it be the experimental group or the control group. This means that neither the participants nor the researchers know who is receiving a particular treatment or placebo, thus reducing the potential for bias in the evaluation of outcomes. The assignment of participants to groups is typically done by a third party not involved in the study, and the codes are only revealed after all data have been collected and analyzed.

Adenocarcinoma is a type of cancer that arises from glandular epithelial cells. These cells line the inside of many internal organs, including the breasts, prostate, colon, and lungs. Adenocarcinomas can occur in any of these organs, as well as in other locations where glands are present.

The term "adenocarcinoma" is used to describe a cancer that has features of glandular tissue, such as mucus-secreting cells or cells that produce hormones. These cancers often form glandular structures within the tumor mass and may produce mucus or other substances.

Adenocarcinomas are typically slow-growing and tend to spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or bloodstream. They can be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these treatments. The prognosis for adenocarcinoma depends on several factors, including the location and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and age.

Nonparametric statistics is a branch of statistics that does not rely on assumptions about the distribution of variables in the population from which the sample is drawn. In contrast to parametric methods, nonparametric techniques make fewer assumptions about the data and are therefore more flexible in their application. Nonparametric tests are often used when the data do not meet the assumptions required for parametric tests, such as normality or equal variances.

Nonparametric statistical methods include tests such as the Wilcoxon rank-sum test (also known as the Mann-Whitney U test) for comparing two independent groups, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for comparing two related groups, and the Kruskal-Wallis test for comparing more than two independent groups. These tests use the ranks of the data rather than the actual values to make comparisons, which allows them to be used with ordinal or continuous data that do not meet the assumptions of parametric tests.

Overall, nonparametric statistics provide a useful set of tools for analyzing data in situations where the assumptions of parametric methods are not met, and can help researchers draw valid conclusions from their data even when the data are not normally distributed or have other characteristics that violate the assumptions of parametric tests.

Bariatric surgery is a branch of medicine that involves the surgical alteration of the stomach, intestines, or both to induce weight loss in individuals with severe obesity. The primary goal of bariatric surgery is to reduce the size of the stomach, leading to decreased food intake and absorption, which ultimately results in significant weight loss.

There are several types of bariatric surgeries, including:

1. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB): This procedure involves creating a small pouch at the top of the stomach and connecting it directly to the middle portion of the small intestine, bypassing the rest of the stomach and the upper part of the small intestine.
2. Sleeve gastrectomy: In this procedure, a large portion of the stomach is removed, leaving behind a narrow sleeve-shaped pouch that restricts food intake.
3. Adjustable gastric banding (AGB): This surgery involves placing an adjustable band around the upper part of the stomach to create a small pouch and limit food intake.
4. Biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD/DS): This is a more complex procedure that involves both restricting the size of the stomach and rerouting the small intestine to reduce nutrient absorption.

Bariatric surgery can lead to significant weight loss, improvement in obesity-related health conditions such as diabetes, high blood pressure, sleep apnea, and reduced risk of mortality. However, it is not without risks and complications, including infection, bleeding, nutrient deficiencies, and dumping syndrome. Therefore, careful consideration and evaluation by a multidisciplinary team are necessary before undergoing bariatric surgery.

The Chi-square distribution is a continuous probability distribution that is often used in statistical hypothesis testing. It is the distribution of a sum of squares of k independent standard normal random variables. The resulting quantity follows a chi-square distribution with k degrees of freedom, denoted as χ²(k).

The probability density function (pdf) of the Chi-square distribution with k degrees of freedom is given by:

f(x; k) = (1/ (2^(k/2) * Γ(k/2))) \* x^((k/2)-1) \* e^(-x/2), for x > 0 and 0, otherwise.

Where Γ(k/2) is the gamma function evaluated at k/2. The mean and variance of a Chi-square distribution with k degrees of freedom are k and 2k, respectively.

The Chi-square distribution has various applications in statistical inference, including testing goodness-of-fit, homogeneity of variances, and independence in contingency tables.

Sigmoidoscopy is a medical procedure that involves the insertion of a sigmoidoscope, a flexible tube with a light and camera at the end, into the rectum and lower colon (sigmoid colon) to examine these areas for any abnormalities such as inflammation, ulcers, polyps, or cancer. The procedure typically allows for the detection of issues in the sigmoid colon and rectum, and can help diagnose conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, diverticulosis, or colorectal cancer.

There are two types of sigmoidoscopy: flexible sigmoidoscopy and rigid sigmoidoscopy. Flexible sigmoidoscopy is more commonly performed because it provides a better view of the lower colon and is less uncomfortable for the patient. Rigid sigmoidoscopy, on the other hand, uses a solid, inflexible tube and is typically used in specific situations such as the removal of foreign objects or certain types of polyps.

During the procedure, patients are usually positioned on their left side with their knees drawn up to their chest. The sigmoidoscope is gently inserted into the rectum and advanced through the lower colon while the doctor examines the lining for any abnormalities. Air may be introduced through the scope to help expand the colon and provide a better view. If polyps or other abnormal tissues are found, they can often be removed during the procedure for further examination and testing.

Sigmoidoscopy is generally considered a safe and well-tolerated procedure. Some patients may experience mild discomfort, bloating, or cramping during or after the exam, but these symptoms typically resolve on their own within a few hours.

General surgery is a surgical specialty that focuses on the abdominal organs, including the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, pancreas, gallbladder and bile ducts, and often the thyroid gland. General surgeons may also deal with diseases involving the skin, breast, soft tissue, and hernias. They employ a wide range of surgical procedures, using both traditional and laparoscopic techniques.

This definition is consistent with the guidelines provided by professional medical organizations such as the American College of Surgeons and the Royal College of Surgeons. However, it's important to note that specific practices can vary based on factors like geographical location, training, and individual expertise.

Adenomatous polyps, also known as adenomas, are benign (noncancerous) growths that develop in the lining of the glandular tissue of certain organs, most commonly occurring in the colon and rectum. These polyps are composed of abnormal glandular cells that can grow excessively and form a mass.

Adenomatous polyps can vary in size, ranging from a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter. They may be flat or have a stalk (pedunculated). While adenomas are generally benign, they can potentially undergo malignant transformation and develop into colorectal cancer over time if left untreated. The risk of malignancy increases with the size of the polyp and the presence of certain histological features, such as dysplasia (abnormal cell growth).

Regular screening for adenomatous polyps is essential to detect and remove them early, reducing the risk of colorectal cancer. Screening methods include colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, and stool-based tests.

Prognosis is a medical term that refers to the prediction of the likely outcome or course of a disease, including the chances of recovery or recurrence, based on the patient's symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. It is an important aspect of clinical decision-making and patient communication, as it helps doctors and patients make informed decisions about treatment options, set realistic expectations, and plan for future care.

Prognosis can be expressed in various ways, such as percentages, categories (e.g., good, fair, poor), or survival rates, depending on the nature of the disease and the available evidence. However, it is important to note that prognosis is not an exact science and may vary depending on individual factors, such as age, overall health status, and response to treatment. Therefore, it should be used as a guide rather than a definitive forecast.

Neoplasm staging is a systematic process used in medicine to describe the extent of spread of a cancer, including the size and location of the original (primary) tumor and whether it has metastasized (spread) to other parts of the body. The most widely accepted system for this purpose is the TNM classification system developed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC).

In this system, T stands for tumor, and it describes the size and extent of the primary tumor. N stands for nodes, and it indicates whether the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes. M stands for metastasis, and it shows whether the cancer has spread to distant parts of the body.

Each letter is followed by a number that provides more details about the extent of the disease. For example, a T1N0M0 cancer means that the primary tumor is small and has not spread to nearby lymph nodes or distant sites. The higher the numbers, the more advanced the cancer.

Staging helps doctors determine the most appropriate treatment for each patient and estimate the patient's prognosis. It is an essential tool for communication among members of the healthcare team and for comparing outcomes of treatments in clinical trials.

Fluorouracil is a antineoplastic medication, which means it is used to treat cancer. It is a type of chemotherapy drug known as an antimetabolite. Fluorouracil works by interfering with the growth of cancer cells and ultimately killing them. It is often used to treat colon, esophageal, stomach, and breast cancers, as well as skin conditions such as actinic keratosis and superficial basal cell carcinoma. Fluorouracil may be given by injection or applied directly to the skin in the form of a cream.

It is important to note that fluorouracil can have serious side effects, including suppression of bone marrow function, mouth sores, stomach and intestinal ulcers, and nerve damage. It should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare professional.

... surgical doctors have to complete a general surgery residency as well as a colorectal surgery fellowship, upon which they are ... Colorectal surgery is a field in medicine dealing with disorders of the rectum, anus, and colon. The field is also known as ... Diagnostic procedures, such as a colonoscopy, are very important in colorectal surgery, as they can tell the physician what ... McCoubrey AS (September 2007). "The use of mechanical bowel preparation in elective colorectal surgery". Ulster Med J. 76 (3): ...
Minimally invasive surgery is indicated for polyps that are too large or in unfavorable locations, such as the appendix, that ... Untreated colorectal polyps can develop into colorectal cancer. Colorectal polyps are often classified by their behaviour (i.e ... Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC, also known as Lynch syndrome) is a hereditary colorectal cancer syndrome. It ... Paris classification of colorectal neoplasms In colonoscopy, colorectal polyps can be classified by NICE (Narrow-band imaging ...
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery. 18 (3): 133-140. doi:10.1055/s-2005-916274. ISSN 1531-0043. PMC 2780097. PMID 20011296. ... Colorectal cancer Colorectal polyp Hardcastle, J. D.; Armitage, N. C. (1984). "Early diagnosis of colorectal cancer: A review ... The colorectal adenoma is a benign glandular tumor of the colon and the rectum. It is a precursor lesion of the colorectal ... Schofield, P. F.; Jones, D. J. (1992). "ABC of colorectal diseases. Colorectal neoplasia-I: Benign colonic tumours". BMJ ( ...
Surgery remains the front-line therapy for HNPCC. Patients with Lynch syndrome who develop colorectal cancer may be treated ... Due to increased risk of colorectal cancer following partial colectomy and similar quality of life after both surgeries, a ... Colorectal cancer with MSI-high pathology in a person who is younger than 60 years of age 4. Colorectal cancer diagnosed in a ... Person with colorectal cancer and two or more first- or second-degree relatives with colorectal cancer or Lynch syndrome ...
"First experience in colorectal surgery with a new robotic platform with haptic feedback". Colorectal Disease. 20 (3): 228-235. ... Major advances aided by surgical robots have been remote surgery, minimally invasive surgery and unmanned surgery. Due to ... "Robotic surgery in otolaryngology and head and neck surgery: a review". Minimally Invasive Surgery. 2012: 286563. doi:10.1155/ ... "Computer-assisted orthopaedic surgery and robotic surgery in total hip arthroplasty". Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery. 5 (1): 1-9 ...
"The effect of epidural analgesia on postoperative outcome after colorectal surgery". Colorectal Disease. 9 (7): 584-98, ... Some surgeries that spinal analgesia may be used in include lower abdominal surgery, lower limb surgery, cardiac surgery, and ... It is unclear whether major surgery-related bleeding within 24 hours and the surgery-related complications up to 7 days after ... For example, a thoracic epidural performed for upper abdominal surgery may not have any effect on the area surrounding the ...
List of surgeries by type Hyperarts, Rob Mayfield -. "Colorectal Surgery - Proctocolectomy". Retrieved 6 January 2017. " ... v t e (Digestive system surgery, Rectum, All stub articles, Surgery stubs). ...
"Colorectal Surgery - Anal Fistula". colorectal.surgery.ucsf.edu. Retrieved 2016-07-03. Mappes, H. J.; Farthmann, E. H. (2001-01 ... The stitch is placed close to the ano-rectal ring - which encourages healing and makes further surgery easy. Fistulotomy - till ... Treatment, in the form of surgery, is considered essential to allow drainage and prevent infection. Repair of the fistula ... The procedure was developed by Thai colorectal surgeon, Arun Rojanasakul, The first reports of preliminary healing result from ...
Allen, George (2007). "Cell saver blood transfusions; colorectal surgery antibiotic prophylaxis; preoperative clinics; ...
Colorectal Surgery Alan Guyatt Parks Victor Warren Fazio Peter V. Delaney Conor P. Delaney "John Nicholls , European Society of ... Professor Nicholls retired from NHS practice in 2006 but kept active in the field of colorectal surgery until his full ... He participated in early pouch surgeries after the first surgery, from 1976. The ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) procedure ... Emeritus Consultant Surgeon at St Mark's Hospital London and Professor of Colorectal Surgery, Imperial College London. R. John ...
Surgery through the vagina is successful 90% of the time. Surgical correction can be accomplished by abdominal surgery, by ... International Journal of Colorectal Disease. 31 (1): 19-22. doi:10.1007/s00384-015-2395-3. PMC 4701784. PMID 26423060. Das B, ... Surgery is often needed to correct a fistula leading to the vagina. Conservative treatment with an in-dwelling catheter can be ... Urogenital fistulas vary in etiology (medical cause). Fistulas are usually caused by injury or surgery, but they can also ...
The John Goligher Colorectal Surgery Unit at Leeds Hospital is named after Goligher. Memorial medals and lectures have been ... "John Goligher Colorectal Surgery Unit". The Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust. Retrieved 31 December 2017. Corman, Marvin L. ( ... Goligher, J. C. (1976). "Visceral and parietal sutures in abdominal surgery". The American Journal of Surgery. 131 (2): 130-140 ... which have been influential throughout the field of gastrointestinal surgery but especially in the treatment of colorectal ...
Colorectal surgery, Rectum, Anus, Wikipedia medicine articles ready to translate (full), Acute pain, Wikipedia emergency ... Italian society of colorectal surgery (SICCR) consensus statement". Techniques in Coloproctology. 19 (10): 567-575. doi:10.1007 ... After undergoing minor surgery, Brett returned to play in the next game, quipping, "My problems are all behind me". Brett ... Surgery is reserved for those who fail to improve following these measures. Approximately 50% to 66% of people have problems ...
Kurer MA, Davey C, Khan S, Chintapatla S (September 2010). "Colorectal foreign bodies: a systematic review". Colorectal Disease ... After the surgery, a sigmoidoscopy - a colonoscopy focused on the first 60 cm of the colon - is good practice in order to rule ... Clarke DL, Buccimazza I, Anderson FA, Thomson SR (January 2005). "Colorectal foreign bodies". Colorectal Disease. 7 (1): 98-103 ... Bailey H, Love J (1975). Rains AJ, Ritchie HD (eds.). A short textbook of surgery (16th ed.). Verlag Lewis. p. 1013. Glaser J, ...
For services to colorectal surgery. William John Perham - of Carterton. For services to philanthropy and the community. Annette ...
Surgery involving the rectum (e.g. lower anterior resection, often performed for colorectal cancer), radiotherapy directed at ... Surgery may be carried out if conservative measures alone are not sufficient to control incontinence. There are many surgical ... FI is a much under-reported complication of surgery. The IAS is easily damaged with an anal retractor (especially the Park's ... Traditionally, FI was thought to be an insignificant complication of surgery, but it is now known that a variety of different ...
ISBN 978-1-101-99810-6. Tebala, Giovanni (2015). "History of colorectal surgery: A comprehensive historical review from the ... Cataract surgery is a surgery in which cataracts are removed. This kind of surgery has been practiced since 29 CE in Ancient ... These methods encompassed modern oral surgery, cosmetic surgery, sutures, ligatures, amputations, tonsillectomies, mastectomies ... cataract surgeries, lithotomies, hernia repair, gynecology, neurosurgery, and others. Surgery was a rare practice, as it was ...
Jayne, D G; Fook, S; Loi, C; Seow-Choen, F (2 December 2002). "Peritoneal carcinomatosis from colorectal cancer". British ... Journal of Surgery. 89 (12): 1545-1550. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2168.2002.02274.x. PMID 12445064. S2CID 8320232. Raptopoulos, ...
George B, Guy R, Jones O, Vogel J (2 May 2016). Colorectal Surgery: Clinical Care and Management. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: ... Schlachta, CM; Sylla, P (20 February 2018). Current Common Dilemmas in Colorectal Surgery. Springer. ISBN 978-3-319-70117-2. ( ... Some authors state that most patients do not benefit from surgery. Overall, up to 33% of SRUS patients end up requiring surgery ... Rectopexy is a surgery for rectal prolapse. A newer version of the procedure is termed ventral mesh rectopexy, which has also ...
ISBN 978-3-030-66049-9. George B, Guy R, Jones O, Vogel J (2 May 2016). Colorectal Surgery: Clinical Care and Management. ... ISBN 978-1-118-67478-9. Steele SR, Maykel JA, Wexner SD (11 August 2020). Clinical Decision Making in Colorectal Surgery (2nd ... Clark S (22 June 2018). Colorectal Surgery: A Companion to Specialist Surgical Practice (6th ed.). Edinburgh: Elsevier. ISBN ... Rectal hyposensitivity may also result from pelvic nerve injury (e.g. spinal trauma, pelvic surgery, anal surgery, hysterectomy ...
March 2001). "Harmonic scalpel in laparoscopic colorectal surgery". Dis. Colon Rectum. 44 (3): 432-6. doi:10.1007/bf02234745. ... Instruments used in general surgery Fitzgerald JE, Malik M, Ahmed I (2012). "A single blind controlled study of electrocautery ... Sabiston, David C.; Daniel Beauchamp, R.; Evers, B. Mark; Mattox, Kenneth L. (2012). Sabiston Textbook of Surgery. p. 236. ISBN ... The Harmonic brand is manufactured in Mexico and distributed by Ethicon Endo-Surgery a subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson. ...
Colorectal Surgeon, Colorectal Surgery Unit, Edinburgh. For services to Surgery in relation to Child Birth Injury, in Sub- ... Consultant, Vascular Surgery, University of Southampton. For services to Vascular Surgery. Professor Rebecca Julia Shipley. ... Associate Specialist, Breast Surgery, The Princess Alexandra Hospital NHS Trust. For services to Funding and Research for ...
The 2009 McGraw-Hill Manual of Colorectal Surgery states that "gay bowel syndrome" is considered obsolete and derogatory: ... Kaiser, Andreas (2009). McGraw-Hill Manual of Colorectal Surgery. p. 205. ISBN 978-0-07-159070-9. Scarce, Michael (1999). ...
Colorectal surgery, Rectum). ... Surgery is thought to be the only option to potentially cure a ... Surgery is often required to prevent further damage to the anal sphincters. The goals of surgery are to restore the normal ... "Rectal prolapse repair on Encyclopedia of Surgery". Encyclopedia of Surgery. Retrieved 16 October 2012. Pellino G, Fuschillo G ... previous surgery (30-50% of females with the condition underwent previous gynecological surgery) pelvic neuropathies and ...
In 2012 it was discovered that the mesentery was a single organ, which precipitated advancement in colon and rectum surgery and ... International Journal of Colorectal Disease. 29 (6): 763-4. doi:10.1007/s00384-014-1852-8. PMID 24676507. S2CID 10393183. West ... Anatomical observations were recorded during the surgery and on the post-operative specimens. These studies showed that the ... Total or complete mesocolic excision (CME), use planar surgery and extensive mesenterectomy (high tie) to minimise breach of ...
Colorectal Surgery Conor P. Delaney John Nicholls (professor) "In Memoriam, Victor W. Fazio, MD , ASCRS". Archived from the ... Within a year, at the age of 35, he was Chairman of the clinic's Department of Colorectal Surgery, one of the youngest doctors ... Specialising in colon and rectal surgery, Fazio's clinical interests were Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis; colorectal ... The University of Sydney made Fazio an honorary Master of Surgery, and he was appointed an Officer of the Order of Australia in ...
Beck, David; Beck, David E. (2012). "23". Handbook of Colorectal Surgery: Third Edition. JP Medical Ltd. ISBN 9781907816208. ... If surgery is not performed, there is a high rate of recurrence. For people with signs of sepsis or an abdominal catastrophe, ... If the bowel is severely twisted or the blood supply is cut off, immediate surgery is required. In a cecal volvulus, often part ... Gingold, D; Murrell, Z (December 2012). "Management of colonic volvulus". Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery. 25 (4): 236-44. ...
May 2010). "Treatment of colorectal carcinoids: A new paradigm". World Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery. 2 (5): 153-156. doi ... Even if the tumor has advanced and metastasized, making curative surgery infeasible, surgery often has a role in neuroendocrine ... This type of treatment is FDA approved for liver metastases secondary to colorectal carcinoma and is under investigation for ... ISBN 978-3-540-43462-7. Pommier R (October 2003). The role of surgery and chemoembolization in the management of carcinoid. ...
"Keyhole surgery good for colorectal cancer: study". smh.com.au. May 2011. Retrieved 15 February 2017. "Bowels have an easier ... Abraham, Ned; Albayati, Sinan (27 January 2011). "Enhanced recovery after surgery programs hasten recovery after colorectal ... colorectal and academic surgery have been cited in the medical literature close to two thousand times. He continues to practice ... Member of the Colorectal Surgical Society of Australia & New Zealand - CSSANZ Member of the Section of Colon and Rectal Surgery ...
She was diagnosed with colon cancer in 1966 at the age of 66 and surgery removed a tumour; she survived and died 35 years later ... This was found to be a Dukes' Stage B colorectal cancer. Russi Taylor (1944-2019; aged 75), American voice actress best known ... His widow, Katie Couric, raised awareness of colorectal cancers after his death, encouraged people to get tested, and The Jay ... This article lists notable people who died from or were diagnosed with colorectal cancer. Adele Roberts (born 1979), English ...
... surgical doctors have to complete a general surgery residency as well as a colorectal surgery fellowship, upon which they are ... Colorectal surgery is a field in medicine dealing with disorders of the rectum, anus, and colon. The field is also known as ... Diagnostic procedures, such as a colonoscopy, are very important in colorectal surgery, as they can tell the physician what ... McCoubrey AS (September 2007). "The use of mechanical bowel preparation in elective colorectal surgery". Ulster Med J. 76 (3): ...
Procedural Kits in Colorectal Surgery improve the outcomes of Colorectal Patients and supports Colorectal Surgeons become more ... Procedural Kits in Colorectal Surgery. Improve the outcomes of your colorectal patients with Procedural Kits, Maximizing ... These products come packaged in a Procedure Box, that guarantees the right productsfor the right colorectal surgery at the ... Benefits of Procedural Kits in Colorectal Surgery. MEDTRONIC portfolio of products will outfit your OR with some of the most ...
... traditional open surgery remains the most common surgical option across the United States for people with diseases of the ... Helping hand of hybrid surgery benefits colorectal patients. April 15, 2009. ScienceBlog.com ... Sonoda explains that there are two ways to perform laparoscopic bowel surgery:. * Standard laparoscopic surgery (SLS), using a ... Rectal Surgery, and professor of surgery at Weill Cornell Medical College. "The hand-assisted approach has been a valuable ...
Home Topics Cancer Roches Xeloda Improves Disease-Free Survival after Colorectal Cancer Surgery ... Xeloda was first approved as first-line monotherapy for metastastic colorectal cancer in the U.S. and EU in 2001. Since then ... Anti cancer drugsCancersChemotherapyColorectal cancerDigestive system cancerDrug therapyDrugsGastrointestinal cancerMedicine, ... The open-label international trial included 1,886 patients with stage III colon cancer who underwent surgery for their cancer. ...
The faculty of the UCLA Section of Colon and Rectal Surgery recognize that colorectal conditions can be particularly ... The faculty of the UCLA Section of Colorectal Surgery recognize that colorectal conditions can be particularly uncomfortable ... Call 310-794-7788 to learn more about colorectal surgery at UCLA Health. ... robotic and transanal endoscopic surgery. We also perform complex open operations when minimally invasive surgery is not ...
BACKGROUND: Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS-HIPEC) is the preferred treatment of ... BACKGROUND: Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS-HIPEC) is the preferred treatment of ... Adult, Aged, Carcinoma/drug therapy, Chemotherapy, Cancer, Regional Perfusion, Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy, Combined ... RESULTS: Seventy-three patients treated with CRS-HIPEC for PC from lymph node positive colorectal carcinoma were identified. ...
Colorectal cancer is becoming more common in younger people, but effective treatments exist and knowing risk factors can help. ... Young Onset Colorectal Cancer. While colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer among men and women, the overall risk of ... Expert Small and Large Intestine Care From the Division of Colorectal Surgery. Call (212) 342-1155. For IBD care, call (212) ... While early onset colorectal cancer is on the rise, it still represents a minority of overall cases: only 10% of all colorectal ...
How is laparoscopic colorectal surgery performed?. Laparoscopic surgery is the name given to the telescopic method a surgeon ... What is laparoscopic colorectal surgery?. Laparoscopic or keyhole surgery allows the surgeon to carry out operations through ... Could I have laparoscopic colorectal surgery?. Although there are many benefits of this type of surgery, it is not always ... Laparoscopic and robotic colorectal surgery avoids the need for a long incision (cut) in the abdomen (tummy) and so there is ...
Colorectal Neoplasms Follow-Up after Surgery and Prognosis ... Colorectal Neoplasms Follow-Up after Surgery and Prognosis. Jan ... Colorectal Neoplasms Treatment *Prognosis *Follow-Up after Surgery *Risk factors for colorectal Neoplasia *Prevention * ... Colorectal cancer. *Colorectal Cancer definition *Presentation *Risk Factors *Epidemiology *Colorectal cancer Risk Factors * ... Follow-Up after Surgery. Patients who have undergone resections for cure are followed closely to look for evidence of ...
Wise is board certified in Colon & Rectal Surgery. ... William Wise, MD is a colorectal surgery specialist in Columbus ... Compare with other Colorectal Surgery Specialists. Compare Dr. Wise with our nearby Colorectal Surgery Specialists at Cleveland ... a Colorectal Surgery Specialist. in Columbus, OH and has 40 years experience. They graduated from Boston University Chobanian ... William Wise, MD is a colorectal surgery specialist in Columbus, OH and has over 39 years of experience in the medical field. ...
NewYork-Presbyterian Medical Group Hudson Valley colorectal surgeons specialize in colon, rectal and anal disorders and ... Specialties: Bariatric Surgery, Cardiology, Colorectal Surgery, General Surgery, Hematology/Oncology, Neurology, Obstetrics & ... Colorectal Surgery. Colorectal surgeons treat disorders affecting the colon, rectum, and anus. Examples include the surgical ... Our surgeons specialize in the treatment of colorectal cancer, including laparoscopic and minimally invasive colorectal surgery ...
Results: There were 799 colorectal procedures. 47 surgeons performed robotic colorectal surgery at 25 hospitals. 341(42.7%) and ... ROBOTIC COLORECTAL SURGERY IS GOING TOWARDS CENTRALIZATION: A NATIONWIDE ANALYSIS. Eren Esen, MD, Erman Aytac, MD, Ilknur ... While robotic surgery has been performed almost for two decades, data about the trends and adoption of robots in colorectal ... Conclusions: Robotic practice in the field of colorectal surgery has been going towards monopolization which seems reasonable ...
The Colorectal Center treats colorectal conditions, Hirschsprungs disease, anorectal malformations and associated spinal cord ... Colorectal Team. The Colorectal Center includes a surgical team that has a passion for caring for children with colorectal ... Taylor Sepuha BSN, RN, CPN, is a nurse in the Division of Pediatric Surgery who also supports the Colorectal Center. She has an ... The Colorectal Center and CHIPs both participate actively in research with a goal to improve the care of our colorectal ...
... which will allow the development/tailoring of future robotic colorectal TTT courses to help develo … ... This pilot robotic colorectal TTT course has achieved its aim and demonstrated many positives. There is a need for such a ... 2 Department of Surgery, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.. *3 Colorectal Surgery Unit, Department of Surgery, ... Aim: Currently, there is no established colorectal specific robotic surgery Train the Trainer (TTT) course. The aim was to ...
The aim of surgery for colorectal cancer is to cure the cancer by removing it from the body before it gets the chance to spread ... Surgery. The aim of surgery for colorectal cancer is to cure the cancer by removing it. The surgeon removes the part of the ... If a stoma is required the colorectal nurse specialist provides expert guidance and advice on how to manage this. More ... The operation may be performed by keyhole surgery (laparoscopically) or larger cut on the abdomen (an open operation). It may ...
This page provides information on the 1 July 2022 changes made to the Colorectal Surgery items on the MBS ... Colorectal Surgery MBS Item Changes. This page provides information on the 1 July 2022 changes made to the Colorectal Surgery ... PDF version FAQs for Colorectal Surgery MBS Changes - 1 July 2022 (PDF 147 KB). Word version FAQs for Colorectal Surgery MBS ... for Colorectal Surgery MBS Changes - 1 July 2022 (PDF 294 KB). Word version Quick Reference Guide (QRG) for Colorectal Surgery ...
Clairs Colorectal Surgery team works closely with medical oncologists and radiation oncologists affiliated with UPMC Hillman ... Colorectal cancer almost always develops from precancerous polyps (abnormal growths) in the colon or rectum. Screening tests ... John was diagnosed with Colorectal Cancer in March 2020. With the help of the experts at St. Clair Health, John now lives life ... One of the most advanced colorectal surgical teams in western Pennsylvania is here for you, close to home. Our team of experts ...
Orthopedics and Surgery at PeaceHealth Sedro-Woolley Clinic 1990 Hospital Dr. Suite 100. Sedro Woolley, WA 98284 Map and ... General Surgery at PeaceHealth St. Joseph Medical Center 2901 Squalicum Pkwy. East Tower. Bellingham, WA 98225 Map and ... General Surgery at PeaceHealth Northwest Medical Center 2979 Squalicum Pkwy. Suite 303. Bellingham, WA 98225 Map and Directions ... Cardiothoracic Surgery at PeaceHealth Northwest Medical Center 2979 Squalicum Pkwy. Suite 201. Bellingham, WA 98225 Map and ...
Colorectal Surgery The Colorectal Surgery Program at Emory University strives to be among the worlds leaders in clinical ... The Division of Colorectal Surgery is committed to outstanding care, novel research, and academic excellence. ... We aspire to achieve the highest value of colorectal surgical care, with a multidisciplinary and personalized approach. ​ ...
Colorectal Surgery at Oxford University Hospitals. Patient leaflets. ... Stoma/Colorectal Nursing Team (PDF, 44KB). *Stoma: Contraception and Pregnancy - Information for women with a stoma (PDF, 55KB) ... Specialist Surgery*Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT)*Facial Palsy Clinic*Publications / presentations ... Body changes, washing, clothing and returning to normal activities after your stoma surgery (PDF, 40KB) ...
The rate of surgery to treat colorectal cancer has decreased since the late 1980s, while the rate of survival has doubled. ...
G. Baatrup, Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Section of Colorectal Surgery, Bergen, NO. H. Becker, Georg- ... You are here: Home > What we do > Past events > 2011 > ESO-ESSO Masterclass in Colorectal Cancer Surgery ... Lecture The history of colorectal cancer surgery. T. Wiggers, NL - K. Havenga, NL ... Colon/colorectal cancer. Communication skills. COVID-19. Debate. Diagnostics. Endoscopy. ESCO. Fertility. From ESO events. ...
... you can be sure our expert team in colorectal surgery will provide you with the very best treatment and care. ... Colorectal Surgery If you have a bowel problem then you can be sure our expert team in our colorectal service will treat you ... Colorectal surgery deals with problems arising in the lower bowel and anus. Our experienced multidisciplinary team will provide ... You will be referred to our Colorectal Surgery service through your local GP (doctor). ...
We are part of the Crohns and Colitis Foundation Surgery Research Network, a consortium of more than 60 research centers ... dedicated to expediting clinical studies in IBD patients undergoing surgery. The focus of this network is to address important ...
ESCP is dedicating June and July to colorectal surgery training and accreditation. We are interviewing experts and educators ... Professor Eloy Espin about raising future leaders in colorectal surgery. He describes the strategies and initiatives he thinks ... We would like to include your contributions to the ESCP News hub: if you have new items to share with the European Colorectal ... from around the world, aiming to assess current colorectal training status globally, highlighting pros and cons, and ...
Apply for Surgery-Colo/Rectal Physician jobs in California on DocCafe ... Specialty Surgery-Colo/Rectal Salary $455,000 - $555,000 • yearly Degree Required MD/DO ... Colon and Rectal Surgery Position in California ,i class=fa fa-facebook,,/i, ,i class=fa fa-twitter,,/i, ,i class=fa fa- ...
The first ESCP Colorectal Robotic Surgery (CRS) Novice Workshop recently took place at IRCAD in Strasbourg, France on 4-5 ... the expected learning objectives and the importance of training in robotic surgery. ... ESCP Colorectal Robotic Surgery (CRS) Novice Workshop Print 15 September 2023 ESCP Colorectal Robotic Surgery (CRS) Novice ...
Surgery. If you are currently in treatment for colorectal cancer, you may discuss surgical options with your physician, such as ... Colorectal Cancer Screening Specialist Individuals at higher risk of colorectal cancer will be referred to gastroenterologist ... About Should I Be Tested? Screening Services Colorectal Cancer Specialist Clinic Locations ... Between 5 and 10 percent of all colorectal cancers are caused by genetic mutations that can be inherited. If youre a member of ...
... of the Western population will develop a colorectal tumor by age 70 years. In 10% of these individuals, the tumor progresses to ... How are pediatric colorectal tumors treated?. When is laparoscopic surgery contraindicated for the treatment of colorectal ... Oral antibiotic bowel preparation reduces length of stay and readmissions after colorectal surgery. J Am Coll Surg. 2013 Apr. ... Sporadic Colorectal Carcinoma. Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains one of the top 3 carcinomas for both new diagnosis and mortality ...
  • For people under the age of 50, about 40-50% of colorectal cancers are related to a definable risk factor, like an inherited colorectal cancer syndrome , chronic ulcerative colitis , or a known family history of colorectal cancer. (columbiasurgery.org)
  • We can assess your risk factors for inherited colorectal cancer and determine whether you are a candidate for genetic testing. (ucsd.edu)
  • Individuals at higher risk of colorectal cancer will be referred to gastroenterologist Samir Gupta, MD - one of only a few inherited colorectal cancer specialists in the U.S. He will personalize your prevention strategies or care plan. (ucsd.edu)
  • But bowel surgery can be highly complex, so sometimes a human hand is helpful," says Dr. Toyooki Sonoda, the lead author of the study, a surgeon at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center, and assistant professor of clinical surgery at Weill Cornell Medical College. (scienceblog.com)
  • Dr. Milsom advises patients with bowel disease to discuss all three options - SLS, HALS and open surgery - with their surgeon to see which one is most appropriate for them. (scienceblog.com)
  • Laparoscopic or 'keyhole' surgery allows the surgeon to carry out operations through a number of small (about one-centimetre) cuts in the abdomen. (acpgbi.org.uk)
  • Laparoscopic surgery is the name given to the telescopic method a surgeon uses to enter the abdomen. (acpgbi.org.uk)
  • Your surgeon will decide to carry out surgery using the open procedure either before or during the operation. (acpgbi.org.uk)
  • Even if laparoscopic surgery is planned, you should be prepared for the possibility that the surgeon may have to go back to open surgery during your operation. (acpgbi.org.uk)
  • High volume robotic colorectal hospital and surgeon was defined as the caseload within the forth interquartile (75th -100th) based on the median value. (sages.org)
  • The median numbers of colorectal procedures were 13(range 1-171) and 5(range 1-151) per hospital and per surgeon respectively. (sages.org)
  • Robotic practice in the field of colorectal surgery has been going towards monopolization which seems reasonable to achieve better outcomes by increasing caseload per hospital/surgeon. (sages.org)
  • Dr. Grabowski is a board-certified pediatric surgeon with a special interest in the treatment of patients with anorectal malformations (imperforate anus, cloaca), Hirschsprung disease, colonic dysmotility and constipation, inflammatory bowel disease, and other colorectal and intestinal diseases. (luriechildrens.org)
  • A scoping literature review was performed and the content and materials for the course were developed by a team consisting of two gastroenterologists with a combined experience of 30 years of facilitating TTT courses, a robotic surgeon and proctor with laparoscopic TTT faculty experience and experienced robotic and laparoscopic colorectal trainers. (nih.gov)
  • Gastrosurgery UK is led by Mr Abhay Chopada Consultant Laparoscopic, General and Colorectal Surgeon. (gastrosurgery.co.uk)
  • All patients who wish to see a colorectal surgeon at St. Paul's Hospital will need a referral from a physician. (providencehealthcare.org)
  • It is performed by a specialized surgeon called a colorectal surgeon. (thegutclinicuk.com)
  • What is the difference between a gastroenterologist and a colorectal surgeon? (thegutclinicuk.com)
  • Dr. Ahmer Karimuddin is a Colorectal Surgeon working at St. Paul's Hospital in Vancouver, BC. (providencehealthcare.org)
  • At CLS Health, our colorectal surgery clinic in Webster is led by colorectal surgeon Dr. Maamoun Harmouch . (cls.health)
  • With years of experience, access to some of the most cutting-edge procedures available, and a strong sense of dedication to patients, Dr. Kamrava is the premier colorectal surgeon in Los Angeles. (drkamrava.com)
  • Whether you're in need of colorectal surgery, are suffering from hemorrhoids, or just wish to schedule a consultation with Los Angeles' best colorectal surgeon, Dr. Kamrava is the right doctor for you. (drkamrava.com)
  • During this minimally-invasive surgery, a surgeon controls a robotic instrument fitted with intricate tools, providing delicate maneuverability and remarkable precision. (drkamrava.com)
  • With more than 20 years of experience under his belt, Dr Lee Chin Li was the founding Head of Division of Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Surgery and Consultant General Surgeon, Juronghealth Campus, National University Health System (NUHS). (leesurgery.com.sg)
  • Patients with ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, diverticulitis or colorectal cancer may be candidates for partial or total removal of the colon or rectum (colectomy or proctocolectomy). (scienceblog.com)
  • The disorders we treat include colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's and ulcerative colitis), with emphasis on multidisciplinary care and minimally invasive surgery. (uclahealth.org)
  • Examples include the surgical treatment of colon cancer, rectal cancer, anal cancer and fissures, hemorrhoids that cannot be successfully treated using other methods, diverticulitis, ulcerative colitis, and other colorectal diseases. (nyp.org)
  • Colorectal cancer, ulcerative colitis, diverticular disease, hemorrhoids, anal fissure, Crohn's disease and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are some of the common colon and rectal diseases treated by our doctors. (gleneagles.com.my)
  • In the United States, to become colorectal surgeons, surgical doctors have to complete a general surgery residency as well as a colorectal surgery fellowship, upon which they are eligible to be certified in their field of expertise by the American Board of Colon and Rectal Surgery or the American Osteopathic Board of Proctology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite rapid strides in minimally invasive surgical techniques - most notably, laparoscopy - traditional open surgery remains the most common surgical option across the United States for people with diseases of the rectum and colon. (scienceblog.com)
  • The approach is safe and effective and compares favorably with standard laparoscopy, according to a team of colorectal surgical specialists at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center in their study published in a recent issue of the Journal of the American College of Surgeons . (scienceblog.com)
  • We offer the most advanced minimally invasive surgical procedures available, including laparoscopic, robotic and transanal endoscopic surgery. (uclahealth.org)
  • The Colorectal Center includes a surgical team that has a passion for caring for children with colorectal anomalies and who will work with you on the best treatment for your child's condition. (luriechildrens.org)
  • Alison Osborne is an advanced practice nurse in the Division of Pediatric Surgery specializing in the surgical care and treatment of children with a variety of congenital and acquired conditions with a particular focus on anorectal and intestinal diseases. (luriechildrens.org)
  • One of the most advanced colorectal surgical teams in western Pennsylvania is here for you, close to home. (stclair.org)
  • If you have a bowel problem then you can be sure our expert team in our colorectal service will treat you with the most up to date modern surgical techniques to provide you with the very best treatment. (nth.nhs.uk)
  • Our team consists of five consultant colorectal surgeons, three senior and two junior surgical trainees from the Northern deanery, two trust-appointed senior surgical fellows, two trust-appointed junior middle-grade doctor, and four foundation-grade junior ward doctors. (nth.nhs.uk)
  • In many areas, we are at the forefront of modern surgical technology, including trans-anal microsurgery (TEMS), laparoscopic (keyhole) and single-port laparoscopic surgery (SILS), enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS). (nth.nhs.uk)
  • If you are currently in treatment for colorectal cancer, you may discuss surgical options with your physician, such as limited or segmented vs total colectomy. (ucsd.edu)
  • Surgical treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer offers a chance for cure or prolonged survival. (medscape.com)
  • The ERAS protocol has been well established in elective surgery and has been implicated in all possible gastrointestinal (GI) and non-GI surgical procedures. (medscape.com)
  • Most anorectal surgical procedures are done in same-day surgery. (gastrosurgery.co.uk)
  • Short-term outcomes after surgical treatment for nonagenarian patients with colorectal cancer were acceptable. (bvsalud.org)
  • C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd, BASO similar to The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • They have a wide range of skills and can recommend either colorectal surgery or non-surgical treatment options. (thegutclinicuk.com)
  • On the other hand, colorectal surgery is a surgical specialty that falls under general surgery. (thegutclinicuk.com)
  • Colorectal surgeons focus on performing surgical procedures to treat specific gastrointestinal conditions. (thegutclinicuk.com)
  • They work together to provide comprehensive care for patients with gastrointestinal issues, with gastroenterologists handling the medical management aspect and colorectal surgeons providing surgical treatment when necessary. (thegutclinicuk.com)
  • Our clinic caters for comprehensive screening services for breast, colorectal and other general surgical conditions. (mavensurgery.com.sg)
  • He completed general surgery training at the University of Saskatchewan in 2007, with a year completing a Masters in Adult Education, with a focus on surgical education and CanMEDS. (providencehealthcare.org)
  • Dr. Karimuddin has maintained a strong focus on surgical education in his practice, and served for three years as the Discipline Specific Site Leader for Surgery at the Island Medical Program of the University of British Columbia. (providencehealthcare.org)
  • He served as the Surgical Lead for the British Columbia Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Collaborative, and is currently on the Governance Committee for Enhanced Recovery Canada, a Canadian Patient Safety Institute Initiative. (providencehealthcare.org)
  • Registration and validity of surgical complications in colorectal cancer surgery. (cancercentrum.se)
  • Since then the drug has been sanctioned in a number of other countries for use as either monotherapy or in combination with other chemotherapies for the treatment of metastatic colorectal, breast, and pancreatic cancers, as well as advanced gastric cancer. (genengnews.com)
  • Most colorectal cancers in young people are on the left side of the colon. (columbiasurgery.org)
  • Most colorectal cancers in young people share a similar biology: they are called "microsatellite stable" or MSS. (columbiasurgery.org)
  • Like all colorectal cancers, early onset colorectal cancers begin as benign polyps that grow into cancer over time. (columbiasurgery.org)
  • Because colorectal cancers are derived from precancerous polyps in the colon, finding them with a colonoscopy and subsequently removing them offers the opportunity to avoid the disease. (columbiasurgery.org)
  • While early onset colorectal cancer is on the rise, it still represents a minority of overall cases: only 10% of all colorectal cancers are diagnosed in people under 50. (columbiasurgery.org)
  • Between 5 and 10 percent of all colorectal cancers are caused by genetic mutations that can be inherited. (ucsd.edu)
  • The presentation and diagnosis of colorectal cancers have been covered recently in another article in The BMJ . (bmj.com)
  • Early colorectal cancers (Duke's Stage A and B) are curable by surgery alone. (colonrectal.com.sg)
  • There are several screening methods to detect early colorectal cancers. (colonrectal.com.sg)
  • Specialising in minimally invasive colorectal surgery and treatments for cancers in the colon and rectum. (mavensurgery.com.sg)
  • Over 90% of all colorectal cancers in HNPCC patients demonstrate a high microsatellite instability (MSI-H), which means at least 2 or more genes have been mutated in HNPCC families or atypical HNPCC families. (medscape.com)
  • Patients who did not undergo full colonoscopy preoperatively should undergo colonoscopy within 3-6 months postoperatively to exclude other synchronous colorectal neoplasms and 1 year thereafter. (health.am)
  • Colorectal surgery is a field in medicine dealing with disorders of the rectum, anus, and colon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Colorectal surgeons treat disorders affecting the colon, rectum, and anus. (nyp.org)
  • They also perform complex reconstructive surgeries, such as creating a new "pouch" from intestinal tissue to replace a colon or rectum that has been surgically removed due to a disease such as cancer or colitis. (nyp.org)
  • Colorectal cancer almost always develops from precancerous polyps (abnormal growths) in the colon or rectum. (stclair.org)
  • Colorectal cancer is cancer that develops in the tissues of the colon or rectum. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Laparoscopic colorectal surgery is a technique, which involves operations on the colon and rectum through 4 or 5 small incisions. (gastrosurgery.co.uk)
  • Colorectal surgeons can treat a wide variety of conditions relating to the colon, rectum, and anus, including colorectal cancer and hemorrhoids. (thegutclinicuk.com)
  • Colorectal surgery is a type of surgery that focuses on the colon, rectum, and anus. (thegutclinicuk.com)
  • Colorectal surgery is a medical specialty that deals with the treatment of conditions of the anus, colon and rectum. (intercoastalmedical.com)
  • At our colorectal surgery center, we specialize in treating a wide range of disorders affecting the small bowel, colon, rectum, and anus. (cls.health)
  • Colorectal cancer' can refer to any cancer that forms in the tissue that lines the inside of the colon or rectum. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Patients under the age of 50 who develop colorectal cancer or advanced precancerous polyps (small growths protruding from the lining of digestive tract), should be referred to genetic counselors for genetic testing. (columbiasurgery.org)
  • Who is more likely to develop colorectal cancer? (medlineplus.gov)
  • While anyone can get colorectal cancer, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) reports that slightly more than 1 in 25 men and women will develop colorectal cancer in their lifetime. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Diagnostic procedures, such as a colonoscopy, are very important in colorectal surgery, as they can tell the physician what type of diagnosis should be given and what procedure should be done to correct the condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Colorectal cancer s found after a complete colonoscopy. (health.am)
  • Colonoscopy in colorectal-cancer screening for detection of advanced neoplasia. (health.am)
  • Colonoscopy is a procedure to see inside the colon (large intestine) and detect signs of colorectal cancer. (gastrosurgery.co.uk)
  • To investigate the cause and risk of interval colorectal cancer (ICC) in patients undergoing surveillance colonoscopy within 5 years after colonoscopic polypectomy. (nih.gov)
  • Within the field of colon and rectal surgery, Dr. Karimuddin has a particular interest in laparoscopic colorectal surgery, colorectal cancer, colonoscopy, inflammatory bowel disease and the pelvic pouch procedure. (providencehealthcare.org)
  • John was diagnosed with Colorectal Cancer in March 2020. (stclair.org)
  • Consecutive nonagenarian patients who underwent elective colorectal cancer surgery between 2018 and 2020 retrospectively enrolled (Trial registration number UMIN000046296 on December 7th, 2021). (bvsalud.org)
  • Dr. Milsom is section chief of colon and rectal surgery at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center and the Jerome J. DeCosse, M.D., Professor of Colon & Rectal Surgery, and professor of surgery at Weill Cornell Medical College. (scienceblog.com)
  • Dr. Wise is board certified in Colon & Rectal Surgery and accepts multiple insurance plans. (sharecare.com)
  • The main reasons for colorectal surgery are to treat colon or rectal cancer and to remove colon polyps. (thegutclinicuk.com)
  • He completed a fellowship in Colon and Rectal Surgery at the University of Toronto, with research focusing on clinical outcomes of early rectal cancer. (providencehealthcare.org)
  • Robotic surgery uses technological advancements to provide surgeons with an unprecedented amount of care when treating colon, rectal, or anal cancer. (drkamrava.com)
  • The circular stapling device as a risk factor for anastomotic leakage in rectal cancer surgery. (cancercentrum.se)
  • Local surgery for rectal cancer - A population based study. (cancercentrum.se)
  • Risk factors for anastomotic leakage after rectal cancer surgery: a case-control study. (cancercentrum.se)
  • METHODS: Adults undergoing elective laparoscopic and open colorectal cancer surgery in the English NHS during 2002-2012 were included. (bris.ac.uk)
  • Elective colorectal cancer surgery in nonagenarians and postoperative outcomes. (bvsalud.org)
  • Furthermore, it is important to evolve an emergency to an elective setting by postponing emergency surgery to prevent any high-risk situation. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • Elective surgery for colorectal cancer in a defined population. (cancercentrum.se)
  • But certain genetic changes that raise your risk for colorectal cancer are inherited, meaning that you are born with them. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Who is at risk for colorectal cancer? (medlineplus.gov)
  • Noninvasive testing for colorectal cancer: a review. (health.am)
  • Colorectal surgeons also address other treatment methods that don't involve surgery, such as pelvic floor physical therapy, non-operative treatment for hemorrhoids, and biofeedback. (thegutclinicuk.com)
  • Fellowship trained and Board-certified in colorectal and general surgery, Dr. Kamrava has years of experience treating various colorectal conditions , including colon cancer, anal fissures, fistulas, hemorrhoids, and more, providing patients with compassionate care and life-changing results. (drkamrava.com)
  • Adenomas are colorectal polyps (growths) that look abnormal under a microscope or are 1 centimeter or larger. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Family History of Colorectal Cancer and Polyps - screening should start 10 years earlier than the age of the affected individual. (colonrectal.com.sg)
  • People who have had colorectal cancer in the past or who have had certain kinds of colorectal polyps removed are at greater risk for developing colorectal cancer, as are those with a family history of the disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The faculty of the UCLA Section of Colorectal Surgery recognize that colorectal conditions can be particularly uncomfortable and distressing to our patients and we strive daily to deliver the best care to them in a friendly and compassionate manner. (uclahealth.org)
  • AIM: Laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery has developed from unproven technique to mainstay of treatment. (bris.ac.uk)
  • This study examined the application and relative outcomes of laparoscopic and open colorectal cancer surgery over time, as laparoscopic uptake and experience have grown. (bris.ac.uk)
  • CONCLUSIONS: There was clear and persistent inequality in the application of laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery during this study. (bris.ac.uk)
  • Meanwhile, recent studies have shown colorectal cancer surgery in nonagenarian patients to be feasible regarding postoperative outcomes. (bvsalud.org)
  • HART (Hughes Abdominal Repair Trial) assessed the effect of an alternative suture method on the incidence of incisional hernia following colorectal cancer surgery. (plymouth.ac.uk)
  • Conclusion The incidence of incisional hernia after colorectal cancer surgery is high. (plymouth.ac.uk)
  • Body image concerns after colorectal cancer surgery. (bvsalud.org)
  • Expert Small and Large Intestine Care From the Division of Colorectal Surgery. (columbiasurgery.org)
  • The Division of Colorectal Surgery is committed to outstanding care, novel research, and academic excellence. (emory.edu)
  • Our surgeons specialize in the treatment of colorectal cancer, including laparoscopic and minimally invasive colorectal surgery, muscle-preserving anal fissure surgery, and transanal endoscopic microsurgery. (nyp.org)
  • Having a personal or family history of colorectal cancer. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Physicians specializing in this field of medicine are called colorectal surgeons or proctologists. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our combined clinical specialists include the Colorectal Center team as well as our gastroenterology motility team of physicians and advanced practice nurses, who combine clinic visit and coordinate procedures. (luriechildrens.org)
  • The team also consists of six colorectal nurse specialists, a colorectal nursing assistant, a functional bowel nurse advisor and two nurse endoscopists, as well as four administrative staff. (nth.nhs.uk)
  • This article provides an overview of contemporary management of colorectal cancer for general practitioners and other non-specialists. (bmj.com)
  • Both gastroenterologists and colorectal surgeons can be found within the network of specialists at The Gut Clinic UK. (thegutclinicuk.com)
  • Using secure electronic medical records, your CLS Health primary care physicians and colorectal specialists will have visibility into any test results or treatment plans. (cls.health)
  • Our surgeons are some of the best in the field and have a wealth of experience in treating colorectal conditions. (cls.health)
  • When it comes to treating colorectal conditions, few surgeons are as experienced or as dedicated to their craft as Dr. Allen Kamrava . (drkamrava.com)
  • Mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) is a procedure lacking evidence in literature, wherein fecal matter is expelled from the bowel lumen prior to surgery, most commonly by using sodium phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery (HALS), involving a slightly larger incision at the start of the operation - one just large enough to allow for the insertion of the hand, which then works in tandem with laparoscopic instruments in removing and repairing bowel tissue. (scienceblog.com)
  • Both are associated with very low rates of wound infection, hernia, adhesions and small-bowel obstruction - the most common post-operative complications of traditional open intestinal surgery. (scienceblog.com)
  • Colorectal surgery deals with problems arising in the lower bowel and anus. (nth.nhs.uk)
  • Most patients undergoing sphincter preserving surgery (ie, without permanent colostomy) experience bowel dysfunction. (bmj.com)
  • ASGE guidelines: colorectal cancer screening and surveillance. (health.am)
  • Lieberman D. Screening for colorectal cancer in average-risk populations. (health.am)
  • The role of CT colography in colorectal cancer screening. (health.am)
  • What is screening for colorectal cancer and who needs it? (medlineplus.gov)
  • Because colorectal cancer may not cause symptoms at first, it's important to have screening tests for colorectal cancer . (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you have symptoms that could be caused by colorectal cancer or if your screening test results are abnormal, you may need to have more tests to find out if you have cancer. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Personal History of Colorectal Cancer - Screening should take place 1 year after surgery, and 3 yearly thereafter. (colonrectal.com.sg)
  • He is also involved in the development and maintenance of screening guidelines for colorectal cancer in BC. (providencehealthcare.org)
  • 67% of U.S. adults aged 50-75 years met the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendations for colorectal cancer screening. (cdc.gov)
  • The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends colorectal cancer screening for adults ages 45 to 75 of average risk. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The tumor testing (ie, immunohistochemistry, MSI, germline testing, and BRAF mutation testing), screening, and prophylactic surgery all help to reduce the risk of death in patients with HNPCC or Lynch syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • Particularly in females with a mutation associated with HNPCC or Lynch syndrome who begin regular screening and have reducing surgery. (medscape.com)
  • While robotic surgery has been performed almost for two decades, data about the trends and adoption of robots in colorectal practice is scarce. (sages.org)
  • Patients underwent robotic surgery between the beginning of 2013 to first half of 2017 in Turkey were included. (sages.org)
  • Currently, there is no established colorectal specific robotic surgery Train the Trainer (TTT) course. (nih.gov)
  • The first ESCP Colorectal Robotic Surgery (CRS) Novice Workshop recently took place at IRCAD in Strasbourg, France on 4-5 September 2023. (eu.com)
  • This interview with the three trainers, Carmen Cagigas, Marek Zawadzki, and Giuseppe Spigoglio, will explain the structure of the course, the expected learning objectives and the importance of training in robotic surgery. (eu.com)
  • The changes are a result of the MBS Review Taskforce recommendations for colorectal surgery services following extensive consultation with stakeholders. (mbsonline.gov.au)
  • Lurie Children's renowned Colorectal Center provides comprehensive care for our pediatric patients with colorectal conditions, treating patients from the neonatal period through early adulthood. (luriechildrens.org)
  • The primary care physician plays a critical role in coordinating increasingly complex multi-modal management strategies for patients with colorectal cancer. (bmj.com)
  • The aim was to develop and evaluate such a course which can then be further developed to be incorporated within the planned European Society of Coloproctology (ESCP)/European School of Coloproctology (ESC) robotic colorectal surgery training curriculum. (nih.gov)
  • Colorectal cancer in young patients without a hereditary syndrome can be treated just like cancer in patients of any age. (columbiasurgery.org)
  • As part of our comprehensive cancer care, UC San Diego Health offers genetic testing to help identify whether you have a higher risk of hereditary colorectal cancer. (ucsd.edu)
  • We offer testing for Lynch syndrome, also known as hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer (NPCC), the most common inherited form of colorectal cancer. (ucsd.edu)
  • Having a genetic syndrome such as familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) or Lynch syndrome (hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is the most common form of hereditary colorectal cancer. (medscape.com)
  • In hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), an inherited mutation in one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes appears to be a critical factor. (medscape.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS-HIPEC) is the preferred treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) of colorectal carcinoma. (lu.se)
  • In this study, we analysed the effect of administration and timing of systemic chemotherapy on the outcome of lymph node positive colorectal carcinoma patients treated with CRS-HIPEC. (lu.se)
  • RESULTS: Seventy-three patients treated with CRS-HIPEC for PC from lymph node positive colorectal carcinoma were identified. (lu.se)
  • The effect of age and gender on outcome after surgery for colon carcinoma. (cancercentrum.se)
  • nonetheless, the incidence of pediatric colorectal tumors is rising. (medscape.com)
  • Most cases of colorectal cancer in adolescents and young adults are sporadic, but several genetic syndromes are associated with these tumors in young patients. (medscape.com)
  • In 1966, Dr. Lynch and colleagues described familial aggregation of colorectal cancer with stomach and endometrial tumors in 2 extended kindreds and named it cancer family syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • New Phase III trial data suggests giving colon cancer patients Roche's oral anticancer drug Xeloda in combination with intravenous oxaliplatin immediately after surgery boosts disease-free survival compared with combined postsurgery chemotherapy using 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin. (genengnews.com)
  • The primary treatment method is surgery, but chemotherapy and radiation may also play a role, depending on the stage and nature of the tumor. (columbiasurgery.org)
  • Advances in chemotherapy for colorectal cancer. (health.am)
  • This then results in safe and efficient surgery, and cure without the need for chemotherapy. (colonrectal.com.sg)
  • Methods A pragmatic multicentre single-blind RCT allocated patients undergoing midline incision for colorectal cancer to either Hughes closure (double far-near-near-far sutures of 1 nylon suture at 2-cm intervals along the fascia combined with conventional mass closure) or the surgeon's standard closure. (plymouth.ac.uk)
  • Regardless of which colorectal condition you may be suffering from, Dr. Kamrava can provide you with treatments methods that offer superior levels of care, comfort, and effectiveness. (drkamrava.com)
  • With specialized training in colorectal surgery and his advanced education in business administration, Dr. Kamrava is developing methods for improving healthcare workflows and efficiencies. (drkamrava.com)
  • Colorectal surgeons specialize in treating various gastrointestinal problems. (thegutclinicuk.com)
  • Gastroenterologists and colorectal surgeons are both doctors who specialize in treating gastrointestinal issues, but there are some differences in their training and the way they approach patient care. (thegutclinicuk.com)
  • There are a number of ways to improve the detection and diagnosis of colorectal cancer in young people. (columbiasurgery.org)
  • At St. Clair Health, we understand the uncertainty that comes with colorectal conditions and diagnosis. (stclair.org)
  • Endoscopic biopsy followed by histology of the specimen is essential to confirm a new diagnosis of colorectal cancer. (bmj.com)
  • Further studies are needed to confirm the use of these markers in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer. (who.int)
  • This facilitates the delivery of quality patient care for your colorectal patients, helping the reduction of the variance in clinical practice, with is associated with better clinical outcomes . (medtronic.com)
  • Kits support our efforts towards surgery standardisation, which is key to running an efficient and patient-centred service," Dr Roberto Tacchino, Head of the Bariatric Department at Clinical Institute Beato Matteo. (medtronic.com)
  • The Colorectal Surgery Program at Emory University strives to be among the world's leaders in clinical outcomes, education, research, and patient experience. (emory.edu)
  • We are part of the Crohn's and Colitis Foundation Surgery Research Network, a consortium of more than 60 research centers dedicated to expediting clinical studies in IBD patients undergoing surgery. (emory.edu)
  • He is Co-Director of the General Surgery Residency Training Program and an Associate Professor (Clinical) at the University of British Columbia. (providencehealthcare.org)
  • His research interests include patient outcomes (clinical and PROs) in these areas and improvements in patient care, with a focus on quality improvement of outcomes and optimizing patient care and recovery through Enhanced Recovery After Surgery. (providencehealthcare.org)
  • He is an active member of the Colorectal Cancer Tumour Group, and has participated in development of Clinical Guidelines for Colorectal Cancer at the BC Cancer Agency. (providencehealthcare.org)
  • For colorectal patients, we know that early detection often allows for more treatment options. (medtronic.com)
  • St. Clair's Colorectal Surgery team works closely with medical oncologists and radiation oncologists affiliated with UPMC Hillman Cancer Center, gastroenterologists, radiologists, pathologists, and nurse navigators that help guide patient care and treatment through every step. (stclair.org)
  • Genetic testing may also be used to refine your treatment plan if you have colorectal or uterine cancer. (ucsd.edu)
  • In conclusion, based on modern insights, surgery is a valid option in the curative treatment of colorectal cancer in seniors, however individual attention and care is required. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • If you are suffering from any type of colorectal condition, we urge you to seek treatment with us as soon as possible. (cls.health)
  • At his Los Angeles facility, Dr. Kamrava employs the latest and most effective treatment options for a variety of colorectal diseases. (drkamrava.com)
  • Treatment for colorectal cancer depends on the type and stage of a person's disease and may be combined. (medlineplus.gov)
  • NCI has several resources available, including a list of questions you may want to ask your doctor if they recommend treatment for colorectal cancer. (medlineplus.gov)
  • We offer a wide range of procedures from endoscopies to surgeries such as hernia repair, gallbladder and general surgeries to treat liver disease, pancreatic disease, and other gastrointestinal diseases. (leesurgery.com.sg)
  • While colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer among men and women, the overall risk of the disease has been falling over the last few years. (columbiasurgery.org)
  • Because colorectal cancer is more typically thought of as a disease of older people, younger people and their doctors may be more likely to initially dismiss cancer as a cause for the symptoms mentioned above. (columbiasurgery.org)
  • If your doctor finds colorectal cancer, they may recommend more tests to see whether the disease has spread to other parts of the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Laparoscopic surgery versus open surgery for colon cancer: short-term outcomes of a randomised trial. (medtronic.com)
  • A newer, third option is a hybrid - hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery (HALS). (scienceblog.com)
  • Standard laparoscopic surgery (SLS), using a small "keyhole" incision through which a small camera and specialized instruments are inserted and manipulated inside the body. (scienceblog.com)
  • Patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery had lower comorbidity by 0.24 points (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.20-0.27) and lower socioeconomic deprivation by 0.16 deciles (95% CI 0.12-0.20) than those having open procedures. (bris.ac.uk)
  • Overall mortality fell by 48.0% from 2002-2003 to 2011-2002 and was 37.8% lower after laparoscopic surgery. (bris.ac.uk)
  • Open surgery is typically reserved for more complex cases, while laparoscopic surgery is less invasive and often has a quicker recovery time. (cls.health)
  • Expertise in managing a wide range of other conditions including the gallbladder, colorectal, skin and other areas of the body. (mavensurgery.com.sg)
  • In order to refer a patient to one of the colorectal surgeons at St. Paul's Hospital, please fax a referral form with relevant information to our office at 604-806-9604. (providencehealthcare.org)
  • Other diagnostic procedures used by colorectal surgeons include: proctoscopy, defecating proctography, sigmoidoscopy. (wikipedia.org)
  • 9. How do I treat a patient with colorectal cancer and synchronous liver metastases? (eso.net)
  • In other countries, certification to practice proctology is given to surgeons at the end of a 2-3 year subspecialty residency by the country's board of surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • From 1 July 2022 MBS items for colorectal surgery services are changing to better align these services with contemporary evidence-based practice. (mbsonline.gov.au)
  • 1 See paragraphs 16-18 of document A69/10, based on data included in the Noncommunicable diseases progress monitor 2015, availab le at http://www.who.int/nmh/publications/ncd-progress-monitor-2015/en/ (accessed 10 October 2016). (who.int)
  • Once properly identified, the prognosis for young onset colorectal cancer is determined by tumor stage, just as it is for other age groups. (columbiasurgery.org)
  • The widespread implementation of colorectal tumor testing helps to identify families with HNPCC or Lynch syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • Colorectal tumor testing could yield substantial benefits at acceptable cost. (medscape.com)
  • http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/68/300 (accessed 10 October 2016). (who.int)
  • The open-label international trial included 1,886 patients with stage III colon cancer who underwent surgery for their cancer. (genengnews.com)
  • The operation may be performed by keyhole surgery (laparoscopically) or larger cut on the abdomen (an 'open' operation). (leedsth.nhs.uk)
  • Laparoscopy offers clear benefits to patients compared with open surgery, including a dramatically smaller incision, less pain and shorter recovery time. (scienceblog.com)
  • Laparoscopic and robotic colorectal surgery avoids the need for a long incision (cut) in the abdomen (tummy) and so there is significantly less pain after the operation from the wound. (acpgbi.org.uk)