Color Vision Defects: Defects of color vision are mainly hereditary traits but can be secondary to acquired or developmental abnormalities in the CONES (RETINA). Severity of hereditary defects of color vision depends on the degree of mutation of the ROD OPSINS genes (on X CHROMOSOME and CHROMOSOME 3) that code the photopigments for red, green and blue.Vision Disorders: Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).Color Vision: Function of the human eye that is used in bright illumination or in daylight (at photopic intensities). Photopic vision is performed by the three types of RETINAL CONE PHOTORECEPTORS with varied peak absorption wavelengths in the color spectrum (from violet to red, 400 - 700 nm).Vision Screening: Application of tests and examinations to identify visual defects or vision disorders occurring in specific populations, as in school children, the elderly, etc. It is differentiated from VISION TESTS, which are given to evaluate/measure individual visual performance not related to a specific population.Color Perception Tests: Type of vision test used to determine COLOR VISION DEFECTS.Color Perception: Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Retinoscopy: An objective determination of the refractive state of the eye (NEARSIGHTEDNESS; FARSIGHTEDNESS; ASTIGMATISM). By using a RETINOSCOPE, the amount of correction and the power of lens needed can be determined.Refractive Errors: Deviations from the average or standard indices of refraction of the eye through its dioptric or refractive apparatus.Strabismus: Misalignment of the visual axes of the eyes. In comitant strabismus the degree of ocular misalignment does not vary with the direction of gaze. In noncomitant strabismus the degree of misalignment varies depending on direction of gaze or which eye is fixating on the target. (Miller, Walsh & Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p641)Vision, Ocular: The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.Amblyopia: A nonspecific term referring to impaired vision. Major subcategories include stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia and toxic amblyopia. Stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia is a developmental disorder of the visual cortex. A discrepancy between visual information received by the visual cortex from each eye results in abnormal cortical development. STRABISMUS and REFRACTIVE ERRORS may cause this condition. Toxic amblyopia is a disorder of the OPTIC NERVE which is associated with ALCOHOLISM, tobacco SMOKING, and other toxins and as an adverse effect of the use of some medications.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Vision, Low: Vision considered to be inferior to normal vision as represented by accepted standards of acuity, field of vision, or motility. Low vision generally refers to visual disorders that are caused by diseases that cannot be corrected by refraction (e.g., MACULAR DEGENERATION; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, etc.).Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cells: Photosensitive afferent neurons located primarily within the FOVEA CENTRALIS of the MACULA LUTEA. There are three major types of cone cells (red, blue, and green) whose photopigments have different spectral sensitivity curves. Retinal cone cells operate in daylight vision (at photopic intensities) providing color recognition and central visual acuity.Vision Tests: A series of tests used to assess various functions of the eyes.Retinal Pigments: Photosensitive protein complexes of varied light absorption properties which are expressed in the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are OPSINS conjugated with VITAMIN A-based chromophores. Chromophores capture photons of light, leading to the activation of opsins and a biochemical cascade that ultimately excites the photoreceptor cells.Depth Perception: Perception of three-dimensionality.Opsins: Photosensitive proteins in the membranes of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS such as the rods and the cones. Opsins have varied light absorption properties and are members of the G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS family. Their ligands are VITAMIN A-based chromophores.Rod Opsins: Photosensitive proteins expressed in the ROD PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of rod photoreceptor pigments such as RHODOPSIN.Vision, Binocular: The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.Contrast Sensitivity: The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.Cone Opsins: Photosensitive proteins expressed in the CONE PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of cone photopigments. Cone opsins are classified by their peak absorption wavelengths.Cebidae: A family of New World monkeys in the infraorder PLATYRRHINI, consisting of nine subfamilies: ALOUATTINAE; AOTINAE; Atelinae; Callicebinae; CALLIMICONINAE; CALLITRICHINAE; CEBINAE; Pithecinae; and SAIMIRINAE. They inhabit the forests of South and Central America, comprising the largest family of South American monkeys.Lighting: The illumination of an environment and the arrangement of lights to achieve an effect or optimal visibility. Its application is in domestic or in public settings and in medical and non-medical environments.Microspectrophotometry: Analytical technique for studying substances present at enzyme concentrations in single cells, in situ, by measuring light absorption. Light from a tungsten strip lamp or xenon arc dispersed by a grating monochromator illuminates the optical system of a microscope. The absorbance of light is measured (in nanometers) by comparing the difference between the image of the sample and a reference image.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Sensory Thresholds: The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.Electroretinography: Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.Vision, Monocular: Images seen by one eye.Night Vision: Function of the human eye that is used in dim illumination (scotopic intensities) or at nighttime. Scotopic vision is performed by RETINAL ROD PHOTORECEPTORS with high sensitivity to light and peak absorption wavelength at 507 nm near the blue end of the spectrum.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.Visual Fields: The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.Psychophysics: The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Hair Color: Color of hair or fur.Adaptation, Ocular: The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Blindness: The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.Pigmentation: Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Parrots: BIRDS of the large family Psittacidae, widely distributed in tropical regions and having a distinctive stout, curved hooked bill. The family includes LOVEBIRDS; AMAZON PARROTS; conures; PARAKEETS; and many other kinds of parrots.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Discrimination (Psychology): Differential response to different stimuli.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Flicker Fusion: The point or frequency at which all flicker of an intermittent light stimulus disappears.Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.Photoreceptor Cells, Vertebrate: Specialized PHOTOTRANSDUCTION neurons in the vertebrates, such as the RETINAL ROD CELLS and the RETINAL CONE CELLS. Non-visual photoreceptor neurons have been reported in the deep brain, the PINEAL GLAND and organs of the circadian system.Butterflies: Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.Optic Neuritis: Inflammation of the optic nerve. Commonly associated conditions include autoimmune disorders such as MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, infections, and granulomatous diseases. Clinical features include retro-orbital pain that is aggravated by eye movement, loss of color vision, and contrast sensitivity that may progress to severe visual loss, an afferent pupillary defect (Marcus-Gunn pupil), and in some instances optic disc hyperemia and swelling. Inflammation may occur in the portion of the nerve within the globe (neuropapillitis or anterior optic neuritis) or the portion behind the globe (retrobulbar neuritis or posterior optic neuritis).PaintFovea Centralis: An area approximately 1.5 millimeters in diameter within the macula lutea where the retina thins out greatly because of the oblique shifting of all layers except the pigment epithelium layer. It includes the sloping walls of the fovea (clivus) and contains a few rods in its periphery. In its center (foveola) are the cones most adapted to yield high visual acuity, each cone being connected to only one ganglion cell. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Retinal Rod Photoreceptor Cells: Photosensitive afferent neurons located in the peripheral retina, with their density increases radially away from the FOVEA CENTRALIS. Being much more sensitive to light than the RETINAL CONE CELLS, the rod cells are responsible for twilight vision (at scotopic intensities) as well as peripheral vision, but provide no color discrimination.PrimatesVisual Pathways: Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.Pattern Recognition, Visual: Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.Photophobia: Abnormal sensitivity to light. This may occur as a manifestation of EYE DISEASES; MIGRAINE; SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE; MENINGITIS; and other disorders. Photophobia may also occur in association with DEPRESSION and other MENTAL DISORDERS.Eye Color: Color of the iris.Photoreceptor Cells: Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.Dark Adaptation: Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.Retinal DiseasesVisually Impaired Persons: Persons with loss of vision such that there is an impact on activities of daily living.Photoreceptor Cells, Invertebrate: Specialized cells in the invertebrates that detect and transduce light. They are predominantly rhabdomeric with an array of photosensitive microvilli. Illumination depolarizes invertebrate photoreceptors by stimulating Na+ influx across the plasma membrane.Fundus Oculi: The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Eyeglasses: A pair of ophthalmic lenses in a frame or mounting which is supported by the nose and ears. The purpose is to aid or improve vision. It does not include goggles or nonprescription sun glasses for which EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES is available.Evoked Potentials, Visual: The electric response evoked in the cerebral cortex by visual stimulation or stimulation of the visual pathways.Cercopithecidae: The family of Old World monkeys and baboons consisting of two subfamilies: CERCOPITHECINAE and COLOBINAE. They are found in Africa and part of Asia.Elasmobranchii: A subclass of cartilaginous fish comprising the SHARKS; rays; skates (SKATES (FISH);), and sawfish. Elasmobranchs are typically predaceous, relying more on smell (the olfactory capsules are relatively large) than sight (the eyes are relatively small) for obtaining their food.Alouatta: A genus of the subfamily ALOUATTINAE, family ATELIDAE, inhabiting the forests of Central and South America. Howlers travel in groups and define their territories by howling accompanied by vigorously shaking and breaking branches.Pitheciidae: A family of New World monkeys in the infraorder PLATYRRHINI consisting of two subfamilies: Callicebinae and Pitheciinae.Vision Disparity: The difference between two images on the retina when looking at a visual stimulus. This occurs since the two retinas do not have the same view of the stimulus because of the location of our eyes. Thus the left eye does not get exactly the same view as the right eye.Form Perception: The sensory discrimination of a pattern shape or outline.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Macular Degeneration: Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.PrintingSensory Aids: Devices that help people with impaired sensory responses.Motion Perception: The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.Feathers: Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Saguinus: A genus in the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE consisting of 12 species and found in Panama as well as South America. Species seen most frequently in the literature are S. oedipus (cotton-top marmoset), S. nigricollis, and S. fusicollis.Fluorescein Angiography: Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.Retinitis Pigmentosa: Hereditary, progressive degeneration of the neuroepithelium of the retina characterized by night blindness and progressive contraction of the visual field.Night Blindness: Failure or imperfection of vision at night or in dim light, with good vision only on bright days. (Dorland, 27th ed)Aphakia: Absence of crystalline lens totally or partially from field of vision, from any cause except after cataract extraction. Aphakia is mainly congenital or as result of LENS DISLOCATION AND SUBLUXATION.Skin Diseases, Genetic: Diseases of the skin with a genetic component, usually the result of various inborn errors of metabolism.Macula Lutea: An oval area in the retina, 3 to 5 mm in diameter, usually located temporal to the posterior pole of the eye and slightly below the level of the optic disk. It is characterized by the presence of a yellow pigment diffusely permeating the inner layers, contains the fovea centralis in its center, and provides the best phototropic visual acuity. It is devoid of retinal blood vessels, except in its periphery, and receives nourishment from the choriocapillaris of the choroid. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Cebus: A genus of the family CEBIDAE, subfamily CEBINAE, consisting of four species which are divided into two groups, the tufted and untufted. C. apella has tufts of hair over the eyes and sides of the head. The remaining species are without tufts - C. capucinus, C. nigrivultatus, and C. albifrons. Cebus inhabits the forests of Central and South America.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Cichlids: Common name for perch-like fish of the family Cichlidae, belonging to the suborder Labroidei, order PERCIFORMES.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Electrooculography: Recording of the average amplitude of the resting potential arising between the cornea and the retina in light and dark adaptation as the eyes turn a standard distance to the right and the left. The increase in potential with light adaptation is used to evaluate the condition of the retinal pigment epithelium.Styrene: A colorless, toxic liquid with a strong aromatic odor. It is used to make rubbers, polymers and copolymers, and polystyrene plastics.Eye Diseases: Diseases affecting the eye.Pseudophakia: Presence of an intraocular lens after cataract extraction.Diabetic Retinopathy: Disease of the RETINA as a complication of DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the progressive microvascular complications, such as ANEURYSM, interretinal EDEMA, and intraocular PATHOLOGIC NEOVASCULARIZATION.Optic Atrophy, Hereditary, Leber: A maternally linked genetic disorder that presents in mid-life as acute or subacute central vision loss leading to central scotoma and blindness. The disease has been associated with missense mutations in the mtDNA, in genes for Complex I, III, and IV polypeptides, that can act autonomously or in association with each other to cause the disease. (from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Omim/, MIM#535000 (April 17, 2001))Myopia: A refractive error in which rays of light entering the EYE parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus in front of the RETINA when accommodation (ACCOMMODATION, OCULAR) is relaxed. This results from an overly curved CORNEA or from the eyeball being too long from front to back. It is also called nearsightedness.Mesopic Vision: The function of the eye that is used in the intermediate level of illumination (mesopic intensities) where both the RETINAL ROD PHOTORECEPTORS and the RETINAL CONE PHOTORECEPTORS are active in processing light input simultaneously.Retinal Degeneration: A retrogressive pathological change in the retina, focal or generalized, caused by genetic defects, inflammation, trauma, vascular disease, or aging. Degeneration affecting predominantly the macula lutea of the retina is MACULAR DEGENERATION. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p304)Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Optics and Photonics: A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Eye ProteinsStress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Photography: Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.Space Perception: The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.Ophthalmology: A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.Echocardiography, Doppler, Color: Echocardiography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image.Orientation: Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.Photometry: Measurement of the various properties of light.Callithrix: A genus of the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE occurring in forests of Brazil and Bolivia and containing seventeen species.Retinal Ganglion Cells: Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Phobic Disorders: Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.Visual Field Tests: Method of measuring and mapping the scope of vision, from central to peripheral of each eye.Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cataract: Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Child Development Disorders, Pervasive: Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Rhodopsin: A purplish-red, light-sensitive pigment found in RETINAL ROD CELLS of most vertebrates. It is a complex consisting of a molecule of ROD OPSIN and a molecule of 11-cis retinal (RETINALDEHYDE). Rhodopsin exhibits peak absorption wavelength at about 500 nm.Passeriformes: A widely distributed order of perching BIRDS, including more than half of all bird species.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cercopithecus: A genus of Old World monkeys found in Africa although some species have been introduced into the West Indies. This genus is composed of at least twenty species: C. AETHIOPS, C. ascanius, C. campbelli, C. cephus, C. denti, C. diana, C. dryas, C. erythrogaster, C. erythrotis, C. hamlyni, C. lhoesti, C. mitis, C. mona, C. neglectus, C. nictitans, C. petaurista, C. pogonias, C. preussi, C. salongo, and C. wolfi.Retinal Dystrophies: A group of disorders involving predominantly the posterior portion of the ocular fundus, due to degeneration in the sensory layer of the RETINA; RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM; BRUCH MEMBRANE; CHOROID; or a combination of these tissues.Sensory Deprivation: The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.Geniculate Bodies: Part of the DIENCEPHALON inferior to the caudal end of the dorsal THALAMUS. Includes the lateral geniculate body which relays visual impulses from the OPTIC TRACT to the calcarine cortex, and the medial geniculate body which relays auditory impulses from the lateral lemniscus to the AUDITORY CORTEX.Fixation, Ocular: The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.LizardsTomography, Optical Coherence: An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.Scotoma: A localized defect in the visual field bordered by an area of normal vision. This occurs with a variety of EYE DISEASES (e.g., RETINAL DISEASES and GLAUCOMA); OPTIC NERVE DISEASES, and other conditions.Eye Movements: Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mandelic Acids: Analogs or derivatives of mandelic acid (alpha-hydroxybenzeneacetic acid).Genetic Diseases, X-Linked: Genetic diseases that are linked to gene mutations on the X CHROMOSOME in humans (X CHROMOSOME, HUMAN) or the X CHROMOSOME in other species. Included here are animal models of human X-linked diseases.Darkness: The absence of light.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Presbyopia: The normal decreasing elasticity of the crystalline lens that leads to loss of accommodation.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Chromosomes, Human, X: The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Prosthesis Coloring: Coloring, shading, or tinting of prosthetic components, devices, and materials.Colorimetry: Any technique by which an unknown color is evaluated in terms of standard colors. The technique may be visual, photoelectric, or indirect by means of spectrophotometry. It is used in chemistry and physics. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Mating Preference, Animal: The selection or choice of sexual partner in animals. Often this reproductive preference is based on traits in the potential mate, such as coloration, size, or behavioral boldness. If the chosen ones are genetically different from the rejected ones, then NATURAL SELECTION is occurring.Conduct Disorder: A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Optic Nerve Diseases: Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Vision, Entoptic: Visual sensation derived from sensory stimulation by objects or shadows inside the eye itself, such as floating vitreous fibers, tissues, or blood.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Skin Pigmentation: Coloration of the skin.ReadingGenetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Tic Disorders: Disorders characterized by recurrent TICS that may interfere with speech and other activities. Tics are sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic, stereotyped motor movements or vocalizations which may be exacerbated by stress and are generally attenuated during absorbing activities. Tic disorders are distinguished from conditions which feature other types of abnormal movements that may accompany another another condition. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Cataract Extraction: The removal of a cataractous CRYSTALLINE LENS from the eye.Optometry: The professional practice of primary eye and vision care that includes the measurement of visual refractive power and the correction of visual defects with lenses or glasses.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Glare: Relatively bright light, or the dazzling sensation of relatively bright light, which produces unpleasantness or discomfort, or which interferes with optimal VISION, OCULAR. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Ocular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.Optical Illusions: An illusion of vision usually affecting spatial relations.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Lenses: Pieces of glass or other transparent materials used for magnification or increased visual acuity.Macaca: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Refraction, Ocular: Refraction of LIGHT effected by the media of the EYE.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Borderline Personality Disorder: A personality disorder marked by a pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (DSM-IV)Perceptual Masking: The interference of one perceptual stimulus with another causing a decrease or lessening in perceptual effectiveness.Blindness, Cortical: Total loss of vision in all or part of the visual field due to bilateral OCCIPITAL LOBE (i.e., VISUAL CORTEX) damage or dysfunction. Anton syndrome is characterized by the psychic denial of true, organic cortical blindness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p460)Somatoform Disorders: Disorders having the presence of physical symptoms that suggest a general medical condition but that are not fully explained by a another medical condition, by the direct effects of a substance, or by another mental disorder. The symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. In contrast to FACTITIOUS DISORDERS and MALINGERING, the physical symptoms are not under voluntary control. (APA, DSM-V)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Adrenoleukodystrophy: An X-linked recessive disorder characterized by the accumulation of saturated very long chain fatty acids in the LYSOSOMES of ADRENAL CORTEX and the white matter of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This disease occurs almost exclusively in the males. Clinical features include the childhood onset of ATAXIA; NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HYPERPIGMENTATION; ADRENAL INSUFFICIENCY; SEIZURES; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and DEMENTIA. The slowly progressive adult form is called adrenomyeloneuropathy. The defective gene ABCD1 is located at Xq28, and encodes the adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS).
Evolution of the eye
... adaptations for luminescence and color vision". Proc. R. Soc. B. Menzel, Randolf (1979). "Spectral Sensitivity and Color Vision ... Polarization is the organization of originally disordered light, from the sun, into linear arrangements. This occurs when light ... although they appear to lack any significant capacity for color differentiation. Like color vision, sensitivity to polarization ... In this environment, color vision is less dependable, and therefore a weaker selective factor. While most photoreceptors have ...
List of blindness effects
Color blindness, a color vision deficiency. Cortical blindness, a loss of vision caused by damage to the visual area in the ... Hysterical blindness (nowadays known as conversion disorder), the appearance of neurological symptoms without a neurological ... Motion blindness, a neuropsychological disorder causing an inability to perceive motion. Blindness (disambiguation) Mind and ...
... and subtle impairments in color vision. Behr's syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early-onset ... In many cases, only one eye is affected and patients may not be aware of the loss of color vision until the doctor asks them to ... The main symptom is loss of vision, with colors appearing subtly washed out in the affected eye. On medical examination, the ... Symptoms of optic neuritis in the affected eye include pain on eye movement, sudden loss of vision, and decrease in color ...
Blue cone monochromacy
Cone photoreceptor cells in the retina are responsible for day-light vision, color vision, visual acuity, and sight in the ... This form of retinal disorder is a recessive X-linked disease and manifests its symptoms in early infancy . Blue Cone ... Neitz, J; Neitz, M (2011). "The genetics of normal and defective color vision". Vision Res. 51 (7): 633-651. doi:10.1016/j. ... Kazmi, M A; Sakmar, T P; Ostrer, H (1997). "Mutation of a conserved cysteine in the X-linked cone opsins causes color vision ...
Mitochondrial optic neuropathies
... and subtle impairments in color vision. This is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early- ... Patients may notice that colors are not as vivid or bright as before and that the color red is washed out. This normally occurs ... They might initially notice a blur or fog, followed by a drop in vision. While vision loss may be rapid, progression to ... These patients tend to have blind spots in the center of their vision with preserved peripheral vision. In most cases, the ...
Optic disc drusen
... color vision, intraocular pressure and threshold visual fields. For those with visual field defects optical coherence ... Horton, J. (2005). "Disorders of the Eye". In Jameson JN, Kasper DL, Harrison TR, Braunwald E, Fauci AS, Hauser SL, Longo DL. ... Central vision loss is a rare complication of bleeding from peripapillar choroidal neovascular membranes. Anterior ischemic ... They may be associated with vision loss of varying degree occasionally resulting in blindness. The optic nerve is a cable ...
Symptoms of this disorder include floaters, blurred vision, photopsia (flashing lights in eyes), loss of color vision and ... In an eye examination, light-colored spots on the retina are seen. Complete loss of visual acuity may happen ... This is reflected by the lack of difference in visual acuity and the vision-related quality of life among various treatment ... Loss of visual acuity unrelated to the inflammation caused by the disorder, however, often remains unchanged despite usage of ...
Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy
Red green color vision testing may detect losses. Contrast sensitivity may be diminished. There could be an abnormal ... "LHON Plus" is a name given to a rare variant of the disorder with eye disease together with other conditions. The symptoms of ... Examination reveals decreased visual acuity, loss of color vision and a cecocentral scotoma on visual field examination. " ... Further, individuals taking idebenone demonstrated preservation of color vision and persistence of the effects of idebenone 30 ...
But in 1839, he contracted an eye disorder while studying the phenomena of color and vision, and, after much suffering, ... In 1838, he also studied the still-mysterious perceptual illusion of what is still called the Fechner color effect, whereby ... colors are seen in a moving pattern of black and white. The English journalist and amateur scientist Charles Benham, in 1894, ...
Ischemic optic neuropathy
Examination findings usually include decreased visual acuity, a visual field defect, color vision loss, a relative afferent ... Such as juvenile diabetes mellitus, antiphospholipid antibody-associated clotting disorders, collagen-vascular disease, and ... It is characterized by acute vision loss without initial disc edema, but with subsequent optic disc atrophy. Although there is ... optic nerve health decompression may be beneficial for a select group of patients with a gradual decline in vision due to ION. ...
... vision. Color vision testing using color test plates (HRR series) reveals many errors on both red-green and blue-yellow plates ... A cone dystrophy is an inherited ocular disorder characterized by the loss of cone cells, the photoreceptors responsible for ... both central and color vision. The most common symptoms of cone dystrophy are vision loss (age of onset ranging from the late ... Fluorescent angiography, ERG, and color vision tests are important tools to help facilitate diagnosis in early stages. Though ...
... it typically refers to congenital color vision disorders (i.e. more frequently rod monochromacy and less frequently cone ... Color blindness, also known as color vision deficiency, is the decreased ability to see color or differences in color. ... color vision and color blindness". In Gegenfurtner, K. R.; Sharpe, L. T. (eds.). Color Vision: From Genes to Perception. ... "Answers for Pilots: Color vision".. *^ "Aerospace Medical Dispositions - Color vision". Archived from the original on 2009-05- ...
Horses are not color blind, they have two-color, or dichromatic vision. This means they distinguish colors in two wavelength ... Illustrated Atlas of Clinical Equine Anatomy and Common Disorders of the Horse Vol. II. Equistar Publication, Limited. ... Research indicates that their color vision is somewhat like red-green color blindness in humans, in which certain colors, ... "Photopigment basis for dichromatic color vision in the horse". Journal of Vision. 1 (2): 80-87. doi:10.1167/1.2.2. PMID ...
... because at low light levels human vision comes mainly from rod cells that do not produce any color perception (Purkinje effect ... Silica fibers are glasses, disordered materials with microscopic variations of density and refractive index. These give rise to ... The resulting color, which appears like a pale blue, actually is a mixture of all the scattered colors, mainly blue and green. ... with a slightly lower color temperature due to the brownish color of the moon. The moonlit sky is not perceived as blue, ...
Ostrer has been a long-time investigator of the genetic basis of rare disorders - thalassemias, color vision deficiencies, ... disorders of DNA repair, clotting disorders, and metabolic disorders, suggesting a possible commonality for selection of ... At NYU, members of his laboratory showed that genetic variants in the X-cone opsin caused color vision deficiencies by altering ... This has led to the creation of a national consortium based at Einstein to study the genetics of individuals with disorders of ...
... is weak in humans, especially at distinguishing detail, color, and shape. This is because the density of ... Besharse, Joseph C.; Bok, Dean (2011). The Retina and Its Disorders. Academic Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-12-382198-0. Retrieved 30 ... The loss of peripheral vision while retaining central vision is known as tunnel vision, and the loss of central vision while ... of the field of vision. Vision within the fovea is generally called central vision, while vision outside of the fovea is called ...
Thus any disorder affecting the macula may cause a disturbance in color vision. However, about 8% of males and 0.5% of females ... Tunnel vision implies that the peripheral vision, or side vision, is lost, while the central vision remains. Thus, the vision ... Optic nerve disorders such as Optic Neuritis can greatly affect colour vision, with colours seeming washed out during or after ... There are many obscure macular retinal disorders that can lead to a loss of colour vision, and many of these syndromes are ...
Some include color; others do not. Travnikova laments, "Such a multiplicity of notions of contrast is extremely inconvenient. ... Decreased contrast sensitivity arises from multiple etiologies, including retinal disorders such as Age-Related Macular ... In visual perception of the real world, contrast is determined by the difference in the color and brightness of the object and ... Acutance Color blindness Radiocontrast Contrast ratio Campbell, F. W. & Robson, J. G. (1968). "Application of Fourier analysis ...
... and genetic variation in color vision (with the late Samir Deeb) and pesticide metabolism (with Clement Furlong). Motulsky's ... He was most noted for his work on blood diseases, the heritability of lipid disorders, the role of genetic variation in disease ... the mechanisms of iron-overload disorders, the regulation of immunity, genetic linkage, bioethics (including the ethics of ...
Commercial driver's license
The DO-IT Center
... low vision, and color blindness physical disabilities cognitive disabilities learning disabilities deafness and hearing ... for first year students with Autism Spectrum Disorders the 2009 Expanding Access to Computing: Teaching & Design for All ... impairments traumatic brain injury mental disorders. The DO-IT Center runs a number of programs for students with disabilities ...
They may be involved in color vision. They have very large receptive fields that only have centers (no surrounds) and are ... Development and Developmental Disorders of the Human Central Nervous System. Springer. p. 450. ISBN 978-3-642-54687-7. ... Midget cell Parasol cell Photosensitive ganglion cell Daw, Nigel (19 January 2012). How Vision Works: The Physiological ...
... low vision, and color blindness motor disabilities - including Parkinson's Disease, paraplegia, muscular dystrophy, cerebral ... attention deficit disorder, or other functional disabilities that may impact ones ability in memory, problem-solving, attention ... and vision that empower organizations to make their own content accessible to people with disabilities. WebAIM ...
It is also common for individuals to experience an increased pain tolerance, loss of color vision, short term memory loss, ... an individual may display signs and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, and it is common for the person to display ... as well as transient partial color blindness and tunnel vision. After the irregularly high levels of adrenaline consumed during ... Dilated pupils to allow more light to enter, and visual exclusion-tunnel vision-occurs, allowing greater focus but resulting in ...
The disorder is often presented as evidence of our incomplete knowledge of color processing. Color vision research is a well- ... In many of the cases examined, patients reported only partial loss of color vision. The locations of color vision loss can be ... a test of color ordering with no naming requirements). Patients may often not notice their loss of color vision and merely ... A 2005 study examined 92 case studies since 1970 in which cerebral lesions affected color vision. The severity and size of the ...
Gene therapy for color blindness
... a genetic disorder in photoreceptors that can lead to vision loss and blindness. These treatments use AAV vector and is ... Color vision Achromatopsia Kandel ER, Schwartz JH, Jessel TM, eds. (2000). "Ch. 29: Color Vision". Principles of Neural Science ... Given the large number of people with color blindness, there is also the question of whether color blindness is a disorder. ... Though partial color blindness is considered only a mild disability and is controversial whether it is even a disorder, it is a ...
Color Blindness Question | Vision and Eye Disorders Forum | Conditions a
Tags: betadine, vision, about color blindness, betadine solution, about blindness, advice parents, back green ... Typically, color blindness is inherited, but thats not the only way you can end up with this condition. Injuries, aging and ... Color blindness can be passed on indirectly (ie not in an autosomal dominant fashion), it is most often an inherited ...
Cone opsin gene variants in color blindness and other vision disorders
In a second project, knowledge of the gene mutations and rearrangements that lead to color vision deficiencies underpinned the ... A second study of 335 women unselected for color vision phenotype was used to explore the frequency of extra cone types in the ... and that a test incorporating gene analyses supplemented with behavioral testing approaches the ideal color vision test. While ... Our results indicate that information about the underlying pathology of color blindness derived from genetic analyses can be ...
Posterior Cerebral Artery Stroke: Background, Anatomy, Pathophysiology
Disorders of color vision. Lesions of the lingual gyrus in the inferior occipital lobe may produce disorders of color ... A related problem is color anomia, also called color agnosia, in which patients can perceive and match colors but cannot ... Disorders of reading. Pure alexia may result from infarction of the dominant occipital cortex. Words are treated as if they are ... Colors may be described as washed out or gray. This deficit usually occurs only in the contralateral visual field and is called ...
Frontiers | Accuracy of Rating Scales and Clinical Measures for Screening of Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder and for...
While RBD may be associated with disorders like narcolepsy, focal brain lesions and encephalitis, idiopathic RBD (iRBD) may ... While RBD may be associated with disorders like narcolepsy, focal brain lesions and encephalitis, idiopathic RBD (iRBD) may ... sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by repeated episodes of REM sleep-related vocalizations and/or complex motor ... sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by repeated episodes of REM sleep-related vocalizations and/or complex motor ...
Color Vision as a Measure for Inherited Retinal Diseases - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
... but very little is known about how the diseases affect color vision over time. This study will tell us if color vision may be ... The purpose of this study is to find out whether color vision measured with the Cambridge Color Test is a good way to examine ... Color Vision as a Measure for Inherited Retinal Diseases. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Objective: The aims of this study are to 1) examine the sensitivity of the Cambridge Color Test (CCT) and the low vision CCT ( ...
Dr. Kristin Bender, OD - Johns Creek, GA - Optometry | Healthgrades.com
Dr. Elizabeth Crandall, MD - Jesup, GA - Ophthalmology & Cataract Surgery | Healthgrades.com
Gene Therapy for Achromatopsia (CNGB3) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Gene Therapy for Achromatopsia (CNGB3) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Clinical and Genetic Characterization of Individuals With Achromatopsia - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Color Vision Defects. Vision Disorders. Sensation Disorders. Neurologic Manifestations. Nervous System Diseases. Eye Diseases. ... Color Vision [ Time Frame: annually for up to 1.5 years ]. Color vision will be measured by Farnsworth D-15 test and ... Use of medications that may impair color vision (e.g. hydroxychloroquine);. *Any condition which leads the investigator to ... This testing will include routine ophthalmic examination and tests of visual acuity, color vision, reading speed, perimetry, ...
Poor color vision - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic
Learn more about causes of colorblindness and how to diagnose whether you cant distinguish between certain shades of color. ... Poor color vision has several causes:. * Inherited disorder. Inherited poor color vision is much more common in males than in ... Poor color vision is usually inherited. Men are more likely to be born with poor color vision. Most people with poor color ... Acquired color vision deficiency. Survey of Ophthalmology. 2016;61:132.. *Ryan ST, et al. Color vision and night vision. In: ...
International Conference on Ophthalmology: Retinal Disorders ICORD in August 2021 in Amsterdam
Retinal Disorders Conference scheduled on August 05-06, 2021 in August 2021 in Amsterdam is for the researchers, scientists, ... Color vision defects. Retinal tumors. Retinal artery occlusion. Retinal vein occlusion. Retinal detachment. Hemoglobinopathy ... Ophthalmology: Retinal Disorders. ICORD 2021: 15. International Conference on Ophthalmology: Retinal Disorders August 05-06, ... ICORD 2021 has teamed up with the Special Journal Issue on Ophthalmology: Retinal Disorders. A number of selected high-impact ...
Jetrea Advanced Patient Information - Drugs.com
Detached retina (eye disorder) or. *Dyschromatopsia (color vision disorder) or. *Eye infection or ... This medicine may cause temporary blurred vision. Avoid driving, using machines, or doing anything else that could be dangerous ... or if you have a change in vision, or feel increased pressure in the eye several days after the injection. ... Symptomatic vitreomacular adhesion is an eye condition related to aging that may lead to blurring of vision or blindness. ...
Ocriplasmin (Intraocular Route) Before Using - Mayo Clinic
Frontiers | Atypical Color Preference in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder | Psychology
These results appear to be caused by hyper-sensation characterisic of ASD, by which boys with this disorder perceive yellow as ... These results appear to be caused by hyper-sensation characterisic of ASD, by which boys with this disorder perceive yellow as ... virtually no study has ever investigated colour preference in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In order to address ... virtually no study has ever investigated colour preference in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In order to address ...
The Return of Color Vision Secondary to Macular Degeneration After Chiropractic Care - Chiropractic Resource Organization -...
Home/Macular Degeneration, Visual Disorders/The Return of Color Vision Secondary to Macular Degeneration After Chiropractic ... peripheral vision sensitivity, and color vision loss.  Macular degeneration also causes color vision loss and is not ... Objective: To discuss the chiropractic management of a patient whose unilateral color vision loss associated with macular ... Initially she was not requesting care for her loss of color vision. She reported having multiple recent traumas (falls) ...
The evolution of color vision in nocturnal mammals | PNAS
Acetyl-L-carnitine deficiency and major depressive disorder. A study finds that individuals with major depressive disorder had ... The evolution of color vision in nocturnal mammals. Huabin Zhao, Stephen J. Rossiter, Emma C. Teeling, Chanjuan Li, James A. ... The evolution of color vision in nocturnal mammals. Huabin Zhao, Stephen J. Rossiter, Emma C. Teeling, Chanjuan Li, James A. ... The evolution of color vision in nocturnal mammals. Huabin Zhao, Stephen J. Rossiter, Emma C. Teeling, Chanjuan Li, James A. ...
X-linked congenital stationary night blindness: MedlinePlus Genetics
... which is the specialized tissue at the back of the eye that detects light and color. Explore symptoms, inheritance, genetics of ... X-linked congenital stationary night blindness is a disorder of the retina, ... Color vision is typically not affected by this disorder.. The vision problems associated with this condition are congenital, ... Rods are needed for vision in low light. Cones are needed for vision in bright light, including color vision. The NYX and ...
NIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Full View
Color Blindness | Encyclopedia.com
Definition Color blindness is an abnormal condition characterized by the inability to clearly distinguish different colors of ... It is a misleading term because people with color blindness  are not blind. ... See also Eye; Vision disorders.. Resources. BOOKS. Evans, Arlene. Seeing Color: Its My Rainbow, Too. Auburn, CA: CVD ... Those with blue color vision see yet a different number.. A third analytical tool is the Titmus II Vision Tester Color ...
Jay Neitz, Ph.D. - Chairs & Professorships | UW Medicine
Army Criminal Investigations Special Agent (31D) | goarmy.com
Normal color vision (no exception to policy authorized). *No physical limitations and no history of mental or emotional ... Ability to deploy worldwide, have no physical limitations and normal color vision ... disorders. *Speak and write clearly. *Favorable credit history. *Valid drivers license and favorable driving record ...
A World Without Color - Researchers Find Gene Mutation That Strips Color, Reduces Vision
Eye Institute at UC San Diego Health System have identified a previously unknown gene mutation that underlies this disorder. ... People with achromatopsia, an inherited eye disorder, see the world literally in black and white. Worse yet, their extreme ... Home / Newsroom / Releases / A World Without Color - Researchers Find Gene Mutation That Strips Color, Reduces Vision ... A World Without Color - Researchers Find Gene Mutation That Strips Color, Reduces Vision ...
Contact Lenses for Color Blindness. - PubMed - NCBI
Color vision deficiency (color blindness) is an inherited genetic ocular disorder. While no cure for this disorder currently ... c) A visual representation of what is seen by individuals looking at the same image with different color vision abilities. d) ... b) Photographs of the change in the color of the dyed contact lens when dipped PBS solution. The change in the color of PBS ... to correct color vision blindness. The biocompatibility assessment of the dyed contact lenses in human corneal fibroblasts and ...
Vision Disorders | GreenMedInfo | Disease | Natural Medicine
Diseases : Color Vision Defects, Vision Disorders, Vision Loss. [+] Eleutherococcus improves short-term memory and visual ... This study showed an association between the use of mobile phones and hearing and vision complaints.Jan 01, 2005. ... Mobile phone use may cause blurred vision and increase eye secretion, inflammation, and lacrimation.Mar 01, 2005. ... Topical application n-acetylcarnosine eyedrops may prevent vision disability from senile cataracts, primary open-angle glaucoma ...
CNGA3 gene: MedlinePlus Genetics
... a form of the disorder characterized by a total lack of color vision and other vision problems that are present from early ... daylight vision), including color vision. Other photoreceptor cells, called rods, provide vision in low light (night vision). ... a milder form of the disorder associated with limited color vision.. The CNGA3 gene mutations that underlie complete ... A loss of cone function underlies the lack of color vision and other vision problems in people with complete achromatopsia. ...
Genetic Disorders | Buzzle.com
People with albinism usually have light color skin and hair, with impaired vision. However, the skin and hair color of each ... Genetic Disorders in Humans. There are thousands of genetic disorders in humans. Some are common whereas quite a few are rare. ... Rare Genetic Skin Disorders. There are many rare genetic skin disorders that affect the appearance of the skin. Some of these ... Genetic Disorders in Children. Nowadays it is not rare to find genetic disorders in children. This is the result of the ...
MLA : About : Erich Meyerhoff Prize
Shift work sleep disorder - Wikipedia
Amber or orange colored goggles eliminate blue light to the eyes while allowing vision. ... Sleep medicine and disorders: international journal, 1(2). ISO 690 *^ a b c d "Nurses have increased risk of sleep disorders, ... These symptoms are not better explained by another sleep disorder, medical or neurologic disorder, mental disorder, medication ... Shift work sleep disorder (SWSD) is a circadian rhythm sleep disorder characterized by insomnia and excessive sleepiness ...
Physical Fitness - Navy ROTC - Brailsford College of Arts and Sciences
OptometryBlindnessPeripheral visionBlurry visionAstigmatismRetinaExamsImpairmentExamGeneticOptometristLossLightConditionsCorneaAchromatopsiaCause color blindnessConesGlaucomaNystagmusGenetic disorderDefectsMultiple sclerosisBlindness and other vision disordersSevereBipolar disorderPhotophobiaPerceptionAutism spectrumGenesVisualDetecting color vision deficGeneDiagnosed with color blindnessDeficienciesOphthalmologyDiseaseLoss of colDiplopiaInabilityDeficient color visionSeizurePerceive colorMacularFemalesMedicationsCataractAffectsDifficultyChromosome disordersStimuliDiagnosisPhotoreceptor cellsEndocrine disordersPrevalenceDistinguish between certainCone cellsRetinal DetachmentMales
- Often, eye and vision problems do not have obvious symptoms or signs, but are easily diagnosed by a licensed optometrist. (lakewoodoptometry.com)
- By diagnosing eye and vision conditions early on, our optometrist is able to provide treatment options and, in many cases, restore vision or prevent vision loss. (lakewoodoptometry.com)
- Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is a serious disease causing compromised vision and ultimately a total loss of vision. (fvcoptometry.net)
- But you may not be so familiar with a similar macular condition that also causes vision loss -- even in young people. (fvcoptometry.net)
- If left untreated, Acanthamoeba eventually leads to vision loss, requiring a corneal transplant to restore sight. (fvcoptometry.net)
- A total inability to distinguish colors (achromatopsia) is exceedingly rare. (encyclopedia.com)
- Achromatopsia, the complete inability to distinguish color, is an autosomal recessive disease of the retina. (encyclopedia.com)
- People with achromatopsia, an inherited eye disorder, see the world literally in black and white. (ucsd.edu)
- People with achromatopsia have very poor or no color vision and see the world in black, white and shades of grey. (ucsd.edu)
- Five other genetic mutations have previously been identified by research groups as pivotal in achromatopsia, which causes markedly reduced visual acuity and very poor or no color vision. (ucsd.edu)
- More than 100 mutations in the CNGA3 gene have been found to cause the vision disorder achromatopsia. (medlineplus.gov)
- These mutations underlie about 25 percent of cases of complete achromatopsia, a form of the disorder characterized by a total lack of color vision and other vision problems that are present from early infancy. (medlineplus.gov)
- CNGA3 gene mutations have also been identified in a few individuals with incomplete achromatopsia, a milder form of the disorder associated with limited color vision. (medlineplus.gov)
- A loss of cone function underlies the lack of color vision and other vision problems in people with complete achromatopsia. (medlineplus.gov)
- Scdoris was born with congenital achromatopsia, an uncorrectable visual disorder. (wikipedia.org)
- These mutations cause 50 to 70 percent of cases of complete achromatopsia, a form of the disorder characterized by a total lack of color vision and other vision problems that are present from early infancy. (nih.gov)
- At least one mutation in the PDE6H gene has been found to cause the vision disorder achromatopsia. (nih.gov)
- It is a very rare cause of a form of the disorder called incomplete achromatopsia. (nih.gov)
- Achromatopsia is a rare, inherited vision disorder that affects the eye's cone cells, resulting in problems with daytime vision, clarity and color perception. (eurekalert.org)
- 3)Absolute absence of color vision-Achromatopsia- It is the most severe type of color blindness. (altiusdirectory.com)
- Do people with complete achromatopsia have poor vision? (healthtap.com)
Cause color blindness3
- Some medications such as antibiotics , barbiturates, anti-tuberculosis drugs, high blood pressure medications, and several medications used to treat nervous disorders and psychological problems may cause color blindness. (encyclopedia.com)
- Mutations in these genes can cause color blindness. (dnalc.org)
- Apart from Parkinson's disease, there are host of other health ailments that can cause color blindness. (healthguidance.org)
- But if your cones lack one or more wavelength-sensitive chemicals, you will be unable to perceive one or more of the primary colors - red, blue or yellow. (mayoclinic.org)
- 3 ] The macula covers about 2% of the retina, and the receptors most concentrated in the macula are the cones, which are color receptors. (chiro.org)
- Cones are needed for vision in bright light, including color vision. (medlineplus.gov)
- Normal color vision requires the use of specialized receptor cells called cones, which are located in the retina of the eye. (encyclopedia.com)
- There are three types of cones, red, blue, and green, which enable people to see a wide spectrum of colors. (encyclopedia.com)
- Cones provide vision in bright light (daylight vision), including color vision. (medlineplus.gov)
- Because these CNG channels are specific to cones, rods are generally unaffected by this disorder. (medlineplus.gov)
- These trichromatic signals "are very simple, yet the myriad shades of color that we experience are derived from just those three," says Williams, whose laboratory, in the 1990s, was the first to image all three kinds of cones in a living human retina and identify how the cones are arranged. (rochester.edu)
- Because cones are needed for color vision, affected individuals have difficulty distinguishing certain colors. (nih.gov)
- Their other vision problems are also related to the malfunctioning cones. (nih.gov)
- It usually ocurs due to the problems in the color pigments in the nerve cells of the eye called cones. (altiusdirectory.com)
- The cones are responsible for the distinction of colors and shades of it. (altiusdirectory.com)
- In this type of color blindness, one pigment in cones is absolutely absent. (altiusdirectory.com)
- The rods are sensitive in dim light, and the cones are sensitive in bright light and are responsible for color vision. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Cones allow us to see in bright light and provide our color vision. (nih.gov)
- All 3 types of cones are needed for the brain to process full color vision. (nih.gov)
- When an individual has only 1 or 2 types of cones that are fully functional, they are considered color blind, meaning they can't distinguish certain colors. (nih.gov)
- Cones, on the other hand, are responsible for color vision. (brighthub.com)
- This testing will include routine ophthalmic examination and tests of visual acuity, color vision, reading speed, perimetry, nystagmus, light sensitivity, optical coherence tomography, adaptive optics retinal imaging, electroretinography, fundus photography and completion of a quality of life questionnaire. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- It is aslo associated with other disorders like lazy eye, nystagmus, photophobia and very poor visual acuity. (altiusdirectory.com)
- Read on to know more on this rare genetic disorder. (buzzle.com)
- Albinism is a rare genetic disorder. (buzzle.com)
- Alexander disease is a rare genetic disorder involving astrocyte malfunction and improper development of the myelin sheath. (buzzle.com)
- Prader-Willi syndrome is a rarely occurring genetic disorder caused due to mutation of the genes on chromosome 15. (buzzle.com)
- Autosomal dominant genetic disorder is a genetic condition where just a single copy of mutant allele is required to express the defect in the progeny. (buzzle.com)
- Color blindness is the world's most common genetic disorder, affecting more than 10 million people in the United States alone. (readinga-z.com)
- The inability to perceive red or green is the most common form of color blindness-and the most common single-gene genetic disorder in humans. (nih.gov)
- It is complex genetic disorder which current has no cure. (healthtap.com)
- Autism as a strongly genetic disorder - evidence from a British twin study. (gla.ac.uk)
- Which is a genetic disorder that gene therapy may correct? (jiskha.com)
- The question asks for a genetic disorder which rules out tetanus (caused by a bacteria) and AIDS (caused by a virus). (jiskha.com)
- In a second project, knowledge of the gene mutations and rearrangements that lead to color vision deficiencies underpinned the creation of a genetic assay to find and classify color defects. (washington.edu)
- People suffering from the color vision defects can see all these colors in another way. (altiusdirectory.com)
- Defects in color vision can either be inherited or acquired. (brighthub.com)
- However, acquired color vision defects may result due to eye disease, aging or side effects of certain medications. (brighthub.com)
- Defects in the OPN1LW and OPN1MW genes cause red-green color blindness. (brighthub.com)
- It can be classified in: Single isolated optic neuritis (SION) relapsing isolated optic neuritis (RION) chronic relapsing inflammatory optic neuropathy (CRION) the neuromyelitis optica (NMO) spectrum disorder multiple sclerosis associated optic neuritis (MSON) unclassified optic neuritis (UCON) forms. (wikipedia.org)
- Diabetes, leukemia, Multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease can give rise to color blindness. (healthguidance.org)
Blindness and other vision disorders1
- You can inherit a mild, moderate or severe degree of the disorder. (mayoclinic.org)
- Direct involvement of the center of the macula with inflammatory lesions leads to profound atrophy with severe loss of vision. (medscape.com)
- Vision loss can range from mild to severe, but most patients maintain normal peripheral vision. (reference.com)
- Contraindicated to patients with severe kidney failure, active intravascular clotting (obstruction blood flow due to blood clots), and color vision disorders, subarachnoid bleeding. (medindia.net)
- In addition to causing day-to-day problems-like not being able to tell when you're getting sunburned-severe red-green color blindness can exclude you from certain jobs. (nih.gov)
- This indicates S-cone pathway damage that is sufficiently severe to lead to dichromatic colour vision in the fovea. (bmj.com)
- of 413 adults who had bipolar disorder. (bio-medicine.org)
- of 413 adults who had bipolar disorder with variations found in the scans of 563 healthy adults. (bio-medicine.org)
- By pooling the genetic material of the adults with bipolar disorder, the U.S. researchers were able to scan the entire group at a small fraction of the cost of scanning each person's material individually. (bio-medicine.org)
- The researchers then zeroed in on the gene variations that occurred more often in the people with bipolar disorder and examined them individually. (bio-medicine.org)
- Seemingly odd color perception has also been reported in experimental studies with children with ASD. (frontiersin.org)
- While no cure for this disorder currently exists, several methods can be used to increase the color perception of those affected. (nih.gov)
- Color perception in CVD. (nih.gov)
- Eleutherococcus improves light and color perception in humans. (greenmedinfo.com)
- In order to illustrate this complexity of the human visual system, Duje Tadin often begins his class on perception by asking students which is harder: math or vision? (rochester.edu)
- Time perception, just like vision, is a construction of the brain and is shockingly easy to manipulate experimentally. (edge.org)
- I assume you are talkng about your troubled vision with with color-perception? (healthtap.com)
- Color perception in ADHD. (gla.ac.uk)
- So far, virtually no study has ever investigated color preference in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). (frontiersin.org)
- 2017). Impaired downregulation of visual cortex during auditory processing is associated with autism symptomatology in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. (springer.com)
- Larger tonic pupil size in young children with autism spectrum disorder. (gla.ac.uk)
- Visual scanning and pupillary responses in young children with autism spectrum disorder. (gla.ac.uk)
- Passed on from generations to generations, genetic disorders are an effect of faulty genes and chromosomes. (buzzle.com)
- Many of these genes are likely important in human eye vision and the results could help identify new causes of hereditary blindness in patients. (nih.gov)
- The genes causing red-green color blindness, in both people and monkeys, are on the X chromosome, one of the 2 sex chromosomes. (nih.gov)
- Mutations in certain genes are responsible for color blindness. (brighthub.com)
- For Aim 1, color discrimination thresholds (CCT and LvCCT) and assessments of retinal structure (imaging) and function (perimetry/microperimetry and electroretinogram) will be measured in 144 IRD participants with varying retinal phenotypes and visual acuities. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- For Aim 2 color discrimination thresholds (CCT and LvCCT) will be measured in one eye from 12 healthy volunteers in order to examine the effects of eccentric fixation and reduced visual acuity on color thresholds independent of retinal pathology. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The visual loss seen with macular degeneration is better described as a loss of contrast sensitivity, with the contour of objects, shadows and color vision being diminished. (chiro.org)
- Our results suggest that UV color vision plays a considerably more important role in nocturnal mammalian sensory ecology than previously appreciated and highlight the caveat of inferring light environments from visual opsins and vice versa. (pnas.org)
- Mutations in the NYX or CACNA1F gene disrupt the transmission of visual signals between photoreceptors and retinal bipolar cells, which impairs vision. (medlineplus.gov)
- c) A visual representation of what is seen by individuals looking at the same image with different color vision abilities. (nih.gov)
- There are many types of retinal disorders and different kinds of visual deficits are encountered by patients with retinal disorders. (childrenshospital.org)
- Not to mention also avoiding other visual issues in school because a lot of teachers depend on colors to teach their students. (behance.net)
- This report provides an overview of the pipeline landscape for disorders of the optic nerve, the bundle of nerve fibers that transmits visual information from the eye to the brain. (webnewswire.com)
- Damage to an eye or the visual pathway causes different types of vision loss depending on where the damage occurs. (merckmanuals.com)
- Most disorders that cause total loss of vision when they affect the entire eye may affect only part of the eye and cause only a visual field defect (eg, branch occlusion of the retinal artery or retinal vein, local retinal detachment ). (merckmanuals.com)
- At the posterior pole of the visual axis is the macula, in the center of which is the fovea, the area of acute vision. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Nontraumatic visual disorders can have many causes, but they are potentially concerning for the patient as well as the emergency clinician. (ebmedicine.net)
- Participants were instructed to visualize a color or an object clearly associated with a specific color, after which they were asked to detect a colored target in the visual-search task. (bioportfolio.com)
- Visual acuity measurement serves as a tool for screening of ophthalmic disorders, as well as diagnosis and mo. (bioportfolio.com)
- Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast. (bioportfolio.com)
- Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. (bioportfolio.com)
- With time, poor night vision and restricted peripheral visual fields develops, reflecting rod photoreceptor involvement. (molvis.org)
Detecting color vision defic1
- Our results indicate that information about the underlying pathology of color blindness derived from genetic analyses can be extremely valuable in accurate diagnosis, and that a test incorporating gene analyses supplemented with behavioral testing approaches the ideal color vision test. (washington.edu)
- To infer the impact of nocturnality on the evolution of vision in mammals, we sequenced the SWS1 opsin gene (2.2 kb) in 32 species of bat and the M/LWS opsin gene (3.2 kb) in 14 species of bats. (pnas.org)
- In females (who have two X chromosomes), a mutation would have to occur in both copies of the gene to cause the disorder. (medlineplus.gov)
- Because it is unlikely that females will have two altered copies of this gene, males are affected by X-linked recessive disorders much more frequently than females. (medlineplus.gov)
- Carriers of an NYX or CACNA1F mutation can pass on the mutated gene, but most do not develop any of the vision problems associated with X-linked congenital stationary night blindness. (medlineplus.gov)
- Red/green and blue color blindness appear to be located on at least two different gene locations. (encyclopedia.com)
- Male offspring of females who carry the altered gene have a 50 percent chance of being color-blind. (encyclopedia.com)
- The rare female that has red/green color blindness, or rarer still, blue color blindness, indicates there is an involvement of another gene. (encyclopedia.com)
- Now, researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and Shiley Eye Institute at UC San Diego Health System have identified a previously unknown gene mutation that underlies this disorder. (ucsd.edu)
- We're very excited to have discovered a mutation in the ATF6 gene which plays a major role in this disorder. (ucsd.edu)
- It's also been active at the M&A table, bolstering its vision-helping prospects this week with a $90 million CRISPR research pact with gene editing biotech Editas. (fiercepharma.com)
- Studies have shown that at least 19 different chromosomes and many different gene alterations are involved in color vision deficiencies. (news-medical.net)
- So if the red-green color blindness gene is not working in a man, there's no spare one to replace it with. (dnalc.org)
- Researchers used gene therapy to cure red-green color blindness in adult monkeys. (nih.gov)
- 1 point) A color blind test Down syndrome Gene therapy Polygenic inheritance 2. (jiskha.com)
Diagnosed with color blindness1
- aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences and research results on all aspects of Ophthalmology: Retinal Disorders. (waset.org)
- Also, high quality research contributions describing original and unpublished results of conceptual, constructive, empirical, experimental, or theoretical work in all areas of Ophthalmology: Retinal Disorders are cordially invited for presentation at the conference. (waset.org)
- ICORD 2021 has teamed up with the Special Journal Issue on Ophthalmology: Retinal Disorders . (waset.org)
- While RBD may be associated with disorders like narcolepsy, focal brain lesions, and encephalitis, idiopathic RBD (iRBD) may convert to Parkinson's disease (PD) and other synucleinopathies in more than 80% of patients and it is to date the most specific clinical prodromal marker of PD. (frontiersin.org)
- There's no cure for inherited poor color vision, but if illness or eye disease is the cause, treatment may improve color vision. (mayoclinic.org)
- One eye may be more affected than the other, and the color deficit may get better if the underlying disease can be treated. (mayoclinic.org)
- Other studies have reported that night workers have an increased incidence of heart disease, digestive disorders and menstrual irregularities. (wikipedia.org)
- Candidate must have demonstrated the professional competence and performance necessary to provide independently the full range of clinical optometric diagnosis and treatment for all the most prevalent types of vision dysfunctions and the detection and referral of patients with ocular disease or ocular manifestations of systemic disease. (usajobs.gov)
- And in the laboratory of the natural world, distortions in timing are induced by narcotics such as cocaine and marijuana or by such disorders as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and schizophrenia. (edge.org)
- Color blindness is mostly a X-linked recessive hereditary disease. (altiusdirectory.com)
- Wakabayashi K, Tanji K, Odagiri S, Miki Y, Mori F, Takahashi H. The Lewy body in Parkinson's disease and related neurodegenerative disorders. (springer.com)
- Simmons, D. and Toal, E. (2012) Autism, attention-deficit/heyperactivity disorder, and ocular disease. (gla.ac.uk)
- In certain cases, drugs meant for treating health issues such as heart disease and high blood pressure can trigger color blindness in an individual's life. (healthguidance.org)
Loss of col7
- Exposure to some chemicals in the workplace, such as carbon disulfide and fertilizers, may cause loss of color vision. (mayoclinic.org)
- A 66-year-old female with a history of cervical, thoracic and lumbar pain and a four-year history of macular degeneration of the left eye resulting in a loss of color vision sought chiropractic care for primarily her spinal pain. (chiro.org)
- Initially she was not requesting care for her loss of color vision. (chiro.org)
- Industrial or environmental chemicals such as carbon monoxide , carbon disulfide, fertilizers, styrene, and some containing lead can cause loss of color vision. (encyclopedia.com)
- Over time, people with progressive cone dystrophy develop increasing blurriness and loss of color vision. (medlineplus.gov)
- As it develops, people can experience cloudy vision, loss of color vision, shadows or blind spots, or floaters. (freedomscientific.com)
- In many cases, only one eye is affected and patients may not be aware of the loss of color vision until the doctor asks them to cover the healthy eye. (wikipedia.org)
- Color blindness is an abnormal condition characterized by the inability to clearly distinguish different colors of the spectrum. (encyclopedia.com)
- Blue color blindness is an inability to distinguish both blue and yellow, which are seen as white or gray. (encyclopedia.com)
- The inability to correctly identify colors is the only sign of color blindness. (encyclopedia.com)
- Color blindness is the inability to perceive differences between some specific colors that others can distinguish. (brighthub.com)
Deficient color vision1
- To discuss the chiropractic management of a patient whose unilateral color vision loss associated with macular degeneration resolved after treatment. (chiro.org)
- Therefore, there must be another factor that accounts for loss of vision with macular degeneration. (chiro.org)
- Dr. Neitz hopes his work will contribute to treatments for vision disorders, including macular degeneration, nearsightedness and colorblindness. (washington.edu)
- Some medications can alter color vision, such as some drugs that treat heart problems, high blood pressure, erectile dysfunction, infections, nervous disorders and psychological problems. (mayoclinic.org)
- Though many retinal disorders are inherited, some are caused by the adverse effects of medications or by infections. (childrenshospital.org)
- For example, a patient with long-standing reduced vision in one eye (possibly caused by a dense cataract ) suddenly is aware of the reduced vision in the affected eye when covering the unaffected eye. (merckmanuals.com)
- Absence of crystalline lens totally or partially from field of vision, from any cause except after cataract extraction. (bioportfolio.com)
- However, most have difficulty accurately identifying colors without any other references. (encyclopedia.com)
- Difficulty to observe the brightness is caused as a result of absence of cone cells resposible for green and red color. (altiusdirectory.com)
- 2) Blue-yellow color vision defect results in difficulty in identifying blue and yellow and somtimes red and green too. (altiusdirectory.com)
- Color blindness is used in idiomatic terms, referring to the difficulty in distinguishing colors from each other. (brighthub.com)
- What are the Different Types of Chromosome Disorders? (wisegeek.com)
- The different types of human chromosome disorders that are caused by a change in the number of chromosomes include Down syndrome, Patau syndrome, Edward's syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome and Turner's syndrome. (wisegeek.com)
- Changes in the structure of chromosomes - by either deletion, inversion, translocation or duplication - can cause chromosome disorders such as fragile X or a condition called cri du chat . (wisegeek.com)
- There are several of these types of chromosome disorders that do not prevent the baby from being born, however. (wisegeek.com)
- Similar chromosome disorders result in XYY males or XXYY males, but their effects are much different and can vary widely in their nature and their degree. (wisegeek.com)
- Chromosome disorders also can be caused by changes in the structure of chromosomes. (wisegeek.com)
- unexpectedly found a facilitating effect by colored stimuli when investigating inhibitory mechanisms in participants with ASD, while such effect was not observed in neurotypical controls. (frontiersin.org)
- The first steps in this sensory process are the stimulation of light receptors in the eyes, conversion of the light stimuli or images into signals, and transmission of electrical signals containing the vision information from each eye to the brain through the optic nerves . (fsu.edu)
- Color of scents: chromatic stimuli modulate odor responses in the human brain. (springer.com)
- Researchers studying red/green color blindness in the United Kingdom reported an average prevalence of only 4.7 percent in one group. (encyclopedia.com)
- Pre-term infants exhibit an increased prevalence of blue color blindness. (encyclopedia.com)
- Prevalence of disorders of the autism spectrum in a population cohort of children in South Thames: the Special Needs and Autism Project (SNAP). (gla.ac.uk)
- The prevalence of chronic physical and mental disorders is increasing among children and adolescents in the United States. (cdc.gov)
Distinguish between certain1
- Cone cells are not sensitive to those particular wavelengths and hence cannot differentiate between the colors. (altiusdirectory.com)
- Protanopia- Less effective red color shade pigment cone cells. (altiusdirectory.com)
- Deuteranopia- High reduction of green color pigment cone cells. (altiusdirectory.com)