The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.
Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.
Function of the human eye that is used in bright illumination or in daylight (at photopic intensities). Photopic vision is performed by the three types of RETINAL CONE PHOTORECEPTORS with varied peak absorption wavelengths in the color spectrum (from violet to red, 400 - 700 nm).
Type of vision test used to determine COLOR VISION DEFECTS.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.
Defects of color vision are mainly hereditary traits but can be secondary to acquired or developmental abnormalities in the CONES (RETINA). Severity of hereditary defects of color vision depends on the degree of mutation of the ROD OPSINS genes (on X CHROMOSOME and CHROMOSOME 3) that code the photopigments for red, green and blue.
Color of hair or fur.
Color of the iris.
Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.
Echocardiography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image.
Coloring, shading, or tinting of prosthetic components, devices, and materials.
Any technique by which an unknown color is evaluated in terms of standard colors. The technique may be visual, photoelectric, or indirect by means of spectrophotometry. It is used in chemistry and physics. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Coloration of the skin.
The illumination of an environment and the arrangement of lights to achieve an effect or optimal visibility. Its application is in domestic or in public settings and in medical and non-medical environments.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Photosensitive afferent neurons located primarily within the FOVEA CENTRALIS of the MACULA LUTEA. There are three major types of cone cells (red, blue, and green) whose photopigments have different spectral sensitivity curves. Retinal cone cells operate in daylight vision (at photopic intensities) providing color recognition and central visual acuity.
Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.
The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.
Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.
The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.
A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in MELANOCYTES. It shows specificity for ALPHA-MSH and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. Loss of function mutations of the type 1 melanocortin receptor account for the majority of red hair and fair skin recessive traits in human.
Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.
A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.
Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.
Photosensitive protein complexes of varied light absorption properties which are expressed in the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are OPSINS conjugated with VITAMIN A-based chromophores. Chromophores capture photons of light, leading to the activation of opsins and a biochemical cascade that ultimately excites the photoreceptor cells.
The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
Differential response to different stimuli.
Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
Creation of a smooth and glossy surface finish on a denture or amalgam.
The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The sensory discrimination of a pattern shape or outline.
A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids (depending on species) that regulates the synthesis of eumelanin (brown/black) pigments in MELANOCYTES. Agouti protein antagonizes the signaling of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTORS and has wide distribution including ADIPOSE TISSUE; GONADS; and HEART. Its overexpression in agouti mice results in uniform yellow coat color, OBESITY, and metabolic defects similar to type II diabetes in humans.
Insoluble polymers of TYROSINE derivatives found in and causing darkness in skin (SKIN PIGMENTATION), hair, and feathers providing protection against SUNBURN induced by SUNLIGHT. CAROTENES contribute yellow and red coloration.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The reproductive organs of plants.
Any change in the hue, color, or translucency of a tooth due to any cause. Restorative filling materials, drugs (both topical and systemic), pulpal necrosis, or hemorrhage may be responsible. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p253)
Photosensitive proteins in the membranes of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS such as the rods and the cones. Opsins have varied light absorption properties and are members of the G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS family. Their ligands are VITAMIN A-based chromophores.
The application of knowledge to the food industry.
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with velocity detection combined with range discrimination. Short bursts of ultrasound are transmitted at regular intervals and the echoes are demodulated as they return.
The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.
Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.
An illusion of vision usually affecting spatial relations.
The system of all phenomena in space and time; the totality of physical reality. It is both a scientific and philosophic concept appearing in all historic eras. (Webster 2d; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Continuation of visual impression after cessation of stimuli causing the original image.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
Acrylic resins, also known as polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), are a type of synthetic resin formed from polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers, used in various medical applications such as dental restorations, orthopedic implants, and ophthalmic lenses due to their biocompatibility, durability, and transparency.
Common name for perch-like fish of the family Cichlidae, belonging to the suborder Labroidei, order PERCIFORMES.
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A prosthetic appliance for the replacement of areas of the maxilla, mandible, and face, missing as a result of deformity, disease, injury, or surgery. When the prosthesis replaces portions of the mandible only, it is referred to as MANDIBULAR PROSTHESIS.
The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.
A fabricated tooth substituting for a natural tooth in a prosthesis. It is usually made of porcelain or plastic.
The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.
The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.
Analytical technique for studying substances present at enzyme concentrations in single cells, in situ, by measuring light absorption. Light from a tungsten strip lamp or xenon arc dispersed by a grating monochromator illuminates the optical system of a microscope. The absorbance of light is measured (in nanometers) by comparing the difference between the image of the sample and a reference image.
Photosensitive proteins expressed in the ROD PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of rod photoreceptor pigments such as RHODOPSIN.
The use of a chemical oxidizing agent to whiten TEETH. In some procedures the oxidation process is activated by the use of heat or light.
The tendency to perceive an incomplete pattern or object as complete or whole. This includes the Gestalt Law of Closure.

Diagnosing anaemia in pregnancy in rural clinics: assessing the potential of the Haemoglobin Colour Scale. (1/2215)

Anaemia in pregnancy is a common and severe problem in many developing countries. Because of lack of resources and staff motivation, screening for anaemia is often solely by clinical examination of the conjunctiva or is not carried out at all. A new colour scale for the estimation of haemoglobin concentration has been developed by WHO. The present study compares the results obtained using the new colour scale on 729 women visiting rural antenatal clinics in Malawi with those obtained by HemoCue haemoglobinometer and electronic Coulter Counter and with the assessment of anaemia by clinical examination of the conjunctiva. Sensitivity using the colour scale was consistently better than for conjunctival inspection alone and interobserver agreement and agreement with Coulter Counter measurements was good. The Haemoglobin Colour Scale is simple to use, well accepted, cheap and gives immediate results. It shows considerable potential for use in screening for anaemia in antenatal clinics in settings where resources are limited.  (+info)

Studies on gonococcus infection. XIV. Cell wall protein differences among color/opacity colony variants of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. (2/2215)

Gonococci from colonies exhibiting optical opacity and dark coloration have surface proteins that are not visualized in isogenic transparent, light-colored colony forms. These "colony opacity-associated proteins" have apparent molecular weights varying from 24,000 to 30,000 by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate; their apparent molecular weights are independent of that for their major outer membrane protein. The opacity-associated proteins are more susceptible to hydrolysis by trypsin than is the major outer membrane protein, but gonococci possessing the opacity-associated protein(s) also show enhanced susceptibility of their major outer membrane proteins to the action of trypsin. These conclusions were reached by comparing the electrophoretic patterns of whole-cell lysates from both "laboratory strains" and several recent clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.  (+info)

On the validity of blood flow measurement using colored microspheres. (3/2215)

The aim of this study was 1) to investigate the validity of repeated estimations of blood flow using colored microspheres (CMS) and 2) to develop and validate a method that permits four consecutive estimations in the same animal using nonradiolabeled microspheres (NRMS). Several mixtures of different types of microspheres were injected in dogs, with each mixture containing the radiolabeled microspheres (RMS; labeled with 113Sn) with either three CMS, four CMS, or three CMS and one type of fluorescent (crimson labeled) microsphere (FMS). The blood flows estimated with the use of any of the injected microspheres were compared with those measured using the RMS as the "gold standard." The results were analyzed by 1) regression analysis, 2) variance analysis (ANOVA I), and 3) estimation of the limits of agreement between RMS and NRMS flow rates. The results indicate that simultaneous estimations of blood flow obtained with the use of more than three CMS lack accuracy and reliability. A combination of three types of CMS with crimson-labeled FMS, however, offers the possibility to estimate consecutively four different flow rates in the same animal in an accurate way and with relatively high precision.  (+info)

Microinjected glutathione reductase crystals as indicators of the redox status in living cells. (4/2215)

The flavoenzyme glutathione reductase catalyses electron transfer reactions between two major intracellular redox buffers, namely the NADPH/NADP+ couple and the 2 glutathione/glutathione disulfide couple. On this account, microcrystals of the enzyme were tested as redox probes of intracellular compartments. For introducing protein crystals into human fibroblasts, different methods (microinjection, particle bombardment and optical tweezers) were explored and compared. When glutathione reductase crystals are present in a cytosolic environment, the transition of the yellow Eox form to the orange-red 2-electron reduced charge transfer form, EH2, is observed. Taking into account the midpoint potential of the Eox/EH2 couple, the redox potential of the cytosol was found to be < -270 mV at pH 7.4 and 37 degrees C. As a general conclusion, competent proteins in crystalline--that is signal-amplifying--form are promising probes for studying intracellular events.  (+info)

Light-dependent translocation of a phytochrome B-GFP fusion protein to the nucleus in transgenic Arabidopsis. (5/2215)

Phytochrome is a ubiquitous photoreceptor of plants and is encoded by a small multigene family. We have shown recently that a functional nuclear localization signal may reside within the COOH-terminal region of a major member of the family, phytochrome B (phyB) (Sakamoto, K., and A. Nagatani. 1996. Plant J. 10:859-868). In the present study, a fusion protein consisting of full-length phyB and the green fluorescent protein (GFP) was overexpressed in the phyB mutant of Arabidopsis to examine subcellular localization of phyB in intact tissues. The resulting transgenic lines exhibited pleiotropic phenotypes reported previously for phyB overexpressing plants, suggesting that the fusion protein is biologically active. Immunoblot analysis with anti-phyB and anti-GFP monoclonal antibodies confirmed that the fusion protein accumulated to high levels in these lines. Fluorescence microscopy of the seedlings revealed that the phyB-GFP fusion protein was localized to the nucleus in light grown tissues. Interestingly, the fusion protein formed speckles in the nucleus. Analysis of confocal optical sections confirmed that the speckles were distributed within the nucleus. In contrast, phyB-GFP fluorescence was observed throughout the cell in dark-grown seedlings. Therefore, phyB translocates to specific sites within the nucleus upon photoreceptor activation.  (+info)

A functional neuroimaging study of the variables that generate category-specific object processing differences. (6/2215)

Brain damage can cause remarkably selective deficits in processing specific categories of objects, indicating the high degree of functional segregation within the brain. The neuroimaging study presented here investigates differences in the neural activity associated with two categories of natural objects (animals and fruit) and two categories of man-made objects (vehicles and tools). Stimuli were outline drawings and the tasks were naming and word-picture matching. For man-made objects, the only category-specific effect was in the left posterior middle temporal cortex, which was most active for drawings of tools, as previously reported. For natural objects, drawings of animals and fruit (relative to drawings of man-made objects) enhanced activity in bilateral anterior temporal and right posterior middle temporal cortices. Critically, these effects with natural objects were not observed when the stimuli were coloured appropriately to facilitate identification. Furthermore, activation in the same right hemisphere areas was also observed for viewing and matching unfamiliar non-objects relative to naming and matching man-made objects. These results indicate that, in the right hemisphere, differences between processing natural relative to man-made objects overlap with the effects of increasing demands on object identification. In the left hemisphere, the effects are more consistent with functional specialization within the semantic system. We discuss (i) how category-specific differences can emerge for multiple reasons and (ii) the implications of these effects on the interpretation of functional imaging data and patients with category-specific deficits.  (+info)

Characterization of color mutants in lacZ plasmid-based transgenic mice, as detected by positive selection. (7/2215)

The plasmid-based transgenic mouse model, which uses the lacZ gene as the target for mutation, is sensitive to a wide range of in vivo mutations, ranging from point mutations to insertions and deletions extending far into the mouse genome. In this study, the nature of subtle lacZ mutations, which do not completely abolish beta-galactosidase activity, as detected by positive selection, was investigated. These subtle mutants are called 'color mutants' due to their light blue staining on X-gal medium. Replating of color mutants and retransformation of plasmid DNA, purified from individual color mutants, resulted in the same phenotype as the original color mutant. The p-gal positive selection system tolerates approximately 10% of wild-type activity as indicated by spectrophotometric determination of beta-galactosidase activity of individual color mutants. Restriction digestion and size separation of plasmid DNA revealed no visible change in the size of the plasmid in color mutants. Sequence analysis confirmed the presence of a point mutation in each lacZ gene of nine different color mutants. The results indicate that color mutants are caused neither by the presence of a mixture of wild-type and mutated lacZ plasmids within the same host cell nor by a mixture of cells within the original mutant colony which carry either wild-type or mutated lacZ plasmids. In addition, it was discovered that the mouse line studied harbors four polymorphic base changes among the integrated plasmid copies.  (+info)

Evaluation of corneal thickness and topography in normal eyes using the Orbscan corneal topography system. (8/2215)

AIMS: To map the thickness, elevation (anterior and posterior corneal surface), and axial curvature of the cornea in normal eyes with the Orbscan corneal topography system. METHODS: 94 eyes of 51 normal subjects were investigated using the Orbscan corneal topography system. The anterior and posterior corneal elevation maps were classified into regular ridge, irregular ridge, incomplete ridge, island, and unclassified patterns, and the axial power maps were grouped into round, oval, symmetric bow tie, asymmetric bow tie, and irregular patterns. The pachymetry patterns were designated as round, oval, decentred round, and decentred oval. RESULTS: The thinnest point on the cornea was located at an average of 0.90 (SD 0. 51) mm from visual axis and had an average thickness of 0.55 (0.03) mm. In 69.57% of eyes, this point was located in the inferotemporal quadrant, followed by the superotemporal quadrant in 23.91%, the inferonasal quadrant in 4.35%, and the superonasal quadrant in 2.17%. Among the nine regions of the cornea evaluated (central, superotemporal, temporal, inferotemporal, inferior, inferonasal, nasal, superonasal, and superior) the central cornea had the lowest average thickness (0.56 (0.03) mm) and the superior cornea had the greatest average thickness (0.64 (0.03) mm). The mean simulated keratometry (SimK) was 44.24 (1.61)/43.31 (1.66) dioptres (D) and the mean astigmatism was 0.90 (0.41) D. Island (71.74%) was the most common elevation pattern observed in the anterior corneal surface, followed by incomplete ridge (19.57%), regular ridge (4.34%), irregular ridge (2.17%), and unclassified (2.17%). Island (32.61%) was the most common topographic pattern in the posterior corneal surface, following by regular ridge (30.43%), incomplete ridge (23. 91%), and irregular ridge (13.04%) patterns. Symmetric bow tie was the most common axial power pattern in the anterior cornea (39.13%), followed by oval (26.07%), asymmetric bow tie (23.91%), round (6. 52%), and irregular (4.53%) patterns. In the pachymetry maps, 47.83% of eyes had an oval pattern, and round, decentred oval, and decentred round were observed in 41.30%, 8.70%, and 2.18% of eyes, respectively. CONCLUSION: The information on regional corneal thickness, corneal elevation and axial corneal curvature obtained with the Orbscan corneal topography system from normal eyes provides a reference for comparison with diseased corneas. The Orbscan corneal topography system is a useful tool to evaluate both corneal topography and corneal thickness.  (+info)

In the context of medical terminology, 'color' is not defined specifically with a unique meaning. Instead, it generally refers to the characteristic or appearance of something, particularly in relation to the color that a person may observe visually. For instance, doctors may describe the color of a patient's skin, eyes, hair, or bodily fluids to help diagnose medical conditions or monitor their progression.

For example, jaundice is a yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes that can indicate liver problems, while cyanosis refers to a bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to insufficient oxygen in the blood. Similarly, doctors may describe the color of stool or urine to help diagnose digestive or kidney issues.

Therefore, 'color' is not a medical term with a specific definition but rather a general term used to describe various visual characteristics of the body and bodily fluids that can provide important diagnostic clues for healthcare professionals.

Color perception refers to the ability to detect, recognize, and differentiate various colors and color patterns in the visual field. This complex process involves the functioning of both the eyes and the brain.

The eye's retina contains two types of photoreceptor cells called rods and cones. Rods are more sensitive to light and dark changes and help us see in low-light conditions, but they do not contribute much to color vision. Cones, on the other hand, are responsible for color perception and function best in well-lit conditions.

There are three types of cone cells, each sensitive to a particular range of wavelengths corresponding to blue, green, and red colors. The combination of signals from these three types of cones allows us to perceive a wide spectrum of colors.

The brain then interprets these signals and translates them into the perception of different colors and hues. It is important to note that color perception can be influenced by various factors, including cultural background, personal experiences, and even language. Some individuals may also have deficiencies in color perception due to genetic or acquired conditions, such as color blindness or cataracts.

Color vision is the ability to perceive and differentiate colors, which is a result of the way that our eyes and brain process different wavelengths of light. In the eye, there are two types of photoreceptor cells called rods and cones. While rods are more sensitive to low levels of light and help us see in dim conditions, cones are responsible for color vision.

There are three types of cone cells in the human eye, each containing a different type of pigment that is sensitive to specific wavelengths of light. One type of cone cell is most sensitive to short wavelengths (blue light), another is most sensitive to medium wavelengths (green light), and the third is most sensitive to long wavelengths (red light). When light enters the eye, it is absorbed by these pigments in the cones, which then send signals to the brain. The brain interprets these signals and translates them into the perception of color.

People with normal color vision can distinguish between millions of different colors based on the specific combinations of wavelengths that are present in a given scene. However, some people have deficiencies or abnormalities in their color vision, which can make it difficult or impossible to distinguish between certain colors. These conditions are known as color vision deficiencies or color blindness.

Color perception tests are a type of examination used to evaluate an individual's ability to perceive and distinguish different colors. These tests typically consist of a series of plates or images that contain various patterns or shapes displayed in different colors. The person being tested is then asked to identify or match the colors based on specific instructions.

There are several types of color perception tests, including:

1. Ishihara Test: This is a commonly used test for red-green color deficiency. It consists of a series of plates with circles made up of dots in different sizes and colors. Within these circles, there may be a number or symbol visible only to those with normal color vision or to those with specific types of color blindness.
2. Farnsworth D-15 Test: This test measures an individual's ability to arrange colored caps in a specific order based on their hue. It is often used to diagnose and monitor the progression of color vision deficiencies.
3. Hardy-Rand-Rittler (HRR) Test: This is another type of color arrangement test that measures an individual's ability to distinguish between different colors based on their hue, saturation, and brightness.
4. Color Discrimination Tests: These tests measure an individual's ability to distinguish between two similar colors that are presented side by side or in close proximity.
5. Anomaloscope Test: This is a more sophisticated test that measures the degree of color vision deficiency by asking the person to match the brightness and hue of two lights.

Color perception tests are often used in occupational settings, such as aviation, military, and manufacturing, where color discrimination is critical for safety and performance. They may also be used in educational and clinical settings to diagnose and monitor color vision deficiencies.

Ultrasonography, Doppler, color is a type of diagnostic ultrasound technique that uses the Doppler effect to produce visual images of blood flow in vessels and the heart. The Doppler effect is the change in frequency or wavelength of a wave in relation to an observer who is moving relative to the source of the wave. In this context, it refers to the change in frequency of the ultrasound waves as they reflect off moving red blood cells.

In color Doppler ultrasonography, different colors are used to represent the direction and speed of blood flow. Red typically represents blood flowing toward the transducer (the device that sends and receives sound waves), while blue represents blood flowing away from the transducer. The intensity or brightness of the color is proportional to the velocity of blood flow.

Color Doppler ultrasonography is often used in conjunction with grayscale ultrasound imaging, which provides information about the structure and composition of tissues. Together, these techniques can help diagnose a wide range of conditions, including heart disease, blood clots, and abnormalities in blood flow.

Color vision defects, also known as color blindness, are conditions in which a person has difficulty distinguishing between certain colors. The most common types of color vision defects involve the inability to distinguish between red and green or blue and yellow. These deficiencies result from an alteration or absence of one or more of the three types of cone cells in the retina that are responsible for normal color vision.

In red-green color vision defects, there is a problem with either the red or green cones, or both. This results in difficulty distinguishing between these two colors and their shades. Protanopia is a type of red-green color vision defect where there is an absence of red cone cells, making it difficult to distinguish between red and green as well as between red and black or green and black. Deuteranopia is another type of red-green color vision defect where there is an absence of green cone cells, resulting in similar difficulties distinguishing between red and green, as well as between blue and yellow.

Blue-yellow color vision defects are less common than red-green color vision defects. Tritanopia is a type of blue-yellow color vision defect where there is an absence of blue cone cells, making it difficult to distinguish between blue and yellow, as well as between blue and purple or yellow and pink.

Color vision defects are usually inherited and present from birth, but they can also result from eye diseases, chemical exposure, aging, or medication side effects. They affect both men and women, although red-green color vision defects are more common in men than in women. People with color vision defects may have difficulty with tasks that require color discrimination, such as matching clothes, selecting ripe fruit, reading colored maps, or identifying warning signals. However, most people with mild to moderate color vision defects can adapt and function well in daily life.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "hair color" is not a term that has a medical definition in the same way that a term like "myocardial infarction" (heart attack) does. Hair color can be described in various ways, such as being a natural hair color (like blonde, brunette, red, or black) or describing a change in hair color due to factors like aging (gray or white hairs) or hair dye usage.

However, it's worth noting that changes in hair color can sometimes be associated with certain medical conditions. For example, premature graying of the hair before the age of 30 can be a feature of certain genetic disorders or vitamin B12 deficiency. Similarly, some skin conditions like alopecia areata or vitiligo can cause patchy changes in hair color. But these associations don't provide a medical definition for 'hair color'.

Eye color is a characteristic determined by variations in a person's genes. The color of the eyes depends on the amount and type of pigment called melanin found in the eye's iris.

There are three main types of eye colors: brown, blue, and green. Brown eyes have the most melanin, while blue eyes have the least. Green eyes have a moderate amount of melanin combined with a golden tint that reflects light to give them their unique color.

Eye color is a polygenic trait, which means it is influenced by multiple genes. The two main genes responsible for eye color are OCA2 and HERC2, both located on chromosome 15. These genes control the production, transport, and storage of melanin in the iris.

It's important to note that eye color can change during infancy and early childhood due to the development of melanin in the iris. Additionally, some medications or medical conditions may also cause changes in eye color over time.

Pigmentation, in a medical context, refers to the coloring of the skin, hair, or eyes due to the presence of pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. These cells produce a pigment called melanin, which determines the color of our skin, hair, and eyes.

There are two main types of melanin: eumelanin and pheomelanin. Eumelanin is responsible for brown or black coloration, while pheomelanin produces a red or yellow hue. The amount and type of melanin produced by melanocytes can vary from person to person, leading to differences in skin color and hair color.

Changes in pigmentation can occur due to various factors such as genetics, exposure to sunlight, hormonal changes, inflammation, or certain medical conditions. For example, hyperpigmentation refers to an excess production of melanin that results in darkened patches on the skin, while hypopigmentation is a condition where there is a decreased production of melanin leading to lighter or white patches on the skin.

Echocardiography, Doppler, color is a type of ultrasound test that uses sound waves to create detailed moving images of the heart and its blood vessels. In this technique, color Doppler is used to visualize the direction and speed of blood flow through the heart and great vessels. The movement of the red blood cells causes a change in frequency of the reflected sound waves (Doppler shift), which can be used to calculate the velocity and direction of the blood flow. By adding color to the Doppler image, it becomes easier for the interpreting physician to understand the complex three-dimensional motion of blood through the heart. This test is often used to diagnose and monitor various heart conditions, including valve disorders, congenital heart defects, and cardiac muscle diseases.

"Prosthesis coloring" is not a recognized medical term or concept in the field of prosthetics. However, I can provide you with some context that might help clarify what you are looking for.

In the context of artificial limbs (prostheses), patients may want their devices to match their skin tone as closely as possible to make them less noticeable and more aesthetically appealing. This process is called "prosthetic covering" or "cosmesis," which involves applying custom-made covers, sleeves, or skins over the prosthesis to mimic the appearance of natural skin color and texture.

Prosthetic covering materials can be painted, printed, or dyed to achieve the desired color match. This process is often referred to as "coloring" or "painting the prosthesis." The coloring technique may involve using various shades, tones, and textures to create a natural-looking appearance that blends well with the user's remaining limb or body.

In summary, while there is no formal medical definition for "prosthesis coloring," it likely refers to the process of applying custom colors, shading, or patterns to an artificial limb (prosthesis) to create a more natural and aesthetically pleasing appearance that matches the user's skin tone.

Colorimetry is the scientific measurement and quantification of color, typically using a colorimeter or spectrophotometer. In the medical field, colorimetry may be used in various applications such as:

1. Diagnosis and monitoring of skin conditions: Colorimeters can measure changes in skin color to help diagnose or monitor conditions like jaundice, cyanosis, or vitiligo. They can also assess the effectiveness of treatments for these conditions.
2. Vision assessment: Colorimetry is used in vision testing to determine the presence and severity of visual impairments such as color blindness or deficiencies. Special tests called anomaloscopes or color vision charts are used to measure an individual's ability to distinguish between different colors.
3. Environmental monitoring: In healthcare settings, colorimetry can be employed to monitor the cleanliness and sterility of surfaces or equipment by measuring the amount of contamination present. This is often done using ATP (adenosine triphosphate) bioluminescence assays, which emit light when they come into contact with microorganisms.
4. Medical research: Colorimetry has applications in medical research, such as studying the optical properties of tissues or developing new diagnostic tools and techniques based on color measurements.

In summary, colorimetry is a valuable tool in various medical fields for diagnosis, monitoring, and research purposes. It allows healthcare professionals to make more informed decisions about patient care and treatment plans.

Skin pigmentation is the coloration of the skin that is primarily determined by two types of melanin pigments, eumelanin and pheomelanin. These pigments are produced by melanocytes, which are specialized cells located in the epidermis. Eumelanin is responsible for brown or black coloration, while pheomelanin produces a red or yellow hue.

The amount and distribution of melanin in the skin can vary depending on genetic factors, age, sun exposure, and various other influences. Increased production of melanin in response to UV radiation from the sun helps protect the skin from damage, leading to darkening or tanning of the skin. However, excessive sun exposure can also cause irregular pigmentation, such as sunspots or freckles.

Abnormalities in skin pigmentation can result from various medical conditions, including albinism (lack of melanin production), vitiligo (loss of melanocytes leading to white patches), and melasma (excessive pigmentation often caused by hormonal changes). These conditions may require medical treatment to manage or improve the pigmentation issues.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "lighting" does not have a specific medical definition. In a general context, lighting refers to the arrangement or use of light sources to achieve a particular effect or atmosphere. However, if you are referring to a term in medicine that may be similar to "lighting," you might be thinking of "lumination" or "illumination," which refer to the act of providing or admitting light, especially for medical examination or surgical procedures. I hope this helps! If you have any other questions, please don't hesitate to ask.

Photic stimulation is a medical term that refers to the exposure of the eyes to light, specifically repetitive pulses of light, which is used as a method in various research and clinical settings. In neuroscience, it's often used in studies related to vision, circadian rhythms, and brain function.

In a clinical context, photic stimulation is sometimes used in the diagnosis of certain medical conditions such as seizure disorders (like epilepsy). By observing the response of the brain to this light stimulus, doctors can gain valuable insights into the functioning of the brain and the presence of any neurological disorders.

However, it's important to note that photic stimulation should be conducted under the supervision of a trained healthcare professional, as improper use can potentially trigger seizures in individuals who are susceptible to them.

Retinal cone photoreceptor cells are specialized neurons located in the retina of the eye, responsible for visual phototransduction and color vision. They are one of the two types of photoreceptors, with the other being rods, which are more sensitive to low light levels. Cones are primarily responsible for high-acuity, color vision during daylight or bright-light conditions.

There are three types of cone cells, each containing different photopigments that absorb light at distinct wavelengths: short (S), medium (M), and long (L) wavelengths, which correspond to blue, green, and red light, respectively. The combination of signals from these three types of cones allows the human visual system to perceive a wide range of colors and discriminate between them. Cones are densely packed in the central region of the retina, known as the fovea, which provides the highest visual acuity.

Feathers are not a medical term, but they are a feature found in birds and some extinct theropod dinosaurs. Feathers are keratinous structures that grow from the skin and are used for various functions such as insulation, flight, waterproofing, and display. They have a complex structure consisting of a central shaft with barbs branching off on either side, which further divide into smaller barbules. The arrangement and modification of these feather structures vary widely among bird species to serve different purposes.

Contrast sensitivity is a measure of the ability to distinguish between an object and its background based on differences in contrast, rather than differences in luminance. Contrast refers to the difference in light intensity between an object and its immediate surroundings. Contrast sensitivity is typically measured using specially designed charts that have patterns of parallel lines with varying widths and contrast levels.

In clinical settings, contrast sensitivity is often assessed as part of a comprehensive visual examination. Poor contrast sensitivity can affect a person's ability to perform tasks such as reading, driving, or distinguishing objects from their background, especially in low-light conditions. Reduced contrast sensitivity is a common symptom of various eye conditions, including cataracts, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration.

Biological pigments are substances produced by living organisms that absorb certain wavelengths of light and reflect others, resulting in the perception of color. These pigments play crucial roles in various biological processes such as photosynthesis, vision, and protection against harmful radiation. Some examples of biological pigments include melanin, hemoglobin, chlorophyll, carotenoids, and flavonoids.

Melanin is a pigment responsible for the color of skin, hair, and eyes in animals, including humans. Hemoglobin is a protein found in red blood cells that contains a porphyrin ring with an iron atom at its center, which gives blood its red color and facilitates oxygen transport. Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in plants, algae, and some bacteria that absorbs light during photosynthesis to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. Carotenoids are orange, yellow, or red pigments found in fruits, vegetables, and some animals that protect against oxidative stress and help maintain membrane fluidity. Flavonoids are a class of plant pigments with antioxidant properties that have been linked to various health benefits.

Psychophysics is not a medical term per se, but rather a subfield of psychology and neuroscience that studies the relationship between physical stimuli and the sensations and perceptions they produce. It involves the quantitative investigation of psychological functions, such as how brightness or loudness is perceived relative to the physical intensity of light or sound.

In medical contexts, psychophysical methods may be used in research or clinical settings to understand how patients with neurological conditions or sensory impairments perceive and respond to different stimuli. This information can inform diagnostic assessments, treatment planning, and rehabilitation strategies.

A melanocortin receptor (MCR) is a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds melanocortin peptides. The melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) is one of five known subtypes of MCRs (MC1R-MC5R).

The MC1R is primarily expressed in melanocytes, which are pigment-producing cells located in the skin, hair follicles, and eyes. This receptor plays a crucial role in determining the type of melanin that is produced in response to environmental stimuli such as UV radiation.

Activation of the MC1R by its endogenous ligands, including α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), leads to the activation of adenylate cyclase and an increase in intracellular cAMP levels. This results in the activation of protein kinase A and the phosphorylation of key transcription factors, which ultimately promote the expression of genes involved in melanin synthesis.

Mutations in the MC1R gene have been associated with various pigmentation disorders, including red hair color, fair skin, and an increased risk of developing skin cancer. Additionally, polymorphisms in the MC1R gene have been linked to an increased risk of developing other diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.

"Butterflies" is not a medical term, but rather a colloquial or informal term that is often used to describe a feeling of nervousness or excitement in the stomach. It is thought to be due to the release of adrenaline and the increased heart rate and breathing that can occur when someone is anxious or excited. The sensation may be caused by the contraction of the muscles in the stomach, which can feel like fluttering or flips. This feeling is not a medical condition and does not typically require treatment, but if it is severe or persistent, it may be helpful to speak with a healthcare provider to address any underlying anxiety or stress.

Anthocyanins are a type of plant pigment that belong to the flavonoid group. They are responsible for providing colors ranging from red, purple, and blue to black in various fruits, vegetables, flowers, and leaves. Anthocyanins have been studied extensively due to their potential health benefits, which include antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties. They also play a role in protecting plants from environmental stressors such as UV radiation, pathogens, and extreme temperatures. Chemically, anthocyanins are water-soluble compounds that can form complex structures with other molecules, leading to variations in their color expression depending on pH levels.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "photography" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Photography refers to the art, application, or process of creating images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film.

If you're looking for a medical term related to imaging, there are several terms that might be relevant, such as:

1. Radiography: This is a technique using X-rays to visualize the internal structures of the body.
2. Ultrasonography: Also known as ultrasound, this is a diagnostic imaging technique using high-frequency sound waves to create images of the inside of the body.
3. Computed Tomography (CT): A type of imaging that uses X-rays to create detailed cross-sectional images of the body.
4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): A type of imaging that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to create detailed images of the organs and tissues within the body.
5. Nuclear Medicine: This is a branch of medical imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material to diagnose and treat diseases.

If you have any questions related to medical definitions or topics, feel free to ask!

In the context of medical terminology, "light" doesn't have a specific or standardized definition on its own. However, it can be used in various medical terms and phrases. For example, it could refer to:

1. Visible light: The range of electromagnetic radiation that can be detected by the human eye, typically between wavelengths of 400-700 nanometers. This is relevant in fields such as ophthalmology and optometry.
2. Therapeutic use of light: In some therapies, light is used to treat certain conditions. An example is phototherapy, which uses various wavelengths of ultraviolet (UV) or visible light for conditions like newborn jaundice, skin disorders, or seasonal affective disorder.
3. Light anesthesia: A state of reduced consciousness in which the patient remains responsive to verbal commands and physical stimulation. This is different from general anesthesia where the patient is completely unconscious.
4. Pain relief using light: Certain devices like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) units have a 'light' setting, indicating lower intensity or frequency of electrical impulses used for pain management.

Without more context, it's hard to provide a precise medical definition of 'light'.

Visual pattern recognition is the ability to identify and interpret patterns in visual information. In a medical context, it often refers to the process by which healthcare professionals recognize and diagnose medical conditions based on visible signs or symptoms. This can involve recognizing the characteristic appearance of a rash, wound, or other physical feature associated with a particular disease or condition. It may also involve recognizing patterns in medical images such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRIs.

In the field of radiology, for example, visual pattern recognition is a critical skill. Radiologists are trained to recognize the typical appearances of various diseases and conditions in medical images. This allows them to make accurate diagnoses based on the patterns they see. Similarly, dermatologists use visual pattern recognition to identify skin abnormalities and diseases based on the appearance of rashes, lesions, or other skin changes.

Overall, visual pattern recognition is an essential skill in many areas of medicine, allowing healthcare professionals to quickly and accurately diagnose medical conditions based on visible signs and symptoms.

Retinal pigments refer to the light-sensitive chemicals found in the retina, specifically within the photoreceptor cells called rods and cones. The main types of retinal pigments are rhodopsin (also known as visual purple) in rods and iodopsins in cones. These pigments play a crucial role in the process of vision by absorbing light and initiating a series of chemical reactions that ultimately trigger nerve impulses, which are then transmitted to the brain and interpreted as visual images. Rhodopsin is more sensitive to lower light levels and is responsible for night vision, while iodopsins are sensitive to specific wavelengths of light and contribute to color vision.

Sensory thresholds are the minimum levels of stimulation that are required to produce a sensation in an individual, as determined through psychophysical testing. These tests measure the point at which a person can just barely detect the presence of a stimulus, such as a sound, light, touch, or smell.

There are two types of sensory thresholds: absolute and difference. Absolute threshold is the minimum level of intensity required to detect a stimulus 50% of the time. Difference threshold, also known as just noticeable difference (JND), is the smallest change in intensity that can be detected between two stimuli.

Sensory thresholds can vary between individuals and are influenced by factors such as age, attention, motivation, and expectations. They are often used in clinical settings to assess sensory function and diagnose conditions such as hearing or vision loss.

Spectrophotometry is a technical analytical method used in the field of medicine and science to measure the amount of light absorbed or transmitted by a substance at specific wavelengths. This technique involves the use of a spectrophotometer, an instrument that measures the intensity of light as it passes through a sample.

In medical applications, spectrophotometry is often used in laboratory settings to analyze various biological samples such as blood, urine, and tissues. For example, it can be used to measure the concentration of specific chemicals or compounds in a sample by measuring the amount of light that is absorbed or transmitted at specific wavelengths.

In addition, spectrophotometry can also be used to assess the properties of biological tissues, such as their optical density and thickness. This information can be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of various medical conditions, including skin disorders, eye diseases, and cancer.

Overall, spectrophotometry is a valuable tool for medical professionals and researchers seeking to understand the composition and properties of various biological samples and tissues.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Food Packaging" is not a medical term. It is a term used to describe the process and materials used to package food products to protect them from contamination, damage, and to provide information about the product. Medical definitions are typically related to diseases, conditions, treatments, or anatomical terms. If you have any questions related to medical terminology, I'd be happy to help with those!

In a medical context, "meat" generally refers to the flesh of animals that is consumed as food. This includes muscle tissue, as well as fat and other tissues that are often found in meat products. However, it's worth noting that some people may have dietary restrictions or medical conditions that prevent them from consuming meat, so it's always important to consider individual preferences and needs when discussing food options.

It's also worth noting that the consumption of meat can have both positive and negative health effects. On the one hand, meat is a good source of protein, iron, vitamin B12, and other essential nutrients. On the other hand, consuming large amounts of red and processed meats has been linked to an increased risk of heart disease, stroke, and certain types of cancer. Therefore, it's generally recommended to consume meat in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

Food coloring agents, also known as food dyes, are substances that are added to foods and beverages to improve or modify their color. They are typically made from synthetic chemicals, although some are derived from natural sources. Food coloring agents are subject to regulation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other regulatory bodies to ensure their safety.

Food coloring agents are used for a variety of reasons, including:

* Making foods look more appealing or attractive
* Restoring the natural color of foods that has been lost during processing
* Helping consumers identify products, such as flavors or varieties of candy
* Ensuring consistency in the color of a product from batch to batch

Some common food coloring agents include:

* Blue 1 (Brilliant Blue)
* Blue 2 (Indigo Carmine)
* Green 3 (Fast Green FCF)
* Red 3 (Erythrosine)
* Red 40 (Allura Red)
* Yellow 5 (Tartrazine)
* Yellow 6 (Sunset Yellow)

It is important to note that some people may be sensitive or allergic to certain food coloring agents and may experience adverse reactions after consuming them. Additionally, there has been some concern about the potential health effects of artificial food dyes, although current research does not support a strong link between their consumption and negative health outcomes in the general population.

Blood flow velocity is the speed at which blood travels through a specific part of the vascular system. It is typically measured in units of distance per time, such as centimeters per second (cm/s) or meters per second (m/s). Blood flow velocity can be affected by various factors, including cardiac output, vessel diameter, and viscosity of the blood. Measuring blood flow velocity is important in diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions, such as heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease.

Dental polishing is a procedure in dentistry that is performed to smooth and clean the surfaces of teeth after professional dental cleaning (prophylaxis), restoration, or other dental treatments. It is usually done using a slow-speed handpiece with a soft, rubber cup attached to it, which holds a polishing paste or a slurry of pumice and water. The polishing paste may contain an abrasive agent, fluoride, or a flavoring agent. The dental professional moves the handpiece in a circular motion over the tooth surface to remove stains, plaque, and minor surface roughness, leaving the teeth smooth and shiny. Dental polishing helps to prevent the buildup of plaque and tartar, reduce the risk of decay and gum disease, and improve the overall oral hygiene and aesthetics of the teeth.

Ocular adaptation is the ability of the eye to adjust and accommodate to changes in visual input and lighting conditions. This process allows the eye to maintain a clear and focused image over a range of different environments and light levels. There are several types of ocular adaptation, including:

1. Light Adaptation: This refers to the eye's ability to adjust to different levels of illumination. When moving from a dark environment to a bright one, the pupils constrict to let in less light, and the sensitivity of the retina decreases. Conversely, when moving from a bright environment to a dark one, the pupils dilate to let in more light, and the sensitivity of the retina increases.
2. Dark Adaptation: This is the process by which the eye adjusts to low light conditions. It involves the dilation of the pupils and an increase in the sensitivity of the rods (specialised cells in the retina that are responsible for vision in low light conditions). Dark adaptation can take several minutes to occur fully.
3. Color Adaptation: This refers to the eye's ability to adjust to changes in the color temperature of light sources. For example, when moving from a room lit by incandescent light to one lit by fluorescent light, the eye may need to adjust its perception of colors to maintain accurate color vision.
4. Accommodation: This is the process by which the eye changes focus from distant to near objects. The lens of the eye changes shape to bend the light rays entering the eye and bring them into sharp focus on the retina.

Overall, ocular adaptation is an essential function that allows us to see clearly and accurately in a wide range of environments and lighting conditions.

Form perception, also known as shape perception, is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in the field of neuropsychology and sensory perception, form perception refers to the ability to recognize and interpret different shapes and forms of objects through visual processing. This ability is largely dependent on the integrity of the visual cortex and its ability to process and interpret information received from the retina.

Damage to certain areas of the brain, particularly in the occipital and parietal lobes, can result in deficits in form perception, leading to difficulties in recognizing and identifying objects based on their shape or form. This condition is known as visual agnosia and can be a symptom of various neurological disorders such as stroke, brain injury, or degenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease.

Agouti signaling protein (ASP) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ASIP gene. It is a paracrine signaling molecule that regulates melanin synthesis in the hair follicle and plays a critical role in determining coat color in mammals. ASP binds to and antagonizes the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R), which is a G protein-coupled receptor found on the surface of melanocytes, the cells that produce melanin.

When ASP binds to MC1R, it inhibits the activation of adenylyl cyclase and reduces the intracellular levels of cAMP, which in turn leads to a decrease in eumelanin (black or brown) production and an increase in pheomelanin (yellow or red) production. This switch in melanin synthesis results in a banded coat pattern, as seen in the agouti mouse and some other mammals.

In addition to its role in coat color determination, ASP has been implicated in various physiological processes, including energy homeostasis, appetite regulation, and inflammation. Dysregulation of ASP function has been associated with obesity, metabolic disorders, and certain types of cancer.

Melanin is a pigment that determines the color of skin, hair, and eyes in humans and animals. It is produced by melanocytes, which are specialized cells found in the epidermis (the outer layer of the skin) and the choroid (the vascular coat of the eye). There are two main types of melanin: eumelanin and pheomelanin. Eumelanin is a black or brown pigment, while pheomelanin is a red or yellow pigment. The amount and type of melanin produced by an individual can affect their skin and hair color, as well as their susceptibility to certain diseases, such as skin cancer.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "flowers" is not a term that has a medical definition. The term "flowers" is commonly used to refer to the reproductive structures of flowering plants (angiosperms), which are characterized by having both male and female reproductive organs or separate male and female flowers.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health conditions, I would be happy to try to help answer those for you!

Tooth discoloration, also known as tooth staining or tooth color change, refers to the darkening or staining of teeth. It can be categorized into two main types: extrinsic and intrinsic. Extrinsic discoloration occurs when the outer layer of the tooth (enamel) becomes stained due to exposure to colored substances such as coffee, tea, wine, tobacco, and certain foods. Intrinsic discoloration, on the other hand, occurs when the inner structure of the tooth (dentin) darkens or gets a yellowish tint due to factors like genetics, aging, trauma, or exposure to certain medications during tooth development. Tooth discoloration can also be caused by dental diseases or decay. It is important to note that while some forms of tooth discoloration are cosmetic concerns, others may indicate underlying oral health issues and should be evaluated by a dental professional.

Opsins are a type of protein that are sensitive to light and play a crucial role in vision. They are found in the photoreceptor cells of the retina, which are the specialized cells in the eye that detect light. Opsins are activated by light, which triggers a series of chemical reactions that ultimately result in the transmission of a signal to the brain, allowing us to see.

There are several different types of opsins, including rhodopsin and the cone pigments, which are found in the rods and cones of the retina, respectively. Rhodopsin is responsible for dim-light vision, while the cone pigments are involved in color vision and bright-light vision.

Opsins belong to a larger family of proteins called G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which are involved in many different physiological processes in the body. In addition to their role in vision, opsins have also been found to be involved in other light-dependent processes, such as the regulation of circadian rhythms and the entrainment of the biological clock.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Food Technology" is not a term that has a widely recognized medical definition. It is a multidisciplinary field involving aspects of food science, chemical engineering, and nutrition, among others, which deals with the production, preservation, and packaging of food products to make them safe, nutritious, and appealing.

However, if you're asking about how certain food technologies or food components might have medical implications, I could provide some information on that front. For example, there are various food technologies used in the processing and preparation of foods that can affect their nutritional content, safety, and potential health benefits or risks. Some examples include:

* Fortification: adding essential nutrients to foods to prevent deficiencies (e.g., adding folic acid to bread and cereals)
* Pasteurization: heating food to kill harmful bacteria and extend shelf life (e.g., milk, juice, and some prepared foods)
* Irradiation: exposing food to low levels of radiation to reduce or eliminate pathogens and extend shelf life (e.g., spices, herbs, and some fruits and vegetables)
* Food additives: substances added to food for various purposes, such as preservation, coloring, flavoring, or texturizing (e.g., artificial sweeteners, food dyes, and emulsifiers)

Each of these technologies and components can have potential medical implications, both positive and negative, depending on the specific application and individual factors. For example, fortification can help prevent nutrient deficiencies and improve public health, while certain food additives or processing methods may be associated with adverse health effects in some people.

If you have a more specific question about how a particular food technology or component might relate to medical issues, I'd be happy to try to provide more information based on the available evidence!

In a medical or psychological context, attention is the cognitive process of selectively concentrating on certain aspects of the environment while ignoring other things. It involves focusing mental resources on specific stimuli, sensory inputs, or internal thoughts while blocking out irrelevant distractions. Attention can be divided into different types, including:

1. Sustained attention: The ability to maintain focus on a task or stimulus over time.
2. Selective attention: The ability to concentrate on relevant stimuli while ignoring irrelevant ones.
3. Divided attention: The capacity to pay attention to multiple tasks or stimuli simultaneously.
4. Alternating attention: The skill of shifting focus between different tasks or stimuli as needed.

Deficits in attention are common symptoms of various neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as ADHD, dementia, depression, and anxiety disorders. Assessment of attention is an essential part of neuropsychological evaluations and can be measured using various tests and tasks.

Visual perception refers to the ability to interpret and organize information that comes from our eyes to recognize and understand what we are seeing. It involves several cognitive processes such as pattern recognition, size estimation, movement detection, and depth perception. Visual perception allows us to identify objects, navigate through space, and interact with our environment. Deficits in visual perception can lead to learning difficulties and disabilities.

Ultrasonography, Doppler, Pulsed is a type of diagnostic ultrasound technique that uses the Doppler effect to measure blood flow in the body. In this technique, short bursts of ultrasound are emitted and then listened for as they bounce back off moving red blood cells. By analyzing the frequency shift of the returning sound waves, the velocity and direction of blood flow can be determined. This information is particularly useful in evaluating conditions such as deep vein thrombosis, carotid artery stenosis, and fetal heart abnormalities. Pulsed Doppler ultrasonography provides more detailed information about blood flow than traditional color Doppler imaging, making it a valuable tool for diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions.

In medical terms, "immersion" is not a term with a specific clinical definition. However, in general terms, immersion refers to the act of placing something or someone into a liquid or environment completely. In some contexts, it may be used to describe a type of wound care where the wound is covered completely with a medicated dressing or solution. It can also be used to describe certain medical procedures or therapies that involve submerging a part of the body in a liquid, such as hydrotherapy.

Dental materials are substances that are used in restorative dentistry, prosthodontics, endodontics, orthodontics, and preventive dentistry to restore or replace missing tooth structure, improve the function and esthetics of teeth, and protect the oral tissues from decay and disease. These materials can be classified into various categories based on their physical and chemical properties, including metals, ceramics, polymers, composites, cements, and alloys.

Some examples of dental materials include:

1. Amalgam: a metal alloy used for dental fillings that contains silver, tin, copper, and mercury. It is strong, durable, and resistant to wear but has been controversial due to concerns about the toxicity of mercury.
2. Composite: a tooth-colored restorative material made of a mixture of glass or ceramic particles and a bonding agent. It is used for fillings, veneers, and other esthetic dental treatments.
3. Glass ionomer cement: a type of cement used for dental restorations that releases fluoride ions and helps prevent tooth decay. It is often used for fillings in children's teeth or as a base under crowns and bridges.
4. Porcelain: a ceramic material used for dental crowns, veneers, and other esthetic restorations. It is strong, durable, and resistant to staining but can be brittle and prone to fracture.
5. Gold alloy: a metal alloy used for dental restorations that contains gold, copper, and other metals. It is highly biocompatible, corrosion-resistant, and malleable but can be expensive and less esthetic than other materials.
6. Acrylic resin: a type of polymer used for dental appliances such as dentures, night guards, and orthodontic retainers. It is lightweight, flexible, and easy to modify but can be less durable than other materials.

The choice of dental material depends on various factors, including the location and extent of the restoration, the patient's oral health status, their esthetic preferences, and their budget. Dental professionals must consider these factors carefully when selecting the appropriate dental material for each individual case.

Optical illusions are visual phenomena that occur when the brain perceives an image or scene differently from the actual physical properties of that image or scene. They often result from the brain's attempt to interpret and make sense of ambiguous, contradictory, or incomplete information provided by the eyes. This can lead to visually perceived images that are different from the objective reality. Optical illusions can be categorized into different types such as literal illusions, physiological illusions, and cognitive illusions, based on the nature of the illusion and the underlying cause.

In the context of medical terminology, "nature" is not typically used as a defined term. However, it can be used in various phrases to describe different concepts. For example:

1. By nature: This phrase is used to refer to an inherent or essential characteristic of something or someone. For instance, a person's natural disposition or the natural course of a disease.
2. Nature of illness/injury: This refers to the classification, characteristics, and features of a medical condition or trauma.
3. Human nature: This phrase is used to describe the inherent characteristics, tendencies, or instincts of human beings as a species.
4. Mother Nature: Although not a medical term, it is often used metaphorically to refer to the natural world or environment and its forces, which can have significant impacts on health and well-being.

In summary, while "nature" itself does not have a specific medical definition, it is used in various phrases within the medical field to convey different concepts related to inherent characteristics, classifications, and environmental factors that influence health and disease.

The visual cortex is the part of the brain that processes visual information. It is located in the occipital lobe, which is at the back of the brain. The visual cortex is responsible for receiving and interpreting signals from the retina, which are then transmitted through the optic nerve and optic tract.

The visual cortex contains several areas that are involved in different aspects of visual processing, such as identifying shapes, colors, and movements. These areas work together to help us recognize and understand what we see. Damage to the visual cortex can result in various visual impairments, such as blindness or difficulty with visual perception.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

In the context of medicine, "cues" generally refer to specific pieces of information or signals that can help healthcare professionals recognize and respond to a particular situation or condition. These cues can come in various forms, such as:

1. Physical examination findings: For example, a patient's abnormal heart rate or blood pressure reading during a physical exam may serve as a cue for the healthcare professional to investigate further.
2. Patient symptoms: A patient reporting chest pain, shortness of breath, or other concerning symptoms can act as a cue for a healthcare provider to consider potential diagnoses and develop an appropriate treatment plan.
3. Laboratory test results: Abnormal findings on laboratory tests, such as elevated blood glucose levels or abnormal liver function tests, may serve as cues for further evaluation and diagnosis.
4. Medical history information: A patient's medical history can provide valuable cues for healthcare professionals when assessing their current health status. For example, a history of smoking may increase the suspicion for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a patient presenting with respiratory symptoms.
5. Behavioral or environmental cues: In some cases, behavioral or environmental factors can serve as cues for healthcare professionals to consider potential health risks. For instance, exposure to secondhand smoke or living in an area with high air pollution levels may increase the risk of developing respiratory conditions.

Overall, "cues" in a medical context are essential pieces of information that help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care and treatment.

Motion perception is the ability to interpret and understand the movement of objects in our environment. It is a complex process that involves multiple areas of the brain and the visual system. In medical terms, motion perception refers to the specific function of the visual system to detect and analyze the movement of visual stimuli. This allows us to perceive and respond to moving objects in our environment, which is crucial for activities such as driving, sports, and even maintaining balance. Disorders in motion perception can lead to conditions like motion sickness or difficulty with depth perception.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Composite resins, also known as dental composites or filling materials, are a type of restorative material used in dentistry to restore the function, integrity, and morphology of missing tooth structure. They are called composite resins because they are composed of a combination of materials, including a resin matrix (usually made of bisphenol A-glycidyl methacrylate or urethane dimethacrylate) and filler particles (commonly made of silica, quartz, or glass).

The composite resins are widely used in modern dentistry due to their excellent esthetic properties, ease of handling, and ability to bond directly to tooth structure. They can be used for a variety of restorative procedures, including direct and indirect fillings, veneers, inlays, onlays, and crowns.

Composite resins are available in various shades and opacities, allowing dentists to match the color and translucency of natural teeth closely. They also have good wear resistance, strength, and durability, making them a popular choice for both anterior and posterior restorations. However, composite resins may be prone to staining over time and may require more frequent replacement compared to other types of restorative materials.

Reaction time, in the context of medicine and physiology, refers to the time period between the presentation of a stimulus and the subsequent initiation of a response. This complex process involves the central nervous system, particularly the brain, which perceives the stimulus, processes it, and then sends signals to the appropriate muscles or glands to react.

There are different types of reaction times, including simple reaction time (responding to a single, expected stimulus) and choice reaction time (choosing an appropriate response from multiple possibilities). These measures can be used in clinical settings to assess various aspects of neurological function, such as cognitive processing speed, motor control, and alertness.

However, it is important to note that reaction times can be influenced by several factors, including age, fatigue, attention, and the use of certain medications or substances.

An afterimage is a visual phenomenon that occurs when the eye's retina continues to send signals to the brain even after exposure to a stimulus has ended. This can result in the perception of a lingering image, often in complementary colors to the original stimulus. Afterimages can be either positive or negative, with a positive afterimage appearing as the same color as the original stimulus and a negative afterimage appearing as its complementary color.

Afterimages are typically caused by exposure to bright or intense light sources, such as a camera flash or the sun. They can also occur after prolonged exposure to a particular color or pattern. The phenomenon is thought to be related to the adaptation of photoreceptor cells in the retina, which become less responsive to stimuli after prolonged exposure.

Afterimages are generally harmless and temporary, lasting only a few seconds to several minutes. However, they can sometimes be used as a tool for visual perception experiments or to study the mechanisms of visual processing in the brain.

Computer-assisted image processing is a medical term that refers to the use of computer systems and specialized software to improve, analyze, and interpret medical images obtained through various imaging techniques such as X-ray, CT (computed tomography), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), ultrasound, and others.

The process typically involves several steps, including image acquisition, enhancement, segmentation, restoration, and analysis. Image processing algorithms can be used to enhance the quality of medical images by adjusting contrast, brightness, and sharpness, as well as removing noise and artifacts that may interfere with accurate diagnosis. Segmentation techniques can be used to isolate specific regions or structures of interest within an image, allowing for more detailed analysis.

Computer-assisted image processing has numerous applications in medical imaging, including detection and characterization of lesions, tumors, and other abnormalities; assessment of organ function and morphology; and guidance of interventional procedures such as biopsies and surgeries. By automating and standardizing image analysis tasks, computer-assisted image processing can help to improve diagnostic accuracy, efficiency, and consistency, while reducing the potential for human error.

I'm happy to help! However, I must clarify that "materials testing" is not a medical term per se. It is a term used in various fields, including engineering and materials science, to describe the process of subjecting materials to different tests to evaluate their properties and performance under various conditions.

In the context of medical devices or implants, materials testing may refer to the evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of materials used in their construction. These tests can include assessments of strength, durability, biocompatibility, and other factors that are critical to ensuring the safety and efficacy of medical devices.

Medical device manufacturers must comply with regulatory standards for materials testing to ensure that their products meet specific requirements for performance, safety, and quality. These standards may vary depending on the type of device, its intended use, and the country or region in which it will be marketed and sold.

Acrylic resins are a type of synthetic polymer made from methacrylate monomers. They are widely used in various industrial, commercial, and medical applications due to their unique properties such as transparency, durability, resistance to breakage, and ease of coloring or molding. In the medical field, acrylic resins are often used to make dental restorations like false teeth and fillings, medical devices like intraocular lenses, and surgical instruments. They can also be found in orthopedic implants, bone cement, and other medical-grade plastics. Acrylic resins are biocompatible, meaning they do not typically cause adverse reactions when in contact with living tissue. However, they may release small amounts of potentially toxic chemicals over time, so their long-term safety in certain applications is still a subject of ongoing research.

Cichlids are a family (Cichlidae) of freshwater and brackish fish that include several well-known aquarium species. They are found primarily in tropical regions of Africa, Central America, and South America. Cichlids exhibit a wide range of body shapes, sizes, colors, and behaviors, making them popular among aquarists. Some cichlid species are also important sources of food in their native habitats. It is worth noting that cichlids are not typically classified as having medical relevance, but rather they are studied for their ecological, evolutionary, and ornamental significance.

"Bees" are not a medical term, as they refer to various flying insects belonging to the Apidae family in the Apoidea superfamily. They are known for their role in pollination and honey production. If you're looking for medical definitions or information, please provide relevant terms.

Visual pathways, also known as the visual system or the optic pathway, refer to the series of specialized neurons in the nervous system that transmit visual information from the eyes to the brain. This complex network includes the retina, optic nerve, optic chiasma, optic tract, lateral geniculate nucleus, pulvinar, and the primary and secondary visual cortices located in the occipital lobe of the brain.

The process begins when light enters the eye and strikes the photoreceptor cells (rods and cones) in the retina, converting the light energy into electrical signals. These signals are then transmitted to bipolar cells and subsequently to ganglion cells, whose axons form the optic nerve. The fibers from each eye's nasal hemiretina cross at the optic chiasma, while those from the temporal hemiretina continue without crossing. This results in the formation of the optic tract, which carries visual information from both eyes to the opposite side of the brain.

The majority of fibers in the optic tract synapse with neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), a part of the thalamus. The LGN sends this information to the primary visual cortex, also known as V1 or Brodmann area 17, located in the occipital lobe. Here, simple features like lines and edges are initially processed. Further processing occurs in secondary (V2) and tertiary (V3-V5) visual cortices, where more complex features such as shape, motion, and depth are analyzed. Ultimately, this information is integrated to form our perception of the visual world.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

A maxillofacial prosthesis is a custom-made device used to replace all or part of a facial feature, such as an eye, ear, nose, or lip, that has been lost due to trauma, cancer surgery, or other causes. It is typically made from materials like silicone, acrylic, or nylon and is designed to mimic the appearance and texture of natural skin and tissues.

Maxillofacial prostheses are created by trained professionals called maxillofacial prosthodontists, who have specialized training in the diagnosis, treatment planning, and rehabilitation of patients with facial defects. The process of creating a maxillofacial prosthesis typically involves taking an impression of the affected area, creating a custom-made mold, and then fabricating the prosthesis to fit precisely over the defect.

Maxillofacial prostheses can help improve patients' appearance, self-confidence, and quality of life by restoring their facial symmetry and functionality. They may also help protect the underlying tissues and structures from injury or infection, and can be used in conjunction with other treatments, such as radiation therapy or chemotherapy, to enhance their effectiveness.

"Fundus Oculi" is a medical term that refers to the back part of the interior of the eye, including the optic disc, macula, fovea, retinal vasculature, and peripheral retina. It is the area where light is focused and then transmitted to the brain via the optic nerve, forming visual images. Examinations of the fundus oculi are crucial for detecting various eye conditions such as diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration, glaucoma, and other retinal diseases. The examination is typically performed using an ophthalmoscope or a specialized camera called a retinal camera.

Coloring agents, also known as food dyes or color additives, are substances that are added to foods, medications, and cosmetics to improve their appearance by giving them a specific color. These agents can be made from both synthetic and natural sources. They must be approved by regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) before they can be used in products intended for human consumption.

Coloring agents are used for various reasons, including:

* To replace color lost during food processing or preparation
* To make foods more visually appealing
* To help consumers easily identify certain types of food
* To indicate the flavor of a product (e.g., fruit-flavored candies)

It's important to note that while coloring agents can enhance the appearance of products, they do not affect their taste or nutritional value. Some people may have allergic reactions to certain coloring agents, so it's essential to check product labels if you have any known allergies. Additionally, excessive consumption of some synthetic coloring agents has been linked to health concerns, so moderation is key.

An artificial tooth, also known as a dental prosthesis or dental restoration, is a device made to replace a missing tooth or teeth. It can be removable, such as a denture, or fixed, such as a bridge or an implant-supported crown. The material used to make artificial teeth can vary and may include porcelain, resin, metal, or a combination of these materials. Its purpose is to restore function, aesthetics, and/or speech, and it is custom-made to fit the individual's mouth for comfort and effectiveness.

Ocular vision refers to the ability to process and interpret visual information that is received by the eyes. This includes the ability to see clearly and make sense of the shapes, colors, and movements of objects in the environment. The ocular system, which includes the eye and related structures such as the optic nerve and visual cortex of the brain, works together to enable vision.

There are several components of ocular vision, including:

* Visual acuity: the clarity or sharpness of vision
* Field of vision: the extent of the visual world that is visible at any given moment
* Color vision: the ability to distinguish different colors
* Depth perception: the ability to judge the distance of objects in three-dimensional space
* Contrast sensitivity: the ability to distinguish an object from its background based on differences in contrast

Disorders of ocular vision can include refractive errors such as nearsightedness or farsightedness, as well as more serious conditions such as cataracts, glaucoma, and macular degeneration. These conditions can affect one or more aspects of ocular vision and may require medical treatment to prevent further vision loss.

Visual fields refer to the total area in which objects can be seen while keeping the eyes focused on a central point. It is the entire area that can be observed using peripheral (side) vision while the eye gazes at a fixed point. A visual field test is used to detect blind spots or gaps (scotomas) in a person's vision, which could indicate various medical conditions such as glaucoma, retinal damage, optic nerve disease, brain tumors, or strokes. The test measures both the central and peripheral vision and maps the entire area that can be seen when focusing on a single point.

Microspectrophotometry (MSP) is a microanalytical technique that combines microspectroscopy and photometry to measure the absorption, reflection, or fluorescence spectra of extremely small samples, typically in the range of micrometers to sub-micrometers. This technique is often used in biomedical research and clinical settings for the analysis of cellular and subcellular structures, such as organelles, inclusion bodies, and single molecules.

MSP can provide detailed information about the chemical composition, molecular structure, and spatial distribution of biological samples, making it a valuable tool for studying various physiological and pathological processes, including gene expression, protein function, and cell-cell interactions. Additionally, MSP has been used in diagnostic applications to identify abnormalities in tissues and cells, such as cancerous or precancerous lesions, and to monitor the efficacy of therapeutic interventions.

The technique involves using a microscope equipped with a high-resolution objective lens and a spectrophotometer to measure the intensity of light transmitted through or reflected from a sample at different wavelengths. The resulting spectra can be used to identify specific chemical components or molecular structures based on their characteristic absorption, reflection, or fluorescence patterns.

MSP is a powerful tool for studying biological systems at the microscopic level and has contributed significantly to our understanding of cellular and molecular biology. However, it requires specialized equipment and expertise to perform and interpret the data, making it a relatively complex and sophisticated technique.

Rhodopsin, also known as visual purple, is a light-sensitive protein found in the rods of the eye's retina. It is a type of opsin, a class of proteins that are activated by light and play a crucial role in vision. Rhodopsin is composed of two parts: an apoprotein called opsin and a chromophore called 11-cis-retinal. When light hits the retina, it changes the shape of the 11-cis-retinal, which in turn activates the rhodopsin protein. This activation triggers a series of chemical reactions that ultimately lead to the transmission of a visual signal to the brain. Rhodopsin is highly sensitive to light and allows for vision in low-light conditions.

Tooth bleaching, also known as tooth whitening, is a cosmetic dental procedure that aims to lighten the color of natural teeth and remove stains or discoloration. It's important to note that this process doesn't involve physically removing the tooth structure but rather uses various agents containing bleaching chemicals like hydrogen peroxide or carbamide peroxide to oxidize the stain molecules, breaking them down and making the teeth appear whiter and brighter.

The procedure can be performed in a dental office under professional supervision (in-office bleaching), at home using custom-made trays provided by a dentist (at-home or take-home bleaching), or through over-the-counter products such as whitening toothpaste, strips, and gels. However, it is always recommended to consult with a dental professional before starting any tooth bleaching treatment to ensure safety, effectiveness, and suitability for your specific oral health condition.

Perceptual closure, also known as "closure perception" or "gestalt perception," is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a concept in the field of psychology and perception, particularly in gestalt psychology.

Perceptual closure refers to the ability of the brain to recognize and complete incomplete patterns or shapes by filling in the missing information based on context and past experiences. This allows us to perceive and understand complex stimuli even when they are partially occluded, distorted, or incomplete. It is a fundamental aspect of how we process visual information and helps us quickly and efficiently make sense of our environment.

While there may not be a specific medical definition for perceptual closure, deficits in this ability can have implications for various medical conditions, such as neurological disorders that affect vision or cognitive function.

Chromophore Color analysis Color in Chinese culture Color mapping Complementary colors Impossible color International Color ... The theory of color includes the color complements; color balance; and classification of primary colors (traditionally red, ... color names distinguish dark/cool colors from bright/warm colors. The next colors to be distinguished are usually red and then ... Some colors that appear distinct to an individual with normal color vision will appear metameric to the color blind. The most ...
Lists of colors Buff, a similar color Khaki, another similar color Tawny (color) "tan". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved ... Plate 12 Color Sample A6; Color Sample of Cafe au Lait Aloys John Maerz; Morris Rea Paul (1930). A Dictionary of Color (1st ed ... Plate 13 Color Sample G12; Color Sample of Windsor Tan Aloys John Maerz; Morris Rea Paul (1930). A Dictionary of Color (1st ed ... Plate 13 Color Sample C8; Color Sample of Tuscan tan Aloys John Maerz; Morris Rea Paul (1930). A Dictionary of Color (1st ed ...
Amaranth (dye) Cerise (color) Crimson List of colors Rose (color) Ruby (color) Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York: ... Color Sample of Amaranth Pink: Page 121 Plate 49 Color Sample D8 The color displayed in the color box above matches the color ... Color Sample of Amaranth Purple: Page 129 Plate 53 Color Sample L3 The color displayed in the color box above matches the color ... Color Sample L8. The color displayed in the color box above matches the color called alizarin in the 1930 book by Maerz and ...
... changes the overall mixture of colors in an image and is used for color correction. Generalized versions of color ... Color balancing may be thought in terms of removing this color cast. Color balance is also related to color constancy. ... Color balancing an image affects not only the neutrals, but other colors as well. An image that is not color balanced is said ... Color Imaging: Device-Independent Color, Color Hardcopy, and Graphic Arts VI. 4300: 172-183. doi:10.1117/12.410788. S2CID ...
... but are colored a dark violet color. Thai eggplants are small, round, and colored forest green. Purple is a more used term. ... The first recorded use of eggplant as a color name in English was in 1915. The pinkish-purple-grayish color shown in the color ... Eggplant is a dark purple or brownish-purple color that resembles the color of the outer skin of European eggplants. Another ... Color Sample of Eggplant: Page 119 Plate 48 Color Sample H12 Crayola. "Crayola Creativity Central". Retrieved 31 May 2010. (Use ...
... can be computed for any color model. Three color moments are computed per channel (e.g. 9 moments if the color ... Color indexing is the main application of color moments. Images can be indexed, and the index will contain the computed color ... "Color Moments". Feb. 2005 Afifi, Ahmed J.; Wesam Ashour (2011). Image Retrieval Based on Content Using Color Feature: Color ... or first color moment, for the i-th color channel of the image. The third color moment is the skewness. It measures how ...
Rough aquamarine Aquamarine crystals on muscovite An aquamarine brooch List of colors W3C TR CSS3 Color Module, SVG color ... Aquamarine is a color that is a light tint of Teal, in between cyan and green on the color wheel. It is named after the mineral ... p. 190; color sample of aquamarine: p. 93, plate 35, color sample I3. OCLC 937598580. v t e (Articles with short description, ... WikiProject Color articles needing infobox sources, Shades of cyan, Shades of green, Quaternary colors, All stub articles, ...
... allows for object recognition techniques based on color to compensate for these variations. Color constancy ... More specifically, a change in illuminated color can be modelled as a scaling α, β and γ in the R, G and B color channels and ... Color normalization has been used for object recognition on color images in the field of robotics, bioinformatics and general ... Color normalization is a topic in computer vision concerned with artificial color vision and object recognition. In general, ...
The Color LaserWriter was a line of PostScript four-color laser printers manufactured by Apple Computer, Inc. in the mid-1990s ... The Color LaserWriter 12/660 PS is a color laser printer introduced by Apple in October 1996. The printer became a workhorse ... A PostScript printer, the Color LaserWriter 12/600 PS color laser printer was intended for small business and consumers with ... This printer was released one year before its replacement with the Color LaserWriter 12/660 PS, which had the same ...
... color). Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 203; Color Sample of Salmon: Page 43 Plate 10 Color ... Salmon is a light orange to pink color, named after the color of salmon flesh. The first recorded use of salmon as a color name ... Dark salmon resembles the color light salmon, but is grayer. Like the web colors shown above, it is used in HTML and CSS. Terra ... The actual color of salmon flesh varies from almost white to light orange, depending on their levels of the carotenoid ...
Color - a comprehensive site about color perception, color psychology, color theory, and color mixing Color Differences Color ... Color terminology based on the color wheel and its geometry separates colors into primary color, secondary color, and tertiary ... Digital color management uses a hue circle defined according to additive primary colors (the RGB color model), as the colors in ... Color combination guidelines (or formulas) suggest that colors next to each other on the color wheel model (analogous colors) ...
Luc Hensill Site Couleur Chair (Flesh Color) on Festival de Cannes Couleur chair on BiFi Couleur Chair (Flesh Color) at IMDb v ... Flesh Color (French: Couleur Chair) is a 35 mm film by François Weyergans (Prix Goncourt 2005). Weyergans is one of the forty ... Flesh Color was a rock music group active from 1976 to 1978, formed in Brussels. Freddy Nieuland, drummer of Wallace Collection ... "Flesh Color") with Dennis Hopper. François also asked the group to compose the film music. The band then decided for the first ...
Displayed at right is the web color dark pink (PerBang). List of colors Orchid Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York: ... Displayed at right is the color orchid pink. The source of this color is the "Pantone Textile Paper eXtended (TPX)" color list ... Displayed at right is the color wild orchid. The source of this color is the "Pantone Textile Paper eXtended (TPX)" color list ... into the indicated window on the Pantone Color Finder and the color will appear. Pantone TPX Pantone Color Finder--Type the ...
... typically in a color gel, a color blended with small amounts of complementary colors. Color mixing - Producing colors by ... When colors are displayed in the CIE 1931 XYZ color space, additive mixture results in color along the line between the colors ... A chimerical color is an imaginary color that can be seen temporarily by looking steadily at a strong color until some of the ... A fictitious color or imaginary color is a point in a color space that corresponds to combinations of cone cell responses in ...
The color killer is an electronic stage in color TV receiver sets which acts as a cutting circuit to cut off color processing ... In normal color reception, high frequency luminance is mistaken for color, causing relatively invisible false color patterns. ... The "damaged" signal triggered the "color killer" mechanism in color television sets which prevented the appearance of color ... a color killer failure allows the color processing to be activated when it should not, a chroma subcarrier in the color ...
Additive color Color theory Impossible colors Subtractive color Macaulay, David and Neil Ardley (1988). The New Way Things Work ... corresponding to the CMY color model and CMYK color model widely used in color printing. In subtractive mixing of color, the ... In the first two cases, mixing is typically described in terms of three primary colors and three secondary colors (colors made ... and a maximum of four of those colors would be needed to achieve a particular color, for example, using two colors that are ...
Color selection charts present a palette of available colors to aid the selection of spot colors, process colors, paints, pens ... A color chart or color reference card is a flat, physical object that has many different color samples present. They can be ... Color reference charts are used for color comparisons and measurements such as checking the color reproduction of an imaging ... A ColorChecker chart can be used to manually adjust color parameters (e.g. color temperature) to achieve a desired color ...
... painting? I mean, what is color? Painting has to do with a lot of things. Color is among the things it has to do ... His jagged flashes of color give the impression that one layer of color has been "torn" off the painting, revealing the colors ... In color field painting "color is freed from objective context and becomes the subject in itself." During the late 1950s and ... Color field painters efface the individual mark in favor of large, flat, stained and soaked areas of color, considered to be ...
This color is #06E50 on the 5252 color list. The 5252 color list is for colors used in color coordination and in building ... List of colors The color displayed in the color box above matches the color called apricot in the 1930 book by Maerz and Paul A ... See page 189 for year of first recorded use of color name reference and page 43, Plate 10 Color Sample 7F for color sample of ... Displayed at right is the color mellow apricot. This is one of the colors on the British Standards 5252 color list. ...
Independent control of the gel strings permits users to cross-fade "from any color, to any color, anytime" directly (without ...
Color Sample of Erin Page 81 Plate 29 Color Sample F12; A deep tone of the color Erin is shown as lying half way between a deep ... on the bottom row of color samples on the color plate, which represent the deeper tones of the colors between green and the ... Color articles with suppressed CMYK data, Shades of green, Quaternary colors, All stub articles, Color stubs). ... Erin is a color that is halfway between green and spring green on the color wheel. It is named after Erin, a poetic name for ...
At right is displayed the web color dark turquoise. At right is displayed the color bright turquoise. List of colors Beale, ... The color Celeste is a sky bluish turquoise. Light turquoise is a lighter tone of turquoise. Turquoise blue is a color close to ... Maerz; Paul (1930). "Color Sample of Cyan: I". A Dictionary of Color. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. page 73, plate 25, sample K12 ... The first recorded use of turquoise as a color name in English was in 1573. The X11 color named turquoise is displayed on the ...
Color Sample of Camel: p. 49 Plate 15 Color Sample A6 Maerz & Paul, p. 203; Color Sample of Desert: p. 47 Plate 12 Color Sample ... Color dictionary used by stamp collectors to identify the colors of stamps-See sample of the color Fallow (color sample #76) ... 244-245 Maerz & Paul, p. 195; Color Sample of Fallow: p. 47 Plate 12 Color Sample B5 Ridgway (1886), pp. 36, 54, 117; Color ... Fallow is one of the oldest color names in English. The first recorded use of fallow as a color name in English was in the year ...
"About Color Line - Color Lines History". Color Line. Archived from the original on 2010-12-13. Retrieved 26 December 2010. v t ... Color Group AS is a Norwegian shipping and holding company, established in 1990 as a result of the merger between Jahre Line ... The same year, Color Line took over Fred. Olsen Lines cruise-ferry operations and then expanded its business further. In ... The Color Hotel Skagen was also acquired in September 1998. The company ventured into the airline industry with the ...
Liver-colored moray eel Liver-colored horses List of colors Shades of brown Liver Chestnut (coat) Maerz and Paul A Dictionary ... Eumelanin (black) pigment colors a dog's nose, so a Liver dog will have a Liver colored nose. If the nose is black, the dog is ... This is the color of a healthy human liver. It may range from brown to reddish brown, and the color represented in the adjacent ... This is the color of Weimaraners. This color also has alternate names such as Liliac or Silver. When Liver is combined with ...
Discussion of Color Taupe, Page 183; Color Sample of Taupe: Page 55 Plate 16 Color Sample A6 List of colors (Color articles ... Lava #CF1020 Lava is a color that is a shade of red. It is named after the color of volcanic lava. This is the color (color # ... The color dark lava is the color of lava that has cooled and begun to congeal into igneous rock. The normalized color ... Color Sample of Lava: Page 39 Plate 8 Color Sample E7. Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 205 ...
... is a phenomenon where matter carries color charge without loss, on analogy to the way conventional ... "color superconductor". Actually, in many color superconducting phases the photon itself does not become massive, but mixes with ... Color superconductivity is predicted to occur in quark matter if the baryon density is sufficiently high (i.e., well above the ... The fact that a Cooper pair of quarks carries a net color charge, as well as a net electric charge, means that some of the ...
A color term (or color name) is a word or phrase that refers to a specific color. The color term may refer to human perception ... Words in Many Languages Test your own color terms SpoonFlower color map Color Method i.stack.imgur basic color terms HTML Color ... peach-color') and grey is either haiiro or nezumiiro (灰色, 鼠色, lit. 'ash-color' for light greys and 'mouse-color' for dark greys ... Abstract color terms only refer to the color they represent and any etymological link to an object of that color is lost. In ...
Digital Spot Color Systems Spot and Process Colors Explained Creating color swatches or samples to match spot colors (Articles ... DIC Color System Guide, another spot color system common in Japan - it is based on Munsell color theory. ANPA, a palette of 300 ... Because each color system creates their own colors from scratch, spot colors from one system may be impossible to find within ... In offset printing, a spot color or solid color is any color generated by an ink (pure or mixed) that is printed using a single ...
In color science, color difference or color distance is the separation between two colors. This metric allows quantified ... If these squared color distances are summed, such a metric effectively becomes the variance of the color distances. There have ... As most definitions of color difference are distances within a color space, the standard means of determining distances is the ... This will work in cases when a single color WAS to be compared to a single color and the need is to simply know whether a ...
Color Field painting? I mean, what is color? Painting has to do with a lot of things. Color is among the things it has to do ... His jagged flashes of color give the impression that one layer of color has been "torn" off the painting, revealing the colors ... Color As Field: American Painting, 1950-1975, retrieved December 7, 2008. *Wilkin, Karen and Belz, Carl. Color As Field: ... Working in Washington, D.C., Noland was a pioneer of the color field movement in the late 1950s.. Color field painting is a ...
Quickly bring your app to life with less code, using a modern declarative approach to UI, and the simplicity of Kotlin ...
... we can compare the adjectives we use to specify colors--is it maraschino red or cayenne?--but when were talking to our ... These days we have standard color systems that define colors as specified mixes of red, green, and blue pixels on screen, ... There are international standards for just about everything, but not, to my knowledge, color. I would think that primary colors ... Black ink is made up of many different colors mixed together, and each of the colored pigments will travel a different amount ...
Learn everything about the color magenta and color combinations to inspire your next design with Adobe Express. ...
Chromophore Color analysis Color in Chinese culture Color mapping Complementary colors Impossible color International Color ... The theory of color includes the color complements; color balance; and classification of primary colors (traditionally red, ... color names distinguish dark/cool colors from bright/warm colors. The next colors to be distinguished are usually red and then ... Some colors that appear distinct to an individual with normal color vision will appear metameric to the color blind. The most ...
Colors USA Colors UK Colors Australia Colors RAL Colors NBS Colors NCS Colors X11 Colors Crayola Colors Resene Colors XKCD ... Colors HOME Color Names Color Values Color Groups Color Shades Color Picker Color Mixer Color Converter Color RGB Color HEX ... Color Trends. Colors of the Year Colors 2021 Colors 2020 Colors 2019 Colors 2018 Colors 2017 Colors 2016 Color Standards. ... Color HSL Color HWB Color CMYK Color NCol Color Gradient Color Theory Color Wheels Color currentcolor Color Hues Color Schemes ...
The Mathematicians of Color Alliance of Texas is a student-run organization open to anyone interested in promoting the ... Our goal is to create a community of undergraduate and graduate math students of color through social events, mentoring, and ...
Lists of colors Buff, a similar color Khaki, another similar color Tawny (color) "tan". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved ... Plate 12 Color Sample A6; Color Sample of Cafe au Lait Aloys John Maerz; Morris Rea Paul (1930). A Dictionary of Color (1st ed ... Plate 13 Color Sample G12; Color Sample of Windsor Tan Aloys John Maerz; Morris Rea Paul (1930). A Dictionary of Color (1st ed ... Plate 13 Color Sample C8; Color Sample of Tuscan tan Aloys John Maerz; Morris Rea Paul (1930). A Dictionary of Color (1st ed ...
Add full-color photographs, tables, charts, diagrams or any other graphic to your books interior pages. ... Printer slang for "full color" is "four color"; this means the full range of colors, not literally just four colors. ... Images will be in color in four color CMYK.. *The book cover does not "count" as a graphic. It is in full color for no ... Full-color images help improve the look of your books interior layout. Please follow the guidelines below to make the best use ...
... with its RGB and HSL make up, lighter and darker colors, analogous colors, and trinary colors. ... p style="color:#E6F0EB;",Your text using HTML color code.,/p, ,p style="color:rgb(230 240 235);",Your text using RGB color ... color:rgb(230 240 235); } ,/style, ,style, p { color:hsl(150deg 25.00% 92.16%); } ,/style,. *All CSS and HTML color and color ... Color name: None. RGB: 230, 240, 235. HSL: 150deg, 25.00%, 92.16%. Web safe color: No. ...
... with its RGB and HSL make up, lighter and darker colors, analogous colors, and trinary colors. ... p style="color:#363C40;",Your text using HTML color code.,/p, ,p style="color:rgb(54 60 64);",Your text using RGB color values ... color:rgb(54 60 64); } ,/style, ,style, p { color:hsl(204deg 8.47% 23.14%); } ,/style,. *All CSS and HTML color and color code ... p, ,p style="color:hsl(204deg 8.47% 23.14%);",Your text using HSL color values.,/p,. CSS code examples. ,style, p { color:# ...
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The color experts at share tips for selecting a color palette that will stand the test of time. ... Trend Forecast: 2024 Colors and Palettes of the Year * HGTV Home by Sherwin-Williams 2023 Color Palette Is Full of Vintage- ... Most classic color combos in design are those borrowed from nature, says California designer and color expert Kelly Berg. Case ... Use the two as a base, Kelly suggests, and then add a third and a fourth color to the mix, such as blue or red. ...
Bits per Color Sample Adapter IP Parameters 11.3. Bits per Color Sample Adapter IP Interfaces 11.4. Bits per Color Sample ... About the Color Space Converter IP 20.2. Color Space Converter IP Parameters 20.3. Color Space Converter IP Functional ... Bits per Color Sample Adapter IP Interfaces. Table 68. Bits per Color Sample Adapter IP Interfaces Signal name Direction Width ... 20.1.1. Color Space Converter IP Features 20.1.2. Color Space Converter IP Performance and Resources ...
... according to modern color theory and other color models. ... Learn about the color magenta, how to create it and how to mix ... is a primary color in modern color theory. A ,ahref=http: color-blog= modern-traditional-color-theory-part-1 ... is a primary color, because primary colors cannot be created by mixing other colors. ... Using magenta like a primary color allows you to paint with a multitude of colors that you could not get with the traditional ...
Using a color chart, a caregiver can stretch a bandage until it matches the color for a desired pressure, before, say, wrapping ... "Structural color is really neat, because you can get brighter, stronger colors than with inks or dyes just by using particular ... Engineers design color-changing compression bandage Bandage is threaded with photonic fibers that change color to signal ... The team fabricated color-changing fibers with a tailored, strain-dependent color variation using the theoretical model, and ...
By default, it is black, but its color can be altered with this property. ... The caret-color CSS property sets the color of the insertion caret, the visible marker where the next character typed will be ... color. , background-color. , border-color. , outline-color. , text-decoration-color. , text-emphasis-color. , text-shadow. , ... caret-color: currentcolor; /* ,color, values */ caret-color: red; caret-color: #5729e9; caret-color: rgb(0 200 0); caret-color: ...
... soils come in an incredible range of colors. ... What is the first color that comes to mind when you envision ... Scientists document color when studying soils, as it clues them in to how soils may have formed. Color is also a good tool for ... 23, 2024 Color mixing is the process of combining two or more colors: red and green make yellow, blue and red make purple, red ... Relationship between soil color and climate. Date:. September 1, 2016. Source:. Soil Science Society of America (SSSA). Summary ...
The color envelops you and wraps around you ... ... The color of Phillip is red. Sometimes its a deep red, like ... The color comes around like a fog, to envelop us. But mostly, its the color of his hair; curly and copper. Its the color of ... The color of Phillip is red. Sometimes its a deep red, like the darkest crimson found in a bolt of velvet. The color envelops ... color. Copper. Red. cognitive linguistics. Dr. Strangelove, or How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb. Sapir-Whorf ...
"We match the color precisely to the character of the car," says Milošević, adding that "the color should be like a superb ... Communication color:. This hue is used in all communications pertaining to a specific car model. Sina Brunner checks the color ... The color experts therefore first analyze all the previous communication colors used for a particular car, from its very first ... Next, color designers come up with initial ideas and discuss them with their sales colleague Sina Brunner. Which colors reflect ...
... unusual color including causes of unusual stool color and clues to unusual stool colors, as well as when to seek care. ... Care Advice for Stools - Unusual Color. *What You Should Know About Unusual Stool Color: *Strange colors of the stool are ... Causes of Unusual Stool Color. *Almost always due to food coloring or food additives. ... All other colors are not due to a medical problem.. *Normal stools are not always dark brown. Sometimes they are light brown, ...
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In Color Filler You have to push various different colored blocks into the corresponding holes provided. This might sound easy ... Color Filler is an excellent grid-based puzzle game that was made in a week for a gamejam. This game takes inspiration from the ... There is 20 hard and well made levels that you have to beat in order to complete Color Filler. you will have fun trying to beat ... Color Filler, a free online Puzzle & Skill game brought to you by Armor Games. ...
Shop the best books on the interaction of color for beginners and experienced artists. ... Learn the basics with color theory books from Blick. ... Color Theory Books. Learn essential color information in color ... Explore the rainbow in Colors: True Color. This introduction to color covers warm and cool shades, color wheels, and color name ... 1,500 Color Mixing Recipes for Oil, Acrylic & Watercolor contains 1,500 color recipes, along with two color mixing grids for ...
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  • These days we have standard color systems that define colors as specified mixes of red, green, and blue pixels on screen, specific mixtures of pigments in paint, or different levels of cyan, magenta, yellow, and black in print but before we could refer to these numerical standards there had to be a central repository that held the definitions of every color and distributed them as reference color dictionaries. (
  • Black ink is made up of many different colors mixed together, and each of the colored pigments will travel a different amount up the paper, separating the mixture into its individual colors--hence chromato- meaning color and -graphy meaning writing in Greek. (
  • The American Society for Testing and Materials tests the lightfastness of fine-art color pigments. (
  • Colors have perceived properties such as hue, colorfulness (saturation) and luminance. (
  • These acoustic measurements were then correlated with the luminance and saturation of each color obtained from cross-linguistic color-naming data in the World Color Survey. (
  • As expected, vowels with high brightness and sonority ratings were over-represented in the words for colors with high luminance, while sonorous consonants were more common in the words for saturated colors. (
  • Animal perception of color originates from different light wavelength or spectral sensitivity in cone cell types, which is then processed by the brain. (
  • Although the spectrum of light arriving at the eye from a given direction determines the color sensation in that direction, there are many more possible spectral combinations than color sensations. (
  • This effect can be visualized by comparing the light sources' spectral power distributions and the resulting colors. (
  • The familiar colors of the rainbow in the spectrum-named using the Latin word for appearance or apparition by Isaac Newton in 1671-include all those colors that can be produced by visible light of a single wavelength only, the pure spectral or monochromatic colors. (
  • The table at right shows approximate frequencies (in terahertz) and wavelengths (in nanometers) for spectral colors in the visible range. (
  • Spectral colors have 100% purity, and are fully saturated. (
  • A complex mixture of spectral colors can be used to describe any color, which is the definition of a light power spectrum. (
  • the spectral colors form a continuous spectrum, and how it is divided into distinct colors linguistically is a matter of culture and historical contingency. (
  • Despite the ubiquitous ROYGBIV mnemonic used to remember the spectral colors in English, the inclusion or exclusion of colors in this table is contentious, with disagreement often focused on indigo and cyan. (
  • Spectral coloring is a phenomenon that becomes relevant when studying light of different "colors" (wavelengths) propagating through tissue. (
  • Color Mixing Recipes for Portraits includes more than 500 color mixing formulas for realistic skin tones, hair colors, and facial features using acr. (
  • Mark Rothko was one of the painters that Greenberg referred to as a color field painter exemplified by Magenta, Black, Green on Orange , although Rothko himself refused to adhere to any label. (
  • Whether painting in oils, acrylics or watercolors , magenta, along with cyan -- a blue almost the color of turquoise -- and yellow, is a primary color in modern color theory. (
  • deep divide remains between traditional and modern color theory , but whether you subscribe to the traditional belief that the color wheel centers on a hub of red, blue and yellow, or to modern color theory , mixing magenta is an adventure. (
  • This means, as nature artist and educator John Muir Laws says in Reinventing the Wheel, magenta, rather than red, is a primary color, because primary colors cannot be created by mixing other colors. (
  • Using magenta like a primary color allows you to paint with a multitude of colors that you could not get with the traditional primary color of red. (
  • N euroscience site Biotele asks visitors to stare at a magenta-colored dot and then look at the white space next to it. (
  • Instead of complementing red, as the traditional color wheel shows, this experiment favors the theory that magenta, not the bright fire-engine red of the traditional primary colors, is complemented by green. (
  • A complementary color for this color is #F0E6EB . (
  • After-images appear only as complementary colors. (
  • This introduction to color covers warm and cool shades, color wheels, and color name origins. (
  • With a variety of colors and shades to choose from, you can find the perfect hue to suit your individual style. (
  • We report virus genomes enables reassortment events in which novel genetic characterization of a bat rotavirus (Bat/KE4852/07) rotavirus strains are produced with new combinations of detected in the feces of a straw-colored fruit bat ( Eidolon genome segments derived from parental virus strains ( 3 ). (
  • A hair mist that gradually lightens, brightens, and illuminates color-treated or highlighted blonde hues while imparting lightweight hydration. (
  • Enter any HTML color code into our search to get results like this page. (
  • In addition, an historical retrospect of the search for color spaces that represent the human color perception as well as the reconstruction of color spaces with electrophysiological and psychophysical methods, are described. (
  • With enough layers of consistent thickness, these reflections interact to strengthen some colors in the visible spectrum, for instance red, while diminishing the brightness of other colors. (
  • This color was formulated by Crayola in 2000 as a Crayola marker color. (
  • The fibers' design relies upon an optical phenomenon known as "interference," in which light, reflected from a periodic stack of thin, transparent layers, can produce vibrant colors that depend on the stack's geometric parameters and material composition. (
  • A velvety, easy-to-apply, long-lasting color stick to effectively cover up grey hair and hide roots or add a vibrant pop of color to hair. (
  • There are dozens of compounds, each with a very descriptive color matched to it, allowing you to relatively quickly (but not too quickly) identify what is present in your mixture. (
  • In visual arts, color theory is used to govern the use of colors in an aesthetically pleasing and harmonious way. (
  • Whether you're a new artist, art hobbyist, or a pro revisiting the basics, Basic Color Theory is your guide to understanding how to effectively use co. (
  • Discover the key concepts of color theory with Artist Toolbox: Color. (
  • Learn essential color information in color theory books. (
  • Artists of any level can learn something new from color theory for artists books. (
  • You're eligible for a Genius discount at Hotel Color! (
  • Lizard Green is a very extroverted color that expresses sportiness, agility, and nimbleness. (
  • That's because Lizard Green is not simply a color but what's known as a communication color. (
  • The only colors we worry about are red, black (not dark green) and white. (
  • This often confirms that the color is really dark green. (
  • Green color of the stools is always normal. (
  • Red-green color vision defects are the most common. (
  • This hypothesis was tested on eleven color words and related concepts (red-green, yellow-blue, black-white, gray, night-day, dark-light) from 245 language families. (
  • but when we're talking to our computers , categorizing flowers , designing objects for mass production, branding a company, or establishing a flag's official colors we have to be able to be specific about which exact shade of red we want. (
  • If we want to give each derivative its own unique color, the new shade can't be too close to that of the previous model," explains Milošević. (
  • color," is Daniela Milošević's favorite shade of car paint. (
  • The photonic fibers can then serve as a continuous pressure sensor -- if their color changes, caregivers or patients can use the color chart to determine whether and to what degree the bandage needs loosening or tightening. (
  • As such, color spaces are an essential tool for color reproduction in print, photography, computer monitors and television. (
  • Finally, the article presents the possibility for reconstruction of color spaces of patients with acquired dyschromatopsia as a distortion of the color space of normal trichromats. (
  • This Horticultural Colour Chart was just such a color dictionary, prepared by the Royal Horticultural Society in 1938 for use in identifying and matching flower colors. (
  • Each of the colors is matched against the official Horticultural Colour Chart, listed in the original paper with the exact page number where it the color can be found. (
  • Color (American English) or colour (Commonwealth English) is the visual perception based on the electromagnetic spectrum. (
  • Work teams will create high-impact documents that get noticed with the brilliant colour delivered by HP office Color Laser printers. (
  • Taking issue with Harold Rosenberg (another important champion of abstract expressionism), who wrote of the virtues of action painting in his article "American Action Painters" published in the December 1952 issue of ARTnews , [4] Greenberg observed another tendency toward all-over color or color field in the works of several of the so-called "first generation" abstract expressionists. (
  • Though color is not an inherent property of matter, color perception is related to an object's light absorption, reflection, emission spectra and interference. (
  • Color field painting is a style of abstract painting that emerged in New York City during the 1940s and 1950s. (
  • Rothko, during the mid-1940s, was in the middle of a crucial period of transition, and he had been impressed by Clyfford Still 's abstract fields of color, which were influenced in part by the landscapes of Still's native North Dakota. (
  • The article presents definitions for the terms color space and color system. (
  • To visualize the constituents of his chemical mixtures he's using the van urk-Salkowski reagent ( PDF ) which reacts with many of the compounds he's interested in and turns bright colors depending on what chemical is present. (
  • Instantly cover up greys and roots or add a bright pop of color to hair. (
  • Building upon earlier perceptual experiments, we hypothesized that sonorous and bright phonemes would be over-represented in the words for bright and saturated colors. (
  • Chromatography can be done even on uncolored compounds, but there has to be some way to visualize how far up the paper (or more often some kind of silica gel) they have travelled, which can be done by shining UV light (think CSI) or by adding reagents that cause a visible color change. (
  • As the bandage is stretched, the fibers change color. (
  • Ultimately, they fashioned multilayered fibers from stretchable materials, and assumed that stretching the fibers would change the individual layers' thicknesses, enabling them to tune the fibers' color. (
  • Developers use these tests, which take place at specially equipped trial fields in desert regions, to ensure that a new paint color won't change in any way over time. (
  • Then the stool should change back to normal color. (
  • The color of resin composites change significantly from the uncured to the cured and water-aged phases. (
  • color change. (
  • In color field painting "color is freed from objective context and becomes the subject in itself. (
  • This paper investigates the underlying cognitive processes of sound-color associations by connecting perceptual evidence from research on cross-modal correspondences to sound symbolic patterns in the words for colors in natural languages. (
  • GLSEN's recent research reports on LGBTQ+ Youth of Color highlight the importance of school-based supports that address students facing racism as well as homophobia and transphobia. (
  • Colors can also be additively mixed (commonly used for actual light) or subtractively mixed (commonly used for materials). (
  • Structural color is really neat, because you can get brighter, stronger colors than with inks or dyes just by using particular arrangements of transparent materials," Sandt says. (
  • Color changes between uncured and immediately light-activated materials (ΔE1), and between immediately light-activated and one-week-37˚Cwater- stored materials (ΔE2) were obtained. (
  • This text is placeholder text to give you an idea of how this color looks when used as a font color on a white background. (
  • Enable or disable the option to use color or black-and-white images. (
  • Even if you have the Black & White option activated, you can use color images in the sections you want. (
  • On the basis of work of other researchers, Peraza said that people of color are as willing to participate in trials as White people. (
  • For most humans, colors are perceived in the visible light spectrum with three types of cone cells (trichromacy). (
  • If the colors are mixed in the right proportions, because of metamerism, they may look the same as a single-wavelength light. (
  • The physical color of an object depends on how it absorbs and scatters light. (
  • The fruits' skin is made up of cells with a periodic cellulose structure, through which light can reflect to give the fruit its signature metallic blue color. (
  • Sina Brunner checks the color under the light. (
  • Color changes that occur after the light-activation of resin composites should be understood. (
  • To evaluated the influence of light-curing devices on the color of resin composites immediately after light-activation and after one-week, at 37ºC, into water storage. (
  • Discover thousands of 3000 Color Mixing Recipes: Watercolor: The Ultimate Practical Reference to Watercolor Mixes and Dilutions by Julie Collins. (
  • The other major types are blue-yellow color vision defects and a complete absence of color vision. (
  • The Mathematicians of Color Alliance of Texas is a student-run organization open to anyone interested in promoting the mathematical development and achievements of underrepresented groups. (
  • The normalized color coordinates for Tuscan tan are identical to café au lait and French beige, which were first recorded as color names in English in 1839 and 1927, respectively. (
  • His jagged flashes of color give the impression that one layer of color has been "torn" off the painting, revealing the colors underneath, reminiscent of stalactites and primordial caverns. (
  • This text is placeholder text to give you an idea of how this color looks when used as a font color on a black background. (
  • The Color Guidance Index shows you which color recipe to use ba. (
  • Our goal is to create a community of undergraduate and graduate math students of color through social events, mentoring, and tutoring to recruit, retain, support, and empower underrepresented students within the field of math. (
  • The educators shared how they support their LGBTQ+ students of color, overviewed some best practices, and discussed who they are and how they can be as important as what they do. (
  • These colors persist as long as the structure is maintained. (
  • One important source of inspiration for us is the furniture industry, which also needs a long lead time for its colors," says Milošević. (
  • If you're looking for a hair color that will last longer than the average salon visit, you'll want to try long-lasting hair colors. (
  • I do t want to dye my hair because I love that my hair color is the exact same color as my son. (
  • I used thin layer chromatography in a CSI type lab class I taught to match the color of pens used in a "crime" It was fun! (
  • We match the color precisely to the character of the car," says Milošević, adding that "the color should be like a superb article of clothing that perfectly highlights the car's qualities. (
  • In order for this process to be successful, the color designers need to have their finger on the pulse of current trends-and possess extraordinary visionary skills. (
  • There is 20 hard and well made levels that you have to beat in order to complete Color Filler. (