A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of stem cells by assaying their activity.
Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.
A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain two SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Mutations in the gene for protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 are associated with NOONAN SYNDROME.
A genetically heterogeneous, multifaceted disorder characterized by short stature, webbed neck, ptosis, skeletal malformations, hypertelorism, hormonal imbalance, CRYPTORCHIDISM, multiple cardiac abnormalities (most commonly including PULMONARY VALVE STENOSIS), and some degree of INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. The phenotype bears similarities to that of TURNER SYNDROME that occurs only in females and has its basis in a 45, X karyotype abnormality. Noonan syndrome occurs in both males and females with a normal karyotype (46,XX and 46,XY). Mutations in a several genes (PTPN11, KRAS, SOS1, NF1 and RAF1) have been associated the the NS phenotype. Mutations in PTPN11 are the most common. LEOPARD SYNDROME, a disorder that has clinical features overlapping those of Noonan Syndrome, is also due to mutations in PTPN11. In addition, there is overlap with the syndrome called neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome due to mutations in NF1.
An enzyme group that specifically dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl residues in selected proteins. Together with PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE, it regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cellular signal transduction and may play a role in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
A Src-homology domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase found in the CYTOSOL of hematopoietic cells. It plays a role in signal transduction by dephosphorylating signaling proteins that are activated or inactivated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES.
An autosomal dominant disorder with an acronym of its seven features (LENTIGO; ELECTROCARDIOGRAM abnormalities; ocular HYPERTELORISM; PULMONARY STENOSIS; abnormal genitalia; retardation of growth; and DEAFNESS or SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS). This syndrome is caused by mutations of PTPN11 gene encoding the non-receptor PROTEIN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE, type 11, and is an allelic to NOONAN SYNDROME. Features of LEOPARD syndrome overlap with those of NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1 which is caused by mutations in the NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1 GENES.
Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A former branch of knowledge embracing the study, description, and classification of natural objects (as animals, plants, and minerals) and thus including the modern sciences of zoology, botany, and mineralogy insofar as they existed at that time. In the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries it was much used for the generalized pursuit of certain areas of science. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
A clinical syndrome characterized by repeated spontaneous hemorrhages and a remarkable increase in the number of circulating platelets.
A particular zone of tissue composed of a specialized microenvironment where stem cells are retained in a undifferentiated, self-renewable state.
A myeloproliferative disorder of unknown etiology, characterized by abnormal proliferation of all hematopoietic bone marrow elements and an absolute increase in red cell mass and total blood volume, associated frequently with splenomegaly, leukocytosis, and thrombocythemia. Hematopoiesis is also reactive in extramedullary sites (liver and spleen). In time myelofibrosis occurs.
A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTORS; PROLACTIN RECEPTORS; and a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS such as ERYTHROPOIETIN RECEPTORS and INTERLEUKIN RECEPTORS. Dysregulation of Janus kinase 2 due to GENETIC TRANSLOCATIONS have been associated with a variety of MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.
A severe sometimes chronic anemia, usually macrocytic in type, that does not respond to ordinary antianemic therapy.
The production of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES). In humans, erythrocytes are produced by the YOLK SAC in the first trimester; by the liver in the second trimester; by the BONE MARROW in the third trimester and after birth. In normal individuals, the erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood remains relatively constant implying a balance between the rate of erythrocyte production and rate of destruction.
The cells in the erythroid series derived from MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS or from the bi-potential MEGAKARYOCYTE-ERYTHROID PROGENITOR CELLS which eventually give rise to mature RED BLOOD CELLS. The erythroid progenitor cells develop in two phases: erythroid burst-forming units (BFU-E) followed by erythroid colony-forming units (CFU-E); BFU-E differentiate into CFU-E on stimulation by ERYTHROPOIETIN, and then further differentiate into ERYTHROBLASTS when stimulated by other factors.
Anemia characterized by the presence of erythroblasts containing excessive deposits of iron in the marrow.
Chronic refractory anemia with granulocytopenia, and/or thrombocytopenia. Myeloblasts and progranulocytes constitute 5 to 40 percent of the nucleated marrow cells.
Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.
Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in mice infected with mouse leukemia viruses (MuLV). The syndrome shows striking similarities with human AIDS and is characterized by lymphadenopathy, profound immunosuppression, enhanced susceptibility to opportunistic infections, and B-cell lymphomas.
Virus diseases caused by the RETROVIRIDAE.
Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Euploid male germ cells of an early stage of SPERMATOGENESIS, derived from prespermatogonia. With the onset of puberty, spermatogonia at the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule proliferate by mitotic then meiotic divisions and give rise to the haploid SPERMATOCYTES.
Cells with high proliferative and self renewal capacities derived from adults.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind certain aryl hydrocarbons, translocate to the nucleus, and activate transcription of particular DNA segments. AH receptors are identified by their high-affinity binding to several carcinogenic or teratogenic environmental chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in cigarette smoke and smog, heterocyclic amines found in cooked foods, and halogenated hydrocarbons including dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. No endogenous ligand has been identified, but an unknown natural messenger with a role in cell differentiation and development is suspected.
A chemical by-product that results from burning or incinerating chlorinated industrial chemicals and other hydrocarbons. This compound is considered an environmental toxin, and may pose reproductive, as well as, other health risks for animals and humans.
Stem cells derived from HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS. Derived from these myeloid progenitor cells are the MEGAKARYOCYTES; ERYTHROID CELLS; MYELOID CELLS; and some DENDRITIC CELLS.

Increase of hematopoietic responses by triple or single helical conformer of an antitumor (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan preparation, Sonifilan, in cyclophosphamide-induced leukopenic mice. (1/3030)

It has been suggested that the immunopharmacological activity of soluble (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan depends on its conformation in mice. In this study, we examined the relationship between the conformation of Sonifilan (SPG) and hematopietic responses in cyclophosphamide (Cy)-induced leukopenic mice. SPG, a high molecular weight (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan, has a triple helical conformation in water, and it was changed by treatment with aqueous sodium hydroxide to the single helical conformer (SPG-OH). The effects of SPG or SPG-OH on hematopoietic responses in cyclophosphamide induced leukopenic mice were investigated by monitoring i) gene expression of cytokines by RT-PCR, ii) protein synthesis of interleukin 6 (IL-6) by ELISA and iii) colony formation of bone marrow cells (BMC). The mice administered Cy and SPG or SPG-OH expressed and produced higher levels of IL-6 mRNA and protein than the mice administered only Cy. Gene expression of NK1.1 was also induced by Cy/SPG (or SPG-OH) treatment. Induced gene expression of stem cell factor (SCF) and macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) by SPG/SPG-OH were also found in in vitro culture of BMC from Cy treated mice. These results strongly suggested that conformation of the glucans, single and triple helix, are independent of the hematopietic response.  (+info)

Functional characterization of a novel hematopoietic stem cell and its place in the c-Kit maturation pathway in bone marrow cell development. (2/3030)

While the majority of purified pluripotential hematopoietic stem cells (PHSC) express c-Kit, the receptor for steel factor, we have phenotypically and functionally separated a distinct class of PHSC that does not express c-Kit. In contrast to c-Kit-positive (c-Kit(pos)) PHSC, the c-Kit-negative (c-Kit(neg)) PHSC do not proliferate in response to multiple hematopoietic growth factors in vitro and do not radioprotect or form macroscopic spleen colonies (CFU-s) when transplanted into lethally irradiated recipients. However, the c-Kit(neg) PHSC show delayed or slow reconstitution kinetics when cotransplanted with radioprotective bone marrow cells. c-Kit(neg) PHSCs cells can give rise to c-Kit(pos) cells with CFU-s activity, radioprotective activity, and PHSC activity. Thus, constitutive hematopoiesis is maintained by c-Kit(pos) PHSCS cells that are recruited from a more primitive quiescent c-Kit(neg) PHSC population, which represents a critical developmental stage in definitive hematopoiesis.  (+info)

Single leukapheresis products collected from healthy donors after the administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor contain ten-fold higher numbers of long-term reconstituting hematopoietic progenitor cells than conventional bone marrow allografts. (3/3030)

Cytokine-mobilized peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPCs) have been used successfully for hematopoietic reconstitution following allogeneic transplantation. The ease of harvest, the faster engraftment and the high yield of CD34+ cells have made this source of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) an attractive alternative to bone marrow (BM). In the present study we compared the engraftment potential of conventional BM allografts and single leukapheresis products (LPs) collected from healthy donors following the administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). For this, lineage-committed and primitive HPCs were assessed by flow cytometry and by colony- and cobblestone area-forming cell (CFC, CAFC) assays. Mean numbers of CD34+ cells in LPs (n = 11) were similar to that of BM grafts (n = 12) (278+/-57 vs 227+/-34 x 10(6) CD34+ cells). The frequencies of CFCs, week 5 CAFCs and week 8 CAFCs were 1.6-, 8.4- and 10.3-fold higher in the CD34+ compartment of mobilized blood than that of marrow, resulting in significantly higher yields of clonogenic HPCs in LPs when compared to BM grafts. We conclude that G-CSF preferentially mobilizes clonogenic progenitors capable of short- and, in particular, longterm reconstitution, and that the engraftment potential of single LPs is superior to that of BM allografts. Hence, the use of PBPCs may be favorable for protocols that include graft manipulations with expected cell loss (eg T cell depletion, CD34+ selection). PBPCs may also be advantageous for gene therapy trials due to their high numbers of potential target cells (eg CAFCs).  (+info)

Influence of increased c-Myc expression on the growth characteristics of human melanoma. (4/3030)

Overexpression of the proto-oncogene c-myc has been associated with neoplastic transformation in a variety of tumors. For human melanoma high c-myc expression has been found in the vertical growth phase and higher positivity reported in metastases than primary tumors. The principle aim of this study was to determine, whether c-Myc expression influences the metastatic behavior of human melanoma in the absence of lymphocyte-mediated immune phenomena. The growth characteristics and tumor biology of two c-myc transfectants of the human melanoma cell line IGR39D, expressing c-Myc 1.7 and three times over baseline and the respective vector control were analyzed both in vitro and in a severe combined immunodeficient mouse model in vivo. Both c-myc transfectants showed increased growth rates, anchorage independent growth and directed cell movement in culture. Subcutaneously implanted IGR39D melanomas highly overexpressing c-Myc spontaneously formed macroscopic metastases (lymph nodes and lung) in severe combined immunodeficient mice in all cases (n = 7 per group), whereas less prominent c-Myc overexpression caused the development of only lung micrometastases. During the time period leading to terminal disease in animals injected with c-myc transfected human melanoma cells, melanoma development was not seen in vector controls. These findings suggest that constitutive high c-Myc expression in human melanoma results in a more aggressive growth behavior both in vitro and in vivo and favors metastasis in severe combined immunodeficient mice by factors unrelated to immune phenomena such as class I human leukocyte antigen downregulation known to be associated with c-Myc expression.  (+info)

Differential behaviors toward ultraviolet A and B radiation of fibroblasts and keratinocytes from normal and DNA-repair-deficient patients. (5/3030)

Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and trichothiodystrophy (TTD) are rare genodermatoses transmitted as recessive and autosomal traits that result in reduced capacity to repair UV-induced DNA lesions. Although XP, but not TTD, patients are prone to basal and squamous cell carcinomas, to date no comparative studies of the XP and TTD phenotypes have included epidermal keratinocytes. We compared the DNA repair capacity (by unscheduled DNA synthesis) and cell survival (by clonal analysis) of epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts grown from normal individuals and patients with xeroderma pigmentosum and trichothiodystrophy following UVA and UVB irradiation. The same dose of UVB (1000 J/m2) induced twice as many DNA lesions in normal fibroblasts as in normal keratinocytes. UV survival rates were always higher in keratinocytes than in fibroblasts. Normal and TTD keratinocytes survived better following UVA and UVB irradiation than XP-C and XP-D keratinocytes. XP-C keratinocytes exhibited exacerbated sensitivity toward UVA radiation. Unscheduled DNA synthesis at UV doses leading to 50% cell survival indicated that the ratio of DNA repair capacity to cell survival is higher in keratinocytes than in fibroblasts. In addition, UVA and UVB irradiation induced a transition from proliferative to abortive keratinocyte colonies. This transition varied between donors and was in part correlated with their cancer susceptibility. Altogether these data provide the first evidence of the differential behaviors of normal, XP, and TTD keratinocytes toward UV radiation.  (+info)

Primitive hematopoietic progenitors within mobilized blood are spared by uncontrolled rate freezing. (6/3030)

Uncontrolled-rate freezing techniques represent an attractive alternative to controlled-rate cryopreservation procedures which are time-consuming and require high-level technical expertise. In this study, we report our experience using uncontrolled-rate cryopreservation and mechanical freezer storage at -140 degrees C. Twenty-eight PBPC samples (10 cryovials, 18 freezing bags) from 23 patients were cryopreserved in a cryoprotectant solution composed of phosphate-buffered saline (80%, v/v) supplemented with human serum albumin (10%, v/v) and dimethylsulfoxide (10%, v/v). The cryopreservation procedure required on average 1.5 h. The mean (+/- s.e.m.) storage time of cryovials and bags was 344+/-40 and 299+57 days, respectively. Although cell thawing was associated with a statistically significant reduction of the absolute number of nucleated cells (vials: 0.3x10(9) vs. 0.2x10(9), P< or =0.02; bags: 14x10(9) vs. 11x10(9), P< or =0.0003), the growth of committed progenitors was substantially unaffected by the freezing-thawing procedure, with mean recoveries of CFU-Mix, BFU-E, and CFU-GM ranging from 60+/- 29% to 134+/-15%. Mean recoveries of LTC-IC from cryovials and bags were 262+/-101% and 155+/-27% (P< or =0.2), respectively. In 14 out of 23 patients who underwent high-dose chemotherapy and PBPC reinfusion, the pre-and post-freezing absolute numbers of hematopoietic progenitors cryopreserved in bags were compared. A significant reduction was detected for CFU-Mix (11 vs. 7.4x10(5)), but no significant loss of BFU-E (180 vs. 150x10(5)), CFU-GM (400 vs. 290x10(5)) and LTC-IC (15 vs. 16x10(5)) could be demonstrated. When these patients were reinfused with uncontrolled-rate cryopreserved PBPC, the mean number of days to reach 1x10(9)/l white blood cells and 50x10(9)/l platelets were 9 and 13, respectively. In conclusion, the procedure described here is characterized by short execution time, allows a substantial recovery of primitive and committed progenitors and is associated with prompt hematopoietic recovery following myeloablative therapy even after long-term storage.  (+info)

Conclusions of a national multicenter intercomparative study of in vitro cultures of human hematopoietic progenitors. (7/3030)

With the aim of developing a standardized program of clonogenic cultures, a multicenter intercomparative study of human CFU-GM, BFU-E and CFU-GEMM cultures was conducted. Aliquots of fresh mononuclear cord blood cells, as well as uniform culture materials and instructions for cell culture and for colony scoring were distributed to 28 national laboratories involved in hematopoietic research and transplantation. High interlaboratory coefficients of variation (CV) in the reported number of progenitors were found in our first intercomparative study (range 67-231%). To investigate the relevance of colony scoring in variations of the reported colony numbers, participants were invited to attend a meeting where a single culture dish was scored. In this case, the CVs ranged from 31% to 81%. A subsequent intercomparative assay was then conducted, and significant reductions in the inter-laboratory CVs were obtained with respect to the first study (CVs for colonies grown with two different media: CFU-GMs, 48% and 55%; BFU-Es, 70% and 62%; CFU-GEMMs, 70% and 51%; respectively). In most instances CVs were not significantly different from those obtained in the single plate scoring study, suggesting that the scoring process was the most relevant parameter accounting for variations in the reported colony numbers.  (+info)

Role of interleukin 10 and transforming growth factor beta1 in the angiogenesis and metastasis of human prostate primary tumor lines from orthotopic implants in severe combined immunodeficiency mice. (8/3030)

Transfection of primary human prostate tumor cells (i.e., HPCA-10a, 10b, 10c, and 10d lines) with the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 gene stimulated anchorage-independent growth and promoted tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis after orthotopic implantation in severe combined immunodeficiency mice. In contrast, interleukin (IL)-10 transfected cells or cells cotransfected with these two genes exhibited reduced growth rates and significantly reduced angiogenesis and metastasis after 8, 12, and 16 weeks. Enzyme-linked immunosandwich assays confirmed that the respective tumors expressed elevated levels of TGF-beta1 and IL-10 in vivo. ELISAs further showed that TGF-beta1 expression induced matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2) expression, whereas IL-10 down-regulated MMP-2 expression while up regulating TIMP-1 in the transfected cells. Also, tumor factor VIII levels correlated with TGF-beta1 and MMP-2 expression and inversely with IL-10 and TIMP-1 levels. More importantly, mouse survival was zero after 4-6 months in mice bearing TGF-beta1- and MMP-2-expressing tumors and increased significantly in mice implanted with IL-10- and TIMP-1-expressing tumors (i.e., to >80% survival). Analysis of the metastatic lesions showed that they expressed TGF-beta1 and MMP-2 but barely detectable levels of IL-10 or TIMP-1, suggesting that IL-10 and TIMP-1 might normally block tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis.  (+info)

CFU-GM - Colony-Forming Unit-Granulocyte and Monocyte. Looking for abbreviations of CFU-GM? It is Colony-Forming Unit-Granulocyte and Monocyte. Colony-Forming Unit-Granulocyte and Monocyte listed as CFU-GM
We studied the adhesion of primitive and committed progenitors from chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and normal bone marrow to stroma and to several extracellular matrix components. In contrast to benign primitive progenitors from CML or normal bone marrow, Ph1-positive primitive progenitors from CML bone marrow fail to adhere to normal stromal layers and to fibronectin and its proteolytic fragments, but do adhere to collagen type IV, an extracellular matrix component of basement membranes. Similarly, multilineage colony-forming unit (CFU-MIX) progenitors from CML bone marrow do not adhere to fibronectin or its adhesion promoting fragments but adhere to collagen type IV. Unlike committed progenitors from normal bone marrow, CML single-lineage burst-forming units-erythroid and granulocyte/macrophage colony-forming units fail to adhere to fibronectin or its components but do adhere to both collagen type IV and laminin. Evaluation of adhesion receptor expression demonstrates that fibronectin ...
Antiangiogenic therapy of cancer is highly attractive for several reasons (reviewed in Refs. 38, 39, 40 ). For instance, it can potentially overcome three major problems associated with other anticancer therapies, i.e., the problems of drug resistance (41 , 42) , poor delivery (43 , 44) , and tumor heterogeneity. One approach to the antiangiogenic therapy is antibody-based targeting of tumor vasculature. We have been targeting EDG on tumor vasculature in vivo (9 , 15 , 16) . Several features of EDG are described above (see Introduction). In addition, our anti-EDG mAbs showed little reactivity with normal human bone marrow cells (1) . This observation is consistent with our later finding that anti-EDG immunotoxin (i.e., ricin A-chain conjugate of SN6) selectively eradicated EDG-expressing cells without severely damaging normal human hematopoietic progenitors in the colony-forming unit assays.4 The results suggest that administration of therapeutic doses of an appropriate anti-EDG mAb and ...
Bone Marrow Cells;Cell Count;Cell Differentiation;Cells, Cultured;Colony-Forming Units Assay;Fetal Blood--cytology;Hematopoietic Stem Cells--cytology; ...
Cell Cycle--drug effects;Cells, Cultured;Colony-Forming Units Assay;Hematopoietic Stem Cells--drug effects;Interleukin-3;Fluorouracil;Lymphokines--pharmacology;Mice;Spleen-- ...
We previously demonstrated that 3-azido-3-deoxythymidine (AZT) inhibits growth proliferation of human bone marrow progenitor cells in vitro [Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 31:452-454 (1987)]. The present study evaluates the effect of toxic concentrations of AZT on possible sites of toxicity in human bone marrow cells. Exposure of cells over a 6-hr period to AZT concentrations between 0.5 and 50 microM resulted in a decreased incorporation of tritiated deoxyguanosine into DNA. Unchanged AZT and its phosphorylated metabolites accumulated within cells after exposure to 10 microM [3H]AZT. 3-Azido-3-deoxythymidine-5-monophosphate was the predominant metabolite, reaching a concentration of 49.2 +/- 14.1 pmol/10(6) cells after 48 hr, and a continuous increase was observed in all phosphorylated derivative levels between 2 and 48 hr of incubation. Using a highly sensitive and specific DNA polymerase assay, endogenous deoxyribonucleotide pool size(s) were analyzed for 48 hr after incubation of cells ...
Myelotoxicity of pesticides and algal toxin was detected in vitro by using the granulocyte-macrophage colony forming unit assay (CFU-GM), and the MTT test with SR-4987 cells, an established stromal cell line derived from a long term murine bone marrow culture, which may represent a suitable in vitro model for studying haematotoxicity. Comparison of the IC50s and NOELs obtained with the CFU-GM assay and those determined by testing the established stromal cells in the MTT cytotoxicity test indicate that inhibition of the proliferation of SR-4987 stromal cells is a sensitive in vitro endpoint for measuring myelotoxicity. It is suggested that this assay could be used as rapid and easy sceening test for determining the haematoxicity of environmental toxins. A comparison with results obtained with the MTT test on a non-differentiated cell line, 3T3-L1, was carried out to distinguish between non-specific interference with cell proliferation and specific toxicity on haemopoietic cells ...
Ten grams of hamburger were added to 90 mL of sterile buffer. This was mixed well in a blender. One-tenth of a mL of this slurry was added to 9.9 mL of sterile buffer. After thorough mixing, this suspension was further diluted by.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endothelial colony-forming cell role in neoangiogenesis and tissue repair. AU - Critser, Paul J.. AU - Yoder, Mervin C.. PY - 2010/2/1. Y1 - 2010/2/1. N2 - Purpose of review: Patients suffering from vascular disease often have impaired angiogenic ability contributing to impaired tissue repair. One potential therapy is to deliver cells that can aid in angiogenesis. This review will discuss the ability of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which have been reported to contribute to neoangiogenesis in both physiological and pathological conditions, to contribute to neoangiogenesis in tissue repair. Recent findings: In recent years, various reports have described conflicting roles for EPC in vessel formation. Currently there are three different assays for outgrowth of EPC all resulting in the isolation of different cell populations. This confusion is partially due to limited functional characterization of putative EPC populations. One population, endothelial colony-forming cell ...
BACKGROUND: Endothelial progenitor cells play a pivotal role in tissue repair, and thus are used for cell replacement therapies in regenerative medicine. We tested whether the anesthetic sevoflurane would modulate growth or mobilization of these angiogenic cells. METHODS: In an in vitro model, mononuclear cells isolated from peripheral blood of healthy donors were preconditioned with sevoflurane (3 times 30 min at 2 vol% interspersed by 30 min of air). Colony-forming units were determined after 9 days in culture and compared with time-matched untreated control. Using magnetic cell sorting, CD133+/CD34+ endothelial progenitors were enriched from human umbilical cord blood, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGFR2 (KDR), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), STAT3, c-kit, and CXCR4 expressions were determined in sevoflurane-treated and untreated cells by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. In a volunteer study with crossover design, we tested whether ...
Umbilical cord blood-derived endothelial colony-forming cells (UCB-ECFC) show utility in neovascularization, but their contribution to osteogenesis has not been defined. Cocultures of UCB-ECFC with human fetal-mesenchymal stem cells (hfMSC) resulted in earlier induction of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (Day 7 vs. 10) and increased mineralization (1.9x; p < .001) compared to hfMSC monocultures. This effect was mediated through soluble factors in ECFC-conditioned media, leading to 1.8-2.2x higher ALP levels and a 1.4-1.5x increase in calcium deposition (p < .01) in a dose-dependent manner. Transcriptomic and protein array studies demonstrated high basal levels of osteogenic (BMPs and TGF-βs) and angiogenic (VEGF and angiopoietins) regulators. Comparison of defined UCB and adult peripheral blood ECFC showed higher osteogenic and angiogenic gene expression in UCB-ECFC. Subcutaneous implantation of UCB-ECFC with hfMSC in immunodeficient mice resulted in the formation of chimeric human vessels, ...
Programmed cell death-2 (PDCD2) protein is enriched in embryonic, hematopoietic, and neural stem cells, however, its function in stem/progenitor cell differentiation is unclear. We investigated the effects of PDCD2 knockdown on the development and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC). CD34(+) cells derived from normal human bone marrow and K562 leukemic cells were effectively transduced with short-hairpin RNA to knockdown PDCD2. Colony-forming assays were used to investigate the effects of PDCD2 loss on HPC clonogenic potential and on 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate-and arabinofuranosylcytosine-induced terminal differentiation. In CD34(+) clonogenic progenitors, PDCD2 knockdown decreased the total number of colony-forming units, increased the number of colony-forming units-granulocyte-erythroid-macrophage-megakaryocyte and burst-forming unit-erythroid primitive colonies, and decreased the number of burst-forming unit-erythroid mature colonies. Similar results were ...
To expand on the findings from previous clinical trials that the growth of residual tumor is increased at a predictable time following initial drug administration, malignant plasma cells from bone marrows of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) were examined for changes in proliferation and clonogenicity induced in vivo by cyclophosphamide and in vitro by drug-induced humoral stimulatory activity. Peak plasma cell [3H]thymidine labeling index (LI) occurred predictably following drug and paralleled changes in agar colony formation by marrow cells obtained during therapy. Colony-forming capacity of pretreatment MM marrow populations was enhanced when those cells were cultured with humoral stimulatory activity, similar to the increased colony formation detected in Day 9 postcyclophosphamide marrows at the time of peak plasma cell LI.. To further define a relationship between proliferative plasma cells and colony-forming tumor cells, MM Marrows were fractionated by sedimentation on an isokinetic ...
Lung Basal Stem Cells Rapidly Repair DNA Damage Using the Error-Prone Nonhomologous End-Joining Pathway Investigators showed that human basal stem cells (BSCs) isolated from heavy smokers proliferate extensively, whereas their alveolar progenitor cell counterparts have limited colony-forming capacity. They demonstrated that this difference arises in part because of the ability of BSCs to repair their DNA more efficiently than alveolar cells following ionizing radiation or chemical-induced DNA damage. [PLoS Biol] Full Article , Press Release Differentiated State of Initiating Tumor Cells Is Key to Distinctive Immune Responses Seen in H-RasG12V-Induced Squamous Tumors In two doxycycline-inducible models where oncogenic H-RasG12V is targeted either to the epidermal basal/stem cell layer with a Keratin14-rtTA transgene, or committed progenitor/suprabasal cells with an Involucrin-tTA transgene, investigators observed strikingly distinct tumor immune responses. These data showed that position of tumor ...
Effects of 1R-Chl on colony formation of CML patient MNCs and normal human MNCs.(A) MNCs from CML patients were cultured with rh stem cell factor, rh IL-3, rh G
Vascular Incorporation of Endothelial Colony-Forming Cells Is Essential for Functional Recovery of Murine Ischemic Tissue following Cell Therapy
SmartDish™ is meniscus-free cultureware that improves the accuracy of manual and automated counting of hematopoietic colony assays.
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We evaluated the effects of natural purine and pyrimidine nucleosides on protection from or reversal of 3-azido-3-deoxythymidine (AZT) cytotoxicity in human bone marrow progenitor cells by using clonogenic assays. The selectivity of the protection or rescue agents was examined in evaluating the antiretroviral activity of AZT in combination with these modulating agents and of AZT alone. Following exposure of human granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells for 2 h to 5 microM AZT (70% inhibitory concentration), increasing concentrations of potential rescue agents were added. Cells were cultured, and colony formation was assessed after 14 days. At concentrations of up to 50 microM no natural 2-deoxynucleosides, including thymidine, were able to reverse the toxic effects of AZT. Dose-dependent reversal was observed with uridine and cytidine, and essentially complete reversal was achieved with 50 microM uridine. In the protection studies, 100 microM thymidine almost completely antagonized the ...
Abstract. We show here for the first time that pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells express the CD4 antigen. CD4+ cells isolated from mouse marrow repopulated
TY - JOUR. T1 - Intrinsic Hematopoietic Stem Cell/Progenitor Plasticity. T2 - Inversions. AU - Colvin, Gerald A.. AU - Lambert, Jean François. AU - Moore, Brian E.. AU - Carlson, Jane E.. AU - Dooner, Mark S.. AU - Abedi, Mehrdad. AU - Cerny, Jan. AU - Quesenberry, Peter J.. PY - 2004/4. Y1 - 2004/4. N2 - Traditional concepts indicate that stem cells give rise to progenitor cells in a hierarchical system. We studied murine engraftable stem cells (ESCs) and progenitors in in vitro and found that ESC and progenitors exist in a reversible continuum, rather then a hierarchy. B6.SJL and BALB/c marrow cells were serially cultured with thrombopoietin (TPO), FLT-3 ligand (FLT-3L), and steel factor through cell cycle. Progenitors (high-proliferative potential colony-forming cells (HPP-CFC) and colony-forming unit culture (CFU-c)) and ESC capacity was determined. The cell cycle status of purified lineage negativerhodaminelowHoechstlow stem cells was determined under the same conditions using tritiated ...
L-selectin acts as a homing receptor for lymphocytes to enter secondary lymphoid tissues via high endothelial venules. Ligands present on endothelial cells will bind to lymphocytes expressing L-selectin, slowing lymphocyte trafficking through the blood, and facilitating entry into a secondary lymphoid organ at that point.[2] The receptor is commonly found on the cell surfaces of T cells. Naive T-lymphocytes, which have not yet encountered their specific antigen, need to enter secondary lymph nodes to encounter their antigen. Central memory T-lymphocytes, which have encountered antigen, express L-selectin to localize in secondary lymphoid organs. Here they reside ready to proliferate upon re-encountering antigen. Effector memory T-lymphocytes do not express L-selectin, as they circulate in the periphery and have immediate effector functions upon encountering antigen. High expression of L-selectin on human bone marrow progenitor cells is an early sign of cells becoming committed to lymphoid ...
A methodology for selection of the CD8 cell subset from the peripheral blood and bone marrow mononuclear cells was developed using anti-T8 (CD8) antibody and magnetic microspheres coated with anti-mouse IgG. Following optimization of antibody:cell binding ratio and microsphere:cell ratios, CD8(+)-cells in the peripheral blood and bone marrow were effectively removed, with an overall final recovery of 34.9% +/- 8.6%, and 56% +/- 8.5% respectively with complete recovery of stem cells and very little contamination with effector cells. CD8(+)-depleted cell preparations demonstrated a 3-4 fold increase in CFU-C and CFU-E colony formation over non-depleted preparations when stimulated with G-CSF, GM-CSF or IL-3 and erythropoietin. The largest increase in colony formation was evident when IL-3 was used to stimulate colony formation. Purified autologous CD8+ T-cells or culture supernatant from in vitro cultures of purified autologous CD8+ T-cells added back to CD8 depleted preparations, induced 20%-90%
Hemopoietic precursors with the ability to differentiate into wide varieties of cell types are considered primitive, as are precursors with long-term repopulating ability. Here we study the populations of marrow precursors from which both myeloid and lymphoid lineages are descended shortly after transplantation. Surprisingly, few or none of these precursors show long-term repopulating ability. Equal portions of a mixture of marrow cells from C57BL/6J (B6) and congenic B6-Hbbd Gpi-1a mice are transplanted into a group of recipients. Three weeks later, highly significant correlations between percentages of B6 type T cells, B cells, granulocytes, and platelets in each recipient indicate that many lymphoid and myeloid cells are descended from common precursors. After 4-6 weeks, most correlations between lymphoid and myeloid cells improve, indicating that most or all differentiated cells are descended from common precursors. The more differentiated myeloid-specific precursors found in spleen
Differentiation of Neural-Crest-Derived Intermediate Pluripotent Progenitors into Committed Periodontal Populations Involves Unique Molecular Signature Changes, Cohort Shifts, and Epigenetic Modifications. Smit Jayant Dangaria, Yoshihiro Ito, Xianghong Luan, Thomas G.H. Diekwisch. Stem Cells Dev. 2011 January; 20(1): 39-52. Published online 2010 July 6. doi: 10.1089/scd.2010.0180. PMCID: PMC3128775 ...
PRIME-XV® Mouse Hematopoietic Cell Basal Medium was developed in a collaboration program with a leading stem-cell research facility in the USA to fulfill the need for a serum-free, cost-effective medium for in vitro culture and expansion and self-renewal of murine hematopoietic progenitor cells (mHPCs).. PRIME-XV Mouse Hematopoietic Cell Basal Medium is:. ...
Confluent monolayers of LLC-MK2 cells used in FFU reduction assays were exposed to increasing concentrations of peptide before measuring selleck chemicals Tofacitinib mitochondrial reductase activity using an MTT mitochondrial reductase activity assay (Figure 3). When we initially performed these assays to exactly mimic the focus forming unit assay by waiting five days after peptide exposure, we saw no evidence of toxicity at any concentration of any peptide (data not shown). However, we found that a shorter post-exposure incubation time revealed a subtle toxicity on the part of one of the peptides. Apparently, waiting more than 24 h post-exposure gives the cells a chance to recover and conceals this effect. At 24 h post-exposure, DN57opt was found to be mildly toxic to cells at 40 ��M (one-way ANOVA with Dunnets post hoc test, P=0.. 0004, N=18), so only inhibitory data using lower, nontoxic concentrations was considered. Peptides DN57optscr, 1OAN1, and 1OAN1scr were not toxic at any ...
Stem cells are distinctive cells that can differentiate into any form of the cell of the body owing to its property of totipotency. Hence, they are a continuous resource of the specialized cells that built the organs and tissues.
Caltag Medsystems offer the following services: custom antibodies, angiogenesis services, drug discovery, stem cell assays, genotyping, custom MHC tetramers, flow cytometry, immunoassays, medical device testing and protein analysis.
Caltag Medsystems offer the following services: custom antibodies, angiogenesis services, drug discovery, stem cell assays, genotyping, custom MHC tetramers, flow cytometry, immunoassays, medical device testing and protein analysis.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Suppression and potentiation of mouse hematopoietic progenitor cell proliferation by ouabain. AU - Spivak, J. L.. AU - Misiti, J.. AU - Stuart, R.. AU - Sharkis, S. J.. AU - Sensenbrenner, L. L.. PY - 1980. Y1 - 1980. N2 - Clonal assays for CFU-S, CFU-C, BFU-E, and CFU-E were employed to evaluate the effect of ouabain on the proliferation of mouse hematopoietic progenitor cells. Preincubation of bone marrow cells with ouabain at concentrations of 10-6-10-12 M suppressed the proliferation of CFU-S as measured by the spleen colony assay. At 10-9 M ouabain, spleen colony formation was inhibited by more than 95%. When included in soft agar cultures of bone marrow cells, ouabain suppressed the proliferation of CFU-C in a complex fashion. At 10-4 M ouabain, colony formation was suppressed by 70%, while at 10-6 M ouabain, CFU-C proliferation was normal. At 10-9 M ouabain, however, the number of colonies formed was only 70% of normal, and complete recovery was not obtained at 10-12 M ...
Techniques for the development of ovine bone marrow-derived haemopoietic progenitor cells and in situ identification of colony morphology are described. Both mitogen stimulated lymphoid cells and antigen stimulated helper T-cells generated potent colony-stimulating activity in conditioned medium. Monocyte/macrophage, neutrophil, eosinophil, basophil/mast cell, neutrophil/monocyte and mixed phenotype colonies developed in stimulated bone marrow cultures in a conditioned medium dose-dependent manner. Neutrophil, monocyte/macrophage and eosinophil colonies were detected in greater numbers than the other types, with mixed colonies representing only around 1% of the total. Eosinophil colonies were particularly abundant when compared to published reports of the numbers obtained with similar cultures of normal mouse or human bone marrow cells. This culture technique will allow a detailed analysis of both ovine colony-stimulating factors and of the distribution of haemopoietic progenitor cells in vivo.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Association of cell cycle expression of Ia-like antigenic determinants on normal human multipotential (CFU-GEMM) and erythroid (BFU-E) progenitor cells with regulation in vitro by acidic isoferritins. AU - Lu, L.. AU - Broxmeyer, H. E.. AU - Meyers, P. A.. AU - Moore, M. A.. AU - Thaler, H. T.. PY - 1983. Y1 - 1983. N2 - An association has been established between human Ia-like antigenic determinants, expression during DNA synthesis on multipotential (CFU-GEMM) and erythroid (BFU-E) progenitor cells, and the regulatory action of acidic isoferritins in vitro. Treatment of human bone marrow cells with monoclonal anti-Ia (NE1-011) plus complement inhibited colony formation of CFU-GEMM and BFU-E by 50%-70%. Reduction of colonies was similar whether bone marrow cells were exposed to anti-Ia plus complement, high specific activity tritiated thymidine (3HTdr), or acidic isoferritins. No further decrease was apparent with 3HTdr or acidic isoferritins after Ia-antigen+ CFU-GEMM or BFU-E ...
Cortical (cTEC) and medullary (mTEC) thymic epithelial cells establish key microenvironments for T-cell differentiation and arise from thymic epithelial cell progenitors (TEP). However, the nature of TEPs and the mechanism controlling their stemness in the postnatal thymus remain poorly defined. Using TEC clonogenic assays as a surrogate to survey TEP activity, we found that a fraction of cTECs generates specialized clonal-derived colonies, which contain cells with sustained colony-forming capacity (ClonoTECs). These ClonoTECs are EpCAM+MHCII-Foxn1lo cells that lack traits of mature cTECs or mTECs but co-express stem-cell markers, including CD24 and Sca-1. Supportive of their progenitor identity, ClonoTECs reintegrate within native thymic microenvironments and generate cTECs or mTECs in vivo. Strikingly, the frequency of cTECs with the potential to generate ClonoTECs wanes between the postnatal and young adult immunocompetent thymus, but it is sustained in alymphoid Rag2-/-Il2rg-/- counterparts. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Overexpression of murine TSLP impairs lymphopoiesis and myelopoiesis. AU - Osborn, Mark J.. AU - Ryan, Patricia L.. AU - Kirchhof, Nicole. AU - Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela. AU - Mortari, Frank. AU - Tudor, Kim Sue R S. PY - 2004/2/1. Y1 - 2004/2/1. N2 - The role of thymic stromal cell-derived lymphopoietin (TSLP) in regulating hematopoiesis is poorly characterized, so we investigated its regulatory effects in vivo using TSLP transgenic mice. Overexpression of TSLP disrupted hematopoietic homeostasis by causing imbalances in lymphopoiesis and myelopoiesis. Mice harboring a TSLP transgene had 5- to 700-fold fewer B and T precursors and no detectable pre-B lymphocyte colony-forming activity in the marrow or spleen. Conversely, TSLP transgenic mice possessed 15 to 20 times more spienic myeloid precursors than their littermates, and progenitor activity of the granulocyte-erythrocyte-macrophage-megakaryocyte colony-forming units was significantly elevated. The arrest in lymphopoiesis ...
Hotair is a member of the recently described class of noncoding RNAs called lincRNA (large intergenic noncoding RNA). Various studies suggest that Hotair acts regulating epigenetic states by recruiting chromatin-modifying complexes to specific target sequences that ultimately leads to suppression of several genes. Although Hotair has been associated with metastasis and poor prognosis in different tumor types, a deep characterization of its functions in cancer is still needed. Here, we investigated the role of Hotair in the scenario of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and in the arising and maintenance of cancer stem cells (CSCs). We found that treatment with TGF-1 resulted in increased Hotair expression and triggered the EMT program. Interestingly, ablation of Hotair expression by siRNA prevented the EMT program stimulated by TGF-1, and also the colony-forming capacity of colon and breast cancer cells. Furthermore, we observed that the colon CSC subpopulation (CD133(+)/CD44(+)) ...
1. Colony-stimulating activity appeared in the perfusate of the isolated rat liver during perfusions with either whole rat blood, rat plasma or an artificial perfusate of Eagles medium and albumin.. 2. Dialysable inhibitors of colony formation were also released during perfusions.. 3. Colony-stimulating activity in artificial perfusate could be enhanced by the addition of rat plasma in vitro. Concentrations of cycloheximide that inhibited albumin synthesis by the liver did not inhibit the release of colony-stimulating activity. ...
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Evaluating the function of an individual hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) is a difficult and important problem. The functional ability per HSC, as well as the HSC concentration, was measured with minimal disruption to the cells in vivo using the new competitive dilution assay. Distribution of HSC into recipients was modeled based on Poisson probabilities. Predictions of donor contributions from models assuming different levels of donor HSC functional ability and concentration were compared to actual observations. The model with the least difference between predictions and observations was accepted. In BALB/ cBy (BALB) mice, models assuming equal functional ability of HSC from the same donor fit extremely well with actual observations, suggesting that all HSC are functionally homogeneous at any particular time point during development or aging. Relative HSC functional ability per cell declined during development, so that a fetal HSC had 1.6 to 3.0 times the functional ability of a young adult
AABB Hematopoietic Progenitor Cell (HPC) activities include educational programs, publications and accreditation for HPC programs.. The list of AABB Accredited HPC Facilities specifies those HPC facilities, in the US and throughout the world, which have attained AABB accreditation. These facilities are responsible for procuring, processing and storing hematopoietic progenitor cells that can be used for transplantation.. ...
Zeisberger, S. M., Zoller, S., Riegel, M., Chen, S., Krenning, G., Harmsen, M. C., ... Zisch, A. H. (2010). Optimization of the culturing conditions of human umbilical cord blood-derived endothelial colony-forming cells under xeno-free conditions applying a transcriptomic approach. Genes to cells, 15(7), 671-687. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2443.2010.01409.x ...
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The balance between endothelial injury and repair in childhood is poorly understood. We examined this relationship in healthy children, in adults, and in children with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Circulating endothelial cells (CECs) wer
Effect of GPC3 on cell proliferation and clonogenic capacity of liver CD90+GPC3+CSCs.(A) Cell proliferation was assessed after GPC3 knockdown in PLC CD90+GPC3+
RATIONALE : Laboratory-treated T cells may stimulate the immune system in different ways and stop tumor cells from growing. Drugs used in chemotherapy,
Clonogenic assay allows one to test the capability of adherent cells to survive and replicate following insult with chemicals or radiation. Count the crystal violet stained colonies which incubated for 9 days with appropriate chemical or radiation dose and calculate the survival rate. - Clonogenic Assay - AbVideo™ - Support - Abnova
Chitra Venugopal is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Processing of Primary Brain Tumor Tissue for Stem Cell Assays and Flow Sorting
The second problem with antibiotics is that they interfere with detection. QC Microbiology tells us their tests are sensitive to 1 colony-forming unit (CFU) in the sample, which means if there is 1 CFU in a 40mL sample bottle, theyll find it. But 1 CFU/40mL is 25 CFU/L... and for a 12,000L bioreactor, you need a contamination of ~300,000 CFUs in order for QC to detect contamination ...
thymodepressin: a synthetic peptide, promoted take of transplanted hemopoietic precursor cells in the bone marrow of irradiated mice

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