Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Bacteria, AerobicBacteriuria: The presence of bacteria in the urine which is normally bacteria-free. These bacteria are from the URINARY TRACT and are not contaminants of the surrounding tissues. Bacteriuria can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Significant bacteriuria is an indicator of urinary tract infection.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Agar: A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.Pyuria: The presence of white blood cells (LEUKOCYTES) in the urine. It is often associated with bacterial infections of the urinary tract. Pyuria without BACTERIURIA can be caused by TUBERCULOSIS, stones, or cancer.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Amphotericin B: Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Platelet Count: The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Colony-Forming Units Assay: A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of stem cells by assaying their activity.Candidiasis: Infection with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. It is usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by CANDIDA ALBICANS. (Dorland, 27th ed)Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Chlorhexidine: A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.Equipment Contamination: The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Anti-Infective Agents, Local: Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Urinary Tract Infections: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Disinfectants: Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Lactobacillus: A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Staphylococcus epidermidis: A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS that is a spherical, non-motile, gram-positive, chemoorganotrophic, facultative anaerobe. Mainly found on the skin and mucous membrane of warm-blooded animals, it can be primary pathogen or secondary invader.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Blood Cell Count: The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Gentamicins: A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Vancomycin: Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.Colony Collapse: The sudden collapse and disappearance or diminution of a colony of organisms.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Erythrocyte Count: The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Mice, Inbred BALB CAnts: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Sperm Count: A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Colony-Stimulating Factors: Glycoproteins found in a subfraction of normal mammalian plasma and urine. They stimulate the proliferation of bone marrow cells in agar cultures and the formation of colonies of granulocytes and/or macrophages. The factors include INTERLEUKIN-3; (IL-3); GRANULOCYTE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (G-CSF); MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (M-CSF); and GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (GM-CSF).HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Hematopoiesis: The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Granulocytes: Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.Parasite Egg Count: Determination of parasite eggs in feces.Reticulocyte Count: The number of RETICULOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. The values are expressed as a percentage of the ERYTHROCYTE COUNT or in the form of an index ("corrected reticulocyte index"), which attempts to account for the number of circulating erythrocytes.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Tumor Stem Cell Assay: A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of tumor stem cells by assaying their activity. It is used primarily for the in vitro testing of antineoplastic agents.Megakaryocytes: Very large BONE MARROW CELLS which release mature BLOOD PLATELETS.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Beekeeping: The management and maintenance of colonies of honeybees.Erythropoiesis: The production of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES). In humans, erythrocytes are produced by the YOLK SAC in the first trimester; by the liver in the second trimester; by the BONE MARROW in the third trimester and after birth. In normal individuals, the erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood remains relatively constant implying a balance between the rate of erythrocyte production and rate of destruction.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Thrombocytopenia: A subnormal level of BLOOD PLATELETS.Nesting Behavior: Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.Anthozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.Interleukin-3: A multilineage cell growth factor secreted by LYMPHOCYTES; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and ASTROCYTES which stimulates clonal proliferation and differentiation of various types of blood and tissue cells.Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor: A glycoprotein of MW 25 kDa containing internal disulfide bonds. It induces the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neutrophilic granulocyte precursor cells and functionally activates mature blood neutrophils. Among the family of colony-stimulating factors, G-CSF is the most potent inducer of terminal differentiation to granulocytes and macrophages of leukemic myeloid cell lines.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Erythropoietin: Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: An acidic glycoprotein of MW 23 kDa with internal disulfide bonds. The protein is produced in response to a number of inflammatory mediators by mesenchymal cells present in the hemopoietic environment and at peripheral sites of inflammation. GM-CSF is able to stimulate the production of neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, and mixed granulocyte-macrophage colonies from bone marrow cells and can stimulate the formation of eosinophil colonies from fetal liver progenitor cells. GM-CSF can also stimulate some functional activities in mature granulocytes and macrophages.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Leukocytosis: A transient increase in the number of leukocytes in a body fluid.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Animals, LaboratoryBase Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Hierarchy, Social: Social rank-order established by certain behavioral patterns.Varroidae: A family of MITES in the subclass ACARI. It includes the single genus Varroa.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Erythroid Precursor Cells: The cells in the erythroid series derived from MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS or from the bi-potential MEGAKARYOCYTE-ERYTHROID PROGENITOR CELLS which eventually give rise to mature RED BLOOD CELLS. The erythroid progenitor cells develop in two phases: erythroid burst-forming units (BFU-E) followed by erythroid colony-forming units (CFU-E); BFU-E differentiate into CFU-E on stimulation by ERYTHROPOIETIN, and then further differentiate into ERYTHROBLASTS when stimulated by other factors.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Cell SeparationNeutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Methylcellulose: Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: A mononuclear phagocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) synthesized by mesenchymal cells. The compound stimulates the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic cells of the monocyte-macrophage series. M-CSF is a disulfide-bonded glycoprotein dimer with a MW of 70 kDa. It binds to a specific high affinity receptor (RECEPTOR, MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR).Hematopoietic Cell Growth Factors: These growth factors comprise a family of hematopoietic regulators with biological specificities defined by their ability to support proliferation and differentiation of blood cells of different lineages. ERYTHROPOIETIN and the COLONY-STIMULATING FACTORS belong to this family. Some of these factors have been studied and used in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and bone marrow failure syndromes.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Rodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.

A sustained rat model for studying the long-lasting catabolic state of sepsis. (1/6028)

Most animal models of sepsis induced high mortality or early recovery and do not mimic the long-lasting catabolic state observed in patients. The purpose of this study is to develop a model of sepsis which reproduces these disorders, especially the long-lasting muscle wasting. This report summarizes our observations in a series of seven experiments using this model with rats to study the route of live Escherichia coli administration, dose of bacteria, reproducibility of the model, bacterial count in tissues, comparison of injection of live or dead bacteria, metabolic perturbations linked to infection, and potential role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in muscle wasting. After intravenous infection, animals were anorexic and the catabolic state was long-lasting: body weight loss for 2 to 3 days followed by a chronic wasting state for several days. Liver, spleen, lung protein content, and plasma concentration of alpha2-macroglobulin were increased 2 and 6 days after infection. At 6 days, muscle protein content was substantially (-40%) reduced. The plasma TNF-alpha level measured 1.5 h after infection correlated with body weight loss observed 9 days later. The inhibition of TNF-alpha secretion by administration of pentoxifylline 1 h before infection reduced muscle wasting and activation of proteolysis at day 2 and abolished them at day 6. This septic model mimics in rats the prolonged protein metabolism alterations and muscle atrophy characteristics of infected patients and thus is useful for studying the impact of nutritional support on outcome.  (+info)

RecA-Mediated gene conversion and aminoglycoside resistance in strains heterozygous for rRNA. (2/6028)

Clinical resistance to aminoglycosides in general is due to enzymatic drug modification. Mutational alterations of the small ribosomal subunit rRNA have recently been found to mediate acquired resistance in bacterial pathogens in vivo. In this study we investigated the effect of 16S rRNA heterozygosity (wild-type [wt] and mutant [mut] operons at position 1408 [1408wt/1408mut]) on aminoglycoside resistance. Using an integrative vector, we introduced a single copy of a mutated rRNA operon (1408 A-->G) into Mycobacterium smegmatis, which carries two chromosomal wild-type rRNA operons; the resultant transformants exhibited an aminoglycoside-sensitive phenotype. In contrast, introduction of the mutated rRNA operon into an M. smegmatis rrnB knockout strain carrying a single functional chromosomal wild-type rRNA operon resulted in aminoglycoside-resistant transformants. Subsequent analysis by DNA sequencing and RNase protection assays unexpectedly demonstrated a homozygous mutant genotype, rRNAmut/rRNAmut, in the resistant transformants. To investigate whether RecA-mediated gene conversion was responsible for the aminoglycoside-resistant phenotype in the rRNAwt/rRNAmut strains, recA mutant strains were generated by allelic exchange techniques. Transformation of the recA rrnB M. smegmatis mutant strains with an integrative vector expressing a mutated rRNA operon (Escherichia coli position 1408 A-->G) resulted in transformants with an aminoglycoside-sensitive phenotype. Subsequent analysis showed stable heterozygosity at 16S rRNA position 1408 with a single wild-type allele and a single resistant allele. These results demonstrate that rRNA-mediated mutational resistance to aminoglycosides is recessive.  (+info)

Efflux-mediated aminoglycoside and macrolide resistance in Burkholderia pseudomallei. (3/6028)

Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is intrinsically resistant to a wide range of antimicrobial agents including beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, macrolides, and polymyxins. We used Tn5-OT182 to mutagenize B. pseudomallei to identify the genes involved in aminoglycoside resistance. We report here on the identification of AmrAB-OprA, a multidrug efflux system in B. pseudomallei which is specific for both aminoglycoside and macrolide antibiotics. We isolated two transposon mutants, RM101 and RM102, which had 8- to 128-fold increases in their susceptibilities to the aminoglycosides streptomycin, gentamicin, neomycin, tobramycin, kanamycin, and spectinomycin. In addition, both mutants, in contrast to the parent, were susceptible to the macrolides erythromycin and clarithromycin but not to the lincosamide clindamycin. Sequencing of the DNA flanking the transposon insertions revealed a putative operon consisting of a resistance, nodulation, division-type transporter, a membrane fusion protein, an outer membrane protein, and a divergently transcribed regulatorprotein. Consistent with the presence of an efflux system, both mutants accumulated [3H] dihydro streptomycin, whereas the parent strain did not. We constructed an amr deletion strain, B. pseudomallei DD503, which was hypersusceptible to aminoglycosides and macrolides and which was used successfully in allelic exchange experiments. These results suggest that an efflux system is a major contributor to the inherent high-level aminoglycoside and macrolide resistance found in B. pseudomallei.  (+info)

In vitro and in vivo activities of NS-718, a new lipid nanosphere incorporating amphotericin B, against Aspergillus fumigatus. (4/6028)

We evaluated the in vitro and in vivo potencies of a new lipid nanosphere that incorporates amphotericin B (AmB), NS-718, against Aspergillus fumigatus. The in vitro activity of NS-718 (the MIC at which 90% of strains are inhibited [MIC90], 0.25 microgram/ml) against 18 isolates of A. fumigatus was similar to that of deoxycholate AmB (D-AmB; Fungizone; MIC90, 0.25 microgram/ml), but NS-718 was more potent than liposomal AmB (L-AmB; AmBi-some; MIC90, 1.0 microgram/ml). The in vivo efficacy of NS-718 in a rat model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis was compared with those of D-AmB and L-AmB. A low dose (1 mg/kg of body weight) of L-AmB was ineffective (survival rate, 0%), although equivalent doses of D-AmB and NS-718 were more effective (survival rate, 17%). However, a higher dose of NS-718 (3 mg/kg) was more effective (survival rate, 100%) than equivalent doses of D-AmB and L-AmB (survival rate, 0%). To explain these differences, pharmacokinetic studies showed higher concentrations of AmB in the plasma of rats treated with NS-718 than in the plasma of those treated with D-AmB. Our results suggest that NS-718, a new preparation of AmB, is a promising antifungal agent with activity against pulmonary aspergillosis.  (+info)

Two-step acquisition of resistance to the teicoplanin-gentamicin combination by VanB-type Enterococcus faecalis in vitro and in experimental endocarditis. (5/6028)

The activity of vancomycin and teicoplanin combined with gentamicin was investigated in vitro against strains of Enterococcus faecalis resistant to vancomycin and susceptible to teicoplanin (VanB type) and against mutants that had acquired resistance to teicoplanin by three different mechanisms. In vitro, gentamicin selected mutants with two- to sixfold increases in the level of resistance to this antibiotic at frequencies of 10(-6) to 10(-7). Teicoplanin selected teicoplanin-resistant mutants at similar frequencies. Both mutations were required to abolish the activity of the gentamicin-teicoplanin combination. As expected, simultaneous acquisition of the two types of mutations was not observed. In therapy with gentamicin or teicoplanin alone, each selected mutants in three of seven rabbits with aortic endocarditis due to VanB-type E. faecalis BM4275. The vancomycin-gentamicin combination selected mutants that were resistant to gentamicin and to the combination. In contrast, the teicoplanin-gentamicin regimen prevented the emergence of mutants resistant to one or both components of the combination. These results suggest that two mutations are also required to suppress the in vivo activity of the teicoplanin-gentamicin combination.  (+info)

In vitro activities of cephalosporins and quinolones against Escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrheic dairy calves. (6/6028)

The in vitro activities of several cephalosporins and quinolones against 195 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from diary calves affected by neonatal diarrhea were determined. One hundred thirty-seven of these strains produced one or more potential virulence factors (F5, F41, F17, cytotoxic necrotizing factor, verotoxin, and the eae gene), but the remaining 58 strains did not produce any of these factors. From 11 to 18% of the E. coli strains were resistant to cephalothin, nalidixic acid, enoxacin, and enrofloxacin. However, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, and cefquinome were highly effective against the E. coli isolates tested. Some significant differences (P < 0.05) in resistance to quinolones between the strains producing potential virulence factors and nonfimbriated, nontoxigenic, eae-negative strains were found. Thus, eae-positive, necrotoxigenic, and verotoxigenic (except for nalidixic acid) E. coli strains were significantly more sensitive to nalidixic acid, enoxacin, and enrofloxacin than nonfimbriated, nontoxigenic, eae-negative strains. Moreover, eae-positive strains were significantly more sensitive to enoxacin and enrofloxacin than F5-positive strains. Thus, the result of this study suggest that the bovine E. coli strains that produce some potential virulence factors are more sensitive to quinolones than those that do not express these factors.  (+info)

Antimicrobial activities of synthetic bismuth compounds against Clostridium difficile. (7/6028)

Clostridium difficile is a major nosocomial pathogen responsible for pseudomembranous colitis and many cases of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Because of potential relapse of disease with current antimicrobial therapy protocols, there is a need for additional and/or alternative antimicrobial agents for the treatment of disease caused by C. difficile. We have synthesized a systematic series of 14 structurally simple bismuth compounds and assessed their biological activities against C. difficile and four other gastrointestinal species, including Helicobacter pylori. Here, we report on the activities of six compounds that exhibit antibacterial activities against C. difficile, and some of the compounds have MICs of less than 1 microgram/ml. Also tested, for comparison, were the activities of bismuth subcitrate and ranitidine bismuth citrate obtained from commercial sources. C. difficile and H. pylori were more sensitive both to the synthetic bismuth compounds and to the commercial products than were Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis, and the last three species were markedly resistant to the commercial bismuth salts. Testing with human foreskin fibroblast cells revealed that some of the synthetic compounds were more cytotoxic than others. Killing curves for C. difficile treated with the more active compounds revealed rapid death, and electron microscopy showed that the bismuth of these compounds was rapidly incorporated by C. difficile. Energy dispersive spectroscopy X-ray microanalysis of C. difficile cells containing electron-dense material confirmed the presence of internalized bismuth. Internalized bismuth was not observed in C. difficile treated with synthetic bismuth compounds that lacked antimicrobial activity, which suggests that the uptake of the metal is required for killing activity. The nature of the carrier would seem to determine whether bismuth is transported into susceptible bacteria like C. difficile.  (+info)

Treatment of murine fusariosis with SCH 56592. (8/6028)

Doses of 10 to 100 mg of the azole antifungal agent SCH 5692/kg of body weight/day were studied in immunocompetent mice as therapy for systemic infection by Fusarium solani. Treatment was begun 1 h after intravenous infection and continued daily for 4 or 13 doses. Prolongation of survival and organ clearance were dependent on both the dose and the duration of SCH 56592 therapy, with the best results seen at 50 and 100 mg/kg/day. The results at the highest doses of SCH 56592 used (50 or 100 mg/kg/day) were comparable to those obtained with amphotericin B at 1 mg/kg/day. SCH 56592 has potential for therapy of systemic infections caused by F. solani.  (+info)

*Colony-forming unit

This is because the counting of CFU assumes that every colony is separate and founded by a single viable microbial cell. The ... and when counting colonies it is uncertain if the colony arose from one cell or a group of cells. Expressing results as colony- ... Counting with colony-forming units requires culturing the microbes and counts only viable cells, in contrast with microscopic ... Counting colonies is traditionally performed manually using a pen and a click-counter. This is generally a straightforward task ...

*Indoor bioaerosol

... since colony counts of airborne microbes are typically quite different from direct counts. Culture-based methods also need ... In a study by Wouters et al., they investigated the effects of indoor storage of organic household waste on microbial ... in which colony forming units (CFU) on selective media are counted. Cultivating methods have several disadvantages. Culture- ... Bioaerosols are natural or artificial particles of biological (microbial, plant, or animal) origin suspended in the air. These ...

*Mycobacterium terrae

At the end of the incubation period the number of colony forming units are counted. This count is used to calculate the log ... In order to establish a microbial count the extraction media is filtered and the filters are then placed onto agar plates for ...

*D-value (microbiology)

Thus after a colony is reduced by 1 D, only 10% of the original organisms remain, i.e., the population number has been reduced ... The term originated from assessing microbial thermal resistance and thermal death time analysis; however, it has analogous uses ... by one decimal place in the counting scheme. Generally, each lot of a sterilization-resistant organism is given a unique D- ... in other microbial resistance and death rate applications, such as (but not limited to) those of ethylene oxide and radiation ...

*Bioburden

The aim of bioburden testing is to measure the total number of viable micro-organisms (total microbial count) on a medical ... The bioburden quantification is expressed in colony forming unit (CFU). There are generally established guidelines for the ... Bioburden or microbial limit testing on these products proves that these requirements have been met. Bioburden testing for ... is then placed onto Soybean-Casein Digest Agar and incubated in order to be able to determine the total aerobic microbial count ...

*Alpha defensin

The Virtual Colony Count antibacterial assay was originally developed to measure the activity of all six human alpha defensins ... However, it is generally believed that killing is a consequence of disruption of the microbial membrane. The polar topology of ... Subsequently, some defensins can aggregate to form 'channel-like' pores; others might bind to and cover the microbial membrane ... Defensins are produced constitutively and/or in response to microbial products or proinflammatory cytokines. Some defensins are ...

*Nigrospora sphaerica

Conidia and colony characteristics of the culture led to identification of N. sphaerica as the fungal pathogen. It was ... Air samples were collected using an RCS microbial air sampler. Fungal spores trapped on the agar strips were developed and ... Results showed N. sphaerica with the highest spore counts at ground levels and low altitudes around 40m. During asexual ... N. sphaerica colonies grow rapidly and appear hairy or woolly. The conidiophores are short and clustered surfacing from ...

*Antimicrobial copper-alloy touch surfaces

Average microbial burden counts in rooms with copper touch surfaces were significantly lower than in rooms without copper ... Total bacterial colonies on the copper pens were much lower than on the non-copper pens: 2.1 CFU versus 47.8 CFU. ... Staphyloccocus counts on copper ball point pens were also much lower: 0.7 CFUs versus 20.8 CFUs on non-copper pens. Due to the ... The microbial burden associated with the wooden side arms of the copper covered chair arms was 70%, lower than those on the ...

*Pulsed-power water treatment

Several reports have shown that pulse-powered systems yield significantly lower counts of bacteria colony forming units ... the induced fields have a direct effect in preventing mineral scale formation on equipment surfaces and controlling microbial ...

*Donald A. Glaser

He automated the process of pouring out agar, spreading culture, and counting colonies of cells using a machine he called the ... The company did microbial strain improvement, and then genetic engineering, becoming the first biotechnology company. Cetus was ... It took photographs, administered chemicals, and had a mechanical hand to pick up colonies. While continuing to work at UC ...

*Antimicrobial peptides

Cathelicidin Aurein Copsin Peripheral membrane proteins Virtual colony count Reddy KV, Yedery RD, Aranha C (2004). " ... A Database of Anti-Microbial peptides) at ntou.edu.tw CAMP:Collection of Anti-Microbial Peptides at National Institute for ... A Database of Anti-Microbial peptides) (http://bioinformatics.cs.ntou.edu.tw/adam/). The Antimicrobial peptide databases may be ...

*Dip slide

The use of dip slides is the method most frequently used to measure and observe microbial activity in liquid-based systems. It ... Bacteria present in the sample liquid will grow and form colonies. A bacterial reference chart is used to determine the number ... Once water treatment is effective the bacterial count produced by the dip slide test should be low, approximately ... The culture is then incubated, allowing for microbial growth. Most Dip slides consist of 1 - 2 agars attached to a flexible ...

*Bacteriological water analysis

The plate count method relies on bacteria growing a colony on a nutrient medium so that the colony becomes visible to the naked ... is widely utilised for the evaluation of the effectiveness of water treatment by the inactivation of representative microbial ... Colonies that develop in the body of the medium can be counted by eye after incubation. The total number of colonies is ... Typical media include plate count agar for a general count or MacConkey agar to count Gram-negative bacteria such as E. coli. ...

*Fecal coliform

By growing and counting colonies of fecal coliform bacteria from a sample of water, the amount of bacteria originally present ... Microbial Biotechnology 2016. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1751-7915.12373/full EPA. "Total Coliform Rule." ... Each cell develops into a separate colony, which can be counted directly, and the initial inoculum size can be determined. ... with the goal of achieving a final desirable colony density range of 20 to 60 colonies per filter. Contaminated sources may ...

*Ecotoxicity

Quats are anti-microbial agents that are found in bathroom cleaners, fabric softeners, and degreasers. They are a class of ... Effects included stunted colony growth and darkening in color. Effects of climbazole on oats and turnip included retarded, ... These phthalates are suspected endocrine disrupters that affect reproduction rates including reduced sperm count in males. ... vegetable and microbial, in an integral context". Diethyl phthalate, that enter environments through industries manufacturing ...

*Sulfurimonas

... of the microbial community in the Baltic sea redoxcline based on CARD-FISH cell counts and Sulfurimonas spp. accounted for a ... Sulfurimonas paralvinellae is associated with deep-sea polychaete colonies located adjacent to hydrothermal vents. Nests of ... Xu, Jianping (2006-06-01). "INVITED REVIEW: Microbial ecology in the age of genomics and metagenomics: concepts, tools, and ... Microbial Physiology and Metabolism: 989. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2015.00989. PMC 4584964 . PMID 26441918. Inagaki, Fumio; Takai, Ken ...

*Amorphous computing

Bacterial edge detector) Gerry Sussman, MIT AI Lab Ron Weiss, MIT (rule triggering, microbial colony language, coli pattern ... A wave propagates through the medium and the hop-count across the medium will effectively encode a distance gradient from the ... "Wave Propagation". (Ref 1) A device emits a message with an encoded hop-count. Devices which have not seen the message ... previously, increment the hop count, and re-broadcast. ...

*Monocyte

A monocyte count is part of a complete blood count and is expressed either as a percentage of monocytes among all white blood ... Other microbial products can directly activate monocytes and this leads to production of pro-inflammatory and, with some delay ... In vitro, monocytes can differentiate into dendritic cells by adding the cytokines granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating ... A very low count of these cells is found after therapy with immuno-suppressive glucocorticoids. Also, non-classical slan+ ...

*Defensin

Virtual colony count Pearce, Gregory; Yamaguchi, Yube; Munske, Gerhard; Ryan, Clarence A. (2008). "Structure-activity studies ... Most defensins function by binding to the microbial cell membrane, and, once embedded, forming pore-like membrane defects that ...

*Present day Mars habitability analogue environments on Earth

Both Colour Peak and Gypsum Hill show clear evidence of microbial activity. This includes H2S gas, microbial mats and filaments ... Most are in survival rather than colony forming mode. Colour Lake Fen is a good terrestrial analogue of the saline acidic ... bacterial counts by fluorescence microscopy at the drilling site). As a provisional guideline for general cleanliness, these ... At Gypsum Hill there are iron oxide deposits with a microbial sheen. Overall the microbial communities are primarily anoxic, ...

*Cell counting

... instead of obtaining single colonies that can be counted, a so-called "lawn" will form: thousands of colonies lying over each ... The microbial concentration is estimated on the time required for the monitored electrical parameters to deviate from the ... it can be generally assumed that each cell will give rise to a single colony or Colony Forming Unit (CFU). The colonies can ... By the counting of cells in a known small volume, the concentration can be mediated. Examples of the need for cell counting ...

*Jewelry hygiene

Mean total colony counts for those who wore rings were higher before and after hand washing. Hoffman et al. (1985) reports that ... The effect of rings in microbial load on healthcare workers' hands. Am J Infect Control. 1997; 25(1):24-27 Hoffman, P Cooke E, ... A similar study found that even after washing hands with povidone-iodine, those with rings had higher bacterial counts than ... they found that wearing rings was associated with a 10-fold higher median count of skin microorganisms, especially with yeast ...

*Isolation (microbiology)

Gram staining the raw sample before incubation or staining freshly grown colony material helps to determine if a colony ... The methods of microbial isolation have drastically changed over the past 50 years, from a labor perspective with increasing ... aerobic plate count'. After the sample is inoculated into or onto the choice media, they are incubated under the appropriate ... Methods of microbial isolation have drastically changed over the past 50 years, from a labor perspective with increasing ...

*List of abbreviations used in sanitation

Fecal egg count reduction; closest article is on anthelmintic FFS (or F4S) - Fit for School FGD - Focus group discussion; ... Colony-forming unit CoP - Community of practice CP - Contact precipitation, see precipitation CSO - Combined sewer overflow or ... Microbial fuel cell MFI - Microfinance institution mg - Milligram μg - Microgram MHM - Menstrual hygiene management; closest ...

*Rhynie chert

They occasionally form structured colonies which go on to create microbial mats. A new genus of lichen, Winfrenatia, has been ... Stomata have been counted and lignin remnants detected in the plant material, and the breathing apparatus of trigonotarbids-of ... whereas the conventional record at its best allows no more than the counting of stomata. It has also enabled paleobotanists to ... Microbial Endophytes. CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8247-8831-5. Retrieved 2008-05-16. "Rhynie Chert Learning Resource". University of ...

*Oral candidiasis

Sometimes an underlying medical condition is sought, and this may include blood tests for full blood count and hematinics. If a ... Investigations have quantified oral carriage of Candida albicans at 300-500 colony forming units in healthy persons. More ... such as regular toothbrushing and use of anti-microbial mouthwashes. Since smoking is associated with many of forms of oral ...
INTRODUCTION The degradation of organic matter in soil largely results from the interaction between macro- and microorganisms, although microorganisms have a greater participation in this process because of their higher biomass values (7). However, to determine the microbiological characteristics of soil, samples should be promptly analyzed after collection to avoid the risk of obtaining altered results due to the variation in number of microorganisms when the samples are maintained at room temperature. If microbial analysis cannot be performed immediately after collection, Clark (3) recommends conservation at 4oC for a maximum period of 1-2 weeks. Higashida and Takao (8) performed microbial counts in soil samples up to approximately 8 hours after collection. In support of this view, Harding and Ross (6) reported that fresh soil samples are desirable to characterize microbial counts. If the procedures can not be carried out immediately, some form of storage should be used. Dunn et al. (4) and ...
Many studies require the quantitative determination of bacterial populations. The two most widely used methods for determining bacterial numbers are: The standard plate count method. Spectrophotometer (turbid metric) analysis. The standard plate count method is an indirect measurement of cell density ( live bacteria). The spectrophotometer analysis is based on turbidity and indirectly measures all bacteria (cell biomass), dead and alive.
새우를 키토산 단독 코팅하거나 천연항균제(carvacrol, thymol)를 키토산 코팅과 병행 처리하였을 때 중온균수의 변화를 Table 1에 나타내었다. 중온균은 모든 처리구에서 초기 농도가 1.33 log CFU/g이었고 냉장 저장 1일째 1.0 log CFU/g까지 감소되었으나, 6일째부터 계속 증가하기 시작 하였다. 저장기간 중 가장 마지막 날인 12일째에, Control, Chi, Chi-Car 및 Chi-Thy의 중온균수는 각각 5.25, 3.59, 3.29, 1.97 log CFU/g로 모든 처리구가 대조구에 비해 유의 적으로(p , 0.05) 낮은 중온균 수를 나타내어 항균효과가 있음을 알 수 있었다. 그리나 12일째에도 모든 실험구의 총균수는 수용가능한 수준18)인 7 log CFU/g을 초과하지는 않았다. 6일째부터 처리구 간에 유의적 차이가 발생하였 으며, Chi-Thy, Chi-Car, Chi의 순서대로 강한 항균효과를 보였다.. 새우를 키토산 단독 코팅하거나 ...
Dr B.R. Gupta has conducted experiments on effects of Agnihotra on plate count of Aerial bacterial flora. He has found that in human residence where no Agnihotra was performed the bacterial colony count was 123 as against in the human residence where Agnihotra was done regularly the bacterial colony count was as low as a mere 25.. ...
Determined to prove the performance of its own products in a medical environment, Rehau recently commissioned a microbiological analysis of BioCote treated Rehau cable trunking installed at the newly opened Churchfields GP Surgery in Bromsgrove, Worcestershire, and compared it with cable trunking installed at the previous Churchfields surgery, which had been out of use for several months.. The results were hugely impressive with a bacterial colony count (CFU) of just three on the cable trunking in the new surgery compared with 228 in the old one - a reduction of 98.69 per cent.. To give an even clearer indication of the performance of the trunking, Rehau also measured the bacterial colony count on the comparable door handle in the new surgery which showed a level of 215 and on the windowsill which showed a level of 160.. Overall, the comparative study between the two buildings showed that the new surgery, which had been open for two months, was in general less contaminated than the old one with ...
The fundamental principle of the microbial challenge (PET) is based on the concept of measuring the survival ability of selected microorganisms that are purposely introduced into a preserved test product system. The test product containing the inhibitory system is inoculated with the desired pool at the target level of bacteria (105-6 cfu/gram) and yeasts and molds (105-4cfu/gram). At the desired sampling interval (day 0, 7, 14 and 28 days) a sample is analyzed to determine the reduction in counts. The vial is tested on the BioLumix instrument for 22 hours for bacteria and for 48 hours for yeast and molds. The DTs are converted to Log cfu/g. and the Log reduction is calculated. The main advantage of this method is the automation of the process and the labor savings that it offers. It was estimated that it takes ~ 1/5 of the labor to perform the BioLumix assay compared to the standard plate count method. The new BioLumix assay offers savings in time, labor, materials, and plate space. Please ...
Looking for colony count? Find out information about colony count. The number of colonies of bacteria growing on the surface of a solid medium Explanation of colony count
The microbial load of cassava tubers that were grown at Awassa, Ethiopia, was analysed. The total viable microbial count of fresh cassava, before cleaning, ranged from 8.7x104 to 2.1x109 ...
It had long been assumed that a bacterial cell was dead when it was no longer able to grow on routine culture media. We now know that this assumption is simplistic, and that there are many situations where a cell loses culturability but remains viable and potentially able to regrow. This mini-review …
Compare the average total cost at facilities in Maine for the procedure: Urine test for bacterial culture: quantitative colony count.
This International Standard gives guidelines for the evaluation of uncertainty in quantitative microbiological analyses based on enumeration of microbial particles by culture. It covers all variants of colony count methods and most probable number estimates. Two approaches, the component (also known as bottom-up or step-by-step) and a modified global (top-down) approach are included. The aim is to specify how values of intralaboratory operational variability and combined uncertainty for final test results can be obtained. The procedures are not applicable to methods other than enumeration methods ...
A preliminary experiment was carried out to study the effect of Agnihotra on the bacterial population in a room where Agnihotra was performed. For this study, two rooms of equal dimensions (134" x 8 x 11) were selected. In both the rooms fire was prepared from dried cowdung cakes in copper pyramids and the basal reading of number of microorganisms in both the rooms was taken by exposing blood agar plates at four corners of the room for 10 minutes. This was done exactly half an hour before Agnihotra time. Agnihotra was performed exactly at sunset in one of the rooms.. Bacterial counts were taken again in both the rooms in a similar manner at half hour intervals. Thus readings were taken in both the rooms up to two hours after performance of Agnihotra. It was quite interesting to note that microbial counts in the room where Agnihotra was performed were reduced by 91.4% (Figs. 1a, 1b and 1c illustrate the reduction in the number of microorganisms) whereas the room where only fire was generated ...
Determining E. coli levels in sediments and its ability to attach to sand and silt and float downstream will help scientists figure out what needs to be done to decrease bacterial levels in streams.
Spontaneous bacterial colonization by CONS in Mgb-/- females versus Mgb+/- and WT controls.Bacteria recovered from urine (CFU/ml), bladders, and kidneys (CFU/or
KAUME, Lydia; FOOTE, Jerald C. y GBUR, Edward E.. Microbial contamination of herbs marketed to HIV-infected people in Nairobi (Kenya). S. Afr. j. sci. [online]. 2012, vol.108, n.9-10, pp.1-4. ISSN 1996-7489.. Herbal products are used by human immunodeficiency virus (HlV)-infected individuals regardless of safety or efficacy concerns. In this study, we examined the microbiological quality of herbal preparations marketed to HIV-infected individuals. A convenience sample (N = 24) of herbal products was obtained from retailers in Nairobi, Kenya in 2007. Petrifilm plate count methods were used to estimate total aerobic bacteria (APC), coliform, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and yeast and mould counts. APC counts ranged from an estimated 1.5 x 101 colony forming units (CFU)/g to 7.1 x 108 CFU/g. Total and faecal coliform counts ranged from an estimated ,10 CFU/g to 3 x 106 CFU/g. E. coli load ranged from ,10 CFU/g to 5 x 101 CFU/g and S. aureus counts ranged from an estimated ,10 CFU/g to ...
SummaryThis purpose of this experiment was for students to do the colony count methods, estimating the viable cell number of commercial active dried yeasts (ADY).This experiment allowed the students to perform the plate count technique by serial diluti...
Bacterial populations in some organs, viz., liver, spleen, kidney, gill, and arborescent organ of the catfish Clarias batrachus were enumerated followed by determination of resistance for antibiotics and metals. The total viable counts in these organs, observed, were 2.24x10(4), 2.08x10(4), 1.44x10(4), 1.23x10(4), and 6.40x10(3) colony-forming units/mL, respectively. The random bacterial isolates from these fish organs showed resistance in decreasing order for colistin (98%), ampicillin (82%), gentamycin (34%), carbenicillin (28%), tetracyline (20%), streptomycin (12%), and ciprofloxacin (02%). Most of the isolates exhibited an increasing order of tolerance for the metals (microg/mL) copper (100), lead (200), manganese (400), cadmium (200), and chromium (50), with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from |50 to 1600 microg/mL. These observations indicate that the significant occurrence of bacterial population in organs of fish with high incidence of resistance for antibiotics and metals may
BioLumix is the most advanced microbiological testing system of its kind. This automated, all-in-one microbial testing system is extremely easy to operate. The system is both simple and cost-effective, revolutionizing your current testing methodology. A novel optical system sensing color and fluorescence in ready-to-use vials provides faster results, labor savings, automation, and connectivity. The system has a large repertoire of assays that it can perform including: Total Aerobic Count, Yeast and Mold, Coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, E. coli, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, and Salmonella.. Recently a new assay for the detection of Heterotrophic bacteria in water was developed for the BioLumix system. The developed assay was validated by testing 50 samples of multiple types of water that were tested by the BioLumix method and the plate count method side-by-side. The BioLumix vials were directly inoculated with 0.1 mL of the water sample, or 1.0 mL of a 1:100 dilution (depending on the desired ...
The importance of the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state, with respect to safety of environmental applications of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs), can best be appreciated in risk...
Wrap the agar strip holder with aluminium foil and autoclave at 121°C (15 lbs) for 15 minutes. Carry the Dyna test unit to the test location. Carefully insert the pre sterilized agar strip into the holder and assemble the unit. Load the cells or connect the power point. Keep the timer switch at position one, sample the air for one minute. Focus the agar strip holder towards the area which is to be tested. Switch on the unit. After one minute the instrument will shut off automatically. Remove the agar strip from the holder and keep in the case provided and incubate at desired temperature for 48-72 hours. Report the result as c.f.u/40 L of air samples. The instrument can draw 40 L of air on to the agar strip per minute ...
An apparatus for automatically transferring a desired one of bacterial colonies grown in a medium in a culture Petri dish onto a medium in a test Petri dish or a test tube by using a bacterial colony pick-up/transfer element of the disposable type or a bacterial colony pick-up/transfer element of the reuse type and by using various mechanisms controlled by a computer.
Field studies conducted on three separate well pads showed that one 2K7 Water Soluble Pak (WSP) per 10 m3 (63 bbl) surface water effectively reduced bacterial levels from ,106 to,104 with agitation of the fluid reducing the reaction time. This fluid was then used for CT bridge plug milling operations and bacteria levels monitored at various fluid locations in the closed loop throughout the operations.. Evaluation of flowback from the wellbore indicated consistently lower bacterial concentrations than the injected surface water. Despite this, bacteria levels at surface were rebounding. Therefore, the observed increases in surface bacteria were due to the population rebounding while sitting in the surface tanks.. This rebound effect was because the CT fluid for the mill-out operations was reused for each successive pad well. As flowback water was introduced into the surface tanks, so were the additives (polymers, surfactants) from stimulation operations that, along with dissolved formation ...
Field studies conducted on three separate well pads showed that one 2K7 Water Soluble Pak (WSP) per 10 m3 (63 bbl) surface water effectively reduced bacterial levels from ,106 to,104 with agitation of the fluid reducing the reaction time. This fluid was then used for CT bridge plug milling operations and bacteria levels monitored at various fluid locations in the closed loop throughout the operations.. Evaluation of flowback from the wellbore indicated consistently lower bacterial concentrations than the injected surface water. Despite this, bacteria levels at surface were rebounding. Therefore, the observed increases in surface bacteria were due to the population rebounding while sitting in the surface tanks.. This rebound effect was because the CT fluid for the mill-out operations was reused for each successive pad well. As flowback water was introduced into the surface tanks, so were the additives (polymers, surfactants) from stimulation operations that, along with dissolved formation ...
1) Food poisoning The saprophytic bacteria cause decay of our food and make it unpalatable. Toxins are produced as a result of bacterial growth on the foodstuffs. Due to this, food poisoning occurs.
I am looking for a table listing the normal concentrations or concentration range of typical cell metabolites, e.g., amino acids, NAD, ATP, ions, sugars, major proteins, etc. A few years back I once stumbled over such a table. Unfortunately, I did not make a copy. The only entries I can remember: typical cell protein concentration 100-300mg/mL acetate ion 0.2 - 0.25 M Does anybody know where to find such a table ? I am also looking for a database, printed, on CD or diskette, or on the Net, with physiological data; e.g., average yield for fermentative bacterial growth on glucose 10.5g cells / mol ATP; list of average generation times of different bacteria; metabolic specialties; and so on. Any help would be appreciated. Achim ...
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The primary benefit of betain HCL is its effect on stomach acid production It may also help to manage bacterial levels in the stomach, facilitate digestion and support the absorption of nutrients
M. avium CFU counts are higher in lung tissue of infected HO-1 -/- mice as compared to lung tissue form infected HO-1+/+ miceMouse lung tissue was homogenized i
Aerobic microorganisms. Determination in foods at 37 °C, 30 °C, 25 °C, 20 °C, 17/7 °C or 6.5 °C by the colony count method. (NMKL 86, 5. Ed., 2013 ...
Each cell will undergo multiple rounds of cell divisons to produce separate colonies on the plate, so each cell is a colony forming unit. After incubation the number of colonies will reflect the number of CFUs originally present. This test gives the viable count (living cells only) compared to a microscopic count or dry weight test that gives the total cell count (living and dead cells ...
I am suffering from Chronic Lympomatic Lukemia. Initially in 2008 I was diagnosed with high Total count of 33000 when I was pregnant. Me and my husband consulted various doctors and conducted various scans . At that time Doctors advised that this high total count could be because of Pregnancy. And after delivering my child my count became normal and was 13000. ...
Early-season dollar spot control was mentioned in a previous post by Dr. Kaminski. Basically fungicides are applied long before symptoms develop in the field, which results in a significant delay in the onset of symptoms. The proposed theory behind early-season applications is they reduce the pool of initial inoculum of the dollar spot fungus enough […]. ...
Is it okay if I just ignore the cfu and use the value as millimol? Will it remain same? I just want the concentration of ATP inside the bacterial cell ...
The easiest solution would be to add timestamps to logs, or log to different logs from oddjob or from installer (ipareplica-conncheck.local.log and ipareplica-conncheck.remote.log) Actually the easiest solution would be not to log into a file when executed from oddjob ...
The number of bacteria tested by heterotrophic plate count method showed a very high content from the daily used reusable drinking water bottles. It is in the range from 0 to 2.4x105 CFU/mL with an average about 34,000 bacteria counts for bottles used by children and about 75,000 bacteria counts for bottles used by adults (Figures 2 and 4). The difference between the two is expected due to the bottle design since most bottles used by children have straws, and there is less chance of direct contact between the water in the bottle and the mouth of the users or other possible bacteria contamination sources. This may lead to a lower bacteria number in the bottles. Among all the sixty bottles sampled, there is only one bottle (2%) with bacteria number less than 500 CFU/mL. The bacteria number is much higher than those detected in the bottled drinking water which is in the range of 2-150 CFU/ml [10], but it has a similar level to the bottled natural mineral water after storing for a few days. Gonzalez ...
The formation of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) Escherichia coli O157:H7 induced by high-pressure CO2 (HPCD) was investigated using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) transcriptomics and isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) proteomic methods. The analyses revealed that 97 genes and 56 proteins were significantly changed upon VBNC state entry. Genes and proteins related to membrane transport, central metabolisms, DNA replication, and cell division were mainly downregulated in the VBNC cells. This caused low metabolic activity concurrently with a division arrest in cells, which may be related to VBNC state formation. Cell division repression and outer membrane overexpression were confirmed to be involved in VBNC state formation by homologous expression of z2046 coding for transcriptional repressor and ompF encoding outer membrane protein F. Upon VBNC state entry, pyruvate catabolism in the cells shifted from the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle toward the fermentative route; this led ...
Hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria were isolated from diesel impacted sites at the University of Port Harcourt using the vapour phase transfer method. The isolates were identified as Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Serratia, and Micrococcus species. Examination of cultures supplemented with glucose revealed that the total viable counts ranged from 1.7 x 104 to 5.9 x 105 cfu/ml. For cultures supplemented with kerosene the total viable counts ranged from 1.18 x 104 to 3.1 x 105 cfu/ml. Bacillus spp. and Micrococcus spp. gave the highest and lowest counts respectively in both media types within 96 h. The other isolates had counts in between these ranges in the respective supplemented media. The growth of the isolates in mineral salts solution supplemented with glucose or kerosene resulted in turbidity of the broth as compared to clear media solutions in controls. Higher turbidity was recorded in media supplemented with glucose than kerosene, and this was reflected in the total viable counts ...
Dr. Clifford Obi*. ABSTRACT. Microbiological and proximate analyses of 50 Home and Industrial Made soymilk samples were carried out using standard analytical procedures. The two soymilk types were contaminated with Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with E. coli having the highest occurrence level (42%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae being the lowest (8%). Two fungi: Aspergillus niger and Penicilium notatum were also recovered from the soymilk samples with A. niger being higher in occurrence (66.7%) than P. notatum (33.3%). The total viable bacterial count (TVBC) for the Home made soymilk was in the range 6.2 x 106 - 4.0 x 105 CFU/ml while the TVBC for the Industry made was in the range 2.0 x102 - 1.0 x 102 CFU/ml. The total fungal count (TFC) for the Home made soymilk was in the range 4.1 x 106-3.0 x 105 CFU/ml while the TFC for the Industry Made was in the range 2 x 102-1.0 x 102 CFU/ml. Antibiotic sensitivity screening result showed that the ...
Reducing microbial contamination in wheat is desirable to ensure consumer safety. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of adding organic acids and NaCl to tempering water to reduce microbial load in hard wheat prior to milling, and to determine the impact that these treatments might have on the microbial quality and functional properties of straight-grade and whole grain flours. Wheat was tempered to 15.5% moisture under controlled (24h, 73-75°F, 60% RH), aseptic conditions by adding water (control) or tempering solutions containing acid (acetic or lactic; 2.5% and 5% v/v) and NaCl (26% w/v). Wheat was analyzed before and after tempering for Total Plate Counts (TPC), yeasts, molds, and Enterobacteriaceae (Eb). The microbial load of the tempered wheat was significantly reduced by all organic acid-NaCl treatments (p,0.05). The combination of lactic acid (5%) and NaCl was the most effective against TPC and Eb (p,0.05), with an average reduction of 3.5 and 4.7 log CFU/g, ...
293335144 - EP 1040841 A1 2000-10-04 - Anticoagulant/sterilizing compositions and methods - Compositions and methods are provided for preventing formation of thrombosis and/or bacterial growth on a liquid-contacting surface of a liquid delivery system, such as a port, catheter or port-catheter system. The liquid delivery system is connected to a patient for delivery of a liquid to the patient. The method involves contacting the surface with a thrombosis-preventing liquid containing taurolidine, taurultam or a mixture thereof, the thrombosis-preventing liquid further containing an anticoagulant agent. In an alternative embodiment, the liquid-contacting surface of the delivery system is contacted with a solution containing an anticoagulant agent, and thereafter contacted with a solution containing taurolidine, taurultam or a mixture thereof.[origin: EP1040841A1] Compositions and methods are provided for preventing formation of thrombosis and/or bacterial growth on a liquid-contacting surface of a liquid
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PILONETTO, Marcelo et al. Hospital gowns as a vehicle for bacterial dissemination in an intensive care unit. Braz J Infect Dis [online]. 2004, vol.8, n.3, pp.206-210. ISSN 1413-8670. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1413-86702004000300003.. The microbiota from the uniforms of 31 professionals from the general intensive care unit was analyzed. The samples were collected in duplicate at the beginning and at the end of the work period. Total viable counts of microorganisms were determined; there was a significant increase in the counts at the end of the period, when compared with those obtained at the beginning. No significant difference was observed between the first and second counts obtained from the cuffs. However, differences were observed for the samples from the abdominal region. Among the isolated pathogens 11/18 were Staphylococcus aureus, 2/18 were Acinetobacter baumannii, 2/18 were Klebsiela pneumoniae and 1/18 were Serratia rubidae. Some of these isolates were multi-resistant to antibiotics. ...
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The viable cell count (Table 4-1) is typically considered the measure of cell concentration. For this, a 1-mL volume is removed from a bacterial suspension and serially diluted 10-fold followed by plating 0.1-mL aliquots on an agar medium. Each single invisible bacterium (or clump of bacteria) will grow into a visible colony that can be counted (see Chapter 5). For statistical purposes, plates containing between 30 and 300 colonies give the most accurate data. The plate count × the dilution × 10 will give the number of colony forming units (CFU)/mL in the undiluted bacterial suspension. Using this method, dead bacteria within the suspension do not contribute to the final bacterial count. ...
* found in: m-ColiBlue24® Broth, EC Medium with Mug, EC Medium MPN Tubes PK/15, Modified Colitag 16-HR, Peel Plate® Heterotrophic Plate Count Media, Use m..
The volume retrieved is ∼0.001 mL (range 0.01-0.001) of lower respiratory secretions and dilution into the holding medium increases the dilution of the culture plate by 100-1,000-folds. Quantitative bacterial cultures of PSB allow the distinction between colonization and infection. Quantitative cultures represent serial dilutions of the respiratory samples. The colony counts are calculated by the number of colonies visible on the agar plate in relation to the dilution and inoculation factors. The cut-offs for quantitative culture results were established by relating colony counts known to be present in sputum samples of pneumonia patients to the estimated amount of respiratory secretions retrieved by the technique. Thus, it should be noted that the quantitative culture technique is based on rough inferences rather than exact measurements. For PSB, the currently accepted threshold is 103 cfu·mL−1. Growth ≥103 cfu·mL−1 is considered significant for infection (table 1⇑) and corresponds ...
THEMATIC ISSUE ON Viable But Non-Culturable Microbes. Editors: Wolfgang Kneifel, Clemens Kittinger. The scope of this issue will focus on the so called viable but non- ...
Lebanon bologna raw batter was mixed with a five-strain mixture of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to achieve average inoculum levels of 7.79, 7.77, and 7.92 log CFU/g as deter mined on MSA, 202, and PRSA media, respectively ...
Chromogenic/TTC Dipslide Tests for E.coli, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa and Total Viable Count for enumeration of E.coli. Flexible paddle for effective surface contact ...
Characterization of Culturable Bacteria in the Atmospheric Environment in Incheon, Korea - Atmospheric environment;Total plate counts;
Food poisoning and infection by bacteria are of public health significance to both developing and developed countries. Samples of ogi (akamu) prepared from white and yellow variety of maize sold in Uturu and Okigwe were analyzed together with the laboratory prepared ogi for bacterial quality using the standard microbiological methods. The analyses showed that both white and yellow variety had total bacterial counts (cfu/g) of 4.0 ×107 and 3.9 x 107 for the laboratory prepared ogi while the commercial ogi had 5.2 x 107 and 4.9 x107, 4.9 x107 and 4.5 x107, 5.4 x107 and 5.0 x107 for Eke-Okigwe, Up-gate and Nkwo-Achara market respectively. The Staphylococcal counts ranged from 2.0 x 102 to 5.0 x102 and 1.0 x 102 to 4.0 x102 for the white and yellow variety from the different markets while Staphylococcal growth was not recorded on the laboratory prepared ogi. The laboratory prepared ogi had no Coliform growth while the commercially prepared ogi had counts of 0.5 x103 to 1.6 x 103 for white variety ...
Air sampling during the incision of 40 septic lesions did not produce any evidence of dispersal of pathogenic bacteria. The removal of dressings in a sterile dressing-box was associated with the dispersal of both pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria. From 45 dressings the average total bacterial count was 104 bacteria-containing particles per cubic foot. Thirteen out of 26 staphylococcal lesions dispersed staphylococci when the dressings were removed, the levels of staphylococci ranging from 0.3 to 33.3 colonies per cubic foot.
Antibiotics kill bacteria or cause them to be unable to reproduce. One of the effects of antibiotics on bacterial count is a decrease in the growth of the bacteria. Sample collection prior to beginning antibiotic treatment is essential, for accurate bacterial counts.
The average microbial load of bacteria isolates from the samples ranges between 3.0 -4.7 x 104 cfu/ml., for fungal isolates it ranges between 1.0x104 to 2.9x104 cfu/ml and yeast counts from 0.0 x104 cfu/ml in fura to 5.3 x104 cfu/ml in fura da nono ...
In order to identify and quantify the microorganisms present in a certain ecosystem, it has become necessary to develop molecular methods avoiding cultivation, which allows to characterize only the co
Perfumed with mint, this natural enzymes based spray helps to reduce the bacterial proliferation in your dogs mouth and limits tartar formation on teeth. NON TOXIC, can be safely ingested by your pet. Available in 125 ml tube. ...
Harmless, but very powerful radicals will decrease the microbial load and air particles in your company and disinfect your room complete.
I am new to xsd, and found out that the xsd:enumeration value containing colon is not getting validated.Heres a brief of the value I am trying to include ...
The way to maintain a tree structured enumeration while having all the advantages of the standard ones; Author: Smart K8; Updated: 2 Apr 2008; Section: C#; Chapter: Languages; Updated: 2 Apr 2008
The way to maintain a tree structured enumeration while having all the advantages of the standard ones; Author: Smart K8; Updated: 2 Apr 2008; Section: C#; Chapter: Languages; Updated: 2 Apr 2008
Before you buy Barefoot Moscato, check out 8033 Influenster reviews. Alyssa H. said Barefoot is a just brand you can count on if you are wanting to try a...
In this study, prevalence, biotechnological and safety profiles of 588 Enterococcus isolates isolated from raw milk and Istrian cheese during different stages of ripening were analyzed. Despite the low and variable presence of enterococci in milk ((3.65±2.93) log CFU/mL), highly comparable enterococcal populations were established after 30 days of cheese ripening ((7.96±0.80) log CFU/g), confirming Enterococcus spp. as a major part of the core microbiota of Istrian cheese. The dominant species were E. faecium (53.8 %) and E. faecalis (42.4 %), while minor groups, consisting of E. durans (2.84 %) and E. casseliflavus (0.95 %), also occurred. A pronounced intraspecies variability was noticed based on molecular fingerprinting, with 35 strains (genotypes) detected. Most of the genotypes were farm-specific with one third being shared between the farms. This genotype variability reflected particular differences of Istrian cheese production, mainly variable salt concentration, ripening temperature ...
A clinical trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of in-feed flavophospholipol in reducing Salmonella shedding and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) associated with Salmonella and generic Escherichia coli in naturally infected grower-finisher pigs. Pigs were obtained from a farm with a history of salmonellosis and were housed at a research facility. Over the span of 10 weeks the pigs received either a feed containing 4 ppm of flavophospholipol (treatment, n = 25) or a non-medicated feed (control, n = 20). Weekly fecal samples were collected and cultured for Salmonella and generic E. coli. A subset of Salmonella and E. coli isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. A multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression model was used to compare the prevalence of Salmonella shedding and AMR in Salmonella and E. coli isolates in treatment and control groups. Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella shedding (P , 0.05) and AMR in Salmonella (P , 0.01) and E. coli (P , 0.005) isolates was not ...
This program is designed to provide analysis of the major elements of concern, primarily bacteriological monitoring and limited water chemistry.. Coliform. Coliforms are a broad class of bacteria found in our environment, including the feces of man. The presence of coliform bacteria in drinking water may indicate a possible presence of harmful, disease-causing organisms.. E. coli. E-coli is the most prevalent member of the fecal coliform group. The occurrence of E. coli in water is considered a specific indicator of fecal contamination and the presence of enteric pathogens.. Heterotrophic Plate Count. The HPC formerly known as the standard plate count is a procedure for estimating the number of live Heterotrophic bacteria in water. It is used to measure the changes in water treatment and distribution or in swimming pools. ...
Microbiological quality control of pharmaceutical water systems is of importance in ensuring that trends in contamination are detected and responded to. This is not least because water is a niche environment for many types of microorganisms and a vector for their transfer. Trending relates to actual microbial counts recorded, incidents and the types of species recovered. To facilitate species identification, microorganisms need to be subcultured from the isolation medium (R2A agar in Europe). Transfer onto the wrong media can result in the microorganism not growing. This paper describes research into three different media for subculturing: low nutrient (R2A); highly nutritious (TSA) and medium nutrient (R3A) and concludes that a higher recovery is obtained where R3A agar is used ...
Emory immunologists have identified a potential target for treatments aimed at reducing mortality in sepsis, an often deadly reaction to infection.. 2B4 is an inhibitory molecule found on immune cells. You may have heard of PD1, which cancer immunotherapy drugs block in order to re-energize the immune system. 2B4 appears to be similar; it appears on exhausted T cells after chronic viral infection, and its absence can contribute to autoimmunity.. In their new paper in Journal of Immunology, Mandy Ford, Craig Coopersmith and colleagues show that 2B4 levels are increased on certain types of T cells (CD4+ memory cells) in human sepsis patients and in a mouse model of sepsis called CLP (cecal ligation + puncture). Genetically knocking out 2B4 or blocking it with an antibody both reduce mortality in the CLP model. The effect of the knockout is striking: 82 percent survival vs 13 percent for controls.. How does it work? When fighting sepsis, 2B4 knockout animals dont have reduced bacterial levels, but ...
(KudoZ) German to English translation of Vorverkeimung: initial bioburden [Microbiology - Biology (-tech,-chem,micro-) (Science)].
Commas are not used in large numbers. In 4-digit numbers, the digits are set closed up. For numbers of 10 000 or greater, a half-space or thin space is used to separate every 3 digits starting from the right-most integer (or, in numbers with decimals, from the left of the decimal point). For numbers with 5 or more digits to the right of the decimal point, a half-space is used between every 3 digits starting from the right of the decimal point (see also , Units of Measure, Use of Numerals With Units).The exact weight of the salt was 8.453 98 g,
Commas are not used in large numbers. In 4-digit numbers, the digits are set closed up. For numbers of 10 000 or greater, a half-space or thin space is used to separate every 3 digits starting from the right-most integer (or, in numbers with decimals, from the left of the decimal point). For numbers with 5 or more digits to the right of the decimal point, a half-space is used between every 3 digits starting from the right of the decimal point (see also , Units of Measure, Use of Numerals With Units).The exact weight of the salt was 8.453 98 g,
The five yearly Census of Population and Housing is the primary source of basic population statistics, providing a total count of the population on census night. Population count may be required on a place of enumeration (de facto) basis as well as on a place of usual residence (de jure) basis (United Nations, 1998a). Importantly the Australian Census can provide population counts on a place of enumeration on census night basis or a place of usual residence basis. It can also provide counts of the working population ...
Molecular Cloning, also known as Maniatis, has served as the foundation of technical expertise in labs worldwide for 30 years. No other manual has been so popular, or so influential.
Microbiological analysis: Link to the NordVal International validation protocol No. 1 for microbiological methods (June 2016, ed. Sept 2017) (harmonises with ISO 16140-2:2016) is here. Chemical analysis: Link to the NordVal International validation protocol No. 2 for chemical methods is here. ...
Gentleman Scholar a pu réaliser récemment cette courte vidéo danimation « Count on Me ». Un jeu de typographies et de couleurs q
We have found 44 NRICH Mathematical resources connected to Fractions, you may find related items under Fractions, Decimals, Percentages, Ratio and Proportion
We have found 41 NRICH Mathematical resources connected to Ratio, you may find related items under Fractions, Decimals, Percentages, Ratio and Proportion
Please adhere to the decimal points that appear on the form. Do not add decimal positions that do not appear on the form. This is also true if you report online using the web-based forms. The scanner will ignore any decimal points not already on the form. Example: If you enter a value such as "9.0" in a field that requires whole numbers, your result will be recorded as "90". It is also very important to zero fill all positions to the right of the decimal points where applicable ...
Get an answer for Cutoffs:Find the corresponding Z score(s). Round answer to 2 decimal places! Cutoff for the bottom 37%. and find homework help for other Math questions at eNotes
Knowing whether a wound is infected by a bacterial colony is important for monitoring patients and deciding the course of treatment. Currently, the
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I am trying to find a way to format the concatenate command in Excel I want to remove the leading zero infront of the decimal point 0.83...
Combined display of all available logs of Magicpedia. You can narrow down the view by selecting a log type, the username (case-sensitive), or the affected page (also case-sensitive). ...
In this study, it was aimed that production of natural flavor compounds from olive pomace via microbial fermentation by using Torulaspora delbrueckii and Trichoderma atroviride. For this purpose, fermentation of olive pomace solution (10%) by Torulaspora delbrueckii and Trichoderma atroviride was carried out both shake flask and bioreactor scale at 30oC for 120 hours. Growth of microorganisms in olive pomace was investigated during fermentation at both scales. Identification and quantification of flavor compounds which are produced by T. delbrueckii and T. atroviride were determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry and gas chromatography olfactometry. It was found that the maximum cell increases of T. delbrueckii and T. atroviride were 1.49 log cfu/mL and 1.07 log cfu/mL respectively in shake flakes, while at the bioreactor scale fermentation, the maximum cell increases were determined as 2.23 log cfu/mL and 0.092 log cfu/mL for respectively. Specific growth rate of T. delbrueckii and T. ...
The effectiveness of a steam pasteurization process for reducing naturally occurring bacterial populations on freshly slaughtered beef sides was evaluated in a large commercial facility. Over a period of 10 days, 140 randomly chosen beef sides were microbiologically analyzed. Each side was sampled immediately before, immediately after, and 24 h after steam pasteurization treatment. Total aerobic bacteria (APC), Escherichia coli (generic), coliform, and Enterobacteriaceae populations were enumerated. The process significantly (P ≤ 0.01) reduced mean APCs from 2.19 log CFU/cm2 before treatment to 0.84 log CFU/cm2 immediately after and 0.94 log CFU/cm2 24 h after treatment. Before pasteurization (8 s steam exposure), 16.4% of carcasses were positive for generic E. coli (level of 0.60 to 1.53 log CFU/cm2), 37.9% were positive for coliforms (level of 0.60 to 2.26 log CFU/cm2), and 46.4% were positive for Enterobacteriaceae (level of 0.60 to 2.25 log CFU/cm2). After pasteurization, 0% of carcasses ...
Example of the decimal.Compare and static decimal.Equals methods. using System; class DecCompareEqualsDemo { const string dataFmt = "{0,-45}{1}"; // Compare decimal parameters, and display them with the results. public static void CompareDecimals( decimal Left, decimal Right, string RightText ) { Console.WriteLine( ); Console.WriteLine( dataFmt, "Right: "+RightText, Right ); Console.WriteLine( dataFmt, "decimal.Equals( Left, Right )", Decimal.Equals( Left, Right ) ); Console.WriteLine( dataFmt, "decimal.Compare( Left, Right )", Decimal.Compare( Left, Right ) ); } public static void Main( ) { Console.WriteLine( "This example of the " + "decimal.Equals( decimal, decimal ) and \n" + "decimal.Compare( decimal, decimal ) methods " + "generates the \nfollowing output. It creates several " + "different decimal \nvalues and compares them with " + "the following reference value.\n" ); // Create a reference decimal value. decimal Left = new decimal( 123.456 ); Console.WriteLine( dataFmt, "Left: decimal( ...
NOLA, Moïse et al. Assessment of in-situ abundance dynamics of enterobacteria and total heterotrophic aerobic bacteria in groundwater in the equatorial region of Central Africa. Water SA [online]. 2012, vol.38, n.5, pp.737-746. ISSN 1816-7950.. The main purpose of this investigation was to assess, in situ, the hourly abundance dynamics of enterobacteria and total heterotrophic aerobic bacteria (THAB), over a daily period, in 3 wells in Yaounde region, Cameroon. Sampling was done weekly, for 4 months. Water samples were collected in sterile glass bottles and incubated in situ for 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, 10 h and 12 h. Isolation and enumeration of enterobacteria and THAB were performed on MacConkey agar (Bio-Rad) and standard agar (Bio-Rad) media, respectively, using the plate count method. Using a linear regression model, ln(number of CFUs) was plotted against time. The slope of each regression line was considered as the apparent increase or decrease in cell number. Concentrations of THAB and ...
Question: Is there a difference between total microbe test and a total coliform test. What do the following results mean as far as safe drinking water is concerned, (5-10)(10-20)(400-500) (800-1000) Colony forming units(CFUs) of aerobic bacteria?. Thank you.. Answer: There is a difference between total microbes test and total coliform test. The former is a non-specific test for everything including the coliforms (if they are present). This test is commonly referred to as Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC) or Total Aerobic Plate Count. HPC does not give an indication of the types of organisms present or their sources. The total coliform test is designed to detect bacteria belonging to the coliform group.. I am not sure whether the results above were CFUs per litre or per 100 mL. Assuming these were per 100 mL of water the first set of results would be considered insignificant provided coliforms were not present. The second two sets of results suggests the water is either not properly treated or is ...
There has been increasing concern on the emergence of multidrug-resistant foodborne pathogens from foods of animal origin, including poultry. The current study aimed to evaluate antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae from raw retail chicken/turkey parts (thigh, wings, breast, and ground) and beef meat (ground and chunks) in Middle Tennessee. Resistance of the collected Enterobacteriaceae to a panel of antibiotics was determined by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion test. Retail meats were also assayed for the presence of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7. Two hundred thirty-seven samples representing 95.2% of the total of 249 samples tested were positive for Enterobacteriaceae. The level of contamination with Enterobacteriaceae in raw meats ranged from 3.26 log cfu/g to 4.94 log cfu/g with significant differences in counts among meat types (P , 0.05). Contamination was significantly greater (P , 0.05) in ground beef, beef chucks, ground chicken, chicken breast, and turkey wings (4.92, ...
Limited shelf life of meat products due to microbial spoilage is a major problem in meat industry as meat is a good source for growth of microorganisms. Therefore, preservation is essential. Thus, the present study was focused to determine the effect of acetic acid, lactic acid and trisodium phosphate on microbial quality of chicken cold cuts (chicken salami and chicken roll). Samples were randomly collected during the chilling step and treated as groups by immersion in lactic acid (2, 3, 4%), acetic acid (2, 2.5, 3%), trisodium phosphate (8, 10, 12%) for 20 seconds. Samples without any treatment served as the control. All treatments were vaccum packed and stored under chilled condition. Treatments were evaluated for colony forming units (CFU), yeast and molds and pH in 10th, 20th, 30th and 40th day of storage. Based on CFU counts for chicken salami samples on 40th day, acetic acid 2, 2.5, 3% treated samples showed 1.55×105 CFU/g, 1.31×105 CFU/g, 1.16×105 CFU/g, lactic acid 2, 3, 4% treated ...
7.7. Mean values of total bacterial counts were generally less than 105 CFU/g except for brand "F" which contained about 103 CFU/g. Wide variation in the percentage of sporeformers in total count was observed. Mean values of spore counts ranged from 103 to 104 CFU/g. Bacillus cereus was found in variable densities; mean values hardly exceeding 104/g, it was not detected in some samples. Generally, B. Cereus represented 20-70% of the total spore counts. Yeast colony mean counts around 102 CFU/g. Enterobacteriaceae, molds coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis and salmonellae could not be detected in all samples. D10 value of B. cereus was 2.85 KGy, while the D10 values at 85, 90, 95 and 100C were found to be 15.0, 9.5, 8.5 and 2.5 min, respectively. Preirradiation treatment of B. cereus spores had a synergistic effect with heat treatment ...
In this study, different optical, physical and chemical measurements were tested for their capacity to detect changes in water quality. The tests included UV-absorbance at 254 nm, absorbance at 420 nm, turbidity, particle counting, temperature, pH, electric conductivity (EC), free chlorine concentration and ATP concentration measurements. Special emphasis was given to investigating the potential for measurement tools to detect changes in bacterial concentrations in drinking water. Bacterial colony counts (CFU) and total bacterial cell counts (TBC) were used as reference methods for assessing the bacterial water quality. The study consists of a series of laboratory scale experiments: monitoring of regrowth of Pseudomonas fluorescens, estimation of the detection limits for optical measurements using Escherichia coli dilutions, verification of the relationships by analysing grab water samples from various distribution systems and utilisation of the measurements in the case of an accidentally contaminated
Drinking Water Quality by Northeast Laboratory Services (NEL). Coliform & E.coli Bacteria Count – MF/Colilert, Coliform & E.coli Bacteria P/A Colilert, Heterotrophic Plate Count, Pseudomonas, Iron Bacteria, Fungi (Mold & Yeast)
Air Sample. Our patented M-TRAP® technology is a game changer in the world of Indoor Air Quality. Using our proprietary spore capture solution applied to the M-TRAP®s filter we can increase spore capture efficiency by 95-99% compared to traditional inertial impact spore trap cassettes (Micro-5®, AllergencoD®, Air-o-Cell®, etc). With the use of a reusable adaptor, our cassette is compatible but all the standard IAQ pumps. The M-TRAP® has been independently validated by CDC NIOSH and has been used by Columbia University, University Hospitals in Cleveland, and University of Nevada School of Medicine as well as by many of our Home Inspector and Industrial Hygienist clients in residential, commercial, medical, and industrial properties. The M-TRAP® can also be used for a variety of viable airborne analyses including fungal and bacterial colony counts, MRSA, Legionella, and has even been shown to capture virus particles. It also eliminates the problem of low capture of Stachybotrys on inertial ...
Biofilm sensor that allows to adjust and optimize biocide treatment, checking at the same time sanitation effectiveness and preventing harmful bacterial proliferation
99% of microorganisms hide in biofilms. This leads to false negatives. It is key to detect biofilm contamination. Discover our detection techniques.
the_ubiquitous_and_usually_harmless_e_coli_bacterium_which_has_oneseventh_the_number_of_genes_as_a_human_has_more_than_1000_of_them_involved_in_metabolism_and_metabolic_regulation_activation_of_random_combinations_of_these_genes_would_theoretically_be_capable_of_generating_a_huge_variety_of_internal_states_however_researchers_at_ucsd_will_report_in_the_dec_27_issue_of_proceedings_of_th
ATCC provides fully characterized strains necessary for the microbiological analysis of consumable products to identify and prevent the spread of foodborne disease.
ATCC provides fully characterized strains necessary for the microbiological analysis of consumable products to identify and prevent the spread of foodborne disease.
The management of patients undergoing colorectal surgery has changed in recent decades. Efforts have been made to show that perioperative physiological stress to the patient can be minimised with standardised care programmes and thus improve short term outcome after colorectal surgery. Mechanical bowel preparation (MBP), for instance, has been questioned as part of standard management. There are studies highlighting the effect of cancer treatment and its side effects in the elderly, showing that geriatric patients benefit from oncological therapy in much the same way as younger patients. The impact of this information on surgical and oncological practice in Sweden today is not known. To assess the effectiveness of colorectal surgery we need both randomised controlled trials and population-based cohort studies. We have performed a trial on colonic surgery with and without preoperative mechanical bowel preparation, as well as a nation-wide register study comparing treatment and outcome of rectal ...
Emergence of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia as a nosocomial pathogen is becoming increasingly apparent. Pleiotropic resistance characterizes S. maltophilia. Furthermore, a slow growth rate and an increased mutation rate generate discordance between in vitro susceptibility testing and clinical outcome. Despite original susceptibility, drug-resistant strains of S. maltophilia are often recovered from patients receiving beta-lactams, quinolones, or aminoglycosides. Given the disparity among various in vitro susceptibility methods, this study incorporated a unique pharmacodynamic model to more accurately characterize the bacterial time-kill curves and mutation rates of four clinical isolates of S. maltophilia following exposure to simulated multidose regimens of ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and ticarcillin-clavulanate. Time-kill data demonstrated regrowth of S. maltophilia with all four agents. With the exception of ticarcillin-clavulanate, viable bacterial counts at the end of 24 h ...
This study was undertaken to optimize the conditions for the extraction of antibacterial activity of Perilla frutescens var. acuta leaf against Pseudomonas aeruginosa KCTC 2004 using the evolutionary operation-factorial (EVOP) design technique. Increased antibacterial activity was achieved at higher extraction temperatures and with a longer extraction time. Antibacterial activity was not affected by differing ethanol concentration in the extraction solvent. The maximum antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of P. frutescens var. acuta leaf against P. aeruginosa, determined by the EVOP factorial technique, was obtained at an extraction temperature of 80 °C (R = −0.800**), 26 h (R = −0.731**) extraction time, and 50% (R = −0.075) ethanol concentration. The population of P. aeruginosa also decreased from 6.660 log CFU/mL in the initial set to 4.060 log CFU/mL in the third set. Also, scanning electron microscopy study of the ethanolic extract of P. frutescens var. acuta revealed potential
Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the microbiological quality of Ghanaian bottled and plastic-bagged drinking water sold on the streets of Metropolitan Kumasi, Ghana. Methods and Results: Eight bottled, 88 factory-filled plastic sachet and 40 hand-filled hand-tied polythene-bagged drinking waters were examined for the presence of heterotrophic bacteria total viable counts (TVCs), indicators of faecal contamination (total coliforms, faecal coliforms and enterococci) and for lead, manganese and iron. Heterotrophic bacteria were found in all three types of water with TVCs per millilitre ranging from 1 to 460 for bottled water, 2-6·33 × 105 for factory-bagged sachet water and 2·33 × 103-7·33 × 1012 for hand-filled hand-tied bagged water. None of the microbial indicators of faecal contamination were detected in bottled water, whereas 4·5% of the factory-bagged sachets contained total coliforms and 2·3% faecal coliforms, and 42·5% of the hand-filled hand-tied bags contained total ...
Dormancy in non-sporulating bacteria is an interesting and underexplored phenomenon with significant medical implications. In particular, latent tuberculosis may result from the maintenance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli in non-replicating states in infected individuals. Uniquely, growth of M. tuberculosis in aerobic conditions in potassium-deficient media resulted in the generation of bacilli that were non-culturable (NC) on solid media but detectable in liquid media. These bacilli were morphologically distinct and tolerant to cell-wall-targeting antimicrobials. Bacterial counts on solid media quickly recovered after washing and incubating bacilli in fresh resuscitation media containing potassium. This resuscitation of growth occurred too quickly to be attributed to M. tuberculosis replication. Transcriptomic and proteomic profiling through adaptation to, and resuscitation from, this NC state revealed a switch to anaerobic respiration and a shift to lipid and amino acid metabolism. High ...

Getting Started in Beekeeping OCT2017Getting Started in Beekeeping OCT2017

158 mites in 1/2 cup (300) of bees! Do I have a colony that is surviving with varroa or a colony that is on the brink of ... Follow this link to read an article about wax moths and their control. Lastly combs can be protected with a natural microbial ... Werent we both surprised when there were so many mites we had to dump them out on a rag to make an accurate count. ... Dont let your hive become a source of stores for a neighboring colony! Use a robbing screen if you have a small colony or are ...
more infohttp://colonialbeekeepers.org/index.php/latest-news/280-getting-started-in-beekeeping-oct2017

Faculty Collaboration Database - Mesh term Colony Count, MicrobialFaculty Collaboration Database - Mesh term Colony Count, Microbial

Mesh term Colony Count, Microbial. Browse to parent terms:. Microbiological Techniques. Description. Enumeration by direct ... microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.. Browse to child terms:. Bacterial Load. Search for this term in our Faculty ... count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method ...
more infohttps://fcd.mcw.edu/?module=search&func=showTerm&id=68015169

Optimize Workflow in Your Microbiology Laboratory With Mix and Match Systems to Suit Any Budget | SelectScienceOptimize Workflow in Your Microbiology Laboratory With Mix and Match Systems to Suit Any Budget | SelectScience

Discover an innovative range of equipment for improving food sample processing and microbial colony counting. These mix and ... Discover an innovative range of equipment for improving food sample processing and microbial colony counting. ... Protos 3, a walk-away colony counter and microbial identification system. *aCOLyte 3 HD, a dedicated colony counter for pour ... aCOLade 2, a quality manual colony counter Used in combination, the systems will speed up your workflow from sample to result. ...
more infohttp://www.selectscience.net/product-news/Optimize-Workflow-in-Your-Microbiology-Laboratory-With-Mix-and-Match-Systems-to-Suit-Any-Budget/?artID=43025&compname=Synbiosis

Colony-Forming Cell Assay Detecting the Co-Expression of JAK2V617F and BCR-ABL1 in the Same Clone: A Case Report.Colony-Forming Cell Assay Detecting the Co-Expression of JAK2V617F and BCR-ABL1 in the Same Clone: A Case Report.

Colony Count, Microbial. Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable ... Each colony (i.e., microbial colony-forming unit) represents the progeny of a single cell in the original inoculum. The method ... Summary of "Colony-Forming Cell Assay Detecting the Co-Expression of JAK2V617F and BCR-ABL1 in the Same Clone: A Case Report." ... Colony-Forming Cell Assay Detecting the Co-Expression of JAK2V617F and BCR-ABL1 in the Same Clone: A Case Report.. 08:00 EDT ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/pmarticle/2340113/Colony-Forming-Cell-Assay-Detecting-the-Co-Expression-of-JAK2V617F-and-BCR.html

Fate of Staphylococcus aureus in whey, whey cream, and whey cream butter.Fate of Staphylococcus aureus in whey, whey cream, and whey cream butter.

Colony Count, Microbial. Dairy Products*. Food Microbiology*. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Staphylococcus aureus / growth & ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Fate-Staphylococcus-aureus-in-whey/2628438.html

ASTM E2563 - 18 Standard Practice for  Enumeration of Non-TuberculosisASTM E2563 - 18 Standard Practice for Enumeration of Non-Tuberculosis

E2563-18 Standard Practice for Enumeration of Non-Tuberculosis Mycobacteria in Aqueous Metalworking Fluids by Plate Count ... D5465 Practices for Determining Microbial Colony Counts from Waters Analyzed by Plating Methods ... in Aqueous Metalworking Fluids by Plate Count Method. Active Standard ASTM E2563 , Developed by Subcommittee: E34.50 ... The microbiologist should also be capable of distinguishing the diverse colonies of Mycobacteria from other microorganism ...
more infohttps://www.astm.org/Standards/E2563.htm

ASTM E2275 - 14 Standard Practice for  Evaluating Water-Miscible Metalworking Fluid Bioresistance  and Antimicrobial Pesticide...ASTM E2275 - 14 Standard Practice for Evaluating Water-Miscible Metalworking Fluid Bioresistance and Antimicrobial Pesticide...

D5465 Practice for Determining Microbial Colony Counts from Waters Analyzed by Plating Methods ... E2563 Practice for Enumeration of Non-Tuberculosis Mycobacteria in Aqueous Metalworking Fluids by Plate Count Method ... E2564 Practice for Enumeration of Mycobacteria in Metalworking Fluids by Direct Microscopic Counting (DMC) Method ...
more infohttps://www.astm.org/Standards/E2275.htm

Efficacy in murine wound healing of IDR-1018 compared t | Open-iEfficacy in murine wound healing of IDR-1018 compared t | Open-i

Colony Count, Microbial. *Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy/microbiology/pathology. *Disease Models, Animal ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC3412849_pone.0039373.g003&req=4

Performance of silver, zinc, and iron nanoparticles-doped cotton filters against airborne E. coli to minimize bioaerosol...Performance of silver, zinc, and iron nanoparticles-doped cotton filters against airborne E. coli to minimize bioaerosol...

Then, the Petri dishes were incubated for 24 h at 37 °C for microbial colony counts. ... 2002). Microbial aggregates counted as one single particle by the OPC can be assayed as numerous single microbes after ... to maintain an optimal RH for collecting maximum viable counts (colony forming units, CFUs). ... while empty droplets counted by OPC do not result in any count by the bioassay. Additionally, environmental conditions, such as ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11869-018-0622-0

Instituto de Biotecnologia UNAMInstituto de Biotecnologia UNAM

Automated microbial colony counting using image processing techniques en: Olson,W.P. Rapid analytical microbiology: the ... Analysis Method that allows Detection of Confluent Microbial Colonies and Colonies of Various Sizes for Automated Counting.UNAM ... analysis method that allows detection of confluent microbial colonies and colonies of various sizes for automated counting ... OPTO-ELECTRONIC SYSTEM FOR AUTOMATIC TRACK COUNTING IN PLASTIC SSNTD Nuclear Tracks And Radiation Measurements, 8, 211-214 * . ...
more infohttp://www.ibt.unam.mx/server/PRG.base?tipo:doc,dir:PRG.curriculum,par:COBG561202

Instituto de Biotecnologia UNAMInstituto de Biotecnologia UNAM

Automated microbial colony counting using image processing techniques en: Olson,W.P. Rapid analytical microbiology: the ... Analysis Method that allows Detection of Confluent Microbial Colonies and Colonies of Various Sizes for Automated Counting.UNAM ... analysis method that allows detection of confluent microbial colonies and colonies of various sizes for automated counting ... OPTO-ELECTRONIC SYSTEM FOR AUTOMATIC TRACK COUNTING IN PLASTIC SSNTD Nuclear Tracks And Radiation Measurements, 8, 211-214 * . ...
more infohttp://www.ibt.unam.mx/server/PRG.base?tipo:doc,dir:PRG.curriculum,par:corkidi

HKU Scholars Hub: Inhibitory effect of quercetin on periodontal pathogens.HKU Scholars Hub: Inhibitory effect of quercetin on periodontal pathogens.

Colony Count, Microbial. en_US. dc.subject.mesh. Culture Media. en_US. ... Colonies appearing on the blood agar plates were visually counted after three days for Aa and 5 days for Pg. This study ... Colonies appearing on the blood agar plates were visually counted after three days for Aa and 5 days for Pg. This study ...
more infohttp://hub.hku.hk/handle/10722/154714

Colony counting and inhibition zone sizing systems - SynbiosisColony counting and inhibition zone sizing systems - Synbiosis

... world-leading supplier of systems for automated colony counting, zone measurement and microbial identification systems. ... If you want to save time counting any type of microbial colonies from food or drink samples, then we have a range of colony ... If you want to count microbial colonies or measure inhibitions zones from clinical samples, then we have a range of colony ... Looking to save time and effort when counting microbial colonies from environmental or water samples? Then look no further than ...
more infohttps://www.synbiosis.com/

The Viable but Nonculturable State in Bacteria - PubMedThe Viable but Nonculturable State in Bacteria - PubMed

Colony Count, Microbial Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ...
more infohttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15765062/

3 Checks Colony Forming Units Silage Inoculants Cowsmo3 Checks Colony Forming Units Silage Inoculants Cowsmo

3 Checks Colony Forming Units Silage Inoculants, PH Levels, forage, bacteria ... 3 Checks Colony Forming Units Silage Inoculants, PH Levels, forage, bacteria, ... After incubation, individual microbial colonies are counted. Since its unknown if the colony was formed by one single organism ... 3 Checks for Colony Forming Units in Silage Inoculants. Every time forage is ensiled, there is a microscopic war between "good ...
more infohttp://www.cowsmo.com/articles/329147/

Xylanase and Fermented Polysaccharide of Hericium caputmedusae Reduce Pathogenic Infection of Broilers by Improving Antioxidant...Xylanase and Fermented Polysaccharide of Hericium caputmedusae Reduce Pathogenic Infection of Broilers by Improving Antioxidant...

Small intestinal contents were harvested immediately and transported to the laboratory for counting microbial colonies. ... The bacterial numbers were counted by observing the colony on the plate after one-day culture at 37°C. ... Samples were withdrawn at regular intervals, and probiotics were counted by serial dilution of the material in sterile ... Furthermore, longer duration of fiber in the intestinal tract will result in better microbial adaptation [35]. ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2018/4296985/

TB-susceptible I/St and TB-resistant A/Sn mice infected | Open-iTB-susceptible I/St and TB-resistant A/Sn mice infected | Open-i

Colony Count, Microbial. *Crosses, Genetic. *Disease Progression. *Disease Susceptibility. *Female. *Inflammation Mediators/ ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC2864263_pone.0010469.g002&req=4

Sterilization in hydroponic recycling system using visible light-reactive titanium dioxide photocatalysts<...Sterilization in hydroponic recycling system using visible light-reactive titanium dioxide photocatalysts<...

Microbial Colony Count nutrient solutions solar radiation Facility Regulation and Control Colletotrichum ... Sterilization performance at a low initial density of spores (26 counts/0.9 mm3) is 23.9% higher than at a high initial density ... Sterilization performance at a low initial density of spores (26 counts/0.9 mm3) is 23.9% higher than at a high initial density ... Sterilization performance at a low initial density of spores (26 counts/0.9 mm3) is 23.9% higher than at a high initial density ...
more infohttps://kyushu-u.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/sterilization-in-hydroponic-recycling-system-using-visible-light-

Voided midstream urine culture and acute cystitis in premenopausal women.  - PubMed - NCBIVoided midstream urine culture and acute cystitis in premenopausal women. - PubMed - NCBI

We compared microbial species and colony counts in the paired specimens. The primary outcome was a comparison of positive ... Correlation between Counts of Colony-Forming Units (CFUs) in Catheter Urine Cultures and in Midstream Urine Cultures ... were not predictive of bladder bacteriuria at any colony count (Spearmans r=0.322 for enterococci and 0.272 for group B ... Shown are plots indicating the correlation between bacterial counts in cultures of urine collected by means of a urethral ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24224622?dopt=Abstract

Microbiology Testing (Monitoring and Testing) Equipment  | Environmental XPRTMicrobiology Testing (Monitoring and Testing) Equipment | Environmental XPRT

BZG 40 - Colony Counter. Colony counter to count microbial colonies in petri dishes - easy, quick and reliable counting with ... ProcScan is used when working with large size plates either for colony counting or for the measurement of inhibition zones on ... Flat bottomed with a 10 x 10mm numbered grid for easy calculation of the colony units per cm2. Includes a peelable adhesive ... The NC-250 can perform high speed cell count and viability determination, a unique 5-minute cell cycle assay and a 1 minute ...
more infohttps://www.environmental-expert.com/monitoring-testing/microbiology-testing/products

Products and Equipment from Pollution & Process Monitoring Ltd | Environmental XPRTProducts and Equipment from Pollution & Process Monitoring Ltd | Environmental XPRT

BZG 40 - Colony Counter. Colony counter to count microbial colonies in petri dishes - easy, quick and reliable counting with ... OxiTop Control meter to determine soil respiration - lab procedure to determine the microbial soil respiration according to DIN ...
more infohttps://www.environmental-expert.com/companies/pollution-process-monitoring-ltd-493/products

Application # 2011/0143334. MICROBIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS AND METHODS OF FLUID SAMPLE ANALYSIS - Patents.comApplication # 2011/0143334. MICROBIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS AND METHODS OF FLUID SAMPLE ANALYSIS - Patents.com

... automated systems for counting microbial colonies detect the presence of target microorganisms by the ability of the colonies, ... Colony Count Mixed Cellulose Ester Ceramic Coliform count 1 4 Total count 1 51 [0056] The plate reader detected only one colony ... Plate reader colony counts from mixed cultures grown in Petrifilm E. coli/Coliform Count Plates. In this test, a typical colony ... manipulate the colony count data and images. An exemplary system for counting colonies on agar plates is sold by Synbiosis ( ...
more infohttp://patents.com/us-20110143334.html

Fasting Hypochlorhydria With Gram Positive Gastric Flora Is Highly Prevalent in Healthy Old People - PubMedFasting Hypochlorhydria With Gram Positive Gastric Flora Is Highly Prevalent in Healthy Old People - PubMed

Twelve of 15 (80%) were hypochlorhydric with pH 6.6 (0.3) (mean (SEM) and a mean bacterial count of 10(8) colony forming units ... Colony Count, Microbial Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Twelve of 15 (80%) were hypochlorhydric with pH 6.6 (0.3) (mean (SEM) and a mean bacterial count of 10(8) colony forming units ... Normochlorhydric subjects had low counts (, or = 10(1) CFU/ml). The microbial flora was dominated by viridans streptococci, ...
more infohttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1446855/
  • Shown are plots indicating the correlation between bacterial counts in cultures of urine collected by means of a urethral catheter and those in cultures of voided midstream urine in women with symptoms of acute uncomplicated cystitis. (nih.gov)
  • Correlations between bacterial counts in blood and other samples were not found. (tropmedres.ac)
  • The microbiologist should also be capable of distinguishing the diverse colonies of Mycobacteria from other microorganism colonies on a Petri dish and capable of confirming Mycobacteria by acid-fast staining method. (astm.org)
  • To determine the CFU count, a sample is taken, diluted and a precise amount is spread onto a growth media in a petri dish. (cowsmo.com)
  • Since it's unknown if the colony was formed by one single organism or a cluster of bacteria, each spot on the petri dish is referred to as a "colony forming unit. (cowsmo.com)
  • The plate count is linear for E. coli over the range of 30 - 300 CFU on a standard sized Petri dish. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the surface area of most filters is less than that of a standard petri dish, the linear range of the plate count will be less. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5.4 This practice is also applicable for establishing the mycobacterial resistance of metalworking fluid formulations by determining mycobacterium survival by means of plate count technique. (astm.org)
  • In contrast, in midstream urine, enterococci (in 10% of cultures) and group B streptococci (in 12% of cultures) were not predictive of bladder bacteriuria at any colony count (Spearman's r=0.322 for enterococci and 0.272 for group B streptococci). (nih.gov)
  • 2009 ). Seeking a convenient, inexpensive, and efficient method for microbial decontamination is a major goal of public health against airborne biological threats. (springer.com)
  • Estimation of microbial numbers by CFU will, in most cases, undercount the number of living cells present in a sample for these reasons. (wikipedia.org)
  • That's why we have developed products specifically designed to automate colony counting and inhibition zone measurement, to relieve you of the tedium involved with these repetitive manual tasks. (synbiosis.com)
  • citation needed] Colonies can be enumerated from pictures of plates using software tools. (wikipedia.org)