Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
The presence of bacteria in the urine which is normally bacteria-free. These bacteria are from the URINARY TRACT and are not contaminants of the surrounding tissues. Bacteriuria can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Significant bacteriuria is an indicator of urinary tract infection.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.
The presence of white blood cells (LEUKOCYTES) in the urine. It is often associated with bacterial infections of the urinary tract. Pyuria without BACTERIURIA can be caused by TUBERCULOSIS, stones, or cancer.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.
Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.
A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of stem cells by assaying their activity.
Infection with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. It is usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by CANDIDA ALBICANS. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.
A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.
The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS that is a spherical, non-motile, gram-positive, chemoorganotrophic, facultative anaerobe. Mainly found on the skin and mucous membrane of warm-blooded animals, it can be primary pathogen or secondary invader.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.
The sudden collapse and disappearance or diminution of a colony of organisms.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.
The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)
A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Glycoproteins found in a subfraction of normal mammalian plasma and urine. They stimulate the proliferation of bone marrow cells in agar cultures and the formation of colonies of granulocytes and/or macrophages. The factors include INTERLEUKIN-3; (IL-3); GRANULOCYTE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (G-CSF); MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (M-CSF); and GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (GM-CSF).
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.
Determination of parasite eggs in feces.
The number of RETICULOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. The values are expressed as a percentage of the ERYTHROCYTE COUNT or in the form of an index ("corrected reticulocyte index"), which attempts to account for the number of circulating erythrocytes.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of tumor stem cells by assaying their activity. It is used primarily for the in vitro testing of antineoplastic agents.
Very large BONE MARROW CELLS which release mature BLOOD PLATELETS.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The management and maintenance of colonies of honeybees.
The production of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES). In humans, erythrocytes are produced by the YOLK SAC in the first trimester; by the liver in the second trimester; by the BONE MARROW in the third trimester and after birth. In normal individuals, the erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood remains relatively constant implying a balance between the rate of erythrocyte production and rate of destruction.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
A subnormal level of BLOOD PLATELETS.
Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.
A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.
A multilineage cell growth factor secreted by LYMPHOCYTES; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and ASTROCYTES which stimulates clonal proliferation and differentiation of various types of blood and tissue cells.
A glycoprotein of MW 25 kDa containing internal disulfide bonds. It induces the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neutrophilic granulocyte precursor cells and functionally activates mature blood neutrophils. Among the family of colony-stimulating factors, G-CSF is the most potent inducer of terminal differentiation to granulocytes and macrophages of leukemic myeloid cell lines.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.
An acidic glycoprotein of MW 23 kDa with internal disulfide bonds. The protein is produced in response to a number of inflammatory mediators by mesenchymal cells present in the hemopoietic environment and at peripheral sites of inflammation. GM-CSF is able to stimulate the production of neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, and mixed granulocyte-macrophage colonies from bone marrow cells and can stimulate the formation of eosinophil colonies from fetal liver progenitor cells. GM-CSF can also stimulate some functional activities in mature granulocytes and macrophages.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
A transient increase in the number of leukocytes in a body fluid.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Social rank-order established by certain behavioral patterns.
A family of MITES in the subclass ACARI. It includes the single genus Varroa.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
The cells in the erythroid series derived from MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS or from the bi-potential MEGAKARYOCYTE-ERYTHROID PROGENITOR CELLS which eventually give rise to mature RED BLOOD CELLS. The erythroid progenitor cells develop in two phases: erythroid burst-forming units (BFU-E) followed by erythroid colony-forming units (CFU-E); BFU-E differentiate into CFU-E on stimulation by ERYTHROPOIETIN, and then further differentiate into ERYTHROBLASTS when stimulated by other factors.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.
A mononuclear phagocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) synthesized by mesenchymal cells. The compound stimulates the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic cells of the monocyte-macrophage series. M-CSF is a disulfide-bonded glycoprotein dimer with a MW of 70 kDa. It binds to a specific high affinity receptor (RECEPTOR, MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR).
These growth factors comprise a family of hematopoietic regulators with biological specificities defined by their ability to support proliferation and differentiation of blood cells of different lineages. ERYTHROPOIETIN and the COLONY-STIMULATING FACTORS belong to this family. Some of these factors have been studied and used in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and bone marrow failure syndromes.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.

A sustained rat model for studying the long-lasting catabolic state of sepsis. (1/6028)

Most animal models of sepsis induced high mortality or early recovery and do not mimic the long-lasting catabolic state observed in patients. The purpose of this study is to develop a model of sepsis which reproduces these disorders, especially the long-lasting muscle wasting. This report summarizes our observations in a series of seven experiments using this model with rats to study the route of live Escherichia coli administration, dose of bacteria, reproducibility of the model, bacterial count in tissues, comparison of injection of live or dead bacteria, metabolic perturbations linked to infection, and potential role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in muscle wasting. After intravenous infection, animals were anorexic and the catabolic state was long-lasting: body weight loss for 2 to 3 days followed by a chronic wasting state for several days. Liver, spleen, lung protein content, and plasma concentration of alpha2-macroglobulin were increased 2 and 6 days after infection. At 6 days, muscle protein content was substantially (-40%) reduced. The plasma TNF-alpha level measured 1.5 h after infection correlated with body weight loss observed 9 days later. The inhibition of TNF-alpha secretion by administration of pentoxifylline 1 h before infection reduced muscle wasting and activation of proteolysis at day 2 and abolished them at day 6. This septic model mimics in rats the prolonged protein metabolism alterations and muscle atrophy characteristics of infected patients and thus is useful for studying the impact of nutritional support on outcome.  (+info)

RecA-Mediated gene conversion and aminoglycoside resistance in strains heterozygous for rRNA. (2/6028)

Clinical resistance to aminoglycosides in general is due to enzymatic drug modification. Mutational alterations of the small ribosomal subunit rRNA have recently been found to mediate acquired resistance in bacterial pathogens in vivo. In this study we investigated the effect of 16S rRNA heterozygosity (wild-type [wt] and mutant [mut] operons at position 1408 [1408wt/1408mut]) on aminoglycoside resistance. Using an integrative vector, we introduced a single copy of a mutated rRNA operon (1408 A-->G) into Mycobacterium smegmatis, which carries two chromosomal wild-type rRNA operons; the resultant transformants exhibited an aminoglycoside-sensitive phenotype. In contrast, introduction of the mutated rRNA operon into an M. smegmatis rrnB knockout strain carrying a single functional chromosomal wild-type rRNA operon resulted in aminoglycoside-resistant transformants. Subsequent analysis by DNA sequencing and RNase protection assays unexpectedly demonstrated a homozygous mutant genotype, rRNAmut/rRNAmut, in the resistant transformants. To investigate whether RecA-mediated gene conversion was responsible for the aminoglycoside-resistant phenotype in the rRNAwt/rRNAmut strains, recA mutant strains were generated by allelic exchange techniques. Transformation of the recA rrnB M. smegmatis mutant strains with an integrative vector expressing a mutated rRNA operon (Escherichia coli position 1408 A-->G) resulted in transformants with an aminoglycoside-sensitive phenotype. Subsequent analysis showed stable heterozygosity at 16S rRNA position 1408 with a single wild-type allele and a single resistant allele. These results demonstrate that rRNA-mediated mutational resistance to aminoglycosides is recessive.  (+info)

Efflux-mediated aminoglycoside and macrolide resistance in Burkholderia pseudomallei. (3/6028)

Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is intrinsically resistant to a wide range of antimicrobial agents including beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, macrolides, and polymyxins. We used Tn5-OT182 to mutagenize B. pseudomallei to identify the genes involved in aminoglycoside resistance. We report here on the identification of AmrAB-OprA, a multidrug efflux system in B. pseudomallei which is specific for both aminoglycoside and macrolide antibiotics. We isolated two transposon mutants, RM101 and RM102, which had 8- to 128-fold increases in their susceptibilities to the aminoglycosides streptomycin, gentamicin, neomycin, tobramycin, kanamycin, and spectinomycin. In addition, both mutants, in contrast to the parent, were susceptible to the macrolides erythromycin and clarithromycin but not to the lincosamide clindamycin. Sequencing of the DNA flanking the transposon insertions revealed a putative operon consisting of a resistance, nodulation, division-type transporter, a membrane fusion protein, an outer membrane protein, and a divergently transcribed regulatorprotein. Consistent with the presence of an efflux system, both mutants accumulated [3H] dihydro streptomycin, whereas the parent strain did not. We constructed an amr deletion strain, B. pseudomallei DD503, which was hypersusceptible to aminoglycosides and macrolides and which was used successfully in allelic exchange experiments. These results suggest that an efflux system is a major contributor to the inherent high-level aminoglycoside and macrolide resistance found in B. pseudomallei.  (+info)

In vitro and in vivo activities of NS-718, a new lipid nanosphere incorporating amphotericin B, against Aspergillus fumigatus. (4/6028)

We evaluated the in vitro and in vivo potencies of a new lipid nanosphere that incorporates amphotericin B (AmB), NS-718, against Aspergillus fumigatus. The in vitro activity of NS-718 (the MIC at which 90% of strains are inhibited [MIC90], 0.25 microgram/ml) against 18 isolates of A. fumigatus was similar to that of deoxycholate AmB (D-AmB; Fungizone; MIC90, 0.25 microgram/ml), but NS-718 was more potent than liposomal AmB (L-AmB; AmBi-some; MIC90, 1.0 microgram/ml). The in vivo efficacy of NS-718 in a rat model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis was compared with those of D-AmB and L-AmB. A low dose (1 mg/kg of body weight) of L-AmB was ineffective (survival rate, 0%), although equivalent doses of D-AmB and NS-718 were more effective (survival rate, 17%). However, a higher dose of NS-718 (3 mg/kg) was more effective (survival rate, 100%) than equivalent doses of D-AmB and L-AmB (survival rate, 0%). To explain these differences, pharmacokinetic studies showed higher concentrations of AmB in the plasma of rats treated with NS-718 than in the plasma of those treated with D-AmB. Our results suggest that NS-718, a new preparation of AmB, is a promising antifungal agent with activity against pulmonary aspergillosis.  (+info)

Two-step acquisition of resistance to the teicoplanin-gentamicin combination by VanB-type Enterococcus faecalis in vitro and in experimental endocarditis. (5/6028)

The activity of vancomycin and teicoplanin combined with gentamicin was investigated in vitro against strains of Enterococcus faecalis resistant to vancomycin and susceptible to teicoplanin (VanB type) and against mutants that had acquired resistance to teicoplanin by three different mechanisms. In vitro, gentamicin selected mutants with two- to sixfold increases in the level of resistance to this antibiotic at frequencies of 10(-6) to 10(-7). Teicoplanin selected teicoplanin-resistant mutants at similar frequencies. Both mutations were required to abolish the activity of the gentamicin-teicoplanin combination. As expected, simultaneous acquisition of the two types of mutations was not observed. In therapy with gentamicin or teicoplanin alone, each selected mutants in three of seven rabbits with aortic endocarditis due to VanB-type E. faecalis BM4275. The vancomycin-gentamicin combination selected mutants that were resistant to gentamicin and to the combination. In contrast, the teicoplanin-gentamicin regimen prevented the emergence of mutants resistant to one or both components of the combination. These results suggest that two mutations are also required to suppress the in vivo activity of the teicoplanin-gentamicin combination.  (+info)

In vitro activities of cephalosporins and quinolones against Escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrheic dairy calves. (6/6028)

The in vitro activities of several cephalosporins and quinolones against 195 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from diary calves affected by neonatal diarrhea were determined. One hundred thirty-seven of these strains produced one or more potential virulence factors (F5, F41, F17, cytotoxic necrotizing factor, verotoxin, and the eae gene), but the remaining 58 strains did not produce any of these factors. From 11 to 18% of the E. coli strains were resistant to cephalothin, nalidixic acid, enoxacin, and enrofloxacin. However, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, and cefquinome were highly effective against the E. coli isolates tested. Some significant differences (P < 0.05) in resistance to quinolones between the strains producing potential virulence factors and nonfimbriated, nontoxigenic, eae-negative strains were found. Thus, eae-positive, necrotoxigenic, and verotoxigenic (except for nalidixic acid) E. coli strains were significantly more sensitive to nalidixic acid, enoxacin, and enrofloxacin than nonfimbriated, nontoxigenic, eae-negative strains. Moreover, eae-positive strains were significantly more sensitive to enoxacin and enrofloxacin than F5-positive strains. Thus, the result of this study suggest that the bovine E. coli strains that produce some potential virulence factors are more sensitive to quinolones than those that do not express these factors.  (+info)

Antimicrobial activities of synthetic bismuth compounds against Clostridium difficile. (7/6028)

Clostridium difficile is a major nosocomial pathogen responsible for pseudomembranous colitis and many cases of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Because of potential relapse of disease with current antimicrobial therapy protocols, there is a need for additional and/or alternative antimicrobial agents for the treatment of disease caused by C. difficile. We have synthesized a systematic series of 14 structurally simple bismuth compounds and assessed their biological activities against C. difficile and four other gastrointestinal species, including Helicobacter pylori. Here, we report on the activities of six compounds that exhibit antibacterial activities against C. difficile, and some of the compounds have MICs of less than 1 microgram/ml. Also tested, for comparison, were the activities of bismuth subcitrate and ranitidine bismuth citrate obtained from commercial sources. C. difficile and H. pylori were more sensitive both to the synthetic bismuth compounds and to the commercial products than were Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis, and the last three species were markedly resistant to the commercial bismuth salts. Testing with human foreskin fibroblast cells revealed that some of the synthetic compounds were more cytotoxic than others. Killing curves for C. difficile treated with the more active compounds revealed rapid death, and electron microscopy showed that the bismuth of these compounds was rapidly incorporated by C. difficile. Energy dispersive spectroscopy X-ray microanalysis of C. difficile cells containing electron-dense material confirmed the presence of internalized bismuth. Internalized bismuth was not observed in C. difficile treated with synthetic bismuth compounds that lacked antimicrobial activity, which suggests that the uptake of the metal is required for killing activity. The nature of the carrier would seem to determine whether bismuth is transported into susceptible bacteria like C. difficile.  (+info)

Treatment of murine fusariosis with SCH 56592. (8/6028)

Doses of 10 to 100 mg of the azole antifungal agent SCH 5692/kg of body weight/day were studied in immunocompetent mice as therapy for systemic infection by Fusarium solani. Treatment was begun 1 h after intravenous infection and continued daily for 4 or 13 doses. Prolongation of survival and organ clearance were dependent on both the dose and the duration of SCH 56592 therapy, with the best results seen at 50 and 100 mg/kg/day. The results at the highest doses of SCH 56592 used (50 or 100 mg/kg/day) were comparable to those obtained with amphotericin B at 1 mg/kg/day. SCH 56592 has potential for therapy of systemic infections caused by F. solani.  (+info)

Abstract on continuous flow perfusion of gentamicin with a (Morgan Lens) reduces bacterial colony counts in experimental pseudomonas keratitis.
INTRODUCTION The degradation of organic matter in soil largely results from the interaction between macro- and microorganisms, although microorganisms have a greater participation in this process because of their higher biomass values (7). However, to determine the microbiological characteristics of soil, samples should be promptly analyzed after collection to avoid the risk of obtaining altered results due to the variation in number of microorganisms when the samples are maintained at room temperature. If microbial analysis cannot be performed immediately after collection, Clark (3) recommends conservation at 4oC for a maximum period of 1-2 weeks. Higashida and Takao (8) performed microbial counts in soil samples up to approximately 8 hours after collection. In support of this view, Harding and Ross (6) reported that fresh soil samples are desirable to characterize microbial counts. If the procedures can not be carried out immediately, some form of storage should be used. Dunn et al. (4) and ...
Many studies require the quantitative determination of bacterial populations. The two most widely used methods for determining bacterial numbers are: The standard plate count method. Spectrophotometer (turbid metric) analysis. The standard plate count method is an indirect measurement of cell density ( live bacteria). The spectrophotometer analysis is based on turbidity and indirectly measures all bacteria (cell biomass), dead and alive.
새우를 키토산 단독 코팅하거나 천연항균제(carvacrol, thymol)를 키토산 코팅과 병행 처리하였을 때 중온균수의 변화를 Table 1에 나타내었다. 중온균은 모든 처리구에서 초기 농도가 1.33 log CFU/g이었고 냉장 저장 1일째 1.0 log CFU/g까지 감소되었으나, 6일째부터 계속 증가하기 시작 하였다. 저장기간 중 가장 마지막 날인 12일째에, Control, Chi, Chi-Car 및 Chi-Thy의 중온균수는 각각 5.25, 3.59, 3.29, 1.97 log CFU/g로 모든 처리구가 대조구에 비해 유의 적으로(p , 0.05) 낮은 중온균 수를 나타내어 항균효과가 있음을 알 수 있었다. 그리나 12일째에도 모든 실험구의 총균수는 수용가능한 수준18)인 7 log CFU/g을 초과하지는 않았다. 6일째부터 처리구 간에 유의적 차이가 발생하였 으며, Chi-Thy, Chi-Car, Chi의 순서대로 강한 항균효과를 보였다.. 새우를 키토산 단독 코팅하거나 ...
Dr B.R. Gupta has conducted experiments on effects of Agnihotra on plate count of Aerial bacterial flora. He has found that in human residence where no Agnihotra was performed the bacterial colony count was 123 as against in the human residence where Agnihotra was done regularly the bacterial colony count was as low as a mere 25.. ...
Determined to prove the performance of its own products in a medical environment, Rehau recently commissioned a microbiological analysis of BioCote treated Rehau cable trunking installed at the newly opened Churchfields GP Surgery in Bromsgrove, Worcestershire, and compared it with cable trunking installed at the previous Churchfields surgery, which had been out of use for several months.. The results were hugely impressive with a bacterial colony count (CFU) of just three on the cable trunking in the new surgery compared with 228 in the old one - a reduction of 98.69 per cent.. To give an even clearer indication of the performance of the trunking, Rehau also measured the bacterial colony count on the comparable door handle in the new surgery which showed a level of 215 and on the windowsill which showed a level of 160.. Overall, the comparative study between the two buildings showed that the new surgery, which had been open for two months, was in general less contaminated than the old one with ...
The fundamental principle of the microbial challenge (PET) is based on the concept of measuring the survival ability of selected microorganisms that are purposely introduced into a preserved test product system. The test product containing the inhibitory system is inoculated with the desired pool at the target level of bacteria (105-6 cfu/gram) and yeasts and molds (105-4cfu/gram). At the desired sampling interval (day 0, 7, 14 and 28 days) a sample is analyzed to determine the reduction in counts. The vial is tested on the BioLumix instrument for 22 hours for bacteria and for 48 hours for yeast and molds. The DTs are converted to Log cfu/g. and the Log reduction is calculated. The main advantage of this method is the automation of the process and the labor savings that it offers. It was estimated that it takes ~ 1/5 of the labor to perform the BioLumix assay compared to the standard plate count method. The new BioLumix assay offers savings in time, labor, materials, and plate space. Please ...
Looking for colony count? Find out information about colony count. The number of colonies of bacteria growing on the surface of a solid medium Explanation of colony count
The microbial load of cassava tubers that were grown at Awassa, Ethiopia, was analysed. The total viable microbial count of fresh cassava, before cleaning, ranged from 8.7x104 to 2.1x109 ...
It had long been assumed that a bacterial cell was dead when it was no longer able to grow on routine culture media. We now know that this assumption is simplistic, and that there are many situations where a cell loses culturability but remains viable and potentially able to regrow. This mini-review …
Compare the average total cost at facilities in Maine for the procedure: Urine test for bacterial culture: quantitative colony count.
This International Standard gives guidelines for the evaluation of uncertainty in quantitative microbiological analyses based on enumeration of microbial particles by culture. It covers all variants of colony count methods and most probable number estimates. Two approaches, the component (also known as bottom-up or step-by-step) and a modified global (top-down) approach are included. The aim is to specify how values of intralaboratory operational variability and combined uncertainty for final test results can be obtained. The procedures are not applicable to methods other than enumeration methods ...
A preliminary experiment was carried out to study the effect of Agnihotra on the bacterial population in a room where Agnihotra was performed. For this study, two rooms of equal dimensions (134 x 8 x 11) were selected. In both the rooms fire was prepared from dried cowdung cakes in copper pyramids and the basal reading of number of microorganisms in both the rooms was taken by exposing blood agar plates at four corners of the room for 10 minutes. This was done exactly half an hour before Agnihotra time. Agnihotra was performed exactly at sunset in one of the rooms.. Bacterial counts were taken again in both the rooms in a similar manner at half hour intervals. Thus readings were taken in both the rooms up to two hours after performance of Agnihotra. It was quite interesting to note that microbial counts in the room where Agnihotra was performed were reduced by 91.4% (Figs. 1a, 1b and 1c illustrate the reduction in the number of microorganisms) whereas the room where only fire was generated ...
Determining E. coli levels in sediments and its ability to attach to sand and silt and float downstream will help scientists figure out what needs to be done to decrease bacterial levels in streams.
Spontaneous bacterial colonization by CONS in Mgb-/- females versus Mgb+/- and WT controls.Bacteria recovered from urine (CFU/ml), bladders, and kidneys (CFU/or
Sushi and sashimi are traditional Japanese food, mostly consisting of raw seafood alone or in combination with rice. Eating sushi and sashimi has become popular in many countries even outside Japan. This food is not free from health risks such as ingestion of pathogenic bacteria or parasite. The aim of this study was to investigate on hygienic-sanitary quality of sushi and sashimi sold in the cities of Messina and Catania, Southern Italy. Fifty samples (38 sushi and 12 sashimi) were analysed to determinate the aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB), psycrophilic bacteria (PB), Enterobacteriaceae, specific spoilage organisms (SSOs), Pseudomonas spp., coagulase-positive staphylococci, micrococci, Vibrio spp., Bacillus cereus, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. In sushi, AMB ranged from 5.00 to 8.18 log CFU/g, PB from 4.70 to 7.13 log CFU/g, Enterobacteriaceae from 1.41 to 6.67 log CFU/g, while SSOs and Pseudomonas spp. from 3.49 to 7.72 and from 3.36 to 8.00 log CFU/g, respectively. Micrococci ...
Total Bacterial Count and Presence of Escherichia coli in Raw Ground Beef Samples Obtained From Three Major Supermarkets on the Island of Bonaire.
KAUME, Lydia; FOOTE, Jerald C. y GBUR, Edward E.. Microbial contamination of herbs marketed to HIV-infected people in Nairobi (Kenya). S. Afr. j. sci. [online]. 2012, vol.108, n.9-10, pp.1-4. ISSN 1996-7489.. Herbal products are used by human immunodeficiency virus (HlV)-infected individuals regardless of safety or efficacy concerns. In this study, we examined the microbiological quality of herbal preparations marketed to HIV-infected individuals. A convenience sample (N = 24) of herbal products was obtained from retailers in Nairobi, Kenya in 2007. Petrifilm plate count methods were used to estimate total aerobic bacteria (APC), coliform, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and yeast and mould counts. APC counts ranged from an estimated 1.5 x 101 colony forming units (CFU)/g to 7.1 x 108 CFU/g. Total and faecal coliform counts ranged from an estimated ,10 CFU/g to 3 x 106 CFU/g. E. coli load ranged from ,10 CFU/g to 5 x 101 CFU/g and S. aureus counts ranged from an estimated ,10 CFU/g to ...
SummaryThis purpose of this experiment was for students to do the colony count methods, estimating the viable cell number of commercial active dried yeasts (ADY).This experiment allowed the students to perform the plate count technique by serial diluti...
A total of 154 samples of sweet dumpling food(SDF), including 102 samples of the flour-packed SDF and 52 samples of the rice-packed SDF, were bought from the conventional markets, supermarkets, confectioneries, and temples throughout Taiwan. The microbiological quality was assessed by the assay of aerobic viable cell count, coliform, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, and related pathogens. The physical properties including pH value, water activity(Aw), and Brix of SDF were also tested. A comparison of the flour-packed SDF with the rice-packed SDF showed significant differences in the detection of aerobic viable cell count and coliform. Incidence of E. coli was 9.80% in the flour-packed SDF and 11.53% in the rice-packed SDF. B. cereus was identified exclusively in the flour-packed SDF. Two strains of newly ascribed food poisons pathogens, B. subtilis and B. pumilus, were isolated. Among them, B. subtilis was detected in three samples of the rice-packed SDF and in one of the flour-packed SDF, while B.
Bacterial populations in some organs, viz., liver, spleen, kidney, gill, and arborescent organ of the catfish Clarias batrachus were enumerated followed by determination of resistance for antibiotics and metals. The total viable counts in these organs, observed, were 2.24x10(4), 2.08x10(4), 1.44x10(4), 1.23x10(4), and 6.40x10(3) colony-forming units/mL, respectively. The random bacterial isolates from these fish organs showed resistance in decreasing order for colistin (98%), ampicillin (82%), gentamycin (34%), carbenicillin (28%), tetracyline (20%), streptomycin (12%), and ciprofloxacin (02%). Most of the isolates exhibited an increasing order of tolerance for the metals (microg/mL) copper (100), lead (200), manganese (400), cadmium (200), and chromium (50), with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from |50 to 1600 microg/mL. These observations indicate that the significant occurrence of bacterial population in organs of fish with high incidence of resistance for antibiotics and metals may
BioLumix is the most advanced microbiological testing system of its kind. This automated, all-in-one microbial testing system is extremely easy to operate. The system is both simple and cost-effective, revolutionizing your current testing methodology. A novel optical system sensing color and fluorescence in ready-to-use vials provides faster results, labor savings, automation, and connectivity. The system has a large repertoire of assays that it can perform including: Total Aerobic Count, Yeast and Mold, Coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, E. coli, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, and Salmonella.. Recently a new assay for the detection of Heterotrophic bacteria in water was developed for the BioLumix system. The developed assay was validated by testing 50 samples of multiple types of water that were tested by the BioLumix method and the plate count method side-by-side. The BioLumix vials were directly inoculated with 0.1 mL of the water sample, or 1.0 mL of a 1:100 dilution (depending on the desired ...
The importance of the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state, with respect to safety of environmental applications of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs), can best be appreciated in risk...
Wrap the agar strip holder with aluminium foil and autoclave at 121°C (15 lbs) for 15 minutes. Carry the Dyna test unit to the test location. Carefully insert the pre sterilized agar strip into the holder and assemble the unit. Load the cells or connect the power point. Keep the timer switch at position one, sample the air for one minute. Focus the agar strip holder towards the area which is to be tested. Switch on the unit. After one minute the instrument will shut off automatically. Remove the agar strip from the holder and keep in the case provided and incubate at desired temperature for 48-72 hours. Report the result as c.f.u/40 L of air samples. The instrument can draw 40 L of air on to the agar strip per minute ...
When the companys fully automated GreenLight® 930 is used, the vials can be batch loaded onto the 48-position carousel, or individually loaded at any time during the units continuous mode. As bacteria in the test sample multiply and respire, they consume oxygen. The change in oxygen is used to calculate the milks colony forming units per milliliter. (Bacterial load is calculated in the PC and stored to a secure data base ...
An apparatus for automatically transferring a desired one of bacterial colonies grown in a medium in a culture Petri dish onto a medium in a test Petri dish or a test tube by using a bacterial colony pick-up/transfer element of the disposable type or a bacterial colony pick-up/transfer element of the reuse type and by using various mechanisms controlled by a computer.
Field studies conducted on three separate well pads showed that one 2K7 Water Soluble Pak (WSP) per 10 m3 (63 bbl) surface water effectively reduced bacterial levels from ,106 to,104 with agitation of the fluid reducing the reaction time. This fluid was then used for CT bridge plug milling operations and bacteria levels monitored at various fluid locations in the closed loop throughout the operations.. Evaluation of flowback from the wellbore indicated consistently lower bacterial concentrations than the injected surface water. Despite this, bacteria levels at surface were rebounding. Therefore, the observed increases in surface bacteria were due to the population rebounding while sitting in the surface tanks.. This rebound effect was because the CT fluid for the mill-out operations was reused for each successive pad well. As flowback water was introduced into the surface tanks, so were the additives (polymers, surfactants) from stimulation operations that, along with dissolved formation ...
Field studies conducted on three separate well pads showed that one 2K7 Water Soluble Pak (WSP) per 10 m3 (63 bbl) surface water effectively reduced bacterial levels from ,106 to,104 with agitation of the fluid reducing the reaction time. This fluid was then used for CT bridge plug milling operations and bacteria levels monitored at various fluid locations in the closed loop throughout the operations.. Evaluation of flowback from the wellbore indicated consistently lower bacterial concentrations than the injected surface water. Despite this, bacteria levels at surface were rebounding. Therefore, the observed increases in surface bacteria were due to the population rebounding while sitting in the surface tanks.. This rebound effect was because the CT fluid for the mill-out operations was reused for each successive pad well. As flowback water was introduced into the surface tanks, so were the additives (polymers, surfactants) from stimulation operations that, along with dissolved formation ...
1) Food poisoning The saprophytic bacteria cause decay of our food and make it unpalatable. Toxins are produced as a result of bacterial growth on the foodstuffs. Due to this, food poisoning occurs.
I am looking for a table listing the normal concentrations or concentration range of typical cell metabolites, e.g., amino acids, NAD, ATP, ions, sugars, major proteins, etc. A few years back I once stumbled over such a table. Unfortunately, I did not make a copy. The only entries I can remember: typical cell protein concentration 100-300mg/mL acetate ion 0.2 - 0.25 M Does anybody know where to find such a table ? I am also looking for a database, printed, on CD or diskette, or on the Net, with physiological data; e.g., average yield for fermentative bacterial growth on glucose 10.5g cells / mol ATP; list of average generation times of different bacteria; metabolic specialties; and so on. Any help would be appreciated. Achim ...
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The primary benefit of betain HCL is its effect on stomach acid production It may also help to manage bacterial levels in the stomach, facilitate digestion and support the absorption of nutrients
M. avium CFU counts are higher in lung tissue of infected HO-1 -/- mice as compared to lung tissue form infected HO-1+/+ miceMouse lung tissue was homogenized i
Aerobic microorganisms. Determination in foods at 37 °C, 30 °C, 25 °C, 20 °C, 17/7 °C or 6.5 °C by the colony count method. (NMKL 86, 5. Ed., 2013 ...
Each cell will undergo multiple rounds of cell divisons to produce separate colonies on the plate, so each cell is a colony forming unit. After incubation the number of colonies will reflect the number of CFUs originally present. This test gives the viable count (living cells only) compared to a microscopic count or dry weight test that gives the total cell count (living and dead cells ...
I am suffering from Chronic Lympomatic Lukemia. Initially in 2008 I was diagnosed with high Total count of 33000 when I was pregnant. Me and my husband consulted various doctors and conducted various scans . At that time Doctors advised that this high total count could be because of Pregnancy. And after delivering my child my count became normal and was 13000. ...
Early-season dollar spot control was mentioned in a previous post by Dr. Kaminski. Basically fungicides are applied long before symptoms develop in the field, which results in a significant delay in the onset of symptoms. The proposed theory behind early-season applications is they reduce the pool of initial inoculum of the dollar spot fungus enough […]. ...
Is it okay if I just ignore the cfu and use the value as millimol? Will it remain same? I just want the concentration of ATP inside the bacterial cell ...
The easiest solution would be to add timestamps to logs, or log to different logs from oddjob or from installer (ipareplica-conncheck.local.log and ipareplica-conncheck.remote.log) Actually the easiest solution would be not to log into a file when executed from oddjob ...
Comparative evaluation of subgingivally delivered chlorhexidine varnish and chlorhexidine gel in reducing microbial count after mechanical periodontal therapy, Sathish Manthena, Am
The number of bacteria tested by heterotrophic plate count method showed a very high content from the daily used reusable drinking water bottles. It is in the range from 0 to 2.4x105 CFU/mL with an average about 34,000 bacteria counts for bottles used by children and about 75,000 bacteria counts for bottles used by adults (Figures 2 and 4). The difference between the two is expected due to the bottle design since most bottles used by children have straws, and there is less chance of direct contact between the water in the bottle and the mouth of the users or other possible bacteria contamination sources. This may lead to a lower bacteria number in the bottles. Among all the sixty bottles sampled, there is only one bottle (2%) with bacteria number less than 500 CFU/mL. The bacteria number is much higher than those detected in the bottled drinking water which is in the range of 2-150 CFU/ml [10], but it has a similar level to the bottled natural mineral water after storing for a few days. Gonzalez ...
Accurate enumeration of bacterial count in probiotic formulation is imperative to ensure that the product adheres to regulatory standards and citation in consumer product label. Standard methods like plate count, can enumerate only replicating bacterial population under selected culture conditions. Viable but non culturable bacteria (VBNC) retain characteristics of living cells and can regain cultivability by a process known as resuscitation. This is a protective mechanism adapted by bacteria to evade stressful environmental conditions. B. coagulans MTCC 5856(LactoSpore®) is a probiotic endospore which can survive for decades in hostile environments without dividing. In the present study, we explored the use of flow cytometry to enumerate the viable count of B. coagulans MTCC 5856 under acidic and alkaline conditions, high temperature and in commercial formulations like compressed tablets and capsules. Flow cytometry (FCM) was comparable to plate count method when the spores were counted at
The formation of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) Escherichia coli O157:H7 induced by high-pressure CO2 (HPCD) was investigated using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) transcriptomics and isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) proteomic methods. The analyses revealed that 97 genes and 56 proteins were significantly changed upon VBNC state entry. Genes and proteins related to membrane transport, central metabolisms, DNA replication, and cell division were mainly downregulated in the VBNC cells. This caused low metabolic activity concurrently with a division arrest in cells, which may be related to VBNC state formation. Cell division repression and outer membrane overexpression were confirmed to be involved in VBNC state formation by homologous expression of z2046 coding for transcriptional repressor and ompF encoding outer membrane protein F. Upon VBNC state entry, pyruvate catabolism in the cells shifted from the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle toward the fermentative route; this led ...
Hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria were isolated from diesel impacted sites at the University of Port Harcourt using the vapour phase transfer method. The isolates were identified as Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Serratia, and Micrococcus species. Examination of cultures supplemented with glucose revealed that the total viable counts ranged from 1.7 x 104 to 5.9 x 105 cfu/ml. For cultures supplemented with kerosene the total viable counts ranged from 1.18 x 104 to 3.1 x 105 cfu/ml. Bacillus spp. and Micrococcus spp. gave the highest and lowest counts respectively in both media types within 96 h. The other isolates had counts in between these ranges in the respective supplemented media. The growth of the isolates in mineral salts solution supplemented with glucose or kerosene resulted in turbidity of the broth as compared to clear media solutions in controls. Higher turbidity was recorded in media supplemented with glucose than kerosene, and this was reflected in the total viable counts ...
Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: Fast pyrolysis of switchgrass (and resultant biochar) can be used for bio-fuel production, soil amendments for fertilizing crops, binding heavy metals, and sequestering environmental biocarbon. To determine the influence of fast pyrolysis-generated switchgrass biochar on survival of foodborne pathogens and potential surrogate bacteria in soil. Soil was amended with 7.5% biochar and inoculated with one of the following seven bacterial composites: E. coli O157:H7 (EHEC), Salmonella enterica, non-O157 Shiga toxin E. coli (STEC), ATCC nonpathogenic E. coli (BSL-1), attenuated EHEC-A, ATCC-attenuated EHEC-B, and attenuated Salmonella at 6.9 - 8.0 log CFU/g of soil, 6.9 percent moisture, sealed, and stored at 22 degrees Celcius. Twenty-four hours after inoculation, all biochar-amended soil populations were 0.33 - 1.40 log CFU/g lower than biochar-free soils, except for STEC, which declined by 1.51 log CFU in both soils. By day 5, populations of STEC and EHEC-A ...
Dr. Clifford Obi*. ABSTRACT. Microbiological and proximate analyses of 50 Home and Industrial Made soymilk samples were carried out using standard analytical procedures. The two soymilk types were contaminated with Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with E. coli having the highest occurrence level (42%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae being the lowest (8%). Two fungi: Aspergillus niger and Penicilium notatum were also recovered from the soymilk samples with A. niger being higher in occurrence (66.7%) than P. notatum (33.3%). The total viable bacterial count (TVBC) for the Home made soymilk was in the range 6.2 x 106 - 4.0 x 105 CFU/ml while the TVBC for the Industry made was in the range 2.0 x102 - 1.0 x 102 CFU/ml. The total fungal count (TFC) for the Home made soymilk was in the range 4.1 x 106-3.0 x 105 CFU/ml while the TFC for the Industry Made was in the range 2 x 102-1.0 x 102 CFU/ml. Antibiotic sensitivity screening result showed that the ...
Reducing microbial contamination in wheat is desirable to ensure consumer safety. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of adding organic acids and NaCl to tempering water to reduce microbial load in hard wheat prior to milling, and to determine the impact that these treatments might have on the microbial quality and functional properties of straight-grade and whole grain flours. Wheat was tempered to 15.5% moisture under controlled (24h, 73-75°F, 60% RH), aseptic conditions by adding water (control) or tempering solutions containing acid (acetic or lactic; 2.5% and 5% v/v) and NaCl (26% w/v). Wheat was analyzed before and after tempering for Total Plate Counts (TPC), yeasts, molds, and Enterobacteriaceae (Eb). The microbial load of the tempered wheat was significantly reduced by all organic acid-NaCl treatments (p,0.05). The combination of lactic acid (5%) and NaCl was the most effective against TPC and Eb (p,0.05), with an average reduction of 3.5 and 4.7 log CFU/g, ...
293335144 - EP 1040841 A1 2000-10-04 - Anticoagulant/sterilizing compositions and methods - Compositions and methods are provided for preventing formation of thrombosis and/or bacterial growth on a liquid-contacting surface of a liquid delivery system, such as a port, catheter or port-catheter system. The liquid delivery system is connected to a patient for delivery of a liquid to the patient. The method involves contacting the surface with a thrombosis-preventing liquid containing taurolidine, taurultam or a mixture thereof, the thrombosis-preventing liquid further containing an anticoagulant agent. In an alternative embodiment, the liquid-contacting surface of the delivery system is contacted with a solution containing an anticoagulant agent, and thereafter contacted with a solution containing taurolidine, taurultam or a mixture thereof.[origin: EP1040841A1] Compositions and methods are provided for preventing formation of thrombosis and/or bacterial growth on a liquid-contacting surface of a liquid
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PILONETTO, Marcelo et al. Hospital gowns as a vehicle for bacterial dissemination in an intensive care unit. Braz J Infect Dis [online]. 2004, vol.8, n.3, pp.206-210. ISSN 1413-8670. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1413-86702004000300003.. The microbiota from the uniforms of 31 professionals from the general intensive care unit was analyzed. The samples were collected in duplicate at the beginning and at the end of the work period. Total viable counts of microorganisms were determined; there was a significant increase in the counts at the end of the period, when compared with those obtained at the beginning. No significant difference was observed between the first and second counts obtained from the cuffs. However, differences were observed for the samples from the abdominal region. Among the isolated pathogens 11/18 were Staphylococcus aureus, 2/18 were Acinetobacter baumannii, 2/18 were Klebsiela pneumoniae and 1/18 were Serratia rubidae. Some of these isolates were multi-resistant to antibiotics. ...
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The viable cell count (Table 4-1) is typically considered the measure of cell concentration. For this, a 1-mL volume is removed from a bacterial suspension and serially diluted 10-fold followed by plating 0.1-mL aliquots on an agar medium. Each single invisible bacterium (or clump of bacteria) will grow into a visible colony that can be counted (see Chapter 5). For statistical purposes, plates containing between 30 and 300 colonies give the most accurate data. The plate count × the dilution × 10 will give the number of colony forming units (CFU)/mL in the undiluted bacterial suspension. Using this method, dead bacteria within the suspension do not contribute to the final bacterial count. ...
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The volume retrieved is ∼0.001 mL (range 0.01-0.001) of lower respiratory secretions and dilution into the holding medium increases the dilution of the culture plate by 100-1,000-folds. Quantitative bacterial cultures of PSB allow the distinction between colonization and infection. Quantitative cultures represent serial dilutions of the respiratory samples. The colony counts are calculated by the number of colonies visible on the agar plate in relation to the dilution and inoculation factors. The cut-offs for quantitative culture results were established by relating colony counts known to be present in sputum samples of pneumonia patients to the estimated amount of respiratory secretions retrieved by the technique. Thus, it should be noted that the quantitative culture technique is based on rough inferences rather than exact measurements. For PSB, the currently accepted threshold is 103 cfu·mL−1. Growth ≥103 cfu·mL−1 is considered significant for infection (table 1⇑) and corresponds ...
THEMATIC ISSUE ON Viable But Non-Culturable Microbes. Editors: Wolfgang Kneifel, Clemens Kittinger. The scope of this issue will focus on the so called viable but non- ...
Lebanon bologna raw batter was mixed with a five-strain mixture of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to achieve average inoculum levels of 7.79, 7.77, and 7.92 log CFU/g as deter mined on MSA, 202, and PRSA media, respectively ...
Chromogenic/TTC Dipslide Tests for E.coli, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa and Total Viable Count for enumeration of E.coli. Flexible paddle for effective surface contact ...
Characterization of Culturable Bacteria in the Atmospheric Environment in Incheon, Korea - Atmospheric environment;Total plate counts;
Food poisoning and infection by bacteria are of public health significance to both developing and developed countries. Samples of ogi (akamu) prepared from white and yellow variety of maize sold in Uturu and Okigwe were analyzed together with the laboratory prepared ogi for bacterial quality using the standard microbiological methods. The analyses showed that both white and yellow variety had total bacterial counts (cfu/g) of 4.0 ×107 and 3.9 x 107 for the laboratory prepared ogi while the commercial ogi had 5.2 x 107 and 4.9 x107, 4.9 x107 and 4.5 x107, 5.4 x107 and 5.0 x107 for Eke-Okigwe, Up-gate and Nkwo-Achara market respectively. The Staphylococcal counts ranged from 2.0 x 102 to 5.0 x102 and 1.0 x 102 to 4.0 x102 for the white and yellow variety from the different markets while Staphylococcal growth was not recorded on the laboratory prepared ogi. The laboratory prepared ogi had no Coliform growth while the commercially prepared ogi had counts of 0.5 x103 to 1.6 x 103 for white variety ...
Air sampling during the incision of 40 septic lesions did not produce any evidence of dispersal of pathogenic bacteria. The removal of dressings in a sterile dressing-box was associated with the dispersal of both pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria. From 45 dressings the average total bacterial count was 104 bacteria-containing particles per cubic foot. Thirteen out of 26 staphylococcal lesions dispersed staphylococci when the dressings were removed, the levels of staphylococci ranging from 0.3 to 33.3 colonies per cubic foot.
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摘要(Abstract): [目的]探究制药废水中活的但非可培养(viable but non-culturable,VBNC)状态细菌的组成与系统关系。[方法]利用土质滤材构建生物反应器,基于复苏促进因子(resuscitation promoting factor,Rpf)对VBNC细菌的复苏刺激生长作用,采用MPN(most probable number)法,稀释平板法分离其中复苏可培养化的VBNC菌株并解析其16S ...
Antibiotics kill bacteria or cause them to be unable to reproduce. One of the effects of antibiotics on bacterial count is a decrease in the growth of the bacteria. Sample collection prior to beginning antibiotic treatment is essential, for accurate bacterial counts.
The average microbial load of bacteria isolates from the samples ranges between 3.0 -4.7 x 104 cfu/ml., for fungal isolates it ranges between 1.0x104 to 2.9x104 cfu/ml and yeast counts from 0.0 x104 cfu/ml in fura to 5.3 x104 cfu/ml in fura da nono ...
In order to identify and quantify the microorganisms present in a certain ecosystem, it has become necessary to develop molecular methods avoiding cultivation, which allows to characterize only the co
Perfumed with mint, this natural enzymes based spray helps to reduce the bacterial proliferation in your dogs mouth and limits tartar formation on teeth. NON TOXIC, can be safely ingested by your pet. Available in 125 ml tube. ...
Harmless, but very powerful radicals will decrease the microbial load and air particles in your company and disinfect your room complete.
MeshCellCount[mreg] gives a list {c0, c1, ...} of counts cd of cells of dimension d in the mesh region mreg. MeshCellCount[mreg, d] gives the total count of cells of dimension d. MeshCellCount[mreg, cellspec] gives the total count of cells specified by cellspec.
I am new to xsd, and found out that the xsd:enumeration value containing colon is not getting validated.Heres a brief of the value I am trying to include ...
The way to maintain a tree structured enumeration while having all the advantages of the standard ones; Author: Smart K8; Updated: 2 Apr 2008; Section: C#; Chapter: Languages; Updated: 2 Apr 2008
The way to maintain a tree structured enumeration while having all the advantages of the standard ones; Author: Smart K8; Updated: 2 Apr 2008; Section: C#; Chapter: Languages; Updated: 2 Apr 2008
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The aim of bioburden testing is to measure the total number of viable micro-organisms (total microbial count) on a medical ... The bioburden quantification is expressed in colony forming unit (CFU). There are generally established guidelines for the ... Bioburden or microbial limit testing on these products proves that these requirements have been met. Bioburden testing for ... is then placed onto Soybean-Casein Digest Agar and incubated in order to be able to determine the total aerobic microbial count ...
... colony count, microbial MeSH E05.200.875.595 - microbial sensitivity tests MeSH E05.200.875.595.800 - serum bactericidal test ... cell count MeSH E05.200.500.195.107 - blood cell count MeSH E05.200.500.195.107.330 - erythrocyte count MeSH E05.200.500.195. ... leukocyte count MeSH E05.200.500.195.107.595.500 - lymphocyte count MeSH E05.200.500.195.107.595.500.150 - cd4 lymphocyte count ... colony-forming units assay MeSH E05.200.500.383.910 - tumor stem cell assay MeSH E05.200.500.385 - cytogenetic analysis MeSH ...
Practices for Determining Microbial Colony Counts from Waters Analyzed by Plating Methods D5466 - 15 Test Method for ... Test Method for Determination of the Microbial Condition of Paint, Paint Raw Materials, and Plant Areas D5589 - 19 Test Method ...
Conidia and colony characteristics of the culture led to identification of N. sphaerica as the fungal pathogen. It was ... Air samples were collected using an RCS microbial air sampler. Fungal spores trapped on the agar strips were developed and ... Results showed N. sphaerica with the highest spore counts at ground levels and low altitudes around 40m. During asexual ... N. sphaerica colonies grow rapidly and appear hairy or woolly. The conidiophores are short and clustered surfacing from ...
SDF hardens carious dentin, such that it is twice as hard as healthy dentin Colony Forming Unit counts (CFU) and studies of ... summarized how the constituents in SDF each have a role in the arrest of microbial species that cause dental caries. The higher ... CFU counts on Streptococci mutans, Actinomyces naeslundii, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus ...
N. sphaerica colonies grow rapidly and appear hairy or woolly.[6] The conidiophores are short and clustered surfacing from ... Results showed N. sphaerica with the highest spore counts at ground levels and low altitudes around 40m.[13] ... Air samples were collected using an RCS microbial air sampler. Fungal spores trapped on the agar strips were developed and ... On average they range from 16-18μm in diameter.[1][7] The initial white translucent looking colony of N. sphaerica turns brown/ ...
... of the microbial community in the Baltic sea redoxcline based on CARD-FISH cell counts and Sulfurimonas spp. accounted for a ... Sulfurimonas paralvinellae is associated with deep-sea polychaete colonies located adjacent to hydrothermal vents. Nests of ... Xu, Jianping (2006-06-01). "INVITED REVIEW: Microbial ecology in the age of genomics and metagenomics: concepts, tools, and ... significant number of the Epsilonproteobacterial reads in a survey of microbial diversity at deep-sea diffuse flow vents using ...
Mean total colony counts for those who wore rings were higher before and after hand washing. Hoffman et al. (1985) reports that ... The effect of rings in microbial load on healthcare workers' hands. Am J Infect Control. 1997; 25(1):24-27 Hoffman, P Cooke E, ... A similar study found that even after washing hands with povidone-iodine, those with rings had higher bacterial counts than ... they found that wearing rings was associated with a 10-fold higher median count of skin microorganisms, especially with yeast ...
If an ant is separated from its original colony, it will eventually lose the colony scent. Any ant that enters a colony without ... Distances travelled are measured using an internal pedometer that keeps count of the steps taken and also by evaluating the ... microbial activity in the nest materials. Some ant species, such as those that use natural cavities, can be opportunistic and ... and colonies that lack queens are then called gamergate colonies; colonies with queens are said to be queen-right. Drones can ...
Colonies of B. cereus were originally isolated from an agar plate left exposed to the air in a cow shed. In the 2010s, ... He presented with chills, tachypnea, and high-grade fever, his white blood cell count and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein ( ... Roberts, T. A.; Baird-Parker, A. C.; Tompkin, R. B. (1996). Characteristics of Microbial Pathogens. London: Blackie Academic & ... The specific name, cereus, meaning "waxy" in Latin, refers to the appearance of colonies grown on blood agar. Some strains are ...
Microbial art is the creation of artworks by culturing bacteria, typically on agar plates, to form desired patterns. These may ... Microbiologists since Alexander Fleming have used coloured or fluorescing colonies of bacteria to create miniature artworks. ... Count Orlok, sleeps in unhallowed ground contaminated with the Black Death, which he brings with him wherever he goes. Another ... Microbial art by Nathan Shaner, 2006 Microorganisms are the causative agents (pathogens) in many infectious diseases of humans ...
... their presence is visible to the unaided eye only when they form large colonies. A mold colony does not consist of discrete ... Determination of airborne spore counts is accomplished by way of an air sample, in which a specialized pump with a known flow ... various cheeses including Brie and Blue cheese Rhizomucor miehei - microbial rennet for making vegetarian and other cheeses ... Laboratory results also quantify fungal growth by way of a spore count for comparison among samples. The pump operation time is ...
Blood tests such as a complete blood count may show neutrophilia. Microbiological culture of the urine, with or without blood ... Louis, Missouri: Molecular Microbiology and Microbial Pathogenesis Program, Washington University. Archived from the original ... cell debris and central germ colonies (hematoxylinophils). Tubules are damaged by exudate and may contain neutrophil casts. In ... serial white blood cell count and temperature are closely monitored. Typically, the intravenous antibiotics are continued until ...
Sometimes an underlying medical condition is sought, and this may include blood tests for full blood count and hematinics. If a ... Investigations have quantified oral carriage of Candida albicans at 300-500 colony forming units in healthy persons. More ... such as regular toothbrushing and use of anti-microbial mouthwashes. Since smoking is associated with many of forms of oral ...
The working group has published guidelines about the actions to be taken to limit the number of colony-forming units (that is, ... Kadaifciler DG, Cotuk A (June 2014). "Microbial contamination of dental unit waterlines and effect on quality of indoor air". ... so does not grow on common blood agar media used for laboratory-based total viable counts or on-site dipslides. Common ... After incubation for up to 10 days, suspect colonies are confirmed as Legionella if they grow on buffered charcoal yeast ...
... s are now counted among the key molecules that alert the immune system to the presence of microbial ... colonies. As noted above, human cells do not express TLR11, but mice cells do. Mouse-specific TLR11 recognizes uropathogenic E. ... Each TLR is now believed to detect a discrete collection of molecules - some of microbial origin, and some products of cell ... Proteins with subgroup 2 TIR domains are classical TLRs, and bind directly or indirectly to molecules of microbial origin. A ...
Enzyme and Microbial Technology 24, 270-275. Warth, A.D., 1977. Mechanism of resistance of Saccharomyces bailii to benzoic, ... On various nutrient agars, Z. bailii colonies are smooth, round, convex and white to cream coloured, with a diameter of 2 - 3 ... In general, any glucose-containing medium is suitable for the culture and counting of yeasts, e.g. Sabouraud medium, malt ... Plating with agar media is often used for counting of yeasts, with surface spreading technique is preferable to pour plate ...
... colony counting), or indirect and bulk (most probable number, turbidity, nutrient uptake) methods. Models reconcile theory with ... The Final Number of Bacterial Cells Simulating Microbial Count Records with an Expanded Fermi Solution Model Incipient Growth ... Isothermal Microbial Growth Microbial Population Growth, Mortality, and Transitions between Them Diauxic Growth of Bacteria on ... Microbial Growth, BioMineWiki From the Wolfram Demonstrations Project - requires CDF player (free): ...
Minimal media are those that contain the minimum nutrients possible for colony growth, generally without the presence of amino ... Lack of carbon, nitrogen, and organic growth factors so as to prevent microbial multiplication ... Plate count agar. *Nutrient agar. *Trypticase soy agar. Minimal media[edit]. ... the orange lines and dots are formed by bacterial colonies. ... which grows as distinctive red colonies in this medium. ...
Guide for Reporting of Test Performance Data for Oil Spill Response Pumps F1608-16 Test Method for Microbial Ranking of Porous ... Practice for Continuous Sizing and Counting of Airborne Particles in Dust-Controlled Areas and Clean Rooms Using Instruments ... Guide for Presentation of End User Labeling Information for Musculoskeletal Implants F2944-20 Practice for Automated Colony ... Test Method for Sizing and Counting Airborne Particulate Contamination in Cleanrooms and Other Dust-Controlled Areas F29-97( ...
Scott Sutton (2007): "Microbial Surface Monitoring", p. 78. Chapter 5 of Anne Marie Dixon (ed.), Environmental Monitoring for ... Shallow Petri dishes prepared in this way are called Replicate Organism Detection And Counting (RODAC) plates and are available ... A Petri dish with bacterial colonies on an agar-based growth medium ...
"A live microbial feed supplement which beneficially affects the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance."[59] ... rhamnosus or Saccharomyces boulardii at 5 to 40 billion colony-forming units/day, given the modest number needed to treat and ... but most companies that give a number report the viable cell count at the date of manufacture, a number that could be much ... "live microbial feed supplement which beneficially affects the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance." He ...
Flytraps that have more than seven leaves are colonies formed by rosettes that have divided beneath the ground. ... the flytrap counts additional stimulations of the trigger hairs, to five total, to start the production of digesting enzymes.[ ... which can destroy chitin and other molecular components of insect and microbial pests.[30] In the Venus flytrap, this same ... Together with a Catalogue of Such Foreign Plants as Are Worthy of Being Encouraged in Our American Colonies, for the Purposes ...
... their presence is visible to the unaided eye only when they form large colonies. A mold colony does not consist of discrete ... Laboratory results also quantify fungal growth by way of a spore count for comparison among samples. The pump operation time ... Rhizomucor miehei - microbial rennet for making vegetarian and other cheeses. *Rhizopus oligosporus - tempeh ... Although a small volume of air is actually analyzed, common laboratory reporting techniques extrapolate the spore count data to ...
... hives that are moved to different states to produce honey are counted in each state's total and summed in total counts. In 2007 ... of Texas in Austin found that commonly used antibiotics found in beekeeping to prevent disease lower the gut microbial levels ... and other healthy colonies are nearby (as is typical in a bee yard), those healthy colonies often enter the dying colony and ... Do not combine collapsing colonies with strong colonies. When a collapsed colony is found, store the equipment where you can ...
Counting these areas and multiplying by the dilution factor allowed him to calculate the number of viruses in the original ... He noticed that when grown on nutrient agar some colonies of the bacteria became watery or "glassy". He collected some of these ... Wilson's microbiology and microbial infections. London: Arnold. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-340-66316-5. .. ... watery colonies and passed them through a Chamberland filter to remove the bacteria and discovered that when the filtrate was ...
Liechti, F. (1996). Instructions to count nocturnal bird migration by watching the full moon. Schweizerische Vogelwarte, CH- ... between the breeding colony and the North Atlantic Ocean off Norway. Some Manx shearwaters Puffinus puffinus do this same ... More common species, such as the European honey buzzard Pernis apivorus, can be counted in hundreds of thousands in autumn. ... Hawkcount.org - Count data and site profiles for over 300 North American Hawkwatch sites ...
Liechti, F. (1996). Instructions to count nocturnal bird migration by watching the full moon. Schweizerische Vogelwarte, CH- ... between the breeding colony and the North Atlantic Ocean off Norway. Some Manx shearwaters Puffinus puffinus do this same ... More common species, such as the European honey buzzard Pernis apivorus, can be counted in hundreds of thousands in autumn. ... An older technique to quantify migration involves observing the face of the moon towards full moon and counting the silhouettes ...
Urine culture is deemed positive if it shows a bacterial colony count of greater than or equal to 103 colony-forming units per ... Engleberg, N C; DiRita, V; Dermody, T S (2007). Schaechter's Mechanism of Microbial Disease. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & ... and an increased white blood cell count.[21] ...
Острота зрения E2567 - 16a Test Method for Determining Nodularity And Nodule Count In Ductile Iron Using Image Analysis E2568 ... 20 Test Method for Microbial Ingress Testing on Single-Use Systems E3255 - 21 Practice for Quality Assurance of Forensic ... Test Method for Evaluation of the Effect of Nanoparticulate Materials on the Formation of Mouse Granulocyte-Macrophage Colonies ... Practice for Pulse Counting System Dead Time Determination by Measuring Isotopic Ratios with SIMS E2427 - 18 Test Method for ...
The fungal colony counts showed a different behavior, i.e., while samples stored at -12oC did not differ from the control, ... to determine microbial mass or to measure microbial activity (13). Microbial counts on plates by the serial dilution method ... 3. Clark, F.E. Agar-plate method for total microbial count. In Black C.A. et al., Eds. Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. ... Microbial counts were determined by the pour plate method after incubation of the cultures at 28oC for 4 days (total bacteria, ...
It covers all variants of colony count methods and most probable number estimates. Two approaches, the component (also known as ... gives guidelines for the evaluation of uncertainty in quantitative microbiological analyses based on enumeration of microbial ...
The number of colonies of bacteria growing on the surface of a solid medium Explanation of colony count ... Looking for colony count? Find out information about colony count. ... 2008). A prospective comparative study of the relationship between different types of ring and microbial hand colonization ... colony count. Also found in: Medical. colony count. [′käl·ə·nē ‚kau̇nt] (microbiology) The number of colonies of bacteria ...
It was quite interesting to note that microbial counts in the room where Agnihotra was performed were reduced by 91.4% (Figs. ... In Plate A, fungal colony disappeared within 30 minutes. *In Plates A and D, "B. subtilis" disappeared within 60 minutes while ... whereas the room where only fire was generated did not show appreciable changes in the microbial counts. This leads one to ... Bacterial counts were taken again in both the rooms in a similar manner at half hour intervals. Thus readings were taken in ...
The standard plate count method is an indirect measurement of cell density ( live bacteria). The spectrophotometer analysis is ... The two most widely used methods for determining bacterial numbers are: The standard plate count method. Spectrophotometer ( ... Count the colonies on each plate. Plates with more than 300 colonies cannot be counted and are designated too many to count ( ... Serial dilution and colony counting ● Serial dilution and colony counting - Also know as "viable cell counts" - Concentrated ...
The results were hugely impressive with a bacterial colony count (CFU) of just three on the cable trunking in the new surgery ... At Churchfields, Rehau supplied 400m of anti-microbial Profila/Compact data cable trunking to electrical contractor Barrie ... To give an even clearer indication of the performance of the trunking, Rehau also measured the bacterial colony count on the ... was in general less contaminated than the old one with a reduction in the mean bacterial counts in three out of the four rooms ...
... bacterial colony count was 123 as against in the human residence where Agnihotra was done regularly the bacterial colony count ... Microbial Contamination of Air - Dr R Kumari etal. *Microbial Growth - Dr Mrs V R Purandare ... Effects of Agnihotra on Plate Count of Aerial Bacterial Flora. Dr B.R. Gupta, Associate Professor, Microbiology, CSA University ... Dr B.R. Gupta has conducted experiments on effects of Agnihotra on plate count of Aerial bacterial flora. He has found that in ...
... today announced the availability of its next generation Chromogenic ID software module for the ProtoCOL 3 and Protos 3 colony ... O Laboratories and means microbiologists can use ProtoCOL 3 and Protos 3 systems to quickly and simply identify and count ... and at the same time count any bacteria... ... objective microbial identification and colony counts with a ... New Generation Microbial Identification and Colony Counting Software Now Provides Rapid Results with E&O Laboratories ...
Mesh term Colony Count, Microbial. Browse to parent terms:. Microbiological Techniques. Description. Enumeration by direct ... microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.. Browse to child terms:. Bacterial Load. Search for this term in our Faculty ... count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method ...
Food and Beverage - Microbial Enumeration. Count on Speed and Convenience in Microbial Enumeration. In a high-throughput ... Advanced Colony Counting: All You Need. Choose the products best suited for your application from our comprehensive range of ...
Colony Count, Microbial. Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable ... Each colony (i.e., microbial colony-forming unit) represents the progeny of a single cell in the original inoculum. The method ... Summary of "Colony-Forming Cell Assay Detecting the Co-Expression of JAK2V617F and BCR-ABL1 in the Same Clone: A Case Report." ... Colony-Forming Cell Assay Detecting the Co-Expression of JAK2V617F and BCR-ABL1 in the Same Clone: A Case Report.. 08:00 EDT ...
... pylori was shown to give rise to two colony forms: at normal pH the population was dominated by L colonies. One strain was ... Bacteria from L colonies retained VacA toxin and urease, did not invade or adhere to epithelial cells, and contained normal ... Colony Count, Microbial * Culture Techniques * Cytotoxins / metabolism * Gastric Mucosa / metabolism * Gastric Mucosa / ... Results: H. pylori was shown to give rise to two colony forms: at normal pH the population was dominated by L colonies. One ...
Colony Count, Microbial * Disulfides / therapeutic use* * Double-Blind Method * Drug Administration Schedule ... in the mean colony counts in both groups (ratio of geometric means of candidal colony counts 0.63; 95% CI 0.39-10.03; P = 0.74 ... Main outcome measures: The primary outcome was the proportion of women with colony counts of candida ,100 colony-forming units ... The effects of oral garlic on vaginal candida colony counts: a randomised placebo controlled double-blind trial BJOG. 2014 Mar; ...
Total Live Microbial Count (min.): 5 million CFU* per treat. Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis ... Colony Forming Units. Probios Horse Treats (Digestion Support) Caution. For Animal Use Only ...
In addition, results of the correlation analysis indicated significant correlations among enzyme activities and microbial ... Parameters including temperature, oxygen uptake rate, numbers of microbial populations (mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria ... but the relationship between microbial communities (i.e., mesophilic and thermophilic ones) and enzyme activities (i.e., ... composting and study the relationship between the mesophilic and thermophilic microbial profiles and enzyme activities. MSW was ...
Colony count methods. In: Speck ML, ed. Compendium of methods for the microbial examination of foods. Washington, DC: American ... Eight (73%) showed relatively high levels of contamination ( greater than or equal to 105 colony-forming units (CFU) of ... To study the prevalence of Acanthamoeba and other microbial contaminants, investigators asked controls to submit contact-lens ...
Colony Count, Microbial. Endotoxins / immunology*. Female. Francisella tularensis / immunology*. Immunoglobulin A / analysis, ...
Colony Count, Microbial. Dairy Products*. Food Microbiology*. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Staphylococcus aureus / growth & ...
Total Live Microbial Count. 5 million CFU*. Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis. *Colony Forming Units ...
We compared microbial species and colony counts in the paired specimens. The primary outcome was a comparison of positive ... Correlation between Counts of Colony-Forming Units (CFUs) in Catheter Urine Cultures and in Midstream Urine Cultures ... were not predictive of bladder bacteriuria at any colony count (Spearmans r=0.322 for enterococci and 0.272 for group B ... Shown are plots indicating the correlation between bacterial counts in cultures of urine collected by means of a urethral ...
The amount of microbial material found in various grades of 1980 samples of American cotton was investigated. The contents of ... Microbial concentrations varied enormously between samples. GPB counts ranged from 2 to 53000 colony forming units per ... The amount of microbial material found in various grades of 1980 samples of American cotton was investigated. The contents of ... GNB counts and endotoxin concentrations were related to visually assigned classers color groups. For the whole collection, ...
Microbial culture identified eight species of bacteria: five species of thermophilic bacteria (Anoxybacillus tepidamans, ... Colony counts were then performed and presented colony forming units (CFU)/L. ... while the microbial count increased according to the increase in water temperature during the summer season. The results of the ... whereas we obtained high colony counts for thermophilic (45 °C) bacteria (Table 1). The detected concentration of culturable ...
... verification of microbial colony counts and assistance with the research.. Acceptable quantity of colony growth of Enterococcus ... The E. coli colony count was less than nine colonies per plate, but the fecal coliform colony count was above 116 per plate; ... L: November 2 colonies - 5 mL Middle: November 8 colonies - 5 mLRight: November 22 colonies - 20 mL Fecal coliform indicated ... Colony counts were recorded for analysis and verified using a fluorescent lamp and a magnifying lens. Plates containing m- ...
Discover an innovative range of equipment for improving food sample processing and microbial colony counting. These mix and ... Discover an innovative range of equipment for improving food sample processing and microbial colony counting. ... Protos 3, a walk-away colony counter and microbial identification system. *aCOLyte 3 HD, a dedicated colony counter for pour ... aCOLade 2, a quality manual colony counter Used in combination, the systems will speed up your workflow from sample to result. ...
E2563-18 Standard Practice for Enumeration of Non-Tuberculosis Mycobacteria in Aqueous Metalworking Fluids by Plate Count ... D5465 Practices for Determining Microbial Colony Counts from Waters Analyzed by Plating Methods ... in Aqueous Metalworking Fluids by Plate Count Method. Active Standard ASTM E2563 , Developed by Subcommittee: E34.50 ... The microbiologist should also be capable of distinguishing the diverse colonies of Mycobacteria from other microorganism ...
D5465 Practice for Determining Microbial Colony Counts from Waters Analyzed by Plating Methods ... E2563 Practice for Enumeration of Non-Tuberculosis Mycobacteria in Aqueous Metalworking Fluids by Plate Count Method ... E2564 Practice for Enumeration of Mycobacteria in Metalworking Fluids by Direct Microscopic Counting (DMC) Method ...
A. Read counts for 72 GenBank accessions that are representative of the major gut microbial phylotypes of the honey bee. The ... Here we explore the incidence and abundance of currently known honey bee pathogens in colonies suffering from Colony Collapse ... Pathogen webs in collapsing honey bee colonies.. Cornman RS1, Tarpy DR, Chen Y, Jeffreys L, Lopez D, Pettis JS, vanEngelsdorp D ... B. Read counts of contigs in that were assigned to bacterial phyla using the Classifier tool . All three actinobacteria contigs ...
Then, the Petri dishes were incubated for 24 h at 37 °C for microbial colony counts. ... 2002). Microbial aggregates counted as one single particle by the OPC can be assayed as numerous single microbes after ... to maintain an optimal RH for collecting maximum viable counts (colony forming units, CFUs). ... while empty droplets counted by OPC do not result in any count by the bioassay. Additionally, environmental conditions, such as ...
Colony counts were then determined. The results of the colony counts under methods A and B are shown in Table 9 by day of ... Insert for a microbial scrubbing device. US8383143 *. Nov 28, 2007. Feb 26, 2013. The Trustees Of Columbia University In The ... Colony counts were then determined.. Method of Evaluating Bacterial Adherence to PTFE Soft Tissue Patch Disks. ... The plates were then incubated for 24 hours at 37 C. Thereafter, the colony counts were determined, and the amount of ...
The mean colony counts and average patient minutes per study day for the 3 intervals were Pre = 24.47, 254; Post A = 27.6, 368 ... Colony counts were enumerated after 48 hours. Trauma room usage was monitored for average patient minutes per study day, using ... Utilizing Passive LED Disinfection Technology to Effectively Reduce Microbial Contamination in a Trauma Room. A Research from ... There was a statistically significant effect over time on reduction in microbial surface contamination; F(2, 48) = 4.61, p = ...
Microbial Fuel Cells. *Foldable Microscopes. *Vaccinations Schedules. *Compact Dry™ for Colony Counts ...
Counts ranged from an estimated 1 colony per 100 milliliter (mL) to 110 colonies per 100 mL. Thresholds for microbial ... Microbial constituents were analyzed in 30 ground-water samples. Coliform bacteria was detected in four samples. ... microbial indicators, and dissolved noble gases (the last in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory). ...
Gogu Valley). We established that PT-1 strongly inhibits pathogenic microbial strains, but not human bacterial strains, and ... The cell counts were 2 × 105 CFUs (colony forming units)/mL for bacteria and 1 × 105 CFU/mL for fungi. After incubating the ... The plates were then incubated for 1 day and the colonies counted. The lowest concentration of peptide that completely ... PG-2, a Potent AMP against Pathogenic Microbial Strains, from Potato (Solanum tuberosum L cv. Gogu Valley) Tubers Not Cytotoxic ...
956 Colony Forming Units (CFUs), fecal coliforms 78 - 807 CFUs). Five bacterial genera (Escherichia coli, Pseudomona, ... Colony growth in the different culture media. Colony growth was observed in the different culture media used. ... 2.4.2. Isolation and Microbial Identification.. Microbial isolation was performed from the water samples collected at the place ... The results of the total and fecal coliform counts are shown in Table 5. The middle and low zones showed a high number of ...
3) Standard plate count, not more than 5,000 colony forming units per gram (CFU/g). ... and any other recognized microbial pathogen or any harmful microbial toxin. ... This count refers to the total comment/submissions received on this document as reported by Regulations.gov. Agencies review ... Document page views are updated periodically throughout the day and are cumulative counts for this document including its time ...
3 Checks Colony Forming Units Silage Inoculants, PH Levels, forage, bacteria ... 3 Checks Colony Forming Units Silage Inoculants, PH Levels, forage, bacteria, ... After incubation, individual microbial colonies are counted. Since its unknown if the colony was formed by one single organism ... 3 Checks for Colony Forming Units in Silage Inoculants. Every time forage is ensiled, there is a microscopic war between "good ...
  • To give an even clearer indication of the performance of the trunking, Rehau also measured the bacterial colony count on the comparable door handle in the new surgery which showed a level of 215 and on the windowsill which showed a level of 160. (electricalcontractingnews.co.uk)
  • This International Standard gives guidelines for the evaluation of uncertainty in quantitative microbiological analyses based on enumeration of microbial particles by culture. (nen.nl)
  • The aerobic colony count of spoilt sweet pepper fruits sold in Sokoto metropolis was evaluated and the result presented in Table1. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • During the 96-hour incubation (30 [degrees]C), turbidity of the medium, colony count and ethanol production were monitored. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Overall, the comparative study between the two buildings showed that the new surgery, which had been open for two months, was in general less contaminated than the old one with a reduction in the mean bacterial counts in three out of the four rooms sampled. (electricalcontractingnews.co.uk)
  • To collect airborne fungal samples using single-stage Andersen N-6 samplers (Graseby Andersen), the colony count per culture plate is usually adjusted for possible multiple impactions using the positive hole conversion table (34). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • However, whilst it goes some way to explaining the low bacterial loads on the cable trunking it is not the whole picture and contrasts completely with the CFU count on the door handle in the old surgery which was just eight compared with 215 in the new, indicating clearly the real impact of human touch on the bacterial count of untreated surfaces even in regularly cleaned environments. (electricalcontractingnews.co.uk)
  • The results were hugely impressive with a bacterial colony count (CFU) of just three on the cable trunking in the new surgery compared with 228 in the old one - a reduction of 98.69 per cent. (electricalcontractingnews.co.uk)
  • The two-drug combination of 1/4 MIC bee venom with either 1/4 MIC oxacillin or 1/4, MIC BITC exhibited synergistic bacteriostatic activity and reduced approximately colony count by 2[log. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It covers all variants of colony count methods and most probable number estimates. (nen.nl)
  • To study the prevalence of Acanthamoeba and other microbial contaminants, investigators asked controls to submit contact-lens solutions and lens-care hardware* to CDC to be examined for contamination with Acanthamoeba, bacteria, and fungi (2,3). (cdc.gov)
  • Eight (73%) showed relatively high levels of contamination ( greater than or equal to 105 colony-forming units (CFU) of bacteria and fungi per milliliter). (cdc.gov)
  • Standard housekeeping methods are inadequate at removing microbial contamination from the modern day healthcare environment. (ledinside.com)
  • This study demonstrates that the LED disinfecting lights significantly reduced the microbial surface contamination in a trauma room at 15 weeks, even when room usage increased. (ledinside.com)
  • However, over time, the lights are effective at reducing the overall microbial contamination. (ledinside.com)
  • Further research is needed to determine precisely when a significant reduction in microbial surface contamination occurs. (ledinside.com)
  • Zefon Inner Wall Adaptors are used in conjunction with the MopldSNAP Cassette to non-destructively access microbial contamination within a wall cavity. (environmental-expert.com)
  • This study aimed to evaluate the microbial contamination of computers and mobile phones used by students of an academic dental school, compared to the students of a non-medical school. (sid.ir)
  • Two simulated spacecraft water systems are being used to evaluate the effectiveness of iodine for controlling microbial contamination within such systems. (sae.org)
  • Different procedures, materials and antimicrobial agents have been proposed to minimize microbial cross-contamination in the dental office, such as immunization of dental staff, decontamination of surfaces, sterilization of instruments, use of personal protective barriers and pre-procedural mouthwashes. (scielo.br)
  • Microbial Contamination-A Regulatory Perspective. (scribd.com)
  • The concern of FDA and compendia towods microbial contamination described in this article. (scribd.com)
  • This article also describes the source, methods of detection, and methods of elimination of microbial contamination. (scribd.com)
  • Many other products, especially liquid preparations and creams for topical application to severely injured skin, large open wounds or mucus membrane which are liable to bacterial, mould and fungal contamination from the atmosphere ( or less frequently from the contaminated equipments during manufacture) should be controlled for microbial contamination. (scribd.com)
  • Certain materials, which are particularly prone to microbial contamination, may constitute a health hazard unless they are carefully controlled. (scribd.com)
  • The most satisfactory control therefore is one which set a requirement for freedom from specified microbial contamination. (scribd.com)
  • Take care when pulling water samples for microbial evaluations to prevent contamination from the air as the air in a chicken house could be loaded with bacteria. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Detect microbial contamination or determine bacterial counts in clinical specimens with easy-to-use, easy-to-read dip slides. (thermofisher.com)
  • NCs provide a portal of entry for a wide diversity of opportunistic pathogens to colonize the catheter lumen, forming a biofilm and increasing the potential for CAI, highlighting the importance of catheter maintenance practices to reduce microbial contamination. (asm.org)
  • This investigation refines locations and surfaces prone to microbial contamination throughout the ISS while simultaneously monitoring the ISS environment for gaseous contaminants from off-gassing, combustion products, and propellants as well as microbial contaminants from crewmembers and ISS activities. (nasa.gov)
  • If these counts come out zero to low it assures that you are starting with good GMP (good manufacturing practices) and your product is without contamination. (sagescript.com)
  • To determine the CFU count, a sample is taken, diluted and a precise amount is spread onto a growth media in a petri dish. (cowsmo.com)
  • Since it's unknown if the colony was formed by one single organism or a cluster of bacteria, each spot on the petri dish is referred to as a "colony forming unit. (cowsmo.com)
  • In the Plate Count Method, the sample of drug product to be tested and Soybean-Casein Digest Broth is poured into a Petri dish. (wikipedia.org)
  • The microbiologist should also be capable of distinguishing the diverse colonies of Mycobacteria from other microorganism colonies on a Petri dish and capable of confirming Mycobacteria by acid-fast staining method. (astm.org)
  • Colony counter to count microbial colonies in petri dishes - easy, quick and reliable counting with great ease of use. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Aliquots of these suspensions were later transferred to Petri dishes containing specific media for counts of microbial groups. (scielo.br)
  • What are the circles called that were counted on the petri films and what do they represent? (flashcardmachine.com)
  • It was microbial cell cultivation in cylindrical plates (now known as Petri dishes) on the surface or within of a gel-like nutrient medium up to visible microbial colonies. (scirp.org)
  • The second batch of resin has remained effective in controlling microbial growth down to an iodine level of 1.0 mg/L. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that the iodine has impeded but may have not completely eliminated the formation of biofilm. (sae.org)
  • Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. (mcw.edu)
  • If you need accurate microbial enumeration or inhibition zone sizing to test the efficacy or sterility of your pharmaceutical samples, then we have a range of colony counters and zone measuring systems that are perfect for all your needs. (synbiosis.com)
  • This International Standard gives guidelines for the evaluation of uncertainty in quantitative microbiological analyses based on enumeration of microbial particles by culture. (nen.nl)
  • The objective of this study is to determine whether the Air Barrier System device reduces airborne colony-forming units (e.g., bacteria) present at a surgery site during total shoulder art. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The presence of Escherichia coli in midstream urine was highly predictive of bladder bacteriuria even at very low counts, with a positive predictive value of 10(2) colony-forming units (CFU) per milliliter of 93% (Spearman's r=0.944). (nih.gov)
  • Using a research-proven forage inoculant with the correct level of colony forming units (CFUs) proven effective in trials helps ensure producers have enough 'good' bacteria to win the ensiling battles," Dr. Charley says. (cowsmo.com)
  • Flat bottomed with a 10 x 10mm numbered grid for easy calculation of the colony units per cm2. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) showed that large amounts of oxygen are needed to oxidize organic matter (106 - 450 mg/L). The amount of coliforms and fecal coliforms exceeds the values established by the standards used (total coliforms 98 - 956 Colony Forming Units (CFU's), fecal coliforms 78 - 807 CFU's). (scirp.org)
  • The number of colony forming units (CFU) of different groups of bacteria and fungi in samples stored at temperatures of 5 to -12 o C for 0-32 weeks was evaluated. (scielo.br)
  • Probiotic Max contains a MINIMUM of 6.8 Billion CFUs (Colony Forming Units) PER GRAM or approximately 1/5 teaspoon guaranteed. (naturesfarmacy.com)
  • Counts greater than 10,000 colony forming units (cfu)/ml suggest the system has potential for harboring pathogens. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • The microbial load was analyzed by colony forming units counting (CFU) of total aerobes, Gram-negative, Staphyloccus aureus and Candida spp. (usp.br)
  • In men, unlike in women, a urine culture growing more than 1000 colony-forming units (CFU) of a pathogen per mL of urine is indicative of a UTI. (medscape.com)
  • A result from the membrane filtration technique is reported as colony forming units per 100mL (CFU/100mL). (awqc.com.au)
  • Colony forming units (CFUs) and acidogenicity were estimated from the treated biofilms. (bristol.ac.uk)
  • Amplification of the 16S rRNA gene from selected NCs provided a substantially larger number of operational taxonomic units per NC than did plate counts (26 to 43 versus 1 to 4 operational taxonomic units/NC, respectively), suggesting that culture-dependent methods may substantially underestimate microbial diversity on NCs. (asm.org)
  • Verify whether the different measuring units in the two techniques could be compared in terms of the bacterial counts. (scielo.org.za)
  • We produce a world leading range of automated colony counting and zone sizing products for the microbiology laboratory. (synbiosis.com)
  • Microbes are very small and difficult to count directly, so CFUs are used. (cowsmo.com)
  • Each 3M Petrifilm Aerobic Count Plate contains a water-soluble gelling agent, nutrients and indicator - all the components needed for microbial growth with no agar preparation required. (3m.com)
  • Parameters including temperature, oxygen uptake rate, numbers of microbial populations (mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria and fungi) and enzyme activities were measured. (scirp.org)
  • Fungi were counted in Martin (11) medium supplemented with a mixture of penicillin and streptomycin (0.1 g/l, w/v) and 70 µg/ml rose bengal. (scielo.br)
  • Is it because colonies of fungi detected on CSA are counted as part of TAMC? (usp.org)
  • Trash grade, gray and yellow hue values, and GPB and fungal counts all positively and significantly correlated with endotoxin values. (cdc.gov)
  • Most studies describing phyllosphere microbial communities focus on bacterial colonizers of the leaf, though the leaf surface also harbors diverse fungal communities mainly studied by cultivation ( Santamaría and Bayman, 2005 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • To understand microbial survival potential in Mars-like conditions, several fungal and bacterial samples were launched in September 2019 on a large NASA scientific balloon flight to the middle stratosphere (∼38 km altitude) where radiation levels resembled values at the equatorial Mars surface. (frontiersin.org)
  • Today the crew analyzed the MAS and SSK samples taken on 5 September, performing colony counts and photographing the microbial and fungal slides. (nasa.gov)
  • The aim of bioburden testing is to measure the total number of viable micro-organisms (total microbial count) on a medical device prior to its final sterilization before implantation or use. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5.2 The measurement of viable and culturable mycobacterial densities (Guide E1326 ), combined with the total mycobacterial counts (including viable culturable (VC), viable nonculturable (VNC) and nonviable (NV) counts), is usually the first step in establishing any possible relationship between Mycobacteria and occupational health concerns (for example, HP). (astm.org)
  • In some countries reliance is place on a limit of total viable count of microorganism present. (scribd.com)
  • The final inoculum was prepared via spectrophotometric methods and confirmed by viable colony counts. (arvojournals.org)
  • The plates were incubated at 35 o C, and viable colony counts were determined at 24 hours. (arvojournals.org)
  • Finally, we used deep RNA sequencing to further characterize microbial diversity in CCD and non-CCD hives. (nih.gov)
  • In support of this view, Harding and Ross (6) reported that fresh soil samples are desirable to characterize microbial counts. (scielo.br)
  • 1.2 The detection limit is one colony forming unit (CFU)/mL metalworking fluid. (astm.org)
  • In another aspect it relates to the use of an assay, such as a bioluminescent assay, for the detection of microbial nucleotides as a method of determining the presence, number or biomass of microbial cells in a sample, and to the inactivation or removal of non-microbial nucleotides prior to the detection of microbial nucleotides. (google.com.au)
  • These methods are generally based on the detection of microbial nucleotides, such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (google.com.au)
  • The reporting unit is Colony Forming Unit (CFU)/100ml, the limit of detection is 1 CFU/100ml, and the test will take 18-20 hours to complete. (awqc.com.au)
  • Ensures accurate, consistent detection and counting of colonies. (rapidmicrobio.com)
  • 3M's Petrifilm Rapid Yeast and Mold Count sample-ready plates simplify and accelerate detection, giving results in 48 hours. (dairyfoods.com)
  • Variation of microbial contaminants in classers' raw cottons. (cdc.gov)
  • Human colonic biota is a complex microbial ecosystem that serves as a host defense. (asm.org)
  • The red colonies are also easily distinguished from opaque food particles that can cause confusion when using other plating methods. (3m.com)
  • Unlike most microbial ecosystems, its composition has been studied extensively by relatively efficient culture methods. (asm.org)
  • It covers all variants of colony count methods and most probable number estimates. (nen.nl)
  • Present bioluminescent assay methods for determining the presence, number or biomass of microbial cells in a sample which may also contain non-microbial cells require longer processing times than desired. (google.com.au)
  • Students should also be familiar with standard methods for serial dilution and plating of microbial cells on standard media. (montana.edu)
  • CFUrine quality control kits are used for determination of urine colony counts for dipslides, tube screening methods and calibrated loops. (thermofisher.com)
  • But ever since maggot therapy became a common practice [1], careful observers also noted other effects on the wounds: microbial killing (disinfection) and hastened wound healing (growth stimulation). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Microscopic cell counting is also useful as a preliminary step for making colony counts. (ucdavis.edu)
  • In contrast, in midstream urine, enterococci (in 10% of cultures) and group B streptococci (in 12% of cultures) were not predictive of bladder bacteriuria at any colony count (Spearman's r=0.322 for enterococci and 0.272 for group B streptococci). (nih.gov)
  • Shown are plots indicating the correlation between bacterial counts in cultures of urine collected by means of a urethral catheter and those in cultures of voided midstream urine in women with symptoms of acute uncomplicated cystitis. (nih.gov)
  • Cultures of the corneal tissues grew 1 colony of Pseudomonas and 69 colonies of S. pneumoniae from the high inoculation vials. (arvojournals.org)
  • For more than a century, microbial quality control (QC) has been a manual process of counting cultures and transcribing data to secondary data systems. (rapidmicrobio.com)
  • Our findings demonstrated that PTX inhibited microbe-induced proinflammatory cytokine production, especially when combined with antimicrobial agents, without enhancing microbial proliferation in human cord blood in vitro , thus supporting its utility as candidate adjunctive agent for newborn sepsis. (asm.org)
  • Featuri ng unique imaging and easy to use software, our colony counters are ideal when your food testing lab needs accurate, objective and secure results. (selectscience.net)
  • Then look no further than the Synbiosis range of colony counters because we'll have one to suit all your testing needs. (synbiosis.com)
  • If you want to save time counting any type of microbial colonies from food or drink samples, then we have a range of colony counters, which will be perfect for all your applications. (synbiosis.com)
  • If you want to count microbial colonies or measure inhibitions zones from clinical samples, then we have a range of colony counters and zone sizing systems that are ideal for all your clinical testing needs. (synbiosis.com)
  • Results from the first two years of operation show a single episode of high bacterial colony counts in the iodinated system. (sae.org)
  • The samples were sent to a laboratory in sterile containers for bacterial colony counting. (magiran.com)
  • Afterwards, sampling was conducted again as in stage 1 to determine the bacterial colony count. (magiran.com)
  • Microbial concentrations varied enormously between samples. (cdc.gov)
  • GNB counts and endotoxin concentrations were related to visually assigned classers' color groups. (cdc.gov)
  • Start with recommended levels of sanitizer then adjust sanitizer concentrations based on microbial testing results. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • The Membrane-Filtration Method and Plate Count Method can be used to measure the number of microbes in a sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • The authors noted that because the samples were taken 2 days after the tube bundle was removed, bringing into question the viability of microbes, the negative results do not eliminate the possibility of microbial-induced corrosion. (spe.org)
  • Microbial indicators such as Escherichia coli and fecal coliforms and the concentration of ammonia/ammonium were investigated in urine samples that were stored at 60 °C and 70 °C. Both the inactivation of indicators and decomposition of urea improved under storage temperatures of 60 °C and 70 °C compared with storage under ambient temperature. (iwaponline.com)
  • A method for the selective determination of microbial cells, in a sample suspected of containing both microbial and non-microbial cells, is described which involves the selective release and enzymatic inactivation of non-microbial nucleotides, followed by the rapid and specific inhibition of the inactivating. (google.com.au)
  • B. small particles of debris interfere with accurate counts. (muhlenberg.edu)
  • Example: You count 187 particles in five small squares, each square has an area of 1/25 mm-squared and depth of 0.1 mm, so the total volume is 0.04 x 0.1 = 0.004 mm- cubed. (ucdavis.edu)
  • The ground-water samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, pesticide degradates, nutrients, major and minor ions, trace elements, radioactivity, microbial indicators, and dissolved noble gases (the last in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory). (usgs.gov)
  • Colony-Forming Cell Assay Detecting the Co-Expression of JAK2V617F and BCR-ABL1 in the Same Clone: A Case Report. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In a typical assay, microbial cells can be treated so as to release their ATP into solution where it can react with bioluminescent assay reagents, such as firefly luciferase enzyme and luciferin substrate, in the presence of magnesium and oxygen, to produce photons. (google.com.au)
  • Because there are 1000 cubic ml in one cubic cm, the particle count is 9,350,000 per ml. (ucdavis.edu)
  • At Synbiosis we are passionate about making colony counting and zone analysis easier. (synbiosis.com)
  • Synbiosis is a long-established, world-leading supplier of systems for automated colony counting, zone measurement and microbial identification systems. (synbiosis.com)
  • Kazemi, K. , Zhang, B. and Lye, L. (2017) Assessment of Microbial Communities and Their Relationship with Enzymatic Activity during Composting. (scirp.org)
  • That's why we have developed products specifically designed to automate colony counting and inhibition zone measurement, to relieve you of the tedium involved with these repetitive manual tasks. (synbiosis.com)
  • 7. A method according to claim 1 wherein the inhibition of the inactivating enzyme and the release of microbial adenosine triphosphate are carried out simultaneously. (google.com.au)
  • Microbial counts on plates by the serial dilution method require a considerable number of steps to obtain the desired result, a fact that renders this method more cumbersome than chemical determination. (scielo.br)
  • 2009 ). Seeking a convenient, inexpensive, and efficient method for microbial decontamination is a major goal of public health against airborne biological threats. (springer.com)
  • The term is most often used in the context of bioburden testing, also known as microbial limit testing, which is performed on pharmaceutical products and medical products for quality control purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Products or components used in the pharmaceutical or medical field require control of microbial levels during processing and handling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bioburden or microbial limit testing on these products proves that these requirements have been met. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bioburden quantification is expressed in colony forming unit (CFU). (wikipedia.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that CPP-ACP has virulence-attenuating attributes that can influence a beneficial microbial ecological change in the biofilm. (bristol.ac.uk)
  • The high fecal coliform count signified that although the water quality was 'good,' it might not necessarily be safe for primary (full-body contact or swimming) and secondary (contact below the knees or wading) recreational contact by humans (Table 1 and Table 2). (amnh.org)
  • However, all three sites had high fecal coliform colony counts, which indicates the presence of pathogenic organisms. (amnh.org)
  • To determine the cause of the heat exchanger failure, the authors studied the inspection reports, historical water parameters, sludge analysis, microbial analysis, and metallurgical analysis of the heat exchanger tubes. (spe.org)
  • Also, it can provide new visually inaccessible information on relation between some optical parameters and various biological features of the microbial cul-tures. (scirp.org)
  • This powerful, new software successfully analyses chromogenic agars from major media supplier, E & O Laboratories and means microbiologists can use ProtoCOL 3 and Protos 3 systems to quickly and simply identify and count pathogens cultured on chromogenic plates from E & O Laboratories and CHROMagar. (labbulletin.com)
  • The new Chromogenic ID software module, ensures that the ProtoCOL 3 and Protos 3 systems can, in seconds, precisely identify, and at the same time count any bacteria or yeast cultured on E & O chromogenic or Colorex plates, saving microbiologists time examining colonies and ensuring that critical microbial identification results are consistent from one microbiologist to another. (labbulletin.com)
  • The ProtoCOL 3 and Protos 3 systems allow precise chromogenic colony identification by capturing true to life colour image of colonies on chromogenic plates utilising their patented red, blue and green lighting. (labbulletin.com)
  • Obtaining a urine culture with microbial sensitivities is very important as well. (medscape.com)
  • Bacteria from L colonies retained VacA toxin and urease, did not invade or adhere to epithelial cells, and contained normal quantities of phosphatidylethanolamine. (nih.gov)
  • Bacteria from these colonies released VacA and urease, adhered to and invaded epithelial cells and contained increased amounts of lysophosphatidyl ethanolamine and phosphatidyl serine. (nih.gov)
  • This invention relates to the selective determination of microbial cells in a sample suspected of containing both microbial and non-microbial cells. (google.com.au)
  • These results suggest that Tyk2 signaling for IFN-γ production in host environment plays an important role in contraction of effector CD8 + T cells following a microbial infection. (jimmunol.org)
  • Because the size of memory CD8 + T cell pool depends at least partly on the amounts of surviving T cells from T cell contraction, identification of molecular mechanisms responsible for regulating T cell contraction may provide an insight into vaccine development for microbial infection. (jimmunol.org)
  • Under the influence of chemoattractants, these cells rapidly migrate into and are activated at sites of inflammation, resulting in microbial killing. (asm.org)
  • As the name suggests it has been developed for counting blood cells but it is now widely established in a huge variety of fields. (ucdavis.edu)
  • In general more than one hundred total cells should be counted to minimize random errors. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Very important using this technique is to avoid errors like: unequal cell distribution in the sample, improper filling of chambers, failure to adopt a convention for counting cells in contact with the boundaries lines or with each other. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Besides that, counting cells of spoilage organisms during aging is like a effective insurance. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Our method is applicable to the study of many other host-microbe interactions as a way to uncover microbial genes important for host health. (asm.org)
  • The microbial genes that underlie the impact of the microbiota on host traits can be difficult to elucidate because microbiota are taxonomically and functionally diverse. (asm.org)