Colonoscopes: Specially designed endoscopes for visualizing the interior surface of the colon.Sigmoidoscopes: Endoscopes for examining the interior of the sigmoid colon.Fiber Optic Technology: The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.Colonoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon.Sigmoidoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the sigmoid flexure.Colonic Diseases: Pathological processes in the COLON region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).Cecum: The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.Societies, Nursing: Societies whose membership is limited to nurses.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Medicine: The art and science of studying, performing research on, preventing, diagnosing, and treating disease, as well as the maintenance of health.Electrosurgery: Division of tissues by a high-frequency current applied locally with a metal instrument or needle. (Stedman, 25th ed)Specialization: An occupation limited in scope to a subsection of a broader field.Fagopyrum: A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that is used as an EDIBLE GRAIN. Although the seeds are used as cereal, the plant is not one of the cereal grasses (POACEAE).Endoscopes, Gastrointestinal: Instruments for the visual examination of the interior of the gastrointestinal tract.Colon, Sigmoid: A segment of the COLON between the RECTUM and the descending colon.Cecal Diseases: Pathological developments in the CECUM.Intubation: Introduction of a tube into a hollow organ to restore or maintain patency if obstructed. It is differentiated from CATHETERIZATION in that the insertion of a catheter is usually performed for the introducing or withdrawing of fluids from the body.Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Intubation, Gastrointestinal: The insertion of a tube into the stomach, intestines, or other portion of the gastrointestinal tract to allow for the passage of food products, etc.Rectal Diseases: Pathological developments in the RECTUM region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Research Report: Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.Foundations: Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.Dietetics: The application of nutritional principles to regulation of the diet and feeding persons or groups of persons.Journalism, Medical: The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Radioisotopes: Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nuclear Medicine: A specialty field of radiology concerned with diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative use of radioactive compounds in a pharmaceutical form.Cyprinodontiformes: An order of fish with eight families and numerous species of both egg-laying and livebearing fish. Families include Cyprinodontidae (egg-laying KILLIFISHES;), FUNDULIDAEl; (topminnows), Goodeidae (Mexican livebearers), Jenynsiidae (jenynsiids), Poeciliidae (livebearers), Profundulidae (Middle American killifishes), Aplocheilidae, and Rivulidae (rivulines). In the family Poeciliidae, the guppy and molly belong to the genus POECILIA.Nuclear Physics: The study of the characteristics, behavior, and internal structures of the atomic nucleus and its interactions with other nuclei. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Legislation, Pharmacy: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of pharmacy, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Art

A new variable stiffness colonoscope makes colonoscopy easier: a randomised controlled trial. (1/44)

BACKGROUND: Colonoscopy remains technically difficult in 10-20% of procedures due to variable colonic anatomy and fixation. The ability to vary endoscope shaft flexibility may help insertion to the caecum. METHODS: Consecutive patients attending for day case colonoscopy were randomised to examination with either the conventional Olympus CF200HL (200HL) or a new variable stiffness (VS) colonoscope. Intubation time, use of stiffening function, and patient pain scores were compared. RESULTS: Of 100 cases, 43 were performed with the 200HL and 57 with the VS. Four incomplete examinations occurred with the 200HL (two sigmoid fixations, two benign strictures) and two with the VS (one obstructing cancer, one fixed sigmoid). Changing to the paediatric scope was successful in all but one patient from each group (obstructive lesions). Stiff mode was applied 23 times in 18 patients and was effective in 15 of these. Intubation time was quicker with the VS (median 6 minutes 32 seconds) than with the 200HL (median 10 minutes 35 seconds) (p = 0.0005). Pain scores were less with the VS (median 7) than with the 200HL (median 24) (p = 0.0081). CONCLUSIONS: The variable stiffness colonoscope combines paediatric shaft characteristics with the ability to stiffen when needed. This instrument significantly reduces intubation time and patient discomfort. Further comparisons should be made with the newest colonoscopes which are less stiff.  (+info)

Quality control in colorectal cancer screening: systematic microbiological investigation of endoscopes used in the NORCCAP (Norwegian Colorectal Cancer Prevention) trial. (2/44)

BACKGROUND: Endoscopic colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is currently implemented in many countries. Since endoscopes cannot be sterilised, the transmission of infectious agents through endoscopes has been a matter of concern. We report on a continuous quality control programme in a large-scale randomised controlled trial on flexible sigmoidoscopy screening of an average-risk population. Continuously, throughout a two-year screening period, series of microbiological samples were taken from cleaned ready-to-use endoscopes and cultured for bacterial growth. RESULTS: 8573 endoscopies were performed during the trial period. Altogether, 178 microbiological samples (2%) were taken from the biopsy channels and surfaces from the endoscopes. One sample (0.5%) showed faecal contamination (Enterobacter cloacae), and 25 samples (14%) showed growth of environmental bacteria. CONCLUSIONS: Growth of bacteria occurs in a clinical significant number of samples from ready-to-use endoscopes. Pathogenic bacteria, however, were found only in one sample. Improvement of equipment design and cleaning procedures are desirable and continuous microbiological surveillance of endoscopes used in CRC screening is recommended.  (+info)

In vivo imaging of colitis and colon cancer development in mice using high resolution chromoendoscopy. (3/44)

BACKGROUND: Mouse models of colitis and cancer are indispensable for our understanding of the pathogenesis of these diseases. In the past, mice had to be sacrificed in order to analyse colitis activity and tumour development. We have developed a safe method for high resolution endoscopic monitoring of living mice. METHODS: Mice developing colitis or colonic tumours were anaesthetised using avertine and repeatedly examined by endoscopy. A novel miniendoscope (1.9 mm outer diameter), denoted Coloview, was introduced via the anus and the colon was carefully insufflated with an air pump before analysis of the colonic mucosa. An extra working channel allowed the introduction of biopsy forceps or injection needles as well as surface staining with methylene blue in order to visualise the surface of the crypts and the pit pattern architecture. RESULTS: Endoscopic pictures obtained were of high quality and allowed monitoring and grading of disease. Scoring of colitis activity as well as tumour size and growth was possible. In addition, pit pattern analysis using chromoendoscopy permitted discrimination between inflammatory and neoplastic changes. Biopsies yielded enough tissue for molecular and histopathological analyses. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, chromoendoscopy in mice allows monitoring of the development of colitis and colon cancer with high resolution. Manipulations such as local injection of reagents or taking biopsies can be performed easily.  (+info)

Withdrawing method of the stiffening tube incidentally inserted into the descending colon. (4/44)

We experienced a very rare complication of colonoscopy, a migration of stiffening tube into the colorectum. We herein introduce a withdrawing method of migrating stiffening tube incidentally inserted into the colorectum. A 65-year-old Japanese woman underwent colonoscopy because of abdominal discomfort. We used stiffening tube to insert the scope to the proximal colon because of her redundant sigmoid colon. When withdrawing the scope, we realized that the tube was fully inside the colorectum. We could not remove the tube instantly, and it reached the splenic flexure, finally. We reinserted the scope through the migrating tube, straightened the scope, and withdrew it holding a slight angle of the scope over the proximal end of the tube. Then, we could safely remove the tube along with the scope through the anus.  (+info)

Anorectal stimulation causes increased colonic motor activity in subjects with spinal cord injury. (5/44)

BACKGROUND: Difficulty with evacuation (DWE) is a major problem after spinal cord injury (SCI). Stimulation of the anal canal and lower rectum, accomplished using a gloved finger (so-called digital rectal stimulation or DRS) is often used as an adjunct to laxatives and enemas to facilitate bowel evacuation. However, the basis for the efficacy of DRS is not known. This study assessed the effect of DRS on colonic motility. METHODS: Six subjects with SCI were studied several hours after a bowel care session. Colonic motility was assessed using a manometric catheter (affixed endoscopically to the splenic flexure) at baseline, during DRS, and after DRS. In addition, evacuation of barium oatmeal paste (with the consistency of stool and introduced into the rectum and descending colon) was assessed simultaneously using fluoroscopic techniques. RESULTS: The mean number (+/- SEM) of peristaltic waves per minute increased from 0 at baseline to 1.9 (+/- 0.5/min) during DRS and 1.5 (+/- 0.3/min) during the period immediately after cessation of DRS (P < 0.05). The mean amplitude (+/- SEM) of the peristaltic contractions was 43.4 (+/- 2.2) mmHg. The frequency of contractions, as well as amplitude of contractions, during or immediately after DRS was not significantly different. These manometric changes in response to DRS were accompanied by expulsion of barium oatmeal paste in every subject by the fifth DRS. CONCLUSIONS: DRS causes left-sided colonic activity in subjects with SCI. At least in part, an anorectal colonic reflex that results in enhanced contractions of the descending colon and rectum may contribute to bowel evacuation in individuals with SCI.  (+info)

Colorectal tumors with complete obstruction--endoscopic recovery of passage replacing emergency surgery? A report of two cases. (6/44)

BACKGROUND: Incomplete or complete obstructive ileus due to colorectal cancer is generally treated by emergency surgery that has higher morbidity and mortality than elective surgery. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we describe an endoscopic technique by which a safe bowel decompression was performed instead of emergency surgery in two patients with complete tumorous obstruction of the colon. By means of a polypectomy snare, a soft wire, an ERCP catheter, a set of endoscopes with different diameters (baby endoscope, gastroscope) and of argon plasma coagulation the tumor mass was reduced and the tumor stenosis was passed. The patients recovered from symptoms of colon obstruction, no procedure-associated complications were observed. One patient had surgery of the sigmoid tumor one week later (UICC-stage III), the other patient (UICC-stage IV) received systemic chemotherapy starting one week after endoscopic decompression. CONCLUSION: Complete tumorous obstruction of the colon may be managed by endoscopic tumor debulking avoiding high risk emergency surgery and allowing immediate medical treatment of the primary tumor and of metastases.  (+info)

Magnifying chromoscopy, a novel and useful technique for colonoscopy in ulcerative colitis. (7/44)

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disorder characterized by exacerbations and remissions. The degree of inflammation as assessed by conventional colonoscopy is a reliable parameter of disease activity. However, even when conventional colonoscopy suggests remission and normal mucosal findings, microscopic abnormalities may persist, and relapse may occur later. Patients with long-standing, extensive ulcerative colitis have an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. Ulcerative colitis-associated colorectal cancer is characterized by an early age at onset, poorly differentiated tumor cells, mucinous carcinoma, and multiple lesions. Early detection of dysplasia and colitic cancer is thus a prerequisite for survival. A relatively new method, magnifying chromoscopy, is thought to be useful for the early detection and diagnosis of dysplasia and colitic cancer, as well as the prediction of relapse.  (+info)

Small caliber overtube-assisted colonoscopy. (8/44)

AIM: To combine the benefits of a new thin flexible scope with elimination of excessive looping through the use of an overtube. METHODS: Three separate retrospective series. Series 1: 25 consecutive male patients undergoing unsedated colonoscopy using the new device at a Veteran's hospital in the United States. Series 2: 75 male patients undergoing routine colonoscopy using an adult colonoscope, pediatric colonoscope, or the new device. Series 3: 35 patients who had incomplete colonoscopies using standard instruments. RESULTS: Complete colonoscopy was achieved in all 25 patients in the unsedated series with a median cecal intubation time of 6 min and a median maximal pain score of 3 on a 0-10 scale. In the 75 routine cases, there was significantly less pain with the thin scope compared to standard adult and pediatric colonoscopes. Of the 35 patients in the previously incomplete colonoscopy series, 33 were completed with the new system. CONCLUSION: Small caliber overtube-assisted colonoscopy is less painful than colonoscopy with standard adult and pediatric colonoscopes. Male patients could undergo unsedated colonoscopy with the new system with relatively little pain. The new device is also useful for most patients in whom colonoscopy cannot be completed with standard instruments.  (+info)

  • In the training sessions, if student gets information regarding the distal end of colonoscope, he can prepare and plan his future moves and he also gets the information concerning the diseased part of the colon. (
  • Using these data, distal end is accurately localized and also specific time required during the test, to pass the colonoscope through specific parts of colon for further analysis. (
  • The colonoscope contains fibre-optic channels which allow light to shine down so the operator can see inside your colon. (
  • Rex, DK & Helbig, CC 2007, ' High Yields of Small and Flat Adenomas With High-Definition Colonoscopes Using Either White Light or Narrow Band Imaging ', Gastroenterology , vol. 133, no. 1, pp. 42-47. (
  • All examinations were performed by a single experienced endoscopist with a known high detection rate of adenomas using high-definition, wide-angle (170° field of view) colonoscopes. (
  • Motus GI , a company out of Fort Lauderdale, Florida, won FDA clearance for its Pure-Vu Slim Sleeve, an extension that allows the Pure-Vu System to be used with slim colonoscopes. (
  • Having Pure-Vu® compatible with slim colonoscopes will be critically important for patients with complex anatomy which can happen quite often in the inpatient setting," in a published statement said Tamas Gonda, M.D. from Columbia University Medical Center in NY. (
  • A colonoscope is a semi-flexible tube with 2 cable-driven degrees of freedom (DOFs) in the tip (pitch and yaw angles), which are controlled by an external manual handle. (
  • Two additional DOFs are provided by rotating the colonoscope through its handle and by pushing the instrument through the anus. (
  • A colonoscope is engineered such that biopsies of suspicious areas can be obtained, and polyps (which may turn into cancer) can be removed. (
  • All examinations were performed by a single experienced endoscopist with a known high detection rate of adenomas using high-definition, wide-angle (170° field of view) colonoscopes. (
  • To remove the polyp, the doctor will use an electrical attachment on the colonoscope, known as the snare loop, to simultaneously excise the polyp and cauterize the wound. (
  • The Colonoscope market analysis is provided for the international market including development history, competitive landscape analysis, and major regions development status. (
  • This project will develop a simple, easy to use system which projects a three dimensional imageof the position of a colonoscope onto a video screen next to the endoscopic image. (
  • In 2018 the FDA said that despite colonoscopes containing infectious material, they can't recommend that they stop being used because there is no better diagnostic procedure available. (