Colonic Diseases: Pathological processes in the COLON region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).Crohn Disease: A chronic transmural inflammation that may involve any part of the DIGESTIVE TRACT from MOUTH to ANUS, mostly found in the ILEUM, the CECUM, and the COLON. In Crohn disease, the inflammation, extending through the intestinal wall from the MUCOSA to the serosa, is characteristically asymmetric and segmental. Epithelioid GRANULOMAS may be seen in some patients.Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Enema: A solution or compound that is introduced into the RECTUM with the purpose of cleansing the COLON or for diagnostic procedures.Colitis, Ulcerative: Inflammation of the COLON that is predominantly confined to the MUCOSA. Its major symptoms include DIARRHEA, rectal BLEEDING, the passage of MUCUS, and ABDOMINAL PAIN.Rectum: The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.Colonoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Colonic Diseases, Functional: Chronic or recurrent colonic disorders without an identifiable structural or biochemical explanation. The widely recognized IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME falls into this category.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Colonic Polyps: Discrete tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the COLON. These POLYPS are connected to the wall of the colon either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A disorder with chronic or recurrent colonic symptoms without a clearcut etiology. This condition is characterized by chronic or recurrent ABDOMINAL PAIN, bloating, MUCUS in FECES, and an erratic disturbance of DEFECATION.Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A technique that involves the use of electrical coils on the head to generate a brief magnetic field which reaches the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is coupled with ELECTROMYOGRAPHY response detection to assess cortical excitability by the threshold required to induce MOTOR EVOKED POTENTIALS. This method is also used for BRAIN MAPPING, to study NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, and as a substitute for ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY for treating DEPRESSION. Induction of SEIZURES limits its clinical usage.Gastrointestinal Motility: The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Proctocolitis: Inflammation of the RECTUM and the distal portion of the COLON.Phosphenes: A subjective visual sensation with the eyes closed and in the absence of light. Phosphenes can be spontaneous, or induced by chemical, electrical, or mechanical (pressure) stimuli which cause the visual field to light up without optical inputs.Gastrointestinal Transit: Passage of food (sometimes in the form of a test meal) through the gastrointestinal tract as measured in minutes or hours. The rate of passage through the intestine is an indicator of small bowel function.Lumbosacral Region: Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.Allylamine: Possesses an unusual and selective cytotoxicity for VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE cells in dogs and rats. Useful for experiments dealing with arterial injury, myocardial fibrosis or cardiac decompensation.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Organic Anion Transporters, Sodium-Dependent: A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS whose transport of organic anions is driven either directly or indirectly by a gradient of sodium ions.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Fibromyalgia: A common nonarticular rheumatic syndrome characterized by myalgia and multiple points of focal muscle tenderness to palpation (trigger points). Muscle pain is typically aggravated by inactivity or exposure to cold. This condition is often associated with general symptoms, such as sleep disturbances, fatigue, stiffness, HEADACHES, and occasionally DEPRESSION. There is significant overlap between fibromyalgia and the chronic fatigue syndrome (FATIGUE SYNDROME, CHRONIC). Fibromyalgia may arise as a primary or secondary disease process. It is most frequent in females aged 20 to 50 years. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1494-95)Intestinal Diseases: Pathological processes in any segment of the INTESTINE from DUODENUM to RECTUM.Constipation: Infrequent or difficult evacuation of FECES. These symptoms are associated with a variety of causes, including low DIETARY FIBER intake, emotional or nervous disturbances, systemic and structural disorders, drug-induced aggravation, and infections.Abdominal Pain: Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Gastrointestinal Diseases: Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Cisapride: A substituted benzamide used for its prokinetic properties. It is used in the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease, functional dyspepsia, and other disorders associated with impaired gastrointestinal motility. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Sick Building Syndrome: A group of symptoms that are two- to three-fold more common in those who work in large, energy-efficient buildings, associated with an increased frequency of headaches, lethargy, and dry skin. Clinical manifestations include hypersensitivity pneumonitis (ALVEOLITIS, EXTRINSIC ALLERGIC); allergic rhinitis (RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, PERENNIAL); ASTHMA; infections, skin eruptions, and mucous membrane irritation syndromes. Current usage tends to be less restrictive with regard to the type of building and delineation of complaints. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Gastric Emptying: The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.Striatonigral Degeneration: A sporadic neurodegenerative disease with onset in middle-age characterized clinically by Parkinsonian features (e.g., MUSCLE RIGIDITY; HYPOKINESIA; stooped posture) and HYPOTENSION. This condition is considered a clinical variant of MULTIPLE SYSTEM ATROPHY. Pathologic features include a prominent loss of neurons in the zona compacta of the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and PUTAMEN. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1075-6)Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)Oxidopamine: A neurotransmitter analogue that depletes noradrenergic stores in nerve endings and induces a reduction of dopamine levels in the brain. Its mechanism of action is related to the production of cytolytic free-radicals.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Substantia Nigra: The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.Denervation: The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction: A type of ILEUS, a functional not mechanical obstruction of the INTESTINES. This syndrome is caused by a large number of disorders involving the smooth muscles (MUSCLE, SMOOTH) or the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Diverticulosis, Colonic: A pathological condition characterized by the presence of a number of COLONIC DIVERTICULA in the COLON. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial, including colon aging, motor dysfunction, increases in intraluminal pressure, and lack of dietary fibers.Diverticulum, Colon: A pouch or sac opening from the COLON.Colonic Pseudo-Obstruction: Functional obstruction of the COLON leading to MEGACOLON in the absence of obvious COLONIC DISEASES or mechanical obstruction. When this condition is acquired, acute, and coexisting with another medical condition (trauma, surgery, serious injuries or illness, or medication), it is called Ogilvie's syndrome.Gastroparesis: Chronic delayed gastric emptying. Gastroparesis may be caused by motor dysfunction or paralysis of STOMACH muscles or may be associated with other systemic diseases such as DIABETES MELLITUS.Diverticulitis, Colonic: Inflammation of the COLONIC DIVERTICULA, generally with abscess formation and subsequent perforation.Drug Overdose: Accidental or deliberate use of a medication or street drug in excess of normal dosage.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Pregnancy, Animal: The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.

The role of psychological and biological factors in postinfective gut dysfunction. (1/304)

BACKGROUND: Both psychological and physiological disturbances have been implicated in the aetiopathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). AIMS: To investigate how the psychological factors act, and the involvement of infective and physiological factors. METHODS: Consecutive patients hospitalised for gastroenteritis reported life events for the previous 12 months, and past illness experiences on standardised questionnaires. They also completed psychometric questionnaires for anxiety, neuroticism, somatisation, and hypochondriasis. In some patients, rectal biopsy specimens were obtained during the acute illness and at three months postinfection. RESULTS: Ninety four patients completed all questionnaires: 22 patients were diagnosed with IBS after their gastroenteritis (IBS+), and 72 patients returned to normal bowel habits (IBS-). IBS+ patients reported more life events and had higher hypochondriasis scores than IBS- patients. The predictive value of the life event and hypochondriasis measures was highly significant and independent of anxiety, neuroticism, and somatisation scores, which were also elevated in IBS+ patients. Rectal biopsy specimens from 29 patients showed a chronic inflammatory response in both IBS+ and IBS- patients. Three months later, specimens from IBS+ patients continued to show increased chronic inflammatory cell counts but those from IBS- patients had returned to normal levels. IBS+ and IBS- patients exhibited rectal hypersensitivity and hyper-reactivity and rapid colonic transit compared with normal controls, but there were no significant differences between IBS+ and IBS- patients for these physiological measurements. CONCLUSION: Psychological factors most clearly predict the development of IBS symptoms after gastroenteritis but biological mechanisms also contribute towards the expression of symptoms.  (+info)

Validation of a specific quality of life questionnaire for functional digestive disorders. (2/304)

BACKGROUND: Dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome are suitable conditions for assessment of quality of life. Their similarities justify the elaboration of a single specific questionnaire for the two conditions. AIMS: To examine the process leading to the validation of the psychometric properties of the functional digestive disorders quality of life questionnaire (FDDQL). METHODS: Initially, the questionnaire was given to 154 patients, to assess its acceptability and reproducibility, analyse its content, and reduce the number of items. Its responsiveness was tested during two therapeutic trials which included 428 patients. The questionnaire has been translated into French, English, and German. The psychometric validation study was conducted in France, United Kingdom, and Germany by 187 practitioners. A total of 401 patients with dyspepsia or irritable bowel syndrome, defined by the Rome criteria, filled in the FDDQL and generic SF-36 questionnaires. RESULTS: The structure of the FDDQL scales was checked by factorial analysis. Its reliability was expressed by a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.94. Assessment of its discriminant validity showed that the more severe the functional digestive disorders, the more impaired the quality of life (p<0.05). Concurrent validity was supported by the correlation found between the FDDQL and SF-36 questionnaire scales. The final version of the questionnaire contains 43 items belonging to eight domains. CONCLUSIONS: The properties of the FDDQL questionnaire, available in French, English, and German, make it appropriate for use in clinical trials designed to evaluate its responsiveness to treatment among patients with dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome.  (+info)

Determination of prostaglandin synthetase activity in rectal biopsy material and its significance in colonic disease. (3/304)

A method is described for determining prostaglandin synthetase activity in milligram amounts of tissue. The procedure is based on the conversion of 14C-arachidonic acid to prostaglandin E2 and F2alpha-like substances. High levels of prostaglandin synthetase activity occurred in the inflamed mucosa of patients with ulcerative colitis and fell during successful drug therapy, but it is not yet known whether the cause of the inflammation first involves increased PG synthetase activity, or whether inflammation caused increase of PG synthetase.  (+info)

Level of chronic life stress predicts clinical outcome in irritable bowel syndrome. (4/304)

BACKGROUND: Life stress contributes to symptom onset and exacerbation in the majority of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional dyspepsia (FD); research evidence is conflicting, however, as to the strength of these effects. AIMS: To test prospectively the relation of chronic life stress threat to subsequent symptom intensity over time. PATIENTS: One hundred and seventeen consecutive outpatients satisfying the modified Rome criteria for IBS (66% with one or more concurrent FD syndromes) participated. METHODS: The life stress and symptom intensity measures were determined from interview data collected independently at entry, and at six and 16 months; these measures assessed the potency of chronic life stress threat during the prior six months or more, and the severity and frequency of IBS and FD symptoms during the following two weeks. RESULTS: Chronic life stress threat was a powerful predictor of subsequent symptom intensity, explaining 97% of the variance on this measure over 16 months. No patient exposed to even one chronic highly threatening stressor improved clinically (by 50%) over the 16 months; all patients who improved did so in the absence of such a stressor. CONCLUSION: The level of chronic life stress threat predicts the clinical outcome in most patients with IBS/FD.  (+info)

Functional disability in adolescents and young adults with symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome: the role of academic, social, and athletic competence. (5/304)

OBJECTIVE: To examine perceived academic, social, and athletic competence as potential moderators of the relation between symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional disability in adolescents and young adults with a history of recurrent abdominal pain (RAP). METHODS: We assessed IBS symptoms, competence, and disability by telephone interview in RAP patients five years following their medical evaluation. RESULTS: For both male and female subjects, the relation between symptoms and disability was stronger at lower levels of perceived academic competence. Furthermore, among females, the relation between symptoms and disability was stronger at lower levels of perceived social competence; among males, the relation was stronger at lower levels of perceived athletic competence. CONCLUSIONS: Perceived competence moderated the relation between IBS symptoms and functional disability. Interventions designed to enhance patient competence in various roles may be useful in reducing disability among adolescents and young adults with symptoms of IBS.  (+info)

Controlled trial of oligofructose in the management of irritable bowel syndrome. (6/304)

A double-blind crossover trial of oligofructose (Raftilose P95) 2 g three times daily against sucrose (1 g) three times daily was performed in patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome. Each treatment was followed for 4 wk. Patients consumed a standardized diet during the last 14 d of each treatment period, and symptoms were assessed using a previously validated questionnaire. Fecal weight and pH, whole-gut transit time and fasting breath hydrogen concentrations were measured at the start of the study and at the end of each treatment period. Oligofructose produced no significant change in any of these parameters even when patients were divided into those with predominant diarrhea (n = 14) and those with predominant constipation (n = 7). Oligofructose at a dose of 6 g/d had no therapeutic value in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.  (+info)

Recommendations for the management of irritable bowel syndrome in family practice. IBS Consensus Conference Participants. (7/304)

To help family physicians manage patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a consensus conference was convened in June 1997 at which 5 internationally recognized experts in IBS presented position papers on selected topics previously circulated to the conference participants. Five working groups comprising family physicians, gastroenterologists and allied health care professionals from across Canada were then charged with developing recommendations for the diagnosis, patient education, psychosocial management, dietary advice and pharmacotherapy, respectively. An evidence-based approach was used where possible; otherwise, recommendations were made by consensus. The participants concluded that family physicians can make a positive diagnosis of IBS using symptom criteria. The pathophysiology is poorly understood, but motility and sensory disturbances appear to play a role. Neither psychological nor specific dietary factors cause IBS, but both can trigger symptoms. Drug therapy is not recommended for the routine treatment of IBS, but short-term trials of drug therapy may be targeted to predominant symptoms in selected patients. A step-wise, patient-centred approach to management is outlined.  (+info)

Fundamentals of neurogastroenterology. (8/304)

Current concepts and basic principles of neurogastroenterology in relation to functional gastrointestinal disorders are reviewed. Neurogastroenterology is emphasized as a new and advancing subspecialty of clinical gastroenterology and digestive science. As such, it embraces the investigative sciences dealing with functions, malfunctions, and malformations in the brain and spinal cord, and the sympathetic, parasympathetic and enteric divisions of the autonomic innervation of the digestive tract. Somatomotor systems are included insofar as pharyngeal phases of swallowing and pelvic floor involvement in defecation, continence, and pelvic pain are concerned. Inclusion of basic physiology of smooth muscle, mucosal epithelium, and the enteric immune system in the neurogastroenterologic domain relates to requirements for compatibility with neural control mechanisms. Psychologic and psychiatric relations to functional gastrointestinal disorders are included because they are significant components of neurogastroenterology, especially in relation to projections of discomfort and pain to the digestive tract.  (+info)

  • Western societies urgently need to develop their understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the diet-microbiota-mucus axis and its implications for inflammatory diseases. (
  • In the majority of adenocarcinomas and their precursor lesions, and in various inflammatory diseases including IBD, MUC1 is overexpressed and its VNTR region is profoundly hypoglycosylated ( 8 , 9 , 11 - 14 ). (
  • To determine whether variation in resident microbial communities with respect to FUT2 genotype is a potential factor contributing to susceptibility, we performed 454-based community profiling of the intestinal microbiota in a panel of healthy subjects and Crohn disease patients and determined their genotype for the primary nonsecretor allele in Caucasian populations, W143X (G428A). (
  • These results show that molecules of the bacterial microbiota can mediate the critical balance between health and disease. (
  • Dietary destabilisation of the balance between the microbiota and the colonic mucus barrier. (
  • Over the past decade, several studies have shown that loss of complex polysaccharides from the Western diet has resulted in alterations to our colonic microbiota. (
  • Oldfield EC, Dong RZ, Johnson DA (2014) Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and the Gut Microbiota: Exploring the Connection. (
  • As the gut microbiota continues to be implicated in an increasing number of disease processes, a plethora of new literature surrounding its complexity and role in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis has become available. (
  • Recent attention has focused around the gut microbiota not only as part of the disease process but also as a potential target for treatment. (
  • 5 However, the risk is substantially higher (12.4 to 33 percent) in siblings of children with total colonic involvement. (
  • Functional abdominal pain ‒ NOS H3. (
  • A 52 years old woman followed for Parkinson's disease, with poor therapeutic compliance as a discontinuation of the treatment of Parkinson's disease for several months, the patient presented to the emergency for an insidious onset of abdominal pain and bloating with not passing gas since four days. (
  • We used a short-term whole gut explant culture to isolate γδ T cells from colonic biopsies obtained at endoscopy from healthy donors, facilitating flow-cytometric phenotyping and functional studies. (
  • The aim of the present study was to demonstrate with colonic biopsies the attachment of strain GG to human intestinal mucosae and the persistence of the attachment after discontinuation of GG administration. (
  • To elucidate the possible role of bile acids in CC pathophysiology, the mucosal barrier function was investigated by exposing colonic biopsies to physiological concentrations of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) or deoxycholic acid (DCA) in Ussing chamber experiments. (
  • Physiological concentrations of dihydroxy-bile acids augment mucosal barrier dysfunction in colonic biopsies of patients with CC in remission. (
  • This may progress to colonic perforation, causing life-threatening sepsis. (
  • The procedure has been extensively reported as simple to perform and relatively safe [ 11 ], with the estimated risk of the most serious complication (TAI induced colonic perforation) being less than 0.0002% per irrigation [ 9 ]. (
  • However, in 3-4% of cases, colonic perforation complicates presentation 2 and this and its sequelae significantly increase both mortality and morbidity. (
  • Given the ability of prostaglandin (PG) D 2 to suppress colonic epithelial secretion, we investigated the potential roles of this eicosanoid and of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) in mediating post-colitis epithelial secretory and barrier dysfunction. (
  • 2 Here we investigated whether such selective regulation of human colonic γδ cells by BTNL3 + 8 is perturbed in IBD and have examined factors which may modulate this. (
  • Recently, adhesion of the strain to human colonic mucosae has been demonstrated with colonic biopsy samples ( 1 ). (
  • Using mice fed a low fibre Western-style diet and robust live tissue analytical methods we have now provided evidence that this diet impairs the colonic inner mucus layer that normally separates bacteria from host cells. (
  • The hyporesponsiveness was mimicked by pre-exposure of normal colonic tissue to PGD 2 , but not to its metabolite, 15-deoxy-Δ 12-14 PGJ 2 . (
  • Neurotransmitter Receptors in Fetal Tissue Transplants: Expression and Functional Significance Numerous studies have examined receptor expression in neural transplants and their possible role in transplant-induced functional recovery from lesion-induced deficits. (
  • The response to IL22 was tested in ileal/colonic tissue cultures. (
  • However, the functional role of many of these SNPs is largely unknown and tissue-specific resources are lacking. (
  • Moreover, bioinformatic characterization of colon eQTL provides a tissue-specific tool to improve understanding of biological differences in diseases between different ethnic groups. (
  • However, comprehensive genome-wide eQTL mapping has not previously been performed in the human colon, which is the relevant tissue for colonic diseases like IBD and CRC. (
  • The bile acid binding agent, Colesevelam HCl, decreases colonic transit and permeability in patients with D-IBS. (
  • Moreno-Osset E, Bazzocchi G, Lo S et al (1989) Association between postprandial changes in colonic intraluminal pressure and transit. (
  • Roughly 50% of patients are refractory to laxatives and lifestyle measures [ 7 ] and are often referred to secondary care where they have investigations including tests of transit and functional defecation disorder (FDD). (
  • For example, tegaserod, a 5-HT 4 receptor agonist, facilitates colonic transit but was pulled from the general market following safety concerns - luckily new pharmacological treatments are on their way ( Tack, 2011 ). (
  • The causes of slow colonic transit are unknown, but many subtle changes have been reported in the nerves, muscle, mucosa, and support cells throughout the colon. (
  • Significant transit of contents in the human colon is thought to occur mainly during so-called "high amplitude propagating contractions," the correlate of which in animal models is the "colonic migrating motor complex" (CMMC). (
  • Hirschsprung's disease has also been reported in association with abnormal forms of chromosome 18. (
  • Abnormal expression of MUC1 in IBD thus provides a source of predictable disease-associated neoepitopes that could exert important influence on the innate immune system as well as be targets of adaptive immunity. (
  • 2 , 7 Hirschsprung's disease associated with this gene has been linked to multiple endocrine neoplasia, type IIA (i.e., medullary carcinoma of the thyroid and adrenal tumors). (
  • For persons with smaller segments involved, the inheritance pattern is multifactorial (caused by an interaction of more than one gene and environmental factors, risk lower than 50%) or autosomal recessive (one disease gene inherited from each parent, risk closer to 25%) with low penetrance. (
  • Studying the genetics of gene expression is a tool that can help elucidate the functional consequences of GWAS variants. (
  • Anyone with a family history of colon cancer and/or colonic polyps should have a screening colonoscopy well before the age recommended for people with no family history (50). (
  • In the current study, we used the same mouse model to show that vaccine-elicited adaptive immunity to MUC1 early in the disease process leads to delayed and tempered development of IBD, changes in the inflammatory microenvironment, and complete protection from colon cancer. (
  • The aim of this study is to develop an algorithm to automatically detect falls and near falls, in the elderly and in Parkinson's Disease patients. (
  • We report the case of a 52 years old woman with Parkinson's disease, who presented Ogilvie's syndrome. (
  • In this article, we report a case of Ogilvie's syndrome in a 52 years old patient with Parkinson's disease and we discuss the impact of imaging in the management of Ogilvie's syndrome and improving its prognosis, besides the link between the Ogilvie's syndrome and Parkinson's disease. (
  • In our patient, the syndrome is most likely due to discontinuation of the treatment of Parkinson's disease for several months. (
  • Long-term follow-up of retrograde colonic irrigation for defaecation disturbances," Colorectal Disease , vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 65-69, 2005. (
  • From January 2016, free online subscription to Colorectal Disease is included for all ESCP members! (
  • NB: Trial Membership does not entitle you to member voting rights or access to ESCP fellowship opportunities, reduced ESCP conference rates or free online subscription to Colorectal Disease journal. (
  • From January 2016, online access to Colorectal Disease Journal will be included in annual membership fees! (
  • Would you like to receive paper copies of the Colorectal Disease Journal for €175? (
  • The global prevalence of IBD is increasing every year-more than 0.3% of the population suffers from the disease [ 2 ]. (
  • Worldwide NAFLD has become the most common nonviral liver disease affecting over one billion individuals with an estimated prevalence of 6-30% in the general population in part due to the increasing incidence of obesity and as well due to related other metabolic risk factors [ 1 - 4 ]. (
  • Immunosenescence, an age-related deterioration in immune functions, is considered a major contributory factor for the higher prevalence and severity of infectious diseases and the poor efficacy of vaccination in the elderly. (
  • Proof that genetic factors contribute to Hirschprung's disease is that it is known to run in families, and it has been seen in association with some chromosome abnormalities. (
  • Our data point out the complexity of IBD, which represent a group of distinct diseases with several pathogenetic abnormalities. (
  • Acute disease might include infections such as oesophagitis, trauma caused ingestion of corrosive substances, or rupture of veins such as oesophageal varices, Boerhaave syndrome or Mallory-Weiss tears. (
  • Furthermore, the FUT2 genotype explains substantial differences in community composition, diversity, and structure, and we identified several bacterial species displaying disease-by-genotype associations. (
  • My research since 2001 has focused on understanding the roles that the bacterial component of the microbiome plays in maintaining health and promoting diseases. (
  • In active disease and in patients in remission on budesonide, bile acids had no effect on bacterial uptake. (
  • When gastritis persists in a chronic state, it is associated with several diseases, including atrophic gastritis, pyloric stenosis, and gastric cancer. (
  • Colorectal Cancer is more common in those with a strong family history of the disease. (
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used for the treatment of numerous diseases and reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer. (
  • Therefore, they could modify individual risks for developing cancer and other diseases or the occurrence of side effects or sensitivity toward selective or nonselective COX inhibitors. (
  • Utilizing colonic samples obtained from patients with colitis-associated cancer (CAC), a mouse model of CAC and an in vivo experimental system, we are now analyzing the biological function of CHI3L1 in the pathogenesis of IBD and following CAC. (
  • Since colorectal cancer (CRC) is a phenotypic expression of multiple molecular pathways including chromosomal instability (CIN), micro-satellite instability (MIS) and CpG islands promoter hypermethylation (CIMP), there is no one-unique pattern of microRNA expression expected in this disease and indeed, there are multiple reports published, describing different patterns of microRNA expression in CRC. (
  • The capacities of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and IL10 to inhibit proinflammatory cytokine production by monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDC) or peripheral blood cells (PBMC) was analyzed in 75 children with IBD, including 13 infants with EO-IBD (in whom autoimmune diseases or classical immunodeficiencies were ruled out). (
  • Electrophysiological studies have indicated that some of the transplant receptors respond to physiological and pharmacological stimulation, suggesting that they are functional. (
  • As most of the colonic bacteria cannot be identified by culture techniques, genomic technology can be used for analysis of the composition of the microflora. (
  • Most of the colonic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli or some Bacteroides species, are commensals and not pathogens. (
  • It contains a rich supply of blood vessels that actively exchange substances, and mucous membranes that harbor vast communities of functional bacteria. (
  • In UCC my group investigated the human gut ecosystem in health and disease and used molecular methods to understand how bacteria contribute to the key functions which are found in human GI tracts. (