Colon, Sigmoid: A segment of the COLON between the RECTUM and the descending colon.Sigmoid Diseases: Pathological processes in the SIGMOID COLON region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).Rectum: The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.Sigmoid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SIGMOID COLON.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Colon, Descending: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between TRANSVERSE COLON and the SIGMOID COLON.Intestinal Volvulus: A twisting in the intestine (INTESTINES) that can cause INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION.Diverticulitis, Colonic: Inflammation of the COLONIC DIVERTICULA, generally with abscess formation and subsequent perforation.Diverticulum, Colon: A pouch or sac opening from the COLON.Rectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.Colonic Diseases: Pathological processes in the COLON region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).Colostomy: The surgical construction of an opening between the colon and the surface of the body.Colectomy: Excision of a portion of the colon or of the whole colon. (Dorland, 28th ed)Rectal Diseases: Pathological developments in the RECTUM region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).Colon, Ascending: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the TRANSVERSE COLON. It passes cephalad from the cecum to the caudal surface of the right lobe of the LIVER where it bends sharply to the left, forming the right colic flexure.Colonoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon.Intestinal Perforation: Opening or penetration through the wall of the INTESTINES.Colon, Transverse: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between ASCENDING COLON and DESCENDING COLON. It passes from the RIGHT COLIC FLEXURE across the ABDOMEN, then turns sharply at the left colonic flexure into the descending colon.Cranial Sinuses: Large endothelium-lined venous channels situated between the two layers of DURA MATER, the endosteal and the meningeal layers. They are devoid of valves and are parts of the venous system of dura mater. Major cranial sinuses include a postero-superior group (such as superior sagittal, inferior sagittal, straight, transverse, and occipital) and an antero-inferior group (such as cavernous, petrosal, and basilar plexus).Intestinal Obstruction: Any impairment, arrest, or reversal of the normal flow of INTESTINAL CONTENTS toward the ANAL CANAL.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Mesocolon: The fold of peritoneum by which the COLON is attached to the posterior ABDOMINAL WALL.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Intestinal Polyps: Discrete abnormal tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the INTESTINE. A polyp is attached to the intestinal wall either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.Cecal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the CECUM.Megacolon: Dilatation of the COLON, often to alarming dimensions. There are various types of megacolon including congenital megacolon in HIRSCHSPRUNG DISEASE, idiopathic megacolon in CONSTIPATION, and TOXIC MEGACOLON.Sigmoidoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the sigmoid flexure.Gastrointestinal Motility: The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Intestine, Large: A segment of the LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the CECUM; the COLON; and the RECTUM.HT29 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells such as the GOBLET CELLS.Proctoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the rectum.Enema: A solution or compound that is introduced into the RECTUM with the purpose of cleansing the COLON or for diagnostic procedures.Azoxymethane: A potent carcinogen and neurotoxic compound. It is particularly effective in inducing colon carcinomas.Anal Canal: The terminal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, beginning from the ampulla of the RECTUM and ending at the anus.Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Colitis, Ulcerative: Inflammation of the COLON that is predominantly confined to the MUCOSA. Its major symptoms include DIARRHEA, rectal BLEEDING, the passage of MUCUS, and ABDOMINAL PAIN.Cecum: The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.Barium Sulfate: A compound used as an x-ray contrast medium that occurs in nature as the mineral barite. It is also used in various manufacturing applications and mixed into heavy concrete to serve as a radiation shield.Intestinal Fistula: An abnormal anatomical passage between the INTESTINE, and another segment of the intestine or other organs. External intestinal fistula is connected to the SKIN (enterocutaneous fistula). Internal intestinal fistula can be connected to a number of organs, such as STOMACH (gastrocolic fistula), the BILIARY TRACT (cholecystoduodenal fistula), or the URINARY BLADDER of the URINARY TRACT (colovesical fistula). Risk factors include inflammatory processes, cancer, radiation treatment, and surgical misadventures (MEDICAL ERRORS).Colitis: Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.Laparoscopy: A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.Digestive System Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the digestive system or its parts.Anastomosis, Surgical: Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.Rectal Prolapse: Protrusion of the rectal mucous membrane through the anus. There are various degrees: incomplete with no displacement of the anal sphincter muscle; complete with displacement of the anal sphincter muscle; complete with no displacement of the anal sphincter muscle but with herniation of the bowel; and internal complete with rectosigmoid or upper rectum intussusception into the lower rectum.Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Defecation: The normal process of elimination of fecal material from the RECTUM.Constipation: Infrequent or difficult evacuation of FECES. These symptoms are associated with a variety of causes, including low DIETARY FIBER intake, emotional or nervous disturbances, systemic and structural disorders, drug-induced aggravation, and infections.Colonic Diseases, Functional: Chronic or recurrent colonic disorders without an identifiable structural or biochemical explanation. The widely recognized IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME falls into this category.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Diverticulitis: Inflammation of a DIVERTICULUM or diverticula.Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.46, XX Disorders of Sex Development: Congenital conditions in individuals with a female karyotype, in which the development of the gonadal or anatomical sex is atypical.1,2-Dimethylhydrazine: A DNA alkylating agent that has been shown to be a potent carcinogen and is widely used to induce colon tumors in experimental animals.Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial: Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the CRANIAL SINUSES, large endothelium-lined venous channels situated within the SKULL. Intracranial sinuses, also called cranial venous sinuses, include the superior sagittal, cavernous, lateral, petrous sinuses, and many others. Cranial sinus thrombosis can lead to severe HEADACHE; SEIZURE; and other neurological defects.Brachytherapy: A collective term for interstitial, intracavity, and surface radiotherapy. It uses small sealed or partly-sealed sources that may be placed on or near the body surface or within a natural body cavity or implanted directly into the tissues.Colonic Polyps: Discrete tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the COLON. These POLYPS are connected to the wall of the colon either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.Subcutaneous Emphysema: Presence of air or gas in the subcutaneous tissues of the body.Diverticulum: A pouch or sac developed from a tubular or saccular organ, such as the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Colonoscopes: Specially designed endoscopes for visualizing the interior surface of the colon.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Dimethylhydrazines: Hydrazines substituted with two methyl groups in any position.Surgical Stapling: A technique of closing incisions and wounds, or of joining and connecting tissues, in which staples are used as sutures.Radiography, Abdominal: Radiographic visualization of the body between the thorax and the pelvis, i.e., within the peritoneal cavity.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Administration, Rectal: The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.Proctitis: INFLAMMATION of the MUCOUS MEMBRANE of the RECTUM, the distal end of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cerebral Veins: Veins draining the cerebrum.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Polyps: Discrete abnormal tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the DIGESTIVE TRACT or the RESPIRATORY TRACT. Polyps can be spheroidal, hemispheroidal, or irregular mound-shaped structures attached to the MUCOUS MEMBRANE of the lumen wall either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.Pelvis: The space or compartment surrounded by the pelvic girdle (bony pelvis). It is subdivided into the greater pelvis and LESSER PELVIS. The pelvic girdle is formed by the PELVIC BONES and SACRUM.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Mesenteric Cyst: A rare intra-abdominal tumor in the MESENTERY. Mesenteric cysts are usually benign and can be very large fluid-filled (2000 mL) lesions.Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation, and duration of irradiation in radiotherapy.Colitis, Ischemic: Inflammation of the COLON due to colonic ISCHEMIA resulting from alterations in systemic circulation or local vasculature.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Manometry: Measurement of the pressure or tension of liquids or gases with a manometer.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Radiotherapy Dosage: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Adenoma, Villous: An adenoma of the large intestine. It is usually a solitary, sessile, often large, tumor of colonic mucosa composed of mucinous epithelium covering delicate vascular projections. Hypersecretion and malignant changes occur frequently. (Stedman, 25th ed)Caco-2 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the gastrointestinal tract.Endometriosis: A condition in which functional endometrial tissue is present outside the UTERUS. It is often confined to the PELVIS involving the OVARY, the ligaments, cul-de-sac, and the uterovesical peritoneum.Prolapse: The protrusion of an organ or part of an organ into a natural or artificial orifice.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Digestive System: A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Gangrene: Death and putrefaction of tissue usually due to a loss of blood supply.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Mesenteric Artery, Inferior: The artery supplying nearly all the left half of the transverse colon, the whole of the descending colon, the sigmoid colon, and the greater part of the rectum. It is smaller than the superior mesenteric artery (MESENTERIC ARTERY, SUPERIOR) and arises from the aorta above its bifurcation into the common iliac arteries.Transverse Sinuses: The two large endothelium-lined venous channels that begin at the internal occipital protuberance at the back and lower part of the CRANIUM and travels laterally and forward ending in the internal jugular vein (JUGULAR VEINS). One of the transverse sinuses, usually the right one, is the continuation of the SUPERIOR SAGITTAL SINUS. The other transverse sinus is the continuation of the straight sinus.Appendiceal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the APPENDIX.Intestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Surgically-Created Structures: Organs or parts of organs surgically formed from nearby tissue to function as substitutes for diseased or surgically removed tissue.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Ileostomy: Surgical creation of an external opening into the ILEUM for fecal diversion or drainage. This replacement for the RECTUM is usually created in patients with severe INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES. Loop (continent) or tube (incontinent) procedures are most often employed.Laparotomy: Incision into the side of the abdomen between the ribs and pelvis.Digestive System Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Dextran Sulfate: Long-chain polymer of glucose containing 17-20% sulfur. It has been used as an anticoagulant and also has been shown to inhibit the binding of HIV-1 to CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. It is commonly used as both an experimental and clinical laboratory reagent and has been investigated for use as an antiviral agent, in the treatment of hypolipidemia, and for the prevention of free radical damage, among other applications.Gastrointestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Crohn Disease: A chronic transmural inflammation that may involve any part of the DIGESTIVE TRACT from MOUTH to ANUS, mostly found in the ILEUM, the CECUM, and the COLON. In Crohn disease, the inflammation, extending through the intestinal wall from the MUCOSA to the serosa, is characteristically asymmetric and segmental. Epithelioid GRANULOMAS may be seen in some patients.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Cathartics: Agents that are used to stimulate evacuation of the bowels.Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Adenomatous Polyps: Benign neoplasms derived from glandular epithelium. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Adenomatous Polyposis Coli: A polyposis syndrome due to an autosomal dominant mutation of the APC genes (GENES, APC) on CHROMOSOME 5. The syndrome is characterized by the development of hundreds of ADENOMATOUS POLYPS in the COLON and RECTUM of affected individuals by early adulthood.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Intussusception: A form of intestinal obstruction caused by the PROLAPSE of a part of the intestine into the adjoining intestinal lumen. There are four types: colic, involving segments of the LARGE INTESTINE; enteric, involving only the SMALL INTESTINE; ileocecal, in which the ILEOCECAL VALVE prolapses into the CECUM, drawing the ILEUM along with it; and ileocolic, in which the ileum prolapses through the ileocecal valve into the COLON.Butyrates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxypropane structure.Mucins: High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.Mastoid: The posterior part of the temporal bone. It is a projection of the petrous bone.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Anticarcinogenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Cecal Diseases: Pathological developments in the CECUM.Pneumoperitoneum: A condition with trapped gas or air in the PERITONEAL CAVITY, usually secondary to perforation of the internal organs such as the LUNG and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, or to recent surgery. Pneumoperitoneum may be purposely introduced to aid radiological examination.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Rats, Inbred F344Mediastinal Emphysema: Presence of air in the mediastinal tissues due to leakage of air from the tracheobronchial tree, usually as a result of trauma.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Anus, Imperforate: A congenital abnormality characterized by the persistence of the anal membrane, resulting in a thin membrane covering the normal ANAL CANAL. Imperforation is not always complete and is treated by surgery in infancy. This defect is often associated with NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS; MENTAL RETARDATION; and DOWN SYNDROME.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Cystoscopes: Endoscopes for visual examination of the urinary bladder.Neurokinin A: A mammalian neuropeptide of 10 amino acids that belongs to the tachykinin family. It is similar in structure and action to SUBSTANCE P and NEUROKININ B with the ability to excite neurons, dilate blood vessels, and contract smooth muscles, such as those in the BRONCHI.Abdominal Pain: Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Abscess: Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Surgical Staplers: Fastening devices composed of steel-tantalum alloys used to close operative wounds, especially of the skin, which minimizes infection by not introducing a foreign body that would connect external and internal regions of the body. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995)Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Melena: The black, tarry, foul-smelling FECES that contain degraded blood.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Abdomen, Acute: A clinical syndrome with acute abdominal pain that is severe, localized, and rapid in onset. Acute abdomen may be caused by a variety of disorders, injuries, or diseases.Myenteric Plexus: One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the gut. Its neurons project to the circular muscle, to other myenteric ganglia, to submucosal ganglia, or directly to the epithelium, and play an important role in regulating and patterning gut motility. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Urinary Bladder Fistula: An abnormal passage in the URINARY BLADDER or between the bladder and any surrounding organ.Genes, APC: Tumor suppressor genes located in the 5q21 region on the long arm of human chromosome 5. The mutation of these genes is associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI) and GARDNER SYNDROME, as well as some sporadic colorectal cancers.Foreign Bodies: Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the body.Senna Extract: Preparations of Cassia senna and C. angustifolia (see SENNA PLANT). They contain sennosides, which are anthraquinone type CATHARTICS and are used in many different preparations as laxatives.Thigh: The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Aberrant Crypt Foci: Clusters of colonic crypts that appear different from the surrounding mucosa when visualized after staining. They are of interest as putative precursors to colorectal adenomas and potential biomarkers for colorectal carcinoma.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
Sigmoidocele is a prolapse of peritoneum that contains a section of sigmoid colon. In females, these prolapses usually descend ... Fecal incontinence If the barium paste does not stay in the rectum. Cinedefecography is a technique that is an evolution of ... The technique itself involves insertion of a caulk gun device into the rectum with subsequent manual infusion of barium paste ... Less commonly and in males, there may be posterior rectoceles, where the rectum bulges posteriorly. Both the size and the ...
Middle rectal artery
Sigmoid colon and rectum, showing distribution of branches of inferior mesenteric artery and their anastomoses. Middle rectal ... The middle rectal artery is an artery in the pelvis that supplies blood to the rectum. The middle rectal artery usually arises ... It is distributed to the rectum, anastomosing with the inferior vesical artery, superior rectal artery, and inferior rectal ...
Diseases of the colon and rectum. 45 (6): 833-5. doi:10.1007/s10350-004-6306-x. PMID 12072639. Fagelman, D; Warhit, JM; Reiter ... Rajagopal, A; Martin, J (June 2002). "Giant fecaloma with idiopathic sigmoid megacolon: report of a case and review of the ... Diseases of the colon and rectum. 52 (3): 534-7. doi:10.1007/DCR.0b013e318199db36. PMID 19333059. Kumar, P; Pearce, O; ... Diseases of the Colon and Rectum. 39 (4): 435-9. doi:10.1007/bf02054060. PMID 8878505. ...
Dukes CE, Morgan CN (1948). "Double carcinoma of the rectum and recto-sigmoid colon, with amoebiasis, schistosomiasis and ... Dukes CE (1959). "The etiology of cancer of the colon and rectum". Diseases of the colon and rectum. 2 (1): 27-32. doi:10.1007/ ... Dukes CE (1958). "Cancer control in familial polyposis of the colon". Diseases of the colon and rectum. 1 (6): 413-23. doi: ... Counsell PB, Dukes CE (1952). "The association of chronic ulcerative colitis and carcinoma of the rectum and colon". The ...
... the rectum leads to the sigmoid colon. Objects that are inserted into the rectum can therefore potentially travel up into the ... Some plugs are designed (long, flexible and curved) to penetrate the sigmoid colon. Butt plugs are made of a variety of ... They must also be very smooth to avoid damaging the rectum or bowel. In order to get them into the rectum, they most commonly ... A butt plug is a sex toy that is designed to be inserted into the rectum for sexual pleasure. In some ways, they are similar to ...
Inferior mesenteric lymph nodes
They drain the descending colon and sigmoid parts of the colon and the upper part of the rectum. Colorectal cancer may ... The inferior mesenteric lymph nodes consist of: (a) small glands on the branches of the left colic and sigmoid arteries (b) a ... a pararectal group in contact with the muscular coat of the rectum The inferior mesenteric lymph nodes are lymph nodes present ... group in the sigmoid mesocolon, around the superior hemorrhoidal artery (c) ...
Pararectal lymph nodes
Iliac colon, sigmoid or pelvic colon, and rectum seen from the front, after removal of pubic bones and bladder. The posterior ... Symptoms include a dull ache to the left 2 inches above the Anus or higher in the rectum and a feeling of constant rectal ... They meet with the corresponding fibers of the opposite side around the lower part of the rectum, and form for it a strong ... The fibers which form a sling for the rectum are named the puborectalis. They arise from the lower part of the pubic symphysis ...
Inferior mesenteric plexus
The sigmoid colon is more greatly affected than the right side of the colon in terms of a phasic response; however, the tonic ... response across the colon is uncertain. When pressure within the rectum becomes increased, the gastrocolic reflex acts as a ... It involves an increase in motility of the colon consisting primarily of giant migrating contractions in response to stretch in ... The reflex was demonstrated by myoelectric recordings in the colons of animals and humans, which showed an increase in ...
Watershed area (medical)
... the transverse colon, the descending colon, the sigmoid colon and the rectum. Sections of the colon are: The ascending colon ... The sigmoid colon is the part of the large intestine after the descending colon and before the rectum. The name sigmoid means S ... The lymph from the distal one-third of the transverse colon, the descending colon, the sigmoid colon, and the upper rectum ... Of the colon, the ascending colon, descending colon and rectum are retroperitoneal, while the cecum, appendix, transverse colon ...
It is usually covered by sigmoid colon. The presacral space may contain one of several kinds of tumor. The most common tumor ... In human anatomy, the presacral space is inside the pelvis, behind the rectum and in front of the coccyx and sacrum. Normally ... tumor of the sacrum or posterior wall of the rectum. Carcinomatous deposits in the pelvis can also cause presacral space ...
During a dissection, the colon could be traced from the rectum, to the sigmoid colon, through the descending, transverse, and ... It is also separated from the colon by the cecocolic junction. While the cecum is usually intraperitoneal, the ascending colon ... The cecum is an end point for the colon with a dead-end portion terminating with the appendix. The connection between the end ... The connection between the end of the cecum and the beginning of the ascending colon is called the cecocolic orifice. A cecal ...
Superior rectal artery
It descends into the pelvis between the layers of the mesentery of the sigmoid colon, crossing the left common iliac artery and ... It divides, opposite the third sacral vertebra into two branches, which descend one on either side of the rectum. About 10 or ... here they form a series of loops around the lower end of the rectum, and communicate with the middle rectal artery (from the ... is an artery that descends into the pelvis to supply blood to the rectum. The superior rectal artery is the continuation of the ...
... colon 1 the ascending and transverse colon will be formed and from colon 2 the descending and sigmoid colons and the rectum. ... Instead, the digestive part of the gut forms a spiral intestine, connecting the stomach to the rectum. In this type of gut, the ... There is no ileocaecal valve in teleosts, with the boundary between the small intestine and the rectum being marked only by the ... Straight blood vessels known as vasa recta travel from the arcades closest to the ileum and jejunum to the organs themselves. ...
... refers to a condition where the sigmoid colon descends (prolapses) into the lower pelvic cavity. This can obstruct the rectum ... allows a section of peritoneum containing the sigmoid colon to prolapse out of normal position and fall between the rectum and ... al.], senior editors, Bruce G. Wolff ... [et (2007). The ASCRS textbook of colon and rectal surgery. New York: Springer. ISBN 0 ...
Other factors include the specialized anti-peristaltic function of the last part of the sigmoid colon, which keeps the rectum ... rectum and sigmoid colon. The procedure allows for visualization of the interior of the gut, and may detect signs of disease or ... The term pseudoincontinence is used when there is FI in children who have anatomical defects (e.g. enlarged sigmoid colon or ... Proctography, also known as defecography, shows how much stool the rectum can hold, how well the rectum holds it, and how well ...
The rectum is a section of bowel situated just above the anal canal and distal to the sigmoid colon of the large intestine. It ... This mass may stretch the walls of the rectum and colon, causing megarectum and/or megacolon, respectively. Liquid stool may ... The point at which the rectum joins the anal canal is known as the anorectal ring, which is at the level that the puborectalis ... The anal canal is the short straight section of bowel between the rectum and the anus. It can be defined functionally as the ...
... an instrument for visualizing the rectum and sigmoid colon) McCoubrey AS (September 2007). "The use of mechanical bowel ... Colon Rectum. 44 (10): 1537-49. PMID 11598488. Anal Fissure Diagram American Board of Colon and Rectal Surgery American ... Colorectal surgery is a field in medicine, dealing with disorders of the rectum, anus, and colon. The field is also known as ... such as Crohn's disease cancer of the colon and rectum (Colorectal cancer) repositioning of the rectal area if fallen out. anal ...
Joseph Franklin Rutherford
Cause of death was "uraemia due to carcinoma of the rectum due to pelvic metastasis." A Watch Tower Society staff member said ... This included an operation on November 5, 1941, which found "carcinoma of the rectal sigmoid". Doctors gave him less than six ... From the age of 70, Rutherford underwent several medical treatments for cancer of the colon. ...
... but he or she will feel better afterward when the air leaves the colon. The colon and rectum must be completely empty for ... A sigmoidoscopy only examines up to the sigmoid, the most distal part of the colon, while colonoscopy examines the whole large ... They also use it to look for benign and malignant polyps, as well as early signs of cancer in the descending colon and rectum. ... If anything unusual is in the rectum or colon, like a polyp or inflamed tissue, the physician can remove a piece of it using ...
... involves the lower intestine, primarily the sigmoid colon and the rectum and is part of the conditions ... Chronic radiation proctopathy occurs in part because of damage to the blood vessels which supply the colon. The colon is ... This acute phase is due to direct damage of the lining (epithelium) of the colon. Chronic radiation proctitis - is a widely ... Connections (fistulae) may also develop between the colon and other parts of the body such as the skin or urinary system. ...
In the male, the peritoneum encircles the sigmoid colon, from which it is reflected to the posterior wall of the pelvis as a ... on either side of the rectum it forms a fossa, the pararectal fossa, which varies in size with the distension of the rectum. ... fold, the sigmoid mesocolon. It then leaves the sides and, finally, the front of the rectum, and is continued on to the upper ...
APRs involves removal of the anus, the rectum and part of the sigmoid colon along with the associated (regional) lymph nodes, ... The end of the remaining sigmoid colon is brought out permanently as an opening, called a colostomy, on the surface of the ... formally known as abdominoperineal resection of the rectum and abdominoperineal excision of the rectum or simply ... Detailed Guide: Colon and Rectum Cancer. cancer.org. URL: http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_4x_Surgery_10.asp? ...
Sigmoidoscopy (Anoscopy, Proctoscopy)
... colon). These tests are used to look for abnormal growths (such as tumors or polyps), inflammation, bleeding, hemorrhoids, and ... your rectum, and the lower part of the large intestine ( ... Stool in the colon or rectum.. *The structure of the colon, ... Detect problems or diseases of the anus, rectum, or lower large intestine (sigmoid colon). These tests are often done to ... It allows your doctor to look into the rectum and the bottom part of the colon, but it does not reach as far into the colon as ...
Pain In Sigmoid and Rectum - Colon Cancer - MedHelp
I have removed a polyp from 22 cm sigmoid by colonoscopy 6 years before now I am feeling pain in my rectum and sigmoid.? ... Pain In Sigmoid and Rectum. I am 30 year old man. I have removed a polyp from 22 cm sigmoid by colonoscopy 6 years before now I ... I have removed a polyp from 22 cm sigmoid by colonoscopy 6 years before now I am feeling pain in my rectum and sigmoid.? ... Colon Cancer Took My Brothers Life: Angies Story Youre never too young for colon cancer. Angie shares her familys ongoing ...
ICD-10-PCS Code 0D1N4KP -Bypass Sigmoid Colon to Rectum with Nonautologous Tissue Substitute, Percutaneous Endoscopic Approach-...
Masters Series: Colorectal 'The Road to Success - MIS approaches to the Sigmoid Colon and Upper Rectum' Introduction from the...
Masters Series: Colorectal "The Road to Success - MIS approaches to the Sigmoid Colon and Upper Rectum" Introduction. ... MIS approaches to the Sigmoid Colon and Upper Rectum" held during the 2017 SAGES Annual Meeting in Houston, TX on Wednesday, ... Keyword(s): colorectal, competency, infection, inflammation, lap left colon, lap right colon, laparoscopic left colon, ... rectum, SAGES University Masters Program, sigmoid colon ... SAGES University Masters Program colon anchoring procedures-2: ...
ICD-10-PCS Code 0D1N87P -Bypass Sigmoid Colon to Rectum with Autologous Tissue Substitute, Via Natural or Artificial Opening...
Laparoscopic Anterior Resection of the Rectum and Sigmoid Colon
... Laparoscopic Anterior Resection of the Rectum and Sigmoid ... About Laparoscopic Anterior Resection of the rectum and sigmoid colon. It is an operation to surgically remove the rectum via ... The rectum and sigmoid colon is the last part of the gut, just before it becomes the anus. It passes down through the pelvis ... The first part of the rectum is also removed to ensure that the whole of the sigmoid colon has been completely removed and the ...
September 1976 - Volume 19 - Issue 6 : Diseases of the Colon & Rectum
DC&R is the recognized authority on conditions affecting the colon, rectum, and anus, publishing original articles, case ... Rectum is the worlds leading publication in colorectal surgery, ranking in the top 14% of all peer-reviewed surgery journals. ... Volvulus of the sigmoid colon: A ten-year study. Siroospour, Dawood; Berardi, Romeo S. ... Thought you might appreciate this item(s) I saw at Diseases of the Colon & Rectum.. ...
May 1962 - Volume 5 - Issue 3 : Diseases of the Colon & Rectum
DC&R is the recognized authority on conditions affecting the colon, rectum, and anus, publishing original articles, case ... Rectum is the worlds leading publication in colorectal surgery, ranking in the top 14% of all peer-reviewed surgery journals. ... Cystic lymphangioma of sigmoid flexure: PDF Only * Ulcerative colitis treated by total colectomy and ileorectal anastomosis: ... Review of literature on diseases of the colon and rectum: May-June, 1961-Compiled by Robert J. Rowe, M.D., M.S. and Elinor ...
What is the role of laparoscopic sigmoid resection in the treatment of sigmoid and cecal volvulus?
Elective laparoscopic sigmoid resection and right hemicolectomy after endoscopic decompression is increasingly being described ... Sigmoid volvulus in Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Centers. Dis Colon Rectum. 2000 Mar. 43(3):414-8. [Medline]. ... Plain abdominal radiograph demonstrating massively dilated sigmoid colon loop and convergence of walls of colon into beaklike ... Divided descending colon and rectum are reanastomosed in hand-sewn manner or with GI stapling device. ...
What is the prognosis of sigmoid and cecal volvulus?
Sigmoid volvulus in Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Centers. Dis Colon Rectum. 2000 Mar. 43(3):414-8. [Medline]. ... Plain abdominal radiograph demonstrating massively dilated sigmoid colon loop and convergence of walls of colon into beaklike ... Drugs & Diseases , General Surgery , Sigmoid and Cecal Volvulus Q&A What is the prognosis of sigmoid and cecal volvulus?. ... Divided descending colon and rectum are reanastomosed in hand-sewn manner or with GI stapling device. ...
Treatment of Carcinoma of the Sigmoid Colon and Upper Rectum | JAMA Surgery | The JAMA Network
We report a retrospective study of 107 cases of carcinoma of the sigmoid colon and upper rectum treated for primary cure at the ... We report a retrospective study of 107 cases of carcinoma of the sigmoid colon and upper rectum treated for primary cure at the ... Treatment of Carcinoma of the Sigmoid Colon and Upper RectumA Comparison of Local Segmental Resection and Left Hemicolectomy. ... Treatment of Carcinoma of the Sigmoid Colon and Upper RectumA Comparison of Local Segmental Resection and Left Hemicolectomy. ...
Colon and rectal cancers | Lima Memorial Health System
sigmoid colon. . Rectum and Anus. Feces are stored in the descending and sigmoid colon until they are passed through the rectum ... The rectum extends through the pelvis from the end of the sigmoid colon to the anus.. ... The surgeon reconnects the healthy parts of the rectum, or reattaches the remaining part of the rectum to the colon. This is ... of the colon or rectum, and have not yet invaded the wall of the colon. ...
Hypomagnesemia - Wikipedia
Colon cancer of the sigmoid - Things You Didn't Know
Hoepfner on colon cancer of the sigmoid: Yes, it is possible to get cancer of the rectum, and this can be a serious condition. ... It is divided into sections described as cecum; ascending, transverse, descending and sigmoid colons; and rectum. ...Read more ... Colon and Prostate C: No, each originates from a different place. Colon cancer originates from the inner surface of the colon, ... Colon (Definition) The colon is another term for the large intestine. This is the final portion of the digestive system, ...
Patent US6711426 - Spectroscopy illuminator with improved delivery efficiency for high optical ... - Google Patents
25 cm from the rectum, with approximately 10 cm of normal-appearing sigmoid colon distal to the anastomosis. The measured ... For example, values in the colon or rectum below 60% (using this algorithm and analysis) are automatically more than 2 s.d. ... 15 cm of sigmoid colon were resected and the inferior mesenteric artery was sacrificed and removed. The surveillance ... Here colon optical saturation 415 begins within the normal range of values described earlier in Table 7. At time point 423, the ...
Human Body Systems by Ian Harvey on Prezi
Sigmoid Colon. : connects large intestine to rectum. Forces the stool produced in colon to the rectum.. Rectum. - stores stool ... large intestines, rectum, and. anus. , making them part of the digestive tract.. Carbohydrates. When carbohydrates enter the ... Ascending, Transverse, and Descending Colon. : most functions of the large intestine occur here. Water and vitamins are ...
Mesenteric panniculitis of the sigmoid colon: a case report and review of the literature | SpringerLink
The aim of this article is to present a case of mesenteric panniculitis of the sigmoid colon and a... ... Introduction Mesenteric panniculitis of the sigmoid colon is a rare occurrence in surgical practice. ... Wexner SD, Attiyeh FF: Mesenteric panniculitis of the sigmoid colon. Report of two cases. Dis colon Rectum. 1987, 30 (10): 812- ... A barium enema showed narrowing of the distal sigmoid colon. Colonoscopy revealed inflammatory changes of the sigmoid colon - ...
The Surgical Abdomen | SpringerLink
Practice parameters for sigmoid diverticulitis. Dis Colon Rectum. 2006;49(7):939-44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Friedman J, Odland M, Bubrick M. Experience with colon volvulus. Dis Colon Rectum. 1989;32:409.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Raveenthiran V, Madiba TE, Atamanalp SS, De U. Volvulus of the sigmoid colon. Colorectal Dis. 2010;12(7):1-17.Google Scholar ... Colon volvulus and the geriatric patient. Surg Clin North Am. 1982;62:249.PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Radiation Oncology/Rectum/Overview - Wikibooks, open books for an open world
Relations to peritoneum: (see also at Colon). *sigmoid colon: intraperitoneal. *rectum: *upper third: covered by peritoneum on ... Dis Colon Rectum. 2007 Sep 26 [Epub ahead of print] *48 pts (50% medically inoperable, 50% refused surgery). ChemoRT in 36 pts ... Dis Colon Rectum. 2007 Sep;50(9):1393-400.) *12 pts. Treated with chemotherapy only (n=1), chemo/RT (n=2), induction chemo then ... et al Dis Colon Rectum. 2008 Aug;51(8):1185-91; discussion 1191-4. Epub 2008 Jun 7.) *Phase II. 110 patients with rectal ...
A Case of Crohn's Disease which Initially Presented with Diffuse Inflammation in the Rectum and Sigmoid Colon<...
A Case of Crohns Disease which Initially Presented with Diffuse Inflammation in the Rectum and Sigmoid Colon. In: Digestive ... A Case of Crohns Disease which Initially Presented with Diffuse Inflammation in the Rectum and Sigmoid Colon. Digestive ... A Case of Crohns Disease which Initially Presented with Diffuse Inflammation in the Rectum and Sigmoid Colon. / HIBI, ... title = "A Case of Crohns Disease which Initially Presented with Diffuse Inflammation in the Rectum and Sigmoid Colon", ...
Abdominoperineal Resection for Anal Cancer | Moffitt
Rectum. *Sigmoid colon. A lymph node dissection may also be performed to remove surrounding lymph nodes in the groin. ... A colostomy involves creating a new exit point for stool and gas by redirecting the lower end of the colon to a stoma, or small ... Since an abdominoperineal resection involves removing the rectum and anus, it always requires a colostomy. ...
Digestive Terms and Definitions | Digestive Health
Rectum: the area where the large intestine meets the anus. S. Sigmoid colon: the part of the large intestine close to the ... Colon: the main part of the large intestine. D. Digestive system: Comprised of the esophagus, small intestine, colon, rectum ... Anus: the opening of the rectum through which solid waste leaves the body ... Sigmoidoscope: an endoscope used to examine the last one-third of the colon ...
Ulcerative colitis: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia Image
Bergman's Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation | Anatomy & Physiology | Life Sciences | Subjects | Wiley
Diverticulitis Differential Diagnoses
Practice parameters for sigmoid diverticulitis. Dis Colon Rectum. 2006 Jul. 49(7):939-44. [Medline]. ... Practice parameters for sigmoid diverticulitis. Dis Colon Rectum. 2006 Jul. 49(7):939-44. [Medline]. ... Practice parameters for the treatment of sigmoid diverticulitis. Dis Colon Rectum. 2014 Mar. 57(3):284-94. [Medline]. ... Postmortem survey of diverticular disease of the colon. II. The muscular abnormality of the sigmoid colon. Gut. 1969 May. 10(5 ...
Diverticulitis Treatment & Management: Approach Considerations, Medical Care, Surgical Care
Practice parameters for sigmoid diverticulitis. Dis Colon Rectum. 2006 Jul. 49(7):939-44. [Medline]. ... Practice parameters for sigmoid diverticulitis. Dis Colon Rectum. 2006 Jul. 49(7):939-44. [Medline]. ... Practice parameters for the treatment of sigmoid diverticulitis. Dis Colon Rectum. 2014 Mar. 57(3):284-94. [Medline]. ... Not all of the diverticula-bearing colon needs to be removed, as diverticula proximal to the descending or sigmoid colon are ...
Single-incision laparoscopic sigmoid resection: a technical video of a standardized approach.
Title: Diseases of the colon and rectum Volume: 55 ISSN: 1530-0358 ISO Abbreviation: Dis. Colon Rectum Publication Date: 2012 ... Nlm Unique ID: 0372764 Medline TA: Dis Colon Rectum Country: United States ... The lateral attachments of the left colon and rectosigmoid are then divided, followed by additional pelvic dissection along the ... 1Division of Minimally Invasive Colon and Rectal Surgery, Department of Surgery, The University of Texas Medical School at ...
How Diverticulitis Affects the Sigmoid Colon | Everyday Health
Learn how this part of the colon functions, why its important, and how to keep it healthy. ... The sigmoid colon is the S-shaped part of your lower large intestine and can become strained during constipation, increasing ... The sigmoid colon is the lower section of your large intestine and connects the descending colon to your rectum. (1) ... the ascending colon, the transverse colon, the descending colon, and the sigmoid colon. (1) ...
Defecography - Wikipedia
Sigmoidocele is a prolapse of peritoneum that contains a section of sigmoid colon. In females, these prolapses usually descend ... Fecal incontinence If the barium paste does not stay in the rectum. Cinedefecography is a technique that is an evolution of ... The technique itself involves insertion of a caulk gun device into the rectum with subsequent manual infusion of barium paste ... Less commonly and in males, there may be posterior rectoceles, where the rectum bulges posteriorly. Both the size and the ...
Bassett Collection - Lane Medical Library - Stanford University School of Medicine
PolypsSigmoidoscopyFecesIntestineSymptomsDistalSmall intestineStoolInflammationAnal canalDuodenumUlcerativeColitisTransverse and sigmoidRectalRectosigmoidINTESTINEUpper RectumBariumColorectal cancerDiverticularColonicStomachLargeAnatomyColectomyWall of the rectumCarcinomaDiverticulaAdenocarcinomaBenignCancerDigestiveDiverticulumEndoscopeSurgeryInvolvesElectiveAnus or rectumHartmannDescendingVolvulusConnectsIleumLaparotomyPelvisRight colon
- Anoscopy, proctoscopy, and sigmoidoscopy tests allow your doctor to look at the inner lining of your anus, your rectum, and the lower part of the large intestine (colon). (healthwise.net)
- Flexible sigmoidoscopy is one of many tests that may be used to screen for colon cancer. (healthwise.net)
- During a sigmoidoscopy, puffs of air sometimes are blown through the scope to open the colon so that your doctor can see more clearly. (healthwise.net)
- A barium enema showed narrowing of the distal sigmoid colon. (springer.com)
- Can rectal cancer present as wall thickening of the distal rectum on ct? (healthtap.com)
- My CT scan shows 'diffuse symmetrical thickening of the wall of the distal rectum. (healthtap.com)
- The distal colon is the descending colon and the sigmoid colon together. (cancer.ca)
- In 2004, he had a loop sigmoid colostomy for recurrent disease with distal obstruction. (ispub.com)
- Upon laparotomy on day 4 a CSD of the distal sigmoid and proximal rectum was confirmed and resected. (hindawi.com)
- The proximal colon was exteriorized and the distal part closed as a Hartmann pouch. (hindawi.com)
- However, the proximal and distal parts of the colon display a normal caliber with an abrupt transition from the dilatation to the unaffected intestine. (hindawi.com)
- The colon is wider than the small intestine but only about 6 feet long. (limamemorial.org)
- is the first part of the colon after the small intestine. (limamemorial.org)
- Every piece of food that goes into your mouth passes through your digestive system, which includes the esophagus, the stomach, the small intestine, the large intestine, and the rectum. (everydayhealth.com)
- First, the colon consists of a monolayer of inner circular muscle, which makes its wall weak, as compared to the small intestine that is formed of the inner circular and outer longitudinal muscle layers. (medsci.org)
- During an ileocolectomy, the last segment of the small intestine - which is attached to the right side of the colon, called the ileum, is also removed. (medicinenet.com)
- Surgical creation of either a temporary or permanent ileostomy (opening between the surface of the skin and the small intestine) or ( colostomy (opening between the surface of the skin and the colon). (medicinenet.com)
- Partly digested food enters the colon from the small intestine. (fascrs.org)
- This area is called the caecum and is where the small intestine joins the colon. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- The colon, or large intestine , is a hollow, muscular tube that processes waste products of digestion from the small intestine, removes water, and ultimately eliminates the remnants as feces (stool) through the anus. (medicinenet.com)
- Partly broken down or digested food moves from the small intestine into the colon. (cancer.ca)
- The small intestine is the most common, followed by the stomach, colon and oesophagus. (thefreelibrary.com)
- The portion of colon that begins in the lower right part of the abdomen, departing from the end of the small intestine. (oreilly.com)
- The examination of the entire length of the colon, up to its juncture with the small intestine, using a flexible tube that has a camera and a light source attached. (oreilly.com)
- Which stage of colon cancer involves blood in the stool? (healthtap.com)
- Blood in stool is a relatively advanced sign of colon cancer, as is pain. (healthtap.com)
- Forces the stool produced in colon to the rectum. (prezi.com)
- Rectum - stores stool until they are to be expelled from the body. (prezi.com)
- A colostomy involves creating a new exit point for stool and gas by redirecting the lower end of the colon to a stoma, or small hole, in the abdomen. (moffitt.org)
- While the rectosigmoid compound serves as a functional sphincter, allowing transition of faeces to the rectum by opening up with sigmoid contractions, it prevents stool reflux by closing up during rectal contractions. (intechopen.com)
- The colon removes water and nutrients from the food and turns the rest into solid waste (stool). (fascrs.org)
- Coordinated series of contractions of the colon act to pass the stool forward and empty into the rectum. (fascrs.org)
- As stool enters the rectum, the rectum relaxes and acts as a reservoir to hold the stool. (fascrs.org)
- The most commonly accepted theory is that low amounts of fiber in a person's diet can cause the stool to become relatively dry, forcing the colon to create high pressures to move the stool along. (fascrs.org)
- Along with formation of sacs, the muscles of the colon wall may become enlarged as it moves along the dry stool. (fascrs.org)
- The sigmoid colon works to move stool from inside the colon to the rectum. (reference.com)
- Thus, as the material moves along the colon, it slowly dries out and forms a more solid substance called stool. (healthcommunities.com)
- It works by drawing fluid into the intestine, raising the amount of water in the stool, and preventing the colon from absorbing ammonia. (encyclopedia.com)
- Colitis describes inflammation of the inner lining of the colon and can be associated with diarrhea , abdominal pain , bloating , and blood in the stool. (medicinenet.com)
- The anus is the opening at the lower end of the rectum through which stool is passed from the body. (cancer.ca)
- The liquid waste remaining in the colon is formed into semi-solid stool. (cancer.ca)
- As stool moves through the colon, more water is absorbed from it and it becomes more solid. (cancer.ca)
- Stool leaves the colon and moves into the rectum. (cancer.ca)
- The rectum is a holding area for the stool. (cancer.ca)
- When the rectum is full, it pushes the stool out of the body through the anus. (cancer.ca)
- Inflammation and bleeding ulcers in rectum, about the final 4 cm of rectum. (healingwell.com)
- He said it's possible that the suppository meds had cleared up the inflammation in the rectum, but that inflammation could have contined to spread upwards while the rectum healed. (healingwell.com)
- I had a colonoscopy in May and due to me taking the suppostiories the beginning part of my rectum looked normal but for about 25 cm after that there was inflammation. (healingwell.com)
- The inflammation begins at the rectum and extends up the colon in a continuous manner affecting the lining of the colon. (northshore.org)
- Colitis refers to inflammation of the inner lining of the colon. (medicinenet.com)
- Anatomical and physiological parameters that can be objectively measured by this investigation include: Anorectal angle This is the "mid-axial longitudinal axis of the rectum and the anal canal", created by the anterior pull of the puborectalis sling at the level of the anorectal junction. (wikipedia.org)
- The pelvis protects the reproductive organs, rectum, bladder and anal canal. (reference.com)
- Sigmoid colitis is ulcerative colitis in the lower colon and rectum. (reference.com)
- Ulcerative colitis is found in the colon. (northshore.org)
- At the same time, the doctor may take a sample (biopsy) of the lining of the colon to substantiate a ulcerative colitis diagnosis. (northshore.org)
- 2) An association was reported between SEP and various pathological conditions of the colon, namely diverticular disease, ulcerative colitis, carcinoid tumour, solid organ transplant and previous gastrointestinal plasmacytoma, but a causal relationship could not be established. (thefreelibrary.com)
- What are some common treatments for sigmoid colitis? (reference.com)
- Common treatments for sigmoid colitis include over-the-counter anti-diarrhea medications such as Imodium, prescription medications like aminosalicylates, steroids or other drugs that decrease immune responses, and changes in diet, states WebMD. (reference.com)
- Since the operation I have developed this disuse colitis in the rectum as well as the draining mucous fistula which is actually part of the disconncected colon. (cancer.org)
- So with all this in mind and now this disuse colitis which is bloody at times I am thinking of removing the remaining part of the rectum and colon. (cancer.org)
- It is very important to control the disease under the care of an IBD specialist, as those who have been diagnosed with colitis for a longer period of time are at a higher risk of getting colon cancer . (northshore.org)
- universal or pan-colitis, which means the entire colon is affected. (mydr.com.au)
Transverse and sigmoid1
- Colon cancer and rectal caner are usually an adenocarcinoma. (healthtap.com)
- 93,000 of these cases are colon cancer and the rest are rectal cancer . (healthtap.com)
- Colon and rectal cancer is common and lethal. (healthtap.com)
- In most cases of colon or rectal cancers, the cause or causes are unknown. (limamemorial.org)
- The pelvic colon terminates in the rectosigmoid region, and superior rectal veins are located in the sigmoid colon mesentery. (intechopen.com)
- CECT whole abdomen with rectal contrast shows mild thickening of mucosal folds in sigmoid colon. (healthtap.com)
- Pressure during the digital rectal exam or when the scope is placed in your rectum. (medlineplus.gov)
- It's also one of the tools that doctors use to check people for colon and rectal cancer . (webmd.com)
- Dana-Farber's Jeffrey Meyerhardt, MD, talks about symptoms, screening, and what you can do to prevent colon and rectal cancer. (dana-farber.org)
- Rectal cancer forms in the tissues of the rectum, which is the last several inches of the large intestine before the anus (the opening of the large intestine to the outside of the body). (dana-farber.org)
- Colon and rectal cancers are the fourth most common cancers diagnosed in the United States. (dana-farber.org)
- Together, rectal and colon cancers are the fourth most common type of cancers in the United States. (dana-farber.org)
- PMID 6863077 , 1983 (U.Florida) - "Patterns of recurrence in adenocarcinoma of the rectum and rectosigmoid treated with surgery alone: implications in treatment planning with adjuvant radiation therapy. (wikibooks.org)
- The lateral attachments of the left colon and rectosigmoid are then divided, followed by additional pelvic dissection along the presacral avascular plane. (biomedsearch.com)
- Rectosigmoid colon, starting from the descending colon to the anus, having the peritoneal and retroperitoneal parts, is provided through the superior mesenteric artery and the inferior mesenteric artery. (intechopen.com)
- Many etiological reasons may be responsible for the perforation of the rectosigmoid colon, which may be usually perforated due to causes of iatrogenic and traumatic origins. (intechopen.com)
- Rectosigmoid colon perforations are emergency surgery cases that general surgeons may encounter. (intechopen.com)
- Some intraperitoneal and retroperitoneal rectosigmoid colon cases develop out of sight away from the pelvis. (intechopen.com)
- The colon is a part of the gastrointestinal tract ranging between the ileocecal valve and the rectosigmoid junction. (intechopen.com)
- Rectosigmoid / Lt side UC, Sigmoid up to 30 cm....very mild? (healingwell.com)
- Interestingly, the left side of the colon is affected more often with an involvement of the sigmoid and rectosigmoid in almost half of the cases [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Colon cancer is generally an adenocarcinoma of the lining of the large intestine, usually treated with surgery and sometimes chemotherapy . (healthtap.com)
- Undigested material, such as plant fiber, is passed next to the large intestine, or colon, mostly in liquid form. (limamemorial.org)
- connects large intestine to rectum. (prezi.com)
- The colon (or large intestine) is the final stop for digested food before it exits the body as fecal waste. (everydayhealth.com)
- The sigmoid colon is the lower section of your large intestine and connects the descending colon to your rectum. (everydayhealth.com)
- The function of each sigmoid vein is to drain the sigmoid colon, the portion of the large intestine closest to the anus and rectum. (healthline.com)
- The large intestine or colon is the last section of your digestive system. (uhhospitals.org)
- The colon is another term for the large intestine. (healthtap.com)
- The colon or large intestine starts in the right lower part of the abdomen. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- The sigmoid colon is the area of the large intestine nearest to the rectum. (medlineplus.gov)
- Laxatives work in different ways, by stimulating colon movement, adding bulk to the contents of the colon, or drawing fluid or fat into the intestine. (encyclopedia.com)
- It draws water to the intestine, enlarging the size of the colon and thereby stimulating movement. (encyclopedia.com)
- Loose stools occur when the lining of the intestine becomes inflamed and ulcerated and loses its ability to absorb water from the waste material that passes through the colon. (northshore.org)
- In anatomy, the colon is in your large intestine, beginning at theend of the small intes … tine and ending at the rectum. (answers.com)
- The colon is located within the peritoneum, the sac that contains the intestine, located in the abdominal cavity. (medicinenet.com)
- The colon and rectum are parts of the large intestine. (cancer.ca)
- The colon is the longest part of the large intestine. (cancer.ca)
- It also goes to the part of your intestine called the sigmoid. (drugs.com)
- You will probably need at least one enema before the procedure, in order to empty out your rectum and lower intestine so that the test can show the intestinal walls. (webmd.com)
- Most of the large intestine is called the colon. (dana-farber.org)
- BIOLOGICAL MECHANISM: The condition of diverticulosis occurs when small areas of tissue form pouches in the large intestine or colon called diverticulum, or diverticula (plural). (bartleby.com)
- sigmoid colon, the curved part of the intestine closest to the rectum (UMMC 2011). (bartleby.com)
- Barium enema of sigmoid volvulus revealing termination of contrast in bird's-beak formation at base of volvulus. (medscape.com)
- The technique itself involves insertion of a caulk gun device into the rectum with subsequent manual infusion of barium paste until there is adequate distension. (wikipedia.org)
- Most patients undergo a double-contrast barium enema (DCBE) with high-density barium suspension introduced into the colon, followed by insufflation of air. (ispub.com)
- Bleeding diverticular disease can also result in a significant amount of bright red blood from the rectum. (everydayhealth.com)
- Postmortem survey of diverticular disease of the colon. (medscape.com)
- The muscle abnormality in diverticular disease of the colon. (medscape.com)
- Spontaneous diverticular bleeding of the sigmoid colon ( arrow ). (medsci.org)
- Diverticular disease is the general name given to the disease that creates small sacs or pouches from the wall of the colon and the complications that can arise from the presence of those sacs. (fascrs.org)
- The presence of gas within the inferior mesenteric vein is usually found in patients with diverticular disease of the colon and indicates either a direct fistula with intestinal gas entering the vein through the fistula, the presence of gas producing organisms within the vein, or both of these conditions simultaneously. (ispub.com)
- C) Mobile colon with reflection of peritoneum to create colonic mesentery. (medscape.com)
- It passes from the RIGHT COLIC FLEXURE across the ABDOMEN, then turns sharply at the left colonic flexure into the descending colon. (bioportfolio.com)
- 2) The sigmoid colon, caecum, rectum and ascending colon are the most commonly involved colonic segments. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Several differential diagnoses were considered such as CSD, colonic duplication, and congenital pouch colon with high ARM and the patient was scheduled for surgery due to increasing intolerance of food. (hindawi.com)
- Food then travels through the small and large intestines before being excreted through the rectum and out the anus. (limamemorial.org)
- This is a test that looks inside your rectum to check for a large fistula. (drugs.com)
- The main characteristics of CSD of the colon include a single large dilatation of the colon of variable length with an abundant serosal blood vasculature but lacking teniae coli, haustrations, and appendices epiploicae [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Silicon Vally CA, Dxed 12/05 stage II, 2 large vicious looking tumors in ascending colon, HNPCC suspect. (cancer.org)
- During a right colectomy, the right side of the colon is removed. (medicinenet.com)
- The patient was explored and a sigmoid colectomy and end colostomy with Hartmann procedure was done. (ispub.com)
- A sigmoid colectomy was performed with a primary anastomosis and the patient experienced an uneventful recovery. (thefreelibrary.com)
Wall of the rectum2
- A 68-year-old man, who underwent laparoscopic sigmoidectomy for sigmoid colon carcinoma four years ago, presented gross hematuria with pain. (springer.com)
- We report a case of urethral metastasis from a sigmoid colon carcinoma with remaining free of tumor for 34 months, mainly from immunohistopathological point of view to add to some knowledge about its management and mechanism for metastasis. (springer.com)
- Four years ago, he had undergone laparoscopic sigmoidectomy for sigmoid colon carcinoma (stage B of Dukes' classification). (springer.com)
- The more you strain, the more pressure you'll have in the sigmoid colon, and this pressure can cause the formation of small, harmless (and often symptom-free) pouches called diverticula that protrude outward from the colon wall. (everydayhealth.com)
- The term diverticulosis refers to simply having diverticula within the colon but without complications or problems from those sacs. (fascrs.org)
- Diverticula can form throughout the colon but, in the U.S. and other Western countries, the sigmoid colon is the most common site for diverticula to form. (fascrs.org)
- Thus, diverticula tend to form in the sigmoid colon, especially at points where blood vessels penetrate the wall of the colon. (fascrs.org)
- Colon Cancer can affect anyone at any age. (medhelp.org)
- You're never too young for colon cancer. (medhelp.org)
- Learn how you can reduce your risk for colon cancer. (medhelp.org)
- Cancer of rectum? (healthtap.com)
- Yes, it is possible to get cancer of the rectum, and this can be a serious condition. (healthtap.com)
- Are anal cancer and colon cancer the same? (healthtap.com)
- One of staging criteria for colon cancer . (healthtap.com)
- What stage colon cancer has symptoms of blood in the ostomy pouch? (healthtap.com)
- Colon cancer often does not use radiation therapy . (healthtap.com)
- Does colon cancer cause abscess in the colon? (healthtap.com)
- Whats the signs of colon cancer? (healthtap.com)
- In the majority of patients (over 80%), colon cancer is silent. (healthtap.com)
- What is the prevalence of colon cancer? (healthtap.com)
- Is that colon cancer? (healthtap.com)
- The pre-operative impression was a possible cancer of the sigmoid colon. (springer.com)
- The pre-operative impression was of a possible cancer of the sigmoid colon although the pre-operative investigations were not conclusive, particularly because no mucosal mass was identified. (springer.com)
- We report our experience in the diagnosis and the management of the case with urethral metastasis from a sigmoid colon cancer. (springer.com)
- This surgery also prevents colon cancer. (reference.com)
- It can also be used to check the colon after cancer treatment. (uhhospitals.org)
- Used to remove cancer in the lower rectum or in the anus, close to the sphincter (control) muscles. (medicinenet.com)
- A sigmoidoscopy is also a general screening tool for colon cancer. (healthline.com)
- Emergency surgery for colon cancer is more often for obstruction (75%) than for perforation (15% proximal to the tumor, 10% at the tumor). (vesalius.com)
- Poor long term survival rate for patients with perforated colon cancer has led to the use of adjuvant chemotherapy (5FU/levamisole or 5FU/leucovorin) and/or adjuvant radiotherapy for local control. (vesalius.com)
- Emergency surgery for colon cancer in the aged. (vesalius.com)
- Adjuvant therapy for colon cancer. (vesalius.com)
- Does postoperative irradiation play a role in the adjuvant therapy of stage T4 colon cancer? (vesalius.com)
- The Adjuvant Treatment of Stage III Colon Cancer: Might Less Be More? (bioportfolio.com)
- Recurrence and Cancer-Specific Death After Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Stage III Colon Cancer. (bioportfolio.com)
- Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. (bioportfolio.com)
- When part of the colon or rectum is removed to treat cancer, nearby mesentery is also removed. (cancer.ca)
- For all Australian hospitals combined, the percentage of resections for colon cancer conducted laparoscopically increased from 2.4% in 2000-01 to 27.5% in 2007-08. (mja.com.au)
- Moreover, results of the N0147 trial suggest that KRAS mutations in either codon 12 or codon 13 are associated with reduced DFS in resected stage III colon cancer patients [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Different types of cancer can develop in the rectum. (dana-farber.org)
- Other cancer types that can occur in the rectum include carcinoid tumors , small cell carcinomas, and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) . (dana-farber.org)
- A family history of cancer of the rectum or colon. (dana-farber.org)
- Certain hereditary conditions, such as familial adenomatous polyposis , and hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer, called Lynch syndrome. (dana-farber.org)
- Diagnosed with Stage 4 sigmoid colon cancer in September 2004 at the age of 48. (cancer.org)
- The sigmoid colon, part of the digestive system, must be drained in order to properly extract salt and water from solid wastes before the body eliminates them. (healthline.com)
- The colon, rectum, and anus are parts of the digestive system. (fascrs.org)
- The colon is part of your digestive system which processes food and liquid before being eliminated from the body. (answers.com)
- The diverticulum of the sigmoid colon is relatively common in the gastrointestinal tract, with the majority of cases being asymptomatic. (medsci.org)
- Here, we report the case of a 35-year-old woman with hemoperitoneum caused by the bleeding of the serosal vessel of the sigmoid colon diverticulum. (medsci.org)
- On examining the sigmoid colon, a diverticulum, 10 × 2 × 1 mm in size was found, and the bleeding focus was identified in the proximal part of the sigmoid colon (Fig. 2 ). (medsci.org)
- Chronic severe constipation that is not successfully treated with medication may require shortening the length of the colon by removing a part of the colon using surgery. (medicinenet.com)
- I also had many complications after the first surgery including being re-opened up 3 weeks after colon operation for adhesions. (cancer.org)
Anus or rectum3
- Sigmoidoscopy using a rigid scope may be done to treat problems of the anus or rectum. (medlineplus.gov)
- An anal fistula is an abnormal tunnel from the anus or rectum to the skin or another organ. (drugs.com)
- An anorectal abscess is a collection of pus from an infection in the anus or rectum. (drugs.com)
- Divided descending colon and rectum are reanastomosed in hand-sewn manner or with GI stapling device. (medscape.com)
- But while you might think of your colon as nothing more than a continuous waste tunnel, it actually consists of four parts: the ascending colon, the transverse colon, the descending colon, and the sigmoid colon. (everydayhealth.com)
- The descending colon continues as sigmoid colon at crista iliac level. (intechopen.com)
- The sigmoid colon is the continuation of the descending colon and while its length is variable, it is usually 40 cm. (intechopen.com)
- It extends from the descending colon to your rectum. (uhhospitals.org)
- The ascending and descending are relatively fixed in place while the transverse colon and sigmoid colon are relatively mobile. (fascrs.org)
- Apply cold compress or ice pack at affected site C. Descending colon 5. (slideshare.net)
- The last third of your descending colon is called the sigmoid colon. (healthline.com)