A segment of the COLON between the RECTUM and the descending colon.
Pathological processes in the SIGMOID COLON region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).
Tumors or cancer of the SIGMOID COLON.
A twisting in the intestine (INTESTINES) that can cause INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION.
Inflammation of the COLONIC DIVERTICULA, generally with abscess formation and subsequent perforation.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
A pouch or sac opening from the COLON.
The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between TRANSVERSE COLON and the SIGMOID COLON.
Large endothelium-lined venous channels situated between the two layers of DURA MATER, the endosteal and the meningeal layers. They are devoid of valves and are parts of the venous system of dura mater. Major cranial sinuses include a postero-superior group (such as superior sagittal, inferior sagittal, straight, transverse, and occipital) and an antero-inferior group (such as cavernous, petrosal, and basilar plexus).
The surgical construction of an opening between the colon and the surface of the body.
Pathological processes in the COLON region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).
Excision of a portion of the colon or of the whole colon. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Opening or penetration through the wall of the INTESTINES.
Any impairment, arrest, or reversal of the normal flow of INTESTINAL CONTENTS toward the ANAL CANAL.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon.
The fold of peritoneum by which the COLON is attached to the posterior ABDOMINAL WALL.
The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.
The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the TRANSVERSE COLON. It passes cephalad from the cecum to the caudal surface of the right lobe of the LIVER where it bends sharply to the left, forming the right colic flexure.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
An abnormal anatomical passage between the INTESTINE, and another segment of the intestine or other organs. External intestinal fistula is connected to the SKIN (enterocutaneous fistula). Internal intestinal fistula can be connected to a number of organs, such as STOMACH (gastrocolic fistula), the BILIARY TRACT (cholecystoduodenal fistula), or the URINARY BLADDER of the URINARY TRACT (colovesical fistula). Risk factors include inflammatory processes, cancer, radiation treatment, and surgical misadventures (MEDICAL ERRORS).
The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between ASCENDING COLON and DESCENDING COLON. It passes from the RIGHT COLIC FLEXURE across the ABDOMEN, then turns sharply at the left colonic flexure into the descending colon.
The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Tumors or cancer of the CECUM.
Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the sigmoid flexure.
A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.
Congenital conditions in individuals with a female karyotype, in which the development of the gonadal or anatomical sex is atypical.
The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the CRANIAL SINUSES, large endothelium-lined venous channels situated within the SKULL. Intracranial sinuses, also called cranial venous sinuses, include the superior sagittal, cavernous, lateral, petrous sinuses, and many others. Cranial sinus thrombosis can lead to severe HEADACHE; SEIZURE; and other neurological defects.
Inflammation of a DIVERTICULUM or diverticula.
A segment of the LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the CECUM; the COLON; and the RECTUM.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
Presence of air or gas in the subcutaneous tissues of the body.
A compound used as an x-ray contrast medium that occurs in nature as the mineral barite. It is also used in various manufacturing applications and mixed into heavy concrete to serve as a radiation shield.
Veins draining the cerebrum.
A solution or compound that is introduced into the RECTUM with the purpose of cleansing the COLON or for diagnostic procedures.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells such as the GOBLET CELLS.
Discrete abnormal tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the INTESTINE. A polyp is attached to the intestinal wall either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.
Dilatation of the COLON, often to alarming dimensions. There are various types of megacolon including congenital megacolon in HIRSCHSPRUNG DISEASE, idiopathic megacolon in CONSTIPATION, and TOXIC MEGACOLON.
Radiographic visualization of the body between the thorax and the pelvis, i.e., within the peritoneal cavity.
Chronic or recurrent colonic disorders without an identifiable structural or biochemical explanation. The widely recognized IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME falls into this category.
A rare intra-abdominal tumor in the MESENTERY. Mesenteric cysts are usually benign and can be very large fluid-filled (2000 mL) lesions.
A potent carcinogen and neurotoxic compound. It is particularly effective in inducing colon carcinomas.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A pouch or sac developed from a tubular or saccular organ, such as the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Inflammation of the COLON that is predominantly confined to the MUCOSA. Its major symptoms include DIARRHEA, rectal BLEEDING, the passage of MUCUS, and ABDOMINAL PAIN.
Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.
A technique of closing incisions and wounds, or of joining and connecting tissues, in which staples are used as sutures.
The protrusion of an organ or part of an organ into a natural or artificial orifice.
The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.
Inflammation of the COLON due to colonic ISCHEMIA resulting from alterations in systemic circulation or local vasculature.
The two large endothelium-lined venous channels that begin at the internal occipital protuberance at the back and lower part of the CRANIUM and travels laterally and forward ending in the internal jugular vein (JUGULAR VEINS). One of the transverse sinuses, usually the right one, is the continuation of the SUPERIOR SAGITTAL SINUS. The other transverse sinus is the continuation of the straight sinus.
Death and putrefaction of tissue usually due to a loss of blood supply.
Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.
Infrequent or difficult evacuation of FECES. These symptoms are associated with a variety of causes, including low DIETARY FIBER intake, emotional or nervous disturbances, systemic and structural disorders, drug-induced aggravation, and infections.
Pathological developments in the RECTUM region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).
Organs or parts of organs surgically formed from nearby tissue to function as substitutes for diseased or surgically removed tissue.
Specially designed endoscopes for visualizing the interior surface of the colon.
Discrete tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the COLON. These POLYPS are connected to the wall of the colon either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.
Surgery performed on the digestive system or its parts.
The posterior part of the temporal bone. It is a projection of the petrous bone.
Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
Presence of air in the mediastinal tissues due to leakage of air from the tracheobronchial tree, usually as a result of trauma.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Endoscopes for visual examination of the urinary bladder.
A condition with trapped gas or air in the PERITONEAL CAVITY, usually secondary to perforation of the internal organs such as the LUNG and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, or to recent surgery. Pneumoperitoneum may be purposely introduced to aid radiological examination.
A collective term for interstitial, intracavity, and surface radiotherapy. It uses small sealed or partly-sealed sources that may be placed on or near the body surface or within a natural body cavity or implanted directly into the tissues.
A DNA alkylating agent that has been shown to be a potent carcinogen and is widely used to induce colon tumors in experimental animals.
Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A mammalian neuropeptide of 10 amino acids that belongs to the tachykinin family. It is similar in structure and action to SUBSTANCE P and NEUROKININ B with the ability to excite neurons, dilate blood vessels, and contract smooth muscles, such as those in the BRONCHI.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An abnormal passage in the URINARY BLADDER or between the bladder and any surrounding organ.
The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.
A clinical syndrome with acute abdominal pain that is severe, localized, and rapid in onset. Acute abdomen may be caused by a variety of disorders, injuries, or diseases.
Pathological developments in the CECUM.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the gastrointestinal tract.
Tumors or cancer of the APPENDIX.
Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
The black, tarry, foul-smelling FECES that contain degraded blood.

Laparoscopic-assisted colectomy: a comparison of dissection techniques. (1/261)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Mobilization of the colon and dissection of the mesentery are difficult laparoscopic techniques. Traditional methods have been used for this dissection, but often with great difficulty. The ultrasonically activated shears, when introduced in 1993, had the possibility to make this dissection less technically difficult. This is a retrospective review of the use of these shears for these techniques during laparoscopic-assisted colectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-five patients underwent a laparoscopic-assisted right hemicolectomy or sigmoid resection. Colon mobilization and mesenteric dissection were completed intracorporeally. Complications, operative time, estimated blood loss, and length of stay were compared for resections completed with and without the ultrasonically activated shears. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients had laparoscopic-assisted colectomy without the shears, and 49 patients had the procedure with the shears. There were no complications due to the ultrasonic energy. Use of the shears resulted in shorter operative times (170 min. vs. 187 min., p=0.1989), similar median blood loss (98 mL vs. 95 mL, p=0.7620), and shorter lengths of stay (4.3 days vs. 6.9 days, p=0.0018). CONCLUSIONS: The ultrasonically activated shears are safe and effective for colon mobilization and mesenteric division. The use of the shears may result in shorter operative times and shorter lengths of stay.  (+info)

A bile acid-induced apoptosis assay for colon cancer risk and associated quality control studies. (2/261)

Bile acids are important in the etiology of colorectal cancer. Bile acids induce apoptosis in colonic goblet cells at concentrations comparable to those found in fecal water after high-fat meals. Preliminary evidence indicated that cells of the normal-appearing (nontumorous) portion of the colon epithelium of colon cancer patients are more resistant to bile salt-induced apoptosis than are cells from normal individuals. In the present study, 68 patients were examined, and biopsies were taken at 20 cm from the anal verge, cecum, and descending colon. The patients included 17 individuals with a history of colorectal cancer, 37 individuals with adenomas, and 14 individuals who were neoplasia free. The mean bile salt-induced apoptotic index among normal individuals was 57.6 +/- 3.47 (SE), which differed significantly (P < 0.05) from the mean value of 36.41 +/- 3.12 in individuals with a history of colon cancer. The correlation between independent observers was 0.89 (P < 0.001), indicating good interobserver reliability. Components of variance comparing interindividual versus intraindividual sources of variation suggested that site-to-site variability, both between regions of the colon and for adjacent biopsies, was larger than the interpatient variability for individuals with a history of neoplasia. Therefore, there was "patchiness" of the susceptibility of regions of the colon to bile acid-induced apoptosis in individuals with a history of neoplasia (a patchy field effect). There was no obvious correlation of low-apoptotic index regions with regions in which previous neoplasias had been found and removed. On the other hand, for normal, i.e., neoplasia-free, individuals, there was relatively less intraindividual variation compared to interindividual variation. Our assay shows an association between resistance to bile acid-induced apoptosis, measured at 20 cm from the anal verge, and colon cancer risk. Thus, this assay may prove useful as a biomarker of colon cancer risk.  (+info)

Johanson-Blizzard syndrome: a prenatal ultrasonographic diagnosis. (3/261)

Johanson-Blizzard syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by aplasia of alae nasi, pancreatic insufficiency, aplasia cutis, anorectal anomalies and postnatal growth restriction. In this case report, we describe the prenatal sonographic findings of Johanson-Blizzard syndrome in a 21-week pregnancy of a consanguineous couple. Sonographic findings of aplastic alae nasi (beak-like nose) and dilated sigmoid colon led to the prenatal diagnosis. This is the first report of the prenatal sonographic diagnosis of Johanson-Blizzard syndrome.  (+info)

Colonic carcinoma after ureterosigmoidostomy. (4/261)

Urinary carcinogens promote late malignant transformation of the colon after a ureterosigmoidostomy. An unusual case is presented where, despite the early removal of the latter and hence cessation of urine flow, a colonic carcinoma developed at the site of previous anastomosis. The importance of surveillance of all patients who have undergone this procedure to avoid an iatrogenic cancer is emphasised.  (+info)

pHi monitoring of the sigmoid colon after aortoiliac surgery. A five-year prospective study. (5/261)

OBJECTIVES: to determine whether sigmoid-pHi diagnose colon ischaemia after aortoiliac surgery? DESIGN: single-centre, non-randomised, prospective study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: of 83 patients operated on between 1994 and 1998, 41 with risk factors for the development of colon ischaemia were monitored peri- and/or postoperatively with sigmoid-pHi. Peri-operative mortality was 26% (8/31) after operation for a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), nil after operation for non-ruptured AAA. Thirty-five postoperative colonoscopies were performed. All non-survivors were examined post-mortem. RESULTS: of six patients developing colon ischaemia after emergency operations (five for ruptured AAA) all had pHi-values <7.1 for 16-80 h. In two patients with transmural gangrene, and who had pHi-values below 6.6, pHi-monitoring permitted early diagnosis, colectomy and recovery. Three patients with mucosal gangrene were treated conservatively and recovered. Nine patients without ischaemic lesions had pHi-values <7.1, during 1-5 h, without adverse outcome. Bilateral ligation of the internal iliac arteries increased the risk of colon ischaemia (p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: pHi-monitoring was diagnostic for colon ischaemia. Mucosal and transmural gangrene were distinguished. The importance of the internal iliac circulation was demonstrated. The low mortality rate, and the fact that no patient died from bowel ischaemia, suggests that sigmoid pHi-monitoring may improve survival after ruptured AAA.  (+info)

V gamma 2 TCR repertoire overlap in different anatomical compartments of healthy, unrelated rhesus macaques. (6/261)

Gammadelta T cells show preferential homing that is characterized by biased TCR repertoire at different anatomical locations. The processes that regulate this compartmentalization are largely unknown. A model that allows repeated multiple sample procurement under different conditions and enables with relatively straightforward extrapolation to a human situation will facilitate our understanding. The peripheral blood Vgamma2 T cell population is the best-characterized human gammadelta T cell subset. To determine its diversity at multiple immunocompartments matching blood, colon, and vagina samples from rhesus macaques were investigated. Four joining segments used in Vgamma2-Jgamma transcripts were identified, including one segment with no human counterpart. Like in humans, the rhesus peripheral blood Vgamma2 TCR repertoire was limited and contained common sequences that were shared by genetically heterogeneous animals. Furthermore, this subset comprised several phylogenetically conserved Vgamma2 complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) motifs between rhesus and humans. Common sequences were also found within the colon and vagina of the same animal, and within the peripheral blood and intestine of different unrelated animals. These results validate rhesus macaques as a useful model for gammadelta TCR repertoire and homing studies. Moreover, they provide evidence that the concept of limited but overlapping Vgamma TCR repertoire between unrelated individuals can be extended including the mucosa of the digestive and reproductive tract.  (+info)

Statistical analysis of diverticulosis of the colon. (7/261)

Forty-four cases of diverticulosis of the colon were detected among 2,662 cases examined by barium enema in Tohoku University. This corresponds to 1.7% in frequency. On the other hand, 21 cases were found among 1,511 cases examined in Hirosaki University, giving 1.4% in frequency. It was more frequent in the male. The frequency, as calculated on the basis of the numbers of cases examined by barium enema in separate age groups, showed the gradual increase with age except for above the eighth decade. The location where the diverticulum was most frequently seen was the right colon; namely, cases in which the diverticulum occurred from the cecum to the ascending colon and those in which it was found only in the ascending colon occupied 61.4 and 71.4% of the total cases, respectively. Diverticulitis as a complication was rare, while coincidence of polyp or carcinoma was sometimes observed. Furthermore, the value of fiberscopy for the diagnosis of diverticulosis of the colon was discussed, and its usefulness for the detection of complication was emphasized.  (+info)

Characterization and autoradiographic localization of neurotensin binding sites in human sigmoid colon. (8/261)

Radioiodinated neurotensin ((125)I-NT) was used to characterize and localize NT binding sites in normal human sigmoid colon. Specimens were obtained from patients (30-77 years old) undergoing resection for colon carcinoma. Specific binding of (125)I-NT to sigmoid circular muscle membranes was enhanced by o-phenanthroline (1 mM) but other peptidase inhibitors were ineffective. (125)I-NT bound to a high-affinity site of K(d) = 0.88 +/- 0.09 nM and B(max) = 4.03 +/- 0.66 fmol/mg of wet weight tissue (n = 14), although in the majority of patients another site, of low but variable affinity, could also be detected. Specific binding of 50 pM (125)I-NT was inhibited by NT(8-13) > NT > SR142948A > or = neuromedin N > or = SR48692, consistent with binding to the NT1 receptor. In autoradiographic studies, dense specific binding of (125)I-NT was seen over myenteric and submucosal ganglia, moderate binding over circular muscle, and sparse binding over longitudinal muscle and taenia coli. Levocabastine, which has affinity for the NT2 receptor, did not inhibit specific binding of (125)I-NT in membrane competition or autoradiographic studies. NT contracted sigmoid colon circular muscle strips with a pD(2) value of 6.8 +/- 0.2 nM (n = 25). The contractile responses to NT were significantly potentiated in the presence of tetrodotoxin (1 microM), indicating a neural component. Results from functional studies support actions for NT on both muscle and enteric neurons, consistent with the presence of NT receptors on circular muscle and ganglia of human sigmoid colon. The lack of inhibition by levocabastine suggests that the second binding site detected does not correspond to the NT2 receptor.  (+info)

The sigmoid colon is a part of the large intestine that forms an "S"-shaped curve before it joins the rectum. It gets its name from its unique shape, which resembles the Greek letter sigma (σ). The main function of the sigmoid colon is to store stool temporarily and assist in the absorption of water and electrolytes from digestive waste before it is eliminated from the body.

"Sigmoid diseases" is not a widely recognized medical term. However, the sigmoid colon is a part of the large intestine, and it can be affected by various conditions such as:

1. Sigmoid diverticulitis: Inflammation or infection of small pouches (diverticula) that form on the wall of the sigmoid colon.
2. Sigmoid volvulus: Twisting of the sigmoid colon on itself, which can lead to obstruction and ischemia.
3. Sigmoid cancer: Malignant tumor arising from the epithelial cells lining the sigmoid colon.
4. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): Chronic inflammation of the intestine, including the sigmoid colon, that can lead to symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, and weight loss.
5. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): Functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and altered bowel habits, which can affect the sigmoid colon.

Therefore, "sigmoid diseases" could refer to any of these conditions or others that specifically affect the sigmoid colon.

Sigmoid neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the sigmoid colon, which is the lower portion of the large intestine that extends from the descending colon to the rectum. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign neoplasms, such as adenomas, are typically removed through a polypectomy during a colonoscopy to prevent their potential transformation into malignant tumors. Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, are often referred to as sigmoid colon cancers and can be classified into different types based on their cellular origin, such as adenocarcinomas, lymphomas, carcinoids, or sarcomas.

Adenocarcinomas are the most common type of sigmoid neoplasm, accounting for more than 95% of all cases. These tumors originate from the glandular cells lining the colon's inner surface and can invade surrounding tissues, leading to local spread or distant metastasis if left untreated. Early detection and removal of sigmoid neoplasms significantly improve treatment outcomes and overall prognosis.

Intestinal volvulus is a serious medical condition that occurs when a segment of the intestine twists around itself, cutting off its blood supply. This can lead to tissue death and perforation of the intestine if not promptly treated. Intestinal volvulus can occur in any part of the intestine but is most common in the colon, particularly in the sigmoid colon.

Volvulus can be caused by a variety of factors, including congenital abnormalities, adhesions from previous surgeries, and conditions that cause the intestines to become mobile or elongated. Symptoms of intestinal volvulus may include severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, bloating, and constipation. In some cases, a physical examination or imaging tests such as X-rays or CT scans may be used to diagnose the condition.

Treatment for intestinal volvulus typically involves surgery to untwist the intestine and restore blood flow. In some cases, a portion of the intestine may need to be removed if it has been damaged beyond repair. Preventative measures such as avoiding constipation and seeking prompt medical attention for abdominal pain can help reduce the risk of developing intestinal volvulus.

Diverticulitis, Colonic is a medical condition characterized by the inflammation or infection of one or more diverticula in the colon. Diverticula are small, bulging pouches that form in the wall of the colon, usually in older adults. They are caused by increased pressure on weakened areas of the colon wall, resulting in the formation of these sac-like protrusions.

When diverticula become inflamed or infected, it leads to the condition known as diverticulitis. Symptoms of colonic diverticulitis may include abdominal pain, fever, nausea, vomiting, constipation or diarrhea, and a decreased appetite. In severe cases, complications such as perforation, abscess formation, or peritonitis (inflammation of the lining of the abdominal cavity) may occur, requiring hospitalization and surgical intervention.

The exact cause of diverticulitis is not fully understood, but it is believed to be associated with a low-fiber diet, obesity, smoking, and lack of exercise. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to clear the infection, a liquid diet to allow the colon to rest, and over-the-counter or prescription pain medications to manage discomfort. In severe cases or in patients who experience recurrent episodes of diverticulitis, surgery may be necessary to remove the affected portion of the colon.

Colonic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the large intestine, also known as the colon. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). The two most common types of colonic neoplasms are adenomas and carcinomas.

Adenomas are benign tumors that can develop into cancer over time if left untreated. They are often found during routine colonoscopies and can be removed during the procedure.

Carcinomas, on the other hand, are malignant tumors that invade surrounding tissues and can spread to other parts of the body. Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, and colonic neoplasms are a significant risk factor for developing this type of cancer.

Regular screenings for colonic neoplasms are recommended for individuals over the age of 50 or those with a family history of colorectal cancer or other risk factors. Early detection and removal of colonic neoplasms can significantly reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer.

A diverticulum of the colon is a small sac or pouch that forms in the wall of the large intestine (colon). These sacs usually develop in areas where the blood vessels pass through the muscle layer of the colon, creating a weak spot that eventually bulges outward. Diverticula can occur anywhere along the length of the colon, but they are most commonly found in the lower part of the colon, also known as the sigmoid colon.

Diverticula themselves are not harmful and often do not cause any symptoms. However, when these sacs become inflamed or infected, it can lead to a condition called diverticulitis, which can cause pain, fever, nausea, vomiting, constipation, or diarrhea. Diverticulitis is usually treated with antibiotics and a liquid diet, but in severe cases, surgery may be required.

Risk factors for developing colonic diverticula include aging, obesity, smoking, low fiber intake, and lack of physical activity. Regular screening is recommended for individuals over the age of 50 to detect and prevent complications associated with diverticular disease.

The descending colon is a part of the large intestine in the human digestive system. It is called "descending" because it is located inferiorly and posteriorly to the transverse colon, and its direction goes downward as it continues toward the rectum. The descending colon receives digested food material from the transverse colon via the splenic flexure, also known as the left colic flexure.

The primary function of the descending colon is to absorb water, electrolytes, and any remaining nutrients from the undigested food materials that have passed through the small intestine. The descending colon also stores this waste material temporarily before it moves into the rectum for eventual elimination from the body.

The descending colon's wall contains a layer of smooth muscle, which helps propel the waste material along the gastrointestinal tract via peristalsis. Additionally, the inner mucosal lining of the descending colon contains numerous goblet cells that produce and secrete mucus to lubricate the passage of stool and protect the intestinal wall from irritation or damage caused by waste materials.

In summary, the medical definition of 'Colon, Descending' refers to a section of the large intestine responsible for absorbing water and electrolytes while storing and eliminating waste materials through peristaltic movements and mucus secretion.

Cranial sinuses are a part of the venous system in the human head. They are air-filled spaces located within the skull and are named according to their location. The cranial sinuses include:

1. Superior sagittal sinus: It runs along the top of the brain, inside the skull, and drains blood from the scalp and the veins of the brain.
2. Inferior sagittal sinus: It runs along the bottom of the brain and drains into the straight sinus.
3. Straight sinus: It is located at the back of the brain and receives blood from the inferior sagittal sinus and great cerebral vein.
4. Occipital sinuses: They are located at the back of the head and drain blood from the scalp and skull.
5. Cavernous sinuses: They are located on each side of the brain, near the temple, and receive blood from the eye and surrounding areas.
6. Sphenoparietal sinus: It is a small sinus that drains blood from the front part of the brain into the cavernous sinus.
7. Petrosquamosal sinuses: They are located near the ear and drain blood from the scalp and skull.

The cranial sinuses play an essential role in draining blood from the brain and protecting it from injury.

A colostomy is a surgical procedure that involves creating an opening, or stoma, through the abdominal wall to divert the flow of feces from the colon (large intestine) through this opening and into a pouch or bag worn outside the body. This procedure is typically performed when a portion of the colon has been removed due to disease or injury, such as cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, or trauma.

There are several types of colostomies, including end colostomy, loop colostomy, and double-barrel colostomy, which differ in terms of the location and configuration of the stoma. The type of colostomy performed will depend on the individual's medical condition and the specific goals of the surgery.

After a colostomy, patients will need to learn how to care for their stoma and manage their bowel movements using specialized equipment and techniques. With proper care and management, most people are able to lead active and fulfilling lives after a colostomy.

Colonic diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the colon, also known as the large intestine or large bowel. The colon is the final segment of the digestive system, responsible for absorbing water and electrolytes, and storing and eliminating waste products.

Some common colonic diseases include:

1. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): This includes conditions such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, which cause inflammation and irritation in the lining of the digestive tract.
2. Diverticular disease: This occurs when small pouches called diverticula form in the walls of the colon, leading to symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel movements.
3. Colorectal cancer: This is a type of cancer that develops in the colon or rectum, often starting as benign polyps that grow and become malignant over time.
4. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): This is a functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel movements, but without any underlying structural or inflammatory causes.
5. Constipation: This is a common condition characterized by infrequent bowel movements, difficulty passing stools, or both.
6. Infectious colitis: This occurs when the colon becomes infected with bacteria, viruses, or parasites, leading to symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever.

Treatment for colonic diseases varies depending on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include medications, lifestyle changes, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

A colectomy is a surgical procedure in which all or part of the large intestine (colon) is removed. This surgery may be performed to treat or prevent various medical conditions, including colon cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, diverticulitis, and severe obstructions or injuries of the colon.

There are several types of colectomies, depending on how much of the colon is removed:

* Total colectomy: Removal of the entire colon.
* Partial colectomy: Removal of a portion of the colon.
* Hemicolectomy: Removal of one half of the colon.
* Sigmoidectomy: Removal of the sigmoid colon, which is the part of the colon that is closest to the rectum.

After the affected portion of the colon is removed, the remaining ends of the intestine are reconnected, allowing stool to pass through the digestive system as usual. In some cases, a temporary or permanent colostomy may be necessary, in which a surgical opening (stoma) is created in the abdominal wall and the end of the colon is attached to it, allowing stool to be collected in a pouch outside the body.

Colectomies are major surgeries that require general anesthesia and hospitalization. The recovery time can vary depending on the type of colectomy performed and the individual's overall health, but typically ranges from several weeks to a few months. Complications of colectomy may include bleeding, infection, leakage from the surgical site, bowel obstruction, and changes in bowel habits or function.

Intestinal perforation is a medical condition that refers to a hole or tear in the lining of the intestine. This can occur anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract, including the small intestine, large intestine (colon), or stomach. Intestinal perforation allows the contents of the intestines, such as digestive enzymes and bacteria, to leak into the abdominal cavity, which can lead to a serious inflammatory response known as peritonitis.

Intestinal perforation can be caused by various factors, including:

* Mechanical trauma (e.g., gunshot wounds, stab wounds)
* Inflammatory bowel disease (e.g., Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis)
* Diverticulitis
* Appendicitis
* Intestinal obstruction
* Infections (e.g., typhoid fever, tuberculosis)
* Certain medications (e.g., nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids)
* Radiation therapy
* Ischemic bowel disease (lack of blood flow to the intestines)

Symptoms of intestinal perforation may include sudden abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and decreased bowel movements. Treatment typically involves surgery to repair the perforation and remove any damaged tissue. Antibiotics are also administered to prevent infection. In severe cases, a temporary or permanent colostomy or ileostomy may be necessary.

Intestinal obstruction, also known as bowel obstruction, is a medical condition characterized by a blockage that prevents the normal flow of contents through the small intestine or large intestine (colon). This blockage can be caused by various factors such as tumors, adhesions (scar tissue), hernias, inflammation, or impacted feces.

The obstruction can be mechanical, where something physically blocks the intestinal lumen, or functional, where the normal muscular contractions of the bowel are impaired. Mechanical obstructions are more common than functional ones.

Symptoms of intestinal obstruction may include abdominal pain and cramping, nausea and vomiting, bloating, inability to pass gas or have a bowel movement, and abdominal distention. If left untreated, intestinal obstruction can lead to serious complications such as tissue death (necrosis), perforation of the intestine, and sepsis. Treatment typically involves hospitalization, intravenous fluids, nasogastric decompression, and possibly surgery to remove the obstruction.

A colonoscopy is a medical procedure used to examine the large intestine, also known as the colon and rectum. It is performed using a flexible tube with a tiny camera on the end, called a colonoscope, which is inserted into the rectum and gently guided through the entire length of the colon.

The procedure allows doctors to visually inspect the lining of the colon for any abnormalities such as polyps, ulcers, inflammation, or cancer. If any polyps are found during the procedure, they can be removed immediately using special tools passed through the colonoscope. Colonoscopy is an important tool in the prevention and early detection of colorectal cancer, which is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide.

Patients are usually given a sedative to help them relax during the procedure, which is typically performed on an outpatient basis in a hospital or clinic setting. The entire procedure usually takes about 30-60 minutes to complete, although patients should plan to spend several hours at the medical facility for preparation and recovery.

The mesocolon is a peritoneal fold that attaches the colon to the posterior abdominal wall. It contains blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves that supply the colon. The mesocolon allows for the mobility and flexibility of the colon within the abdominal cavity. There are several parts of the mesocolon, including the mesentery of the ascending colon (right mesocolon), the transverse mesocolon, and the mesentery of the descending and sigmoid colon (left mesocolon).

The rectum is the lower end of the digestive tract, located between the sigmoid colon and the anus. It serves as a storage area for feces before they are eliminated from the body. The rectum is about 12 cm long in adults and is surrounded by layers of muscle that help control defecation. The mucous membrane lining the rectum allows for the detection of stool, which triggers the reflex to have a bowel movement.

The ascending colon is the first part of the large intestine, which is the portion of the digestive system that follows the small intestine. It is called "ascending" because it travels upward from the right side of the abdomen toward the underside of the liver. The primary function of the ascending colon is to absorb water and electrolytes from digested food and prepare waste for elimination.

The intestinal mucosa is the innermost layer of the intestines, which comes into direct contact with digested food and microbes. It is a specialized epithelial tissue that plays crucial roles in nutrient absorption, barrier function, and immune defense. The intestinal mucosa is composed of several cell types, including absorptive enterocytes, mucus-secreting goblet cells, hormone-producing enteroendocrine cells, and immune cells such as lymphocytes and macrophages.

The surface of the intestinal mucosa is covered by a single layer of epithelial cells, which are joined together by tight junctions to form a protective barrier against harmful substances and microorganisms. This barrier also allows for the selective absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream. The intestinal mucosa also contains numerous lymphoid follicles, known as Peyer's patches, which are involved in immune surveillance and defense against pathogens.

In addition to its role in absorption and immunity, the intestinal mucosa is also capable of producing hormones that regulate digestion and metabolism. Dysfunction of the intestinal mucosa can lead to various gastrointestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and food allergies.

An intestinal fistula is an abnormal communication or connection between the intestines (or a portion of the intestine) and another organ or the skin surface. This connection forms a tract or passage, allowing the contents of the intestines, such as digestive enzymes, bacteria, and waste materials, to leak into other body areas or outside the body. Intestinal fistulas can develop due to various reasons, including inflammatory bowel diseases (like Crohn's disease), infections, complications from surgery, radiation therapy, or trauma. They can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, skin irritation, and infection. Treatment of intestinal fistulas often involves a combination of medical management, nutritional support, and surgical intervention.

The transverse colon is the section of the large intestine that runs horizontally across the abdomen, located between the ascending colon and the descending colon. It receives digested food material from the left side of the cecum via the transverse mesocolon, a double-layered fold of peritoneum that attaches it to the posterior abdominal wall.

The transverse colon is responsible for absorbing water, electrolytes, and vitamins from the digested food material before it moves into the distal sections of the large intestine. It also contains a large number of bacteria that help in the breakdown of complex carbohydrates and the production of certain vitamins, such as vitamin K and biotin.

The transverse colon is highly mobile and can change its position within the abdomen depending on factors such as respiration, digestion, and posture. It is also prone to various pathological conditions, including inflammation (colitis), diverticulosis, and cancer.

The colon, also known as the large intestine, is a part of the digestive system in humans and other vertebrates. It is an organ that eliminates waste from the body and is located between the small intestine and the rectum. The main function of the colon is to absorb water and electrolytes from digested food, forming and storing feces until they are eliminated through the anus.

The colon is divided into several regions, including the cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, and anus. The walls of the colon contain a layer of muscle that helps to move waste material through the organ by a process called peristalsis.

The inner surface of the colon is lined with mucous membrane, which secretes mucus to lubricate the passage of feces. The colon also contains a large population of bacteria, known as the gut microbiota, which play an important role in digestion and immunity.

Adenocarcinoma is a type of cancer that arises from glandular epithelial cells. These cells line the inside of many internal organs, including the breasts, prostate, colon, and lungs. Adenocarcinomas can occur in any of these organs, as well as in other locations where glands are present.

The term "adenocarcinoma" is used to describe a cancer that has features of glandular tissue, such as mucus-secreting cells or cells that produce hormones. These cancers often form glandular structures within the tumor mass and may produce mucus or other substances.

Adenocarcinomas are typically slow-growing and tend to spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or bloodstream. They can be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these treatments. The prognosis for adenocarcinoma depends on several factors, including the location and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and age.

Cecal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the cecum, which is the first part of the large intestine or colon. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Common types of cecal neoplasms include adenomas (benign tumors that can become cancerous over time), carcinoids (slow-growing tumors that usually don't spread), and adenocarcinomas (cancers that start in the glands that line the inside of the cecum).

Symptoms of cecal neoplasms may include changes in bowel habits, such as diarrhea or constipation; abdominal pain or cramping; blood in the stool; and unexplained weight loss. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the neoplasm but may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these approaches. Regular screening is recommended for people at high risk for developing colorectal cancer, including those with a family history of the disease or certain genetic mutations.

Rectal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the tissues of the rectum, which can be benign or malignant. They are characterized by uncontrolled cell division and can invade nearby tissues or spread to other parts of the body (metastasis). The most common type of rectal neoplasm is rectal cancer, which often begins as a small polyp or growth in the lining of the rectum. Other types of rectal neoplasms include adenomas, carcinoids, and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Regular screenings are recommended for early detection and treatment of rectal neoplasms.

Sigmoidoscopy is a medical procedure that involves the insertion of a sigmoidoscope, a flexible tube with a light and camera at the end, into the rectum and lower colon (sigmoid colon) to examine these areas for any abnormalities such as inflammation, ulcers, polyps, or cancer. The procedure typically allows for the detection of issues in the sigmoid colon and rectum, and can help diagnose conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, diverticulosis, or colorectal cancer.

There are two types of sigmoidoscopy: flexible sigmoidoscopy and rigid sigmoidoscopy. Flexible sigmoidoscopy is more commonly performed because it provides a better view of the lower colon and is less uncomfortable for the patient. Rigid sigmoidoscopy, on the other hand, uses a solid, inflexible tube and is typically used in specific situations such as the removal of foreign objects or certain types of polyps.

During the procedure, patients are usually positioned on their left side with their knees drawn up to their chest. The sigmoidoscope is gently inserted into the rectum and advanced through the lower colon while the doctor examines the lining for any abnormalities. Air may be introduced through the scope to help expand the colon and provide a better view. If polyps or other abnormal tissues are found, they can often be removed during the procedure for further examination and testing.

Sigmoidoscopy is generally considered a safe and well-tolerated procedure. Some patients may experience mild discomfort, bloating, or cramping during or after the exam, but these symptoms typically resolve on their own within a few hours.

Laparoscopy is a surgical procedure that involves the insertion of a laparoscope, which is a thin tube with a light and camera attached to it, through small incisions in the abdomen. This allows the surgeon to view the internal organs without making large incisions. It's commonly used to diagnose and treat various conditions such as endometriosis, ovarian cysts, infertility, and appendicitis. The advantages of laparoscopy over traditional open surgery include smaller incisions, less pain, shorter hospital stays, and quicker recovery times.

'46, XX Disorders of Sex Development' (DSD) is a medical term used to describe individuals who have typical female chromosomes (46, XX) but do not develop typical female physical characteristics. This condition is also sometimes referred to as 'Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome' (CAIS).

Individuals with 46, XX DSD/CAIS have testes instead of ovaries, and they typically do not have a uterus or fallopian tubes. They usually have female external genitalia that appear normal or near-normal, but they may also have undescended testes or inguinal hernias. Because their bodies are insensitive to androgens (male hormones), they do not develop male physical characteristics such as a penis or facial hair.

Individuals with 46, XX DSD/CAIS are typically raised as females and may not become aware of their condition until puberty, when they do not menstruate or develop secondary sexual characteristics such as breasts. Treatment for this condition typically involves surgery to remove the undescended testes and hormone replacement therapy to promote the development of secondary sexual characteristics.

It's important to note that individuals with 46, XX DSD/CAIS can live healthy and fulfilling lives, but they may face unique challenges related to their gender identity, sexuality, and fertility. It is essential to provide these individuals with comprehensive medical care, emotional support, and access to resources and information to help them navigate these challenges.

Gastrointestinal motility refers to the coordinated muscular contractions and relaxations that propel food, digestive enzymes, and waste products through the gastrointestinal tract. This process involves the movement of food from the mouth through the esophagus into the stomach, where it is mixed with digestive enzymes and acids to break down food particles.

The contents are then emptied into the small intestine, where nutrients are absorbed, and the remaining waste products are moved into the large intestine for further absorption of water and electrolytes and eventual elimination through the rectum and anus.

Gastrointestinal motility is controlled by a complex interplay between the autonomic nervous system, hormones, and local reflexes. Abnormalities in gastrointestinal motility can lead to various symptoms such as bloating, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or constipation.

Intracranial sinus thrombosis is a medical condition characterized by the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) within the intracranial venous sinuses, which are responsible for draining blood from the brain. The condition can lead to various neurological symptoms and complications, such as increased intracranial pressure, headaches, seizures, visual disturbances, and altered consciousness. Intracranial sinus thrombosis may result from various factors, including hypercoagulable states, infections, trauma, and malignancies. Immediate medical attention is necessary for proper diagnosis and treatment to prevent potential long-term neurological damage or even death.

Diverticulitis is a medical condition characterized by the inflammation or infection of one or more diverticula, which are small pouches that form in the wall of the colon (large intestine). The condition most commonly affects the sigmoid colon, which is the part of the colon located in the lower left abdomen.

Diverticulitis occurs when these pouches become inflamed or infected, often as a result of a small piece of stool or undigested food getting trapped inside them. This can cause symptoms such as:

* Severe abdominal pain and tenderness, particularly in the lower left side of the abdomen
* Fever and chills
* Nausea and vomiting
* Constipation or diarrhea
* Bloating and gas
* Loss of appetite

Diverticulitis can range from mild to severe, and in some cases, it may require hospitalization and surgery. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to clear the infection, as well as a liquid diet to allow the colon to rest and heal. In more severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the affected portion of the colon.

The large intestine, also known as the colon, is the lower part of the gastrointestinal tract that extends from the cecum, where it joins the small intestine, to the anus. It is called "large" because it has a larger diameter compared to the small intestine and is responsible for several important functions in the digestive process.

The large intestine measures about 1.5 meters (5 feet) long in adults and consists of four main regions: the ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, and sigmoid colon. The primary function of the large intestine is to absorb water and electrolytes from undigested food materials, compact the remaining waste into feces, and store it until it is eliminated through defecation.

The large intestine also contains a diverse population of bacteria that aid in digestion by breaking down complex carbohydrates, producing vitamins like vitamin K and some B vitamins, and competing with harmful microorganisms to maintain a healthy balance within the gut. Additionally, the large intestine plays a role in immune function and helps protect the body from pathogens through the production of mucus, antimicrobial substances, and the activation of immune cells.

Colorectal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the colon or rectum, which can be benign or malignant. These growths can arise from the inner lining (mucosa) of the colon or rectum and can take various forms such as polyps, adenomas, or carcinomas.

Benign neoplasms, such as hyperplastic polyps and inflammatory polyps, are not cancerous but may need to be removed to prevent the development of malignant tumors. Adenomas, on the other hand, are precancerous lesions that can develop into colorectal cancer if left untreated.

Colorectal cancer is a malignant neoplasm that arises from the uncontrolled growth and division of cells in the colon or rectum. It is one of the most common types of cancer worldwide and can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system.

Regular screening for colorectal neoplasms is recommended for individuals over the age of 50, as early detection and removal of precancerous lesions can significantly reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer.

Subcutaneous emphysema is a medical condition where air or gas collects in the subcutaneous tissue, which lies beneath the skin and above the muscle layer. This tissue covers the entire body, but the collection of air usually occurs in the chest wall, neck, or face. The accumulation of air can cause swelling, crepitus (a crackling or crunching sound when touched), and tightness in the affected area. Subcutaneous emphysema is often associated with underlying conditions such as trauma, pulmonary disease, or certain medical procedures that result in air leaks from the lungs or other structures into the subcutaneous tissue. It can be a serious condition if left untreated, as it may lead to complications like mediastinal emphysema or tension pneumothorax. Immediate medical attention is necessary for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Barium sulfate is a medication that is commonly used as a contrast material in medical imaging procedures, such as X-rays and CT scans. It works by coating the inside of the digestive tract, making it visible on an X-ray or CT scan and allowing doctors to see detailed images of the stomach, intestines, and other parts of the digestive system.

Barium sulfate is a white, chalky powder that is mixed with water to create a thick, milky liquid. It is generally safe and does not cause significant side effects when used in medical imaging procedures. However, it should not be taken by individuals who have a known allergy to barium or who have certain digestive conditions, such as obstructions or perforations of the bowel.

It's important to note that while barium sulfate is an important tool for medical diagnosis, it is not a treatment for any medical condition and should only be used under the direction of a healthcare professional.

Cerebral veins are the blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood from the brain to the dural venous sinuses, which are located between the layers of tissue covering the brain. The largest cerebral vein is the superior sagittal sinus, which runs along the top of the brain. Other major cerebral veins include the straight sinus, transverse sinus, sigmoid sinus, and cavernous sinus. These veins receive blood from smaller veins called venules that drain the surface and deep structures of the brain. The cerebral veins play an important role in maintaining normal circulation and pressure within the brain.

An enema is a medical procedure in which liquid is introduced into the lower part of the large intestine, specifically the sigmoid colon or rectum, through the anus using a special device called an enema kit. The liquid used can be plain water, saline solution, or a medicated solution, and it is typically retained for a short period of time before being expelled.

The purpose of an enema may vary, but it is often used to relieve constipation, prepare the bowel for medical procedures such as colonoscopy, or administer medications or nutrients that cannot be taken by mouth. Enemas can also be used for therapeutic purposes, such as to stimulate the immune system or promote relaxation.

It is important to follow proper instructions when administering an enema to avoid injury or discomfort. Possible side effects of enemas may include cramping, bloating, nausea, or electrolyte imbalances. If you have any health concerns or conditions that may be affected by an enema, it is recommended to consult with a healthcare professional before using one.

HT-29 is a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line that is commonly used in research. These cells are derived from a colorectal cancer tumor and have the ability to differentiate into various cell types found in the intestinal mucosa, such as absorptive enterocytes and mucus-secreting goblet cells. HT-29 cells are often used to study the biology of colon cancer, including the effects of drugs on cancer cell growth and survival, as well as the role of various genes and signaling pathways in colorectal tumorigenesis.

It is important to note that when working with cell lines like HT-29, it is essential to use proper laboratory techniques and follow established protocols to ensure the integrity and reproducibility of experimental results. Additionally, researchers should regularly authenticate their cell lines to confirm their identity and verify that they are free from contamination with other cell types.

Intestinal polyps are abnormal growths that protrude from the lining of the intestines. They can occur in any part of the digestive tract, including the colon and rectum (colorectal polyps), small intestine, or stomach. These growths vary in size, shape, and number. Most intestinal polyps are benign, meaning they are not cancerous. However, some types of polyps, such as adenomatous polyps, can become cancerous over time if left untreated.

Intestinal polyps can be asymptomatic or cause symptoms like rectal bleeding, abdominal pain, changes in bowel habits, or anemia (in cases where there is chronic, slow bleeding). The exact cause of intestinal polyps is not fully understood, but factors such as age, family history, and certain genetic conditions can increase the risk of developing them. Regular screening exams, like colonoscopies, are essential for early detection and removal of polyps to prevent potential complications, including colorectal cancer.

Megacolon is a medical condition characterized by an abnormal dilation and/or hypomotility (decreased ability to move) of the colon, resulting in a significantly enlarged colon. It can be congenital or acquired. Congenital megacolon, also known as Hirschsprung's disease, is present at birth and occurs due to the absence of ganglion cells in the distal portion of the colon. Acquired megacolon, on the other hand, can develop in adults due to various causes such as chronic constipation, neurological disorders, or certain medications.

In both cases, the affected individual may experience symptoms like severe constipation, abdominal distention, and fecal impaction. If left untreated, megacolon can lead to complications such as perforation of the colon, sepsis, and even death. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause but may include medication, surgery, or a combination of both.

Abdominal radiography, also known as a KUB (kidneys, ureters, bladder) X-ray, is a medical imaging technique used to examine the abdominal cavity. It involves using ionizing radiation to produce images of the internal structures of the abdomen, including the bones, organs, and soft tissues.

The procedure typically involves the patient lying down on a table while a specialized X-ray machine captures images of the abdomen from different angles. The images produced can help doctors diagnose and monitor a variety of conditions, such as kidney stones, intestinal obstructions, and abnormalities in the spine or other bones.

Abdominal radiography is a quick, painless, and non-invasive procedure that requires little preparation on the part of the patient. However, it does involve exposure to radiation, so it is typically only used when necessary and when other imaging techniques are not appropriate.

Functional colonic diseases are a group of disorders of the large intestine (colon) that do not have a structural or biochemical explanation. They are characterized by chronic and often intermittent symptoms, such as abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits, but do not show any visible abnormalities or damage to the tissue of the colon during routine examination or testing.

The most common functional colonic diseases include:

1. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): A disorder characterized by recurrent abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits, such as constipation or diarrhea.
2. Functional Constipation: A condition where a person experiences difficult or infrequent bowel movements, but there is no obvious structural or biochemical cause.
3. Functional Diarrhea: A disorder characterized by frequent loose stools, but without any underlying structural or biochemical abnormalities.
4. Abdominal Bloating: A condition where the belly feels full and tight, often accompanied by discomfort or pain, but without any visible distention.
5. Functional Abdominal Pain Syndrome: A disorder characterized by chronic or recurrent abdominal pain that is not associated with any structural or biochemical abnormalities.

The exact cause of functional colonic diseases is unknown, but they are believed to be related to a combination of factors, including genetics, environmental factors, altered gut motility, visceral hypersensitivity, and psychological factors such as stress and anxiety. Treatment typically involves lifestyle modifications, such as changes in diet and exercise, and medication to manage symptoms.

A Mesenteric Cyst is a rare, benign abdominal mass that forms within the mesentery, which is the fold of membrane that attaches the intestine to the abdominal wall and contains blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves. These cysts can vary in size from a few centimeters to several inches in diameter. They are typically asymptomatic but can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, or a palpable mass, depending on their size and location. The exact cause of mesenteric cysts is not well understood, but they may be congenital or acquired due to trauma, inflammation, or surgery. Treatment usually involves surgical removal of the cyst.

Azoxymethane is a chemical compound that is used primarily in laboratory research. It is an organodihydroazoxy compound, and it is known to cause colon cancer in experimental animals, particularly rats and mice. As such, it is often used as a tool in studies of carcinogenesis and chemically induced colon tumors.

In scientific studies, azoxymethane is typically administered to laboratory animals in order to induce colon tumors. This allows researchers to study the mechanisms of cancer development and test potential therapies or preventive measures. It is important to note that while azoxymethane has been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals, it does not necessarily mean that it poses the same risk to humans.

The use of azoxymethane in research is subject to strict regulations and guidelines, as with any potentially hazardous chemical. Researchers are required to follow safety protocols and take appropriate precautions when handling this compound to minimize risks to themselves and the environment.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

A diverticulum is a small sac or pouch that forms as a result of a weakness in the wall of a hollow organ, such as the intestine. These sacs can become inflamed or infected, leading to conditions like diverticulitis. Diverticula are common in the large intestine, particularly in the colon, and are more likely to develop with age. They are usually asymptomatic but can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, constipation, or diarrhea if they become inflamed or infected.

An adenoma is a benign (noncancerous) tumor that develops from glandular epithelial cells. These types of cells are responsible for producing and releasing fluids, such as hormones or digestive enzymes, into the surrounding tissues. Adenomas can occur in various organs and glands throughout the body, including the thyroid, pituitary, adrenal, and digestive systems.

Depending on their location, adenomas may cause different symptoms or remain asymptomatic. Some common examples of adenomas include:

1. Colorectal adenoma (also known as a polyp): These growths occur in the lining of the colon or rectum and can develop into colorectal cancer if left untreated. Regular screenings, such as colonoscopies, are essential for early detection and removal of these polyps.
2. Thyroid adenoma: This type of adenoma affects the thyroid gland and may result in an overproduction or underproduction of hormones, leading to conditions like hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) or hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid).
3. Pituitary adenoma: These growths occur in the pituitary gland, which is located at the base of the brain and controls various hormonal functions. Depending on their size and location, pituitary adenomas can cause vision problems, headaches, or hormonal imbalances that affect growth, reproduction, and metabolism.
4. Liver adenoma: These rare benign tumors develop in the liver and may not cause any symptoms unless they become large enough to press on surrounding organs or structures. In some cases, liver adenomas can rupture and cause internal bleeding.
5. Adrenal adenoma: These growths occur in the adrenal glands, which are located above the kidneys and produce hormones that regulate stress responses, metabolism, and blood pressure. Most adrenal adenomas are nonfunctioning, meaning they do not secrete excess hormones. However, functioning adrenal adenomas can lead to conditions like Cushing's syndrome or Conn's syndrome, depending on the type of hormone being overproduced.

It is essential to monitor and manage benign tumors like adenomas to prevent potential complications, such as rupture, bleeding, or hormonal imbalances. Treatment options may include surveillance with imaging studies, medication to manage hormonal issues, or surgical removal of the tumor in certain cases.

Ulcerative colitis is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that affects the lining of the large intestine (colon) and rectum. In ulcerative colitis, the lining of the colon becomes inflamed and develops ulcers or open sores that produce pus and mucous. The symptoms of ulcerative colitis include diarrhea, abdominal pain, and rectal bleeding.

The exact cause of ulcerative colitis is not known, but it is thought to be related to an abnormal immune response in which the body's immune system attacks the cells in the digestive tract. The inflammation can be triggered by environmental factors such as diet, stress, and infections.

Ulcerative colitis is a chronic condition that can cause symptoms ranging from mild to severe. It can also lead to complications such as anemia, malnutrition, and colon cancer. There is no cure for ulcerative colitis, but treatment options such as medications, lifestyle changes, and surgery can help manage the symptoms and prevent complications.

Surgical anastomosis is a medical procedure that involves the connection of two tubular structures, such as blood vessels or intestines, to create a continuous passage. This technique is commonly used in various types of surgeries, including vascular, gastrointestinal, and orthopedic procedures.

During a surgical anastomosis, the ends of the two tubular structures are carefully prepared by removing any damaged or diseased tissue. The ends are then aligned and joined together using sutures, staples, or other devices. The connection must be secure and leak-free to ensure proper function and healing.

The success of a surgical anastomosis depends on several factors, including the patient's overall health, the location and condition of the structures being joined, and the skill and experience of the surgeon. Complications such as infection, bleeding, or leakage can occur, which may require additional medical intervention or surgery.

Proper postoperative care is also essential to ensure the success of a surgical anastomosis. This may include monitoring for signs of complications, administering medications to prevent infection and promote healing, and providing adequate nutrition and hydration.

Surgical stapling is a medical technique that uses specialized staplers to place linear staple lines to close surgical incisions, connect or remove organs and tissues during surgical procedures. Surgical staples are made of titanium or stainless steel and can be absorbable or non-absorbable. They provide secure, fast, and accurate wound closure, reducing the risk of infection and promoting faster healing compared to traditional suturing methods.

The surgical stapler consists of a handle, an anvil, and a cartridge containing multiple staples. The device is loaded with staple cartridges and used to approximate tissue edges before deploying the staples. Once the staples are placed, the stapler is removed, leaving the staple line in place.

Surgical stapling has various applications, including gastrointestinal anastomosis, lung resection, vascular anastomosis, and skin closure. It is widely used in different types of surgeries, such as open, laparoscopic, and robotic-assisted procedures. The use of surgical stapling requires proper training and expertise to ensure optimal patient outcomes.

A prolapse is a medical condition where an organ or tissue in the body slips from its normal position and drops down into a lower part of the body. This usually occurs when the muscles and ligaments that support the organ become weak or stretched. The most common types of prolapses include:

* Uterine prolapse: When the uterus slips down into or protrudes out of the vagina.
* Rectal prolapse: When the rectum (the lower end of the colon) slips outside the anus.
* Bladder prolapse (cystocele): When the bladder drops into the vagina.
* Small bowel prolapse (enterocele): When the small intestine bulges into the vagina.

Prolapses can cause various symptoms, such as discomfort, pain, pressure, and difficulty with urination or bowel movements. Treatment options depend on the severity of the prolapse and may include lifestyle changes, physical therapy, medication, or surgery.

The cecum is the first part of the large intestine, located at the junction of the small and large intestines. It is a pouch-like structure that connects to the ileum (the last part of the small intestine) and the ascending colon (the first part of the large intestine). The cecum is where the appendix is attached. Its function is to absorb water and electrolytes, and it also serves as a site for the fermentation of certain types of dietary fiber by gut bacteria. However, the exact functions of the cecum are not fully understood.

Ischemic colitis is a condition characterized by inflammation of the large intestine (colon) due to reduced blood flow to the area. This reduction in blood flow, also known as ischemia, can be caused by various factors such as narrowing or blockage of the blood vessels that supply the colon, low blood pressure, or certain medications.

Symptoms of ischemic colitis may include sudden abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and fever. In severe cases, it can lead to tissue death, perforation of the colon, and sepsis. Treatment typically involves supportive care such as fluid replacement, bowel rest, and antibiotics. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged tissue or restore blood flow to the area.

The transverse sinuses are a pair of venous channels located within the skull. They are part of the intracranial venous system and are responsible for draining blood from the brain. The transverse sinuses run horizontally along the upper portion of the inner skull, starting at the occipital bone (at the back of the head) and extending to the temporal bones (on the sides of the head).

These sinuses receive blood from the superior sagittal sinus, straight sinus, and the occipital sinus. After passing through the transverse sinuses, the blood is then drained into the sigmoid sinuses, which in turn drain into the internal jugular veins. The transverse sinuses are an essential component of the cerebral venous system, ensuring proper blood flow and drainage from the brain.

Gangrene is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when there is a loss of blood flow to a specific area of the body, resulting in tissue death. It can be caused by various factors such as bacterial infections, trauma, diabetes, vascular diseases, and smoking. The affected tissues may become discolored, swollen, and emit a foul odor due to the accumulation of bacteria and toxins.

Gangrene can be classified into two main types: dry gangrene and wet (or moist) gangrene. Dry gangrene develops slowly and is often associated with peripheral arterial disease, which reduces blood flow to the extremities. The affected area turns black and shriveled as it dries out. Wet gangrene, on the other hand, progresses rapidly due to bacterial infections that cause tissue breakdown and pus formation. This type of gangrene can spread quickly throughout the body, leading to severe complications such as sepsis and organ failure if left untreated.

Treatment for gangrene typically involves surgical removal of the dead tissue (debridement), antibiotics to control infections, and sometimes revascularization procedures to restore blood flow to the affected area. In severe cases where the infection has spread or the damage is irreversible, amputation of the affected limb may be necessary to prevent further complications and save the patient's life.

Colitis is a medical term that refers to inflammation of the inner lining of the colon or large intestine. The condition can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and urgency to have a bowel movement. Colitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, inflammatory bowel disease (such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis), microscopic colitis, ischemic colitis, and radiation therapy. The specific symptoms and treatment options for colitis may vary depending on the underlying cause.

Constipation is a condition characterized by infrequent bowel movements or difficulty in passing stools that are often hard and dry. The medical definition of constipation varies, but it is generally defined as having fewer than three bowel movements in a week. In addition to infrequent bowel movements, other symptoms of constipation can include straining during bowel movements, feeling like you haven't completely evacuated your bowels, and experiencing hard or lumpy stools.

Constipation can have many causes, including a low-fiber diet, dehydration, certain medications, lack of physical activity, and underlying medical conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome or hypothyroidism. In most cases, constipation can be treated with lifestyle changes, such as increasing fiber intake, drinking more water, and getting regular exercise. However, if constipation is severe, persistent, or accompanied by other symptoms, it's important to seek medical attention to rule out any underlying conditions that may require treatment.

Rectal diseases refer to conditions that affect the structure or function of the rectum, which is the lower end of the large intestine, just above the anus. The rectum serves as a storage area for stool before it is eliminated from the body. Some common rectal diseases include:

1. Hemorrhoids: Swollen veins in the rectum or anus that can cause pain, itching, bleeding, and discomfort.
2. Rectal cancer: Abnormal growth of cells in the rectum that can invade and destroy nearby tissue and spread to other parts of the body.
3. Anal fissures: Small tears in the lining of the anus that can cause pain, bleeding, and itching.
4. Rectal prolapse: A condition where the rectum slips outside the anus, causing discomfort, fecal incontinence, and other symptoms.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): A group of chronic inflammatory conditions that affect the digestive tract, including the rectum, such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
6. Rectal abscess: A collection of pus in the rectum caused by an infection, which can cause pain, swelling, and fever.
7. Fistula-in-ano: An abnormal connection between the rectum and the skin around the anus, which can cause drainage of pus or stool.
8. Rectal foreign bodies: Objects that are accidentally or intentionally inserted into the rectum and can cause injury, infection, or obstruction.

These are just a few examples of rectal diseases, and there are many other conditions that can affect the rectum. If you experience any symptoms related to the rectum, it is important to seek medical attention from a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

"Surgically-created structures" is not a standard medical term, but I can provide a general explanation of surgical procedures that create or modify anatomical structures.

Surgical procedures may involve creating new structures or modifying existing ones to achieve specific therapeutic goals. These modifications can be temporary or permanent and are often designed to improve organ function, restore physiological processes, or correct congenital abnormalities. Here are some examples of surgically-created structures:

1. Anastomosis: The connection of two hollow organs (e.g., intestines, blood vessels) or the reconnection of severed tubular structures after resection (removal) of damaged or diseased segments. Common types include end-to-end, side-to-side, and end-to-side anastomoses.
2. Stoma: An artificial opening created between a hollow organ (e.g., intestine, bladder) and the body surface to allow for waste elimination or drainage. Examples include colostomy, ileostomy, and urostomy.
3. Fistula: An abnormal connection or passageway between two organs, vessels, or the skin and an organ. Surgical creation of a fistula can be intentional (e.g., to divert intestinal contents in the management of complex wounds) or unintentional (e.g., as a complication).
4. Shunts: Artificial channels created to redirect fluid flow between body compartments, cavities, or vessels. Examples include peritoneal dialysis catheters, ventriculoperitoneal shunts for hydrocephalus management, and portosystemic shunts in the treatment of portal hypertension.
5. Flaps: A surgical technique used to relocate tissue from one part of the body to another while maintaining its blood supply. Flaps can be created using skin, muscle, fascia, or bone and are used for various purposes, such as wound closure, soft tissue reconstruction, or coverage of vital structures.
6. Grafts: Transplantation of tissue from one site to another or from a donor to a recipient. Common types include autografts (from the same individual), allografts (from another individual of the same species), and xenografts (from a different species). Examples include skin grafts, heart valve replacements, and corneal transplants.
7. Implants: Artificial devices or materials placed within the body to replace or augment function, support structures, or deliver medication. Examples include pacemakers, cochlear implants, orthopedic prostheses, and drug-eluting stents.
8. Stomas: Surgically created openings on the body surface that allow for the passage of bodily fluids or waste. Common examples include colostomies, ileostomies, and gastrostomies.

A colonoscope is a medical device that is used in a procedure called colonoscopy to examine the interior lining of the large intestine, also known as the colon and rectum. It is a long, thin, flexible tube with a lighted end and a camera that allows the doctor to view the inside of the colon on a video monitor. The colonoscope can also have channels that allow for the insertion of tools to take biopsies or remove polyps. Regular colonoscopies are recommended as a screening method for colorectal cancer, which is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in many countries.

Colonic polyps are abnormal growths that protrude from the inner wall of the colon (large intestine). They can vary in size, shape, and number. Most colonic polyps are benign, meaning they are not cancerous. However, some types of polyps, such as adenomas, have a higher risk of becoming cancerous over time if left untreated.

Colonic polyps often do not cause any symptoms, especially if they are small. Larger polyps may lead to symptoms like rectal bleeding, changes in bowel habits, abdominal pain, or iron deficiency anemia. The exact cause of colonic polyps is not known, but factors such as age, family history, and certain medical conditions (like inflammatory bowel disease) can increase the risk of developing them.

Regular screening exams, such as colonoscopies, are recommended for individuals over the age of 50 to detect and remove polyps before they become cancerous. If you have a family history of colonic polyps or colorectal cancer, your doctor may recommend earlier or more frequent screenings.

The digestive system is a series of organs that work together to convert food into nutrients and energy. Digestive system surgical procedures involve operations on any part of the digestive system, including the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, pancreas, and gallbladder. These procedures can be performed for a variety of reasons, such as to treat diseases, repair damage, or remove cancerous growths.

Some common digestive system surgical procedures include:

1. Gastric bypass surgery: A procedure in which the stomach is divided into two parts and the smaller part is connected directly to the small intestine, bypassing a portion of the stomach and upper small intestine. This procedure is used to treat severe obesity.
2. Colonoscopy: A procedure in which a flexible tube with a camera on the end is inserted into the rectum and colon to examine the lining for polyps, cancer, or other abnormalities.
3. Colectomy: A procedure in which all or part of the colon is removed, often due to cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, or diverticulitis.
4. Gastrostomy: A procedure in which a hole is made through the abdominal wall and into the stomach to create an opening for feeding. This is often done for patients who have difficulty swallowing.
5. Esophagectomy: A procedure in which all or part of the esophagus is removed, often due to cancer. The remaining esophagus is then reconnected to the stomach or small intestine.
6. Liver resection: A procedure in which a portion of the liver is removed, often due to cancer or other diseases.
7. Pancreatectomy: A procedure in which all or part of the pancreas is removed, often due to cancer or chronic pancreatitis.
8. Cholecystectomy: A procedure in which the gallbladder is removed, often due to gallstones or inflammation.

These are just a few examples of digestive system surgical procedures. There are many other types of operations that can be performed on the digestive system depending on the specific needs and condition of each patient.

The mastoid is a term used in anatomy and refers to the bony prominence located at the base of the skull, posterior to the ear. More specifically, it's part of the temporal bone, one of the bones that forms the side and base of the skull. The mastoid process provides attachment for various muscles involved in chewing and moving the head.

In a medical context, "mastoid" can also refer to conditions or procedures related to this area. For example, mastoiditis is an infection of the mastoid process, while a mastoidectomy is a surgical procedure that involves removing part or all of the mastoid process.

Gastrointestinal (GI) hemorrhage is a term used to describe any bleeding that occurs in the gastrointestinal tract, which includes the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and rectum. The bleeding can range from mild to severe and can produce symptoms such as vomiting blood, passing black or tarry stools, or having low blood pressure.

GI hemorrhage can be classified as either upper or lower, depending on the location of the bleed. Upper GI hemorrhage refers to bleeding that occurs above the ligament of Treitz, which is a point in the small intestine where it becomes narrower and turns a corner. Common causes of upper GI hemorrhage include gastritis, ulcers, esophageal varices, and Mallory-Weiss tears.

Lower GI hemorrhage refers to bleeding that occurs below the ligament of Treitz. Common causes of lower GI hemorrhage include diverticulosis, colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and vascular abnormalities such as angiodysplasia.

The diagnosis of GI hemorrhage is often made based on the patient's symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as endoscopy, CT scan, or radionuclide scanning. Treatment depends on the severity and cause of the bleeding and may include medications, endoscopic procedures, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

A fatal outcome is a term used in medical context to describe a situation where a disease, injury, or illness results in the death of an individual. It is the most severe and unfortunate possible outcome of any medical condition, and is often used as a measure of the severity and prognosis of various diseases and injuries. In clinical trials and research, fatal outcome may be used as an endpoint to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different treatments or interventions.

Mediastinal emphysema is a medical condition characterized by the presence of air or gas within the mediastinum, which is the central compartment of the thorax that contains the heart, esophagus, trachea, bronchi, thymus gland, and other associated structures.

In mediastinal emphysema, the air accumulates in the mediastinal tissues and spaces, leading to their abnormal distention or swelling. This condition can result from various causes, including:

* Pulmonary trauma or barotrauma (e.g., mechanical ventilation, scuba diving)
* Infections that cause gas-forming organisms (e.g., pneumomediastinum)
* Air leakage from the lungs or airways (e.g., bronchial rupture, esophageal perforation)
* Certain medical procedures (e.g., mediastinoscopy, tracheostomy)

Mediastinal emphysema can cause symptoms such as chest pain, cough, difficulty breathing, and swallowing problems. In severe cases, it may lead to life-threatening complications, including tension pneumothorax or mediastinitis. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

A cystoscope is a medical instrument used to examine the inside of the bladder and urethra, which are part of the urinary system. It consists of a thin tube with a light and camera attached to it, allowing doctors to visualize these areas in detail. Cystoscopes come in different sizes and types, including flexible and rigid scopes, and can be used for diagnostic purposes or for performing surgical procedures within the bladder.

Pneumoperitoneum is a medical condition characterized by the presence of free air or gas within the peritoneal cavity, which is the space between the lining of the abdominal wall and the internal organs. This accumulation of air can occur due to various reasons such as perforation of an organ (e.g., stomach, intestine, or esophagus), recent surgery, or medical procedures involving the introduction of air into the abdomen.

The presence of pneumoperitoneum is often diagnosed through imaging techniques like X-rays or computed tomography (CT) scans, which can reveal the presence of free gas in the peritoneal cavity. The condition may require prompt medical attention, depending on the underlying cause and the patient's symptoms. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause, such as repairing a perforation or managing an infection.

Brachytherapy is a type of cancer treatment that involves placing radioactive material directly into or near the tumor site. The term "brachy" comes from the Greek word for "short," which refers to the short distance that the radiation travels. This allows for a high dose of radiation to be delivered directly to the tumor while minimizing exposure to healthy surrounding tissue.

There are two main types of brachytherapy:

1. Intracavitary brachytherapy: The radioactive material is placed inside a body cavity, such as the uterus or windpipe.
2. Interstitial brachytherapy: The radioactive material is placed directly into the tumor or surrounding tissue using needles, seeds, or catheters.

Brachytherapy can be used alone or in combination with other cancer treatments such as surgery, external beam radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. It may be recommended for a variety of cancers, including prostate, cervical, vaginal, vulvar, head and neck, and skin cancers. The specific type of brachytherapy used will depend on the size, location, and stage of the tumor.

The advantages of brachytherapy include its ability to deliver a high dose of radiation directly to the tumor while minimizing exposure to healthy tissue, which can result in fewer side effects compared to other forms of radiation therapy. Additionally, brachytherapy is often a shorter treatment course than external beam radiation therapy, with some treatments lasting only a few minutes or hours.

However, there are also potential risks and side effects associated with brachytherapy, including damage to nearby organs and tissues, bleeding, infection, and pain. Patients should discuss the benefits and risks of brachytherapy with their healthcare provider to determine if it is an appropriate treatment option for them.

1,2-Dimethylhydrazine is a chemical compound with the formula (CH3)2N-NH2. It is a colorless liquid with an ammonia-like odor. It is used in research and industry as a reducing agent and a rocket fuel component. It is also a potent carcinogen and is harmful if swallowed, inhaled, or comes into contact with the skin. Long-term exposure can lead to cancer, particularly of the liver and digestive system.

Multiple primary neoplasms refer to the occurrence of more than one primary malignant tumor in an individual, where each tumor is unrelated to the other and originates from separate cells or organs. This differs from metastatic cancer, where a single malignancy spreads to multiple sites in the body. Multiple primary neoplasms can be synchronous (occurring at the same time) or metachronous (occurring at different times). The risk of developing multiple primary neoplasms increases with age and is associated with certain genetic predispositions, environmental factors, and lifestyle choices such as smoking and alcohol consumption.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Neurokinin A (NKA) is a neuropeptide belonging to the tachykinin family, which also includes substance P and neurokinin B. It is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and plays a role in various physiological functions such as pain transmission, smooth muscle contraction, and immune response regulation. NKA exerts its effects by binding to neurokinin 1 (NK-1) receptors, although it has lower affinity for these receptors compared to substance P. It is involved in several pathological conditions, including inflammation, neurogenic pain, and neurodegenerative disorders.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

A urinary bladder fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between the urinary bladder and another organ or structure, such as the skin, intestine, or vagina. This condition can result from various factors, including surgery, injury, infection, inflammation, radiation therapy, or malignancy.

Bladder fistulas may lead to symptoms like continuous leakage of urine through the skin, frequent urinary tract infections, and fecal matter in the urine (when the fistula involves the intestine). The diagnosis typically involves imaging tests, such as a CT scan or cystogram, while treatment often requires surgical repair of the fistula.

In the context of human anatomy, the thigh is the part of the lower limb that extends from the hip to the knee. It is the upper and largest portion of the leg and is primarily composed of the femur bone, which is the longest and strongest bone in the human body, as well as several muscles including the quadriceps femoris (front thigh), hamstrings (back thigh), and adductors (inner thigh). The major blood vessels and nerves that supply the lower limb also pass through the thigh.

"Acute abdomen" is a medical term used to describe a sudden and severe abdominal pain that requires immediate medical attention. This condition can be caused by various factors such as inflammation, infection, obstruction, or perforation of the abdominal organs. Common causes of acute abdomen include appendicitis, cholecystitis, diverticulitis, intestinal obstruction, and perforated ulcers.

The symptoms of acute abdomen may include severe and localized or generalized abdominal pain, tenderness, rigidity, rebound tenderness, fever, nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite. The diagnosis of acute abdomen is usually made based on the patient's history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as X-rays, ultrasound, or CT scan.

Treatment of acute abdomen depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, intravenous fluids, pain management, and surgery in severe cases. Delayed diagnosis and treatment of acute abdomen can lead to serious complications such as sepsis, peritonitis, and even death.

Cecal diseases refer to medical conditions that affect the cecum, which is a pouch-like structure located at the junction of the small and large intestines. The cecum plays an important role in digestion, particularly in the fermentation of certain types of food.

There are several different types of cecal diseases, including:

1. Cecal volvulus: This is a rare condition in which the cecum twists on itself, cutting off blood flow and causing severe pain and other symptoms.
2. Diverticulitis: This occurs when small pouches called diverticula form in the wall of the cecum and become inflamed or infected.
3. Appendicitis: Although not strictly a cecal disease, the appendix is a small tube-like structure that branches off from the cecum. Inflammation of the appendix (appendicitis) can cause severe pain in the lower right abdomen and may require surgical removal of the appendix.
4. Crohn's disease: This is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that can affect any part of the digestive tract, including the cecum.
5. Tuberculosis: The cecum can also be affected by tuberculosis, which is a bacterial infection that primarily affects the lungs but can spread to other parts of the body.
6. Cancer: Although rare, cancer can also affect the cecum, leading to symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits.

Treatment for cecal diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include antibiotics, surgery, or other medical interventions. If you are experiencing symptoms that may be related to a cecal disease, it is important to seek medical attention promptly.

Gastrointestinal endoscopy is a medical procedure that allows direct visualization of the inner lining of the digestive tract, which includes the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine (colon), and sometimes the upper part of the small intestine (duodenum). This procedure is performed using an endoscope, a long, thin, flexible tube with a light and camera at its tip. The endoscope is inserted through the mouth for upper endoscopy or through the rectum for lower endoscopy (colonoscopy), and the images captured by the camera are transmitted to a monitor for the physician to view.

Gastrointestinal endoscopy can help diagnose various conditions, such as inflammation, ulcers, tumors, polyps, or bleeding in the digestive tract. It can also be used for therapeutic purposes, such as removing polyps, taking tissue samples (biopsies), treating bleeding, and performing other interventions to manage certain digestive diseases.

There are different types of gastrointestinal endoscopy procedures, including:

1. Upper Endoscopy (Esophagogastroduodenoscopy or EGD): This procedure examines the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum.
2. Colonoscopy: This procedure examines the colon and rectum.
3. Sigmoidoscopy: A limited examination of the lower part of the colon (sigmoid colon) using a shorter endoscope.
4. Enteroscopy: An examination of the small intestine, which can be performed using various techniques, such as push enteroscopy, single-balloon enteroscopy, or double-balloon enteroscopy.
5. Capsule Endoscopy: A procedure that involves swallowing a small capsule containing a camera, which captures images of the digestive tract as it passes through.

Gastrointestinal endoscopy is generally considered safe when performed by experienced medical professionals. However, like any medical procedure, there are potential risks and complications, such as bleeding, infection, perforation, or adverse reactions to sedatives used during the procedure. Patients should discuss these risks with their healthcare provider before undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy.

Appendiceal neoplasms refer to various types of tumors that can develop in the appendix, a small tube-like structure attached to the large intestine. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant and can include:

1. Adenomas: These are benign tumors that arise from the glandular cells lining the appendix. They are usually slow-growing and may not cause any symptoms.
2. Carcinoids: These are neuroendocrine tumors that arise from the hormone-producing cells in the appendix. They are typically small and slow-growing, but some can be aggressive and spread to other parts of the body.
3. Mucinous neoplasms: These are tumors that produce mucin, a slippery substance that can cause the appendix to become distended and filled with mucus. They can be low-grade (less aggressive) or high-grade (more aggressive) and may spread to other parts of the abdomen.
4. Adenocarcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise from the glandular cells lining the appendix. They are relatively rare but can be aggressive and spread to other parts of the body.
5. Pseudomyxoma peritonei: This is a condition in which mucin produced by an appendiceal neoplasm leaks into the abdominal cavity, causing a jelly-like accumulation of fluid and tissue. It can be caused by both benign and malignant tumors.

Treatment for appendiceal neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy.

Abdominal pain is defined as discomfort or painful sensation in the abdomen. The abdomen is the region of the body between the chest and the pelvis, and contains many important organs such as the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen. Abdominal pain can vary in intensity from mild to severe, and can be acute or chronic depending on the underlying cause.

Abdominal pain can have many different causes, ranging from benign conditions such as gastritis, indigestion, or constipation, to more serious conditions such as appendicitis, inflammatory bowel disease, or abdominal aortic aneurysm. The location, quality, and duration of the pain can provide important clues about its cause. For example, sharp, localized pain in the lower right quadrant of the abdomen may indicate appendicitis, while crampy, diffuse pain in the lower abdomen may suggest irritable bowel syndrome.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience severe or persistent abdominal pain, especially if it is accompanied by other symptoms such as fever, vomiting, or bloody stools. A thorough physical examination, including a careful history and a focused abdominal exam, can help diagnose the underlying cause of the pain and guide appropriate treatment.

The ileum is the third and final segment of the small intestine, located between the jejunum and the cecum (the beginning of the large intestine). It plays a crucial role in nutrient absorption, particularly for vitamin B12 and bile salts. The ileum is characterized by its thin, lined walls and the presence of Peyer's patches, which are part of the immune system and help surveil for pathogens.

Melena is a medical term that refers to the passage of black, tarry stools. It's not a specific disease but rather a symptom caused by the presence of digested blood in the gastrointestinal tract. The dark color results from the breakdown of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells, by gut bacteria and stomach acids.

Melena stools are often associated with upper gastrointestinal bleeding, which can occur due to various reasons such as gastric ulcers, esophageal varices (dilated veins in the esophagus), Mallory-Weiss tears (tears in the lining of the esophagus or stomach), or tumors.

It is essential to differentiate melena from hematochezia, which refers to the passage of bright red blood in the stool, typically indicating lower gastrointestinal bleeding. A healthcare professional should evaluate any concerns related to changes in bowel movements, including the presence of melena or hematochezia.

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A sigmoidocele is a protrusion of the peritoneum between the rectum and vagina that contains a loop of the sigmoid colon. An ... Normal colonic transit time, but delayed transit in the rectum and sigmoid colon. Scoring system are recommended in ODS to ... As such, the aims of the procedure are surgical correction of prolapse of the posterior (rectum + sigmoid colon) and middle ( ... but delayed in the rectum and sigmoid colon. Constipation is usually divided into two groups: primary and secondary. Primary ...
Sigmoidocele is a prolapse of peritoneum that contains a section of sigmoid colon. In females, these prolapses usually descend ... al.], senior editors, Bruce G. Wolff ... [et (2007). The ASCRS textbook of colon and rectal surgery. New York: Springer. pp. 47 ...
Diverticula typically occur in the sigmoid colon, which is commonplace for increased pressure. The left side of the colon is ... Stefánsson T, Ekbom A, Sparèn P, Påhlman L (August 2004). "Association between sigmoid diverticulitis and left-sided colon ... Tears in the colon leading to bleeding or perforations may occur; intestinal obstruction may occur (constipation or diarrhea ... in terms of image quality and is usually only performed if the patient has strictures or an excessively tortuous sigmoid colon ...
Unlike the vagina, which is closed off by the cervix, the rectum leads to the sigmoid colon. Objects that are inserted into the ... Some plugs are designed (long, flexible and curved) to penetrate the sigmoid colon. Butt plugs are made of a variety of ... potentially obstructing the colon; to prevent this from occurring, it is recommended that individuals use sex toys with a ...
"Colonoscopic diagnosis and treatment of chronic chicken bone perforation of the sigmoid colon". Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. 40 ... If the object is too far up, in the area of the colon sigmoideum, and cannot be removed using one of the above methods, bed ... If the foreign body is too big to allow feces from the colon to pass, a mechanical ileus may occur. The distension of the ... After the surgery, a sigmoidoscopy - a colonoscopy focused on the first 60 cm of the colon - is good practice in order to rule ...
It may contain parts of the ileum (lower small intestine) and the sigmoid colon. In women, the uterus lies between the rectum ... doi:10.1016/B978-0-443-10373-5.50007-5. ISBN 978-0-443-10373-5. "Colon". Imaging Anatomy: Chest, Abdomen, Pelvis (2nd ed.). ...
... sigmoid colon and rectum. These include: left colic vein sigmoid veins superior rectal vein rectosigmoid veins Anatomical ...
Khan, Muhammad N.; Naqvi, Abul H.; Lee, Richard E. (8 June 2004). "Carcinoma of sigmoid colon following urinary diversion: a ... are diverted into the sigmoid colon. It is done as a treatment for bladder cancer, where the urinary bladder had to be removed ... As well as this, the urine entering the colon can cause diarrhea and salt imbalance due to the sodium and chloride in the urine ... Urea levels in the blood are higher due to urea crossing the colon wall. In the large intestine, sodium is swapped for ...
The rectum joins with the sigmoid colon at the level of S3, and joins with the anal canal as it passes through the pelvic floor ... The rectum is a continuation of the sigmoid colon, and connects to the anus. The rectum follows the shape of the sacrum and ... Its diameter is similar to that of the sigmoid colon at its commencement, but it is dilated near its termination, forming the ... The taeniae blend with one another in the sigmoid colon five centimeters above the rectum, becoming a singular longitudinal ...
Sigmoid colon and rectum, showing distribution of branches of inferior mesenteric artery and their anastomoses. Middle rectal ...
This included an operation on November 5, 1941, which found "carcinoma of the rectal sigmoid". Doctors gave him less than six ... From the age of 70, Rutherford underwent several medical treatments for cancer of the colon. ...
French) Studies on sigmoid colon activity in diabetes and hyperthyroidism (Pol Med Sci Hist Bull. 1968 Jan;11(1):34-7) ...
... sigmoid colon, and proximal part of the rectum. They drain into the superior mesenteric lymph nodes and ultimately to the ... The inferior mesenteric lymph nodes consist of: (a) small glands on the branches of the left colic and sigmoid arteries (b) a ... The inferior mesenteric lymph nodes drain structures related to the hindgut; they receive lymph from the descending colon, ... group in the sigmoid mesocolon, around the superior hemorrhoidal artery (c) a pararectal group in contact with the muscular ...
"The TLR9 agonist MGN1703 triggers a potent type I interferon response in the sigmoid colon". Mucosal Immunol. 11 (2): 449-461. ...
Less commonly there may be ulcers in the anal canal or even in the sigmoid colon. The nature of the tissue changes can vary ...
... the left colic and sigmoid plexuses, which supply the descending and sigmoid parts of the colon; and the superior hemorrhoidal ...
Another approach is the use of an autotransplant of a resected sigmoid colon using laparoscopic surgery; results are reported ...
Profili S, Bifulco V, Meloni G, Demelas L, Niolu P, Manzoni M (1996). "[A case of ischemic stenosis of the colon-sigmoid ... Thus, patients without adequate collateralization are at risk for ischemia of the descending and sigmoid colon. Bloody diarrhea ... If blood flow to the colon drops by more than about 50%, ischemia will develop. The arteries feeding the colon are very ... The colon receives blood from both the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries. The blood supply from these two major ...
There are other smaller recesses including those around the duodenojejunal flexure, cecum, and the sigmoid colon. These gutters ...
1: Ascending colon 2: Transverse colon 3: Descending colon 4: Sigmoid colon 5: Rectum Iliac colon, sigmoid or pelvic colon, and ... The sigmoid colon (or pelvic colon) is the part of the large intestine that is closest to the rectum and anus. It forms a loop ... The sigmoid colon is completely surrounded by peritoneum (and thus is not retroperitoneal), which forms a mesentery (sigmoid ... The sigmoid colon begins at the superior aperture of the lesser pelvis, where it is continuous with the iliac colon, and passes ...
Because the patient presented 2 days after the initial injury, we suspected that the colon perforation was not the immediate ... We describe an unusual case of sigmoid colon perforation secondary to a bicycle handlebar injury. ... We describe an unusual case of sigmoid colon perforation secondary to a bicycle handlebar injury. Because the patient presented ... Sigmoid perforation and bucket-handle tear of the mesocolon after bicycle handlebar injury: a case report and review of the ...
Diminutive intramucosal invasive (Tis) sigmoid colon carcinoma. Diminutive intramucosal invasive (Tis) sigmoid colon carcinoma ... colon_rectum_cancers Asunto principal: Neoplasias del Colon Sigmoide / Colon Sigmoide / Adenocarcinoma / Mucosa Intestinal Tipo ... colon_rectum_cancers Asunto principal: Neoplasias del Colon Sigmoide / Colon Sigmoide / Adenocarcinoma / Mucosa Intestinal Tipo ... A 60-year-old woman underwent colonoscopy, which revealed a red, 5-mm protruded lesion in the sigmoid colon, surrounded by ...
It is associated with expression of ACSL6 in sigmoid colon cells (Table 6). On searching HaploReg V4.1, rs657075 is involved in ... we found that rs657075 can influence the expression of ACSL6 gene in colon-sigmoid cells (p = 4.7 × 10−7) (Table 6). ...
Level of IMA ligation did not significantly affect long-term outcomes of patients with sigmoid colon or rectal cancer after ... Medical records of patients with sigmoid colon or rectal cancer who had undergone curative laparoscopic surgery between January ... to determine whether the ligation level significantly affected short-term and long-term outcomes of patients with sigmoid colon ... For sigmoid colon or rectal cancer, a definite consensus regarding the optimal level ligating the inferior mesenteric artery ( ...
GI_COLON. Digestive. GI.CLN.SIG. Sigmoid Colon. Sigmoid_Colon. PrimaryTissue. E109. Digestive. GI_INTESTINE. Digestive. GI.S. ... GI_COLON. Other. GI.CLN.SM.MUS. Colon Smooth Muscle. Colon_Smooth_Muscle. PrimaryTissue. ... GI_COLON. Digestive. GI.CLN.MUC. Colonic Mucosa. Colonic_Mucosa. PrimaryTissue. E077. Digestive. GI_DUODENUM. Digestive. GI.DUO ...
Colon cancer is the most common, and the most preventable, form of gastrointestinal cancer. Survival rates have improved ... Annular carcinoma of the transverse colon is associated with a 2-cm polyp in the sigmoid colon. View Media Gallery ... Annular carcinoma of the sigmoid colon. The lumen of the sigmoid is narrowed severely by the circumferential mass with mucosal ... Annular carcinoma of the sigmoid colon. The lumen of the sigmoid is narrowed severely by the circumferential mass with mucosal ...
Ascending Colon 21044 Hepatic Flexure 21045 Transverse Colon 21046 Splenic Flexure 21047 Descending Colon 21048 Sigmoid Colon ... Colon and Rectum 21041-21049 Colon excluding Rectum 21041 Cecum 21042 Appendix 21043 ...
A perforated diverticulum, most often in the sigmoid colon. *Inflammatory bowel disease ...
PD peritonitis complicated with sigmoid colon perforation. Treatment. IV TZP, IV CLI. IV DAP, PO MTZ. IV TZP. IV TZP, IV MTZ, ...
What is a Sigmoid Colectomy Procedure for Colon Cancer?. This surgical procedure removes the sigmoid colon and connects the ... descending colon with the anus. It can be done via open or laparoscopic surgery. ...
Volvulus of Sigmoid Colon at Sikasso Hospital (Articles) A. Maïga, T. Bathio, M. Diassana, I. Diakité, M. B. Y. Sidibé, T. Koné ...
Formation of a communication between the cecum and the sigmoid colon. cecostomy (se-kos′to-me). Operative formation of a cecal ... Formation of an anastomosis between cecum and colon. cecofixation (se′ko-fik-sa′shun). SYN: cecopexy. cecoileostomy (se′ko-il-e ...
Colon - Sigmoid. Colon - Transverse. Esophagus - Gastroesophageal Junction. Esophagus - Mucosa. Esophagus - Muscularis. ...
Ascending colon 3 19 Transverse colon 1 6 Sigmoid colon 2 13 ... Metabolome analyses of colon and stomach cancer tissues. We ... We also have found recently that autophagy seems essential for colon cancer cell survival (38) and is highly active in colon ... The low levels of most purine and pyrimidine compounds in colon tissues may indicate a relatively slower colon cell growth ... which are frequently observed in colon and stomach cancer. The accumulation of glucose 1-phosphate in colon cancer is also ...
The cecum and the lower part of the ascending colon have been opened from in front to reveal the ileocecal valve and the ostium ... Dissection of jejunum, ileum and colon. Interior of cecum; ileocecal valve. Image #143-4. KEYWORDS: Large intestine, Small ...
The first term is the organ or tissue involved ("colon"). The second term ("sigmoid") specifies the site in the colon from ... A typical gross description of an endoscopic colon biopsy follows: "Polyp of sigmoid colon." An ovoid, smooth- surfaced, firm, ... Here is the diagnosis for the colon biopsy, above: Colon, sigmoid, endoscopic biopsy: tubular adenoma (adenomatous polyp) This ... For instance, almost all cancers of the colon are adenocarcinomas, and columnar epithelium is the normal lining of the colon. ...
Categories: Colon, Sigmoid Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 2 ...
The nurse or assistant would push until we passed the sigmoid colon on the left side of the patient. We were naive at the time ... The third lift is a transverse colon lift. If you find that youre getting a loop in the colon as it dives into the pelvis, you ... When I request a sigmoid lift or right-side down lift, I tell my team to apply pressure down toward the left pelvis, in the ... This is required when Im trying to drive down into the ascending colon. If I still have a question about how to get down into ...
... sigmoid colon graft) or split-skin grafts (352). Although these surgeries involve penectomy and orchiectomy, the prostate ...
Or a sigmoid colon called Henry.. Block IPDelete. Reply. 1 reply · active 92 weeks ago ...
An endoscopic examination of the rectum and sigmoid colon.. *Colonoscopy: Examination of the ileum and colon using a flexible ... Endoscopic Polypectomy: Visualization and removal of polyps in the colon using an endoscope. ...
Ive known audiophiles that had that happen with their own sigmoid colon! ...
Hi, Can anyone help me with some CPT codes for a patient who had multiple surgeries? On 9/13, she had a sigmoid colon resection ...
... recurrent colon tumor; S, sigmoid colon; Sig, signet ring cell carcinoma; SCM, site of colonic metastasis; T, transverse colon ... recurrent colon tumor; RS, remnant stomach; RTX, radiation therapy; S, sigmoid colon; SCM, site of colonic metastasis; Sig, ... In addition, cases in which signet ring cell adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon and rectum metastasized to the stomach (49,50 ... 2). A colonoscopy revealed stenosis and mucosal edema from the hepatic flexure of the transverse colon to the ascending colon; ...
In the colon, there wer only lymphoid aggregates and melanosis coli. The sigmoid colon has slightly prominent eosinophils. ...
Colonoscopy with Iatrogenic (Caused by P…sician) Perforation of the Sigmoid Colon ...
8. Trophoblastic tissue spread to the sigmoid colon after uterine perforation.. Levin I; Grisaru D; Pauzner D; Almog B. Obstet ... Glassy cell carcinoma of the colon with human chorionic gonadotropin-production. A case report with immunohistochemical and ...
According to a new guidance statement from the American College of Physicians all adults should get screened for colon cancer ... Flexible sigmoidoscopy: using a lighted scope, the procedure allows a physician to see inside the sigmoid colon and rectum ... Tags: Barium Enema, Blood, Blood Test, Bowel Cancer, Cancer, Colon, Colon Cancer, Colonoscopy, Colorectal, Colorectal Cancer, ... Barium enema: special X-rays of the colon and rectum.. *Virtual colonoscopy: a CT scan image of the colon that does not require ...
  • The sigmoid colon (or pelvic colon) is the part of the large intestine that is closest to the rectum and anus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sigmoid colon is completely surrounded by peritoneum (and thus is not retroperitoneal), which forms a mesentery (sigmoid mesocolon), which diminishes in length from the center toward the ends of the loop, where it disappears, so that the loop is fixed at its junctions with the iliac colon and rectum, but enjoys a considerable range of movement in its central portion. (wikipedia.org)
  • An endoscopic examination of the rectum and sigmoid colon. (rchsd.org)
  • Barium enema: special X-rays of the colon and rectum. (news-medical.net)
  • Four pig colons were used and EFTR was conducted at 7 sites (4 sigmoid colon and 3 rectum). (sages.org)
  • It affects the innermost lining of the large intestine, resulting in inflammation and ulcers (sores) in the rectum, and it may also affect the colon. (vejthani.com)
  • The lower end of the colon, the sigmoid colon, and the rectum are both affected by inflammation. (vejthani.com)
  • The rectum and the sigmoid and descending parts of the colon are all inflamed. (vejthani.com)
  • Diverticula in the large intestine Large Intestine The large intestine consists of the Cecum and ascending (right) colon Transverse colon Descending (left) colon Sigmoid colon (which is connected to the rectum) read more occur when a defect develops in the thick, muscular middle layer of the bowel. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Diverticulitis most commonly affects the sigmoid colon, which is the last part of the large intestine just before the rectum. (msdmanuals.com)
  • By definition, the cecum (and appendix) and ano-rectum, which are parts of the large intestine , are not included in the colon. (medscape.com)
  • Improved survival in cancer of the colon and rectum in Sweden. (cancercentrum.se)
  • When do I need to begin treatment, and how long or all of the colon or rectum depending on the cancer's will it last? (medlineplus.gov)
  • On 9/13, she had a sigmoid colon resection with end to end anastomosis. (aapc.com)
  • Endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFTR) in the colon is challenging. (sages.org)
  • The rate of en bloc resection (contained all markings) was 57% (4/7). (sages.org)
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the outcomes of laparoscopic lavage and sigmoid resection in perforated diverticulitis with purulent peritonitis. (lu.se)
  • CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic lavage used in the management of Hinchey grade III diverticulitis leads to more reinterventions within 30 days postoperatively, but does not increase the 30 or 90-day mortality rates compared with sigmoid resection. (lu.se)
  • Diverticulitis usually affects the large intestine (colon). (msdmanuals.com)
  • We describe an unusual case of sigmoid colon perforation secondary to a bicycle handlebar injury. (nih.gov)
  • Because the patient presented 2 days after the initial injury, we suspected that the colon perforation was not the immediate result of the bicycle accident but, rather, was secondary to devascularization. (nih.gov)
  • 8. Trophoblastic tissue spread to the sigmoid colon after uterine perforation. (nih.gov)
  • Formation of an anastomosis between cecum and colon. (theodora.com)
  • Formation of a communication between the cecum and the sigmoid colon. (theodora.com)
  • The cecum and the lower part of the ascending colon have been opened from in front to reveal the ileocecal valve and the ostium of the appendix. (stanford.edu)
  • The proximal blind end (pouch) of the ascending colon is called the cecum. (medscape.com)
  • The transverse colon and the sigmoid colon have a mesentery (ie, transverse mesocolon and sigmoid mesocolon, respectively), but the ascending colon and descending colon are retroperitoneal, while the cecum is intraperitoneal but uses the mesentery of the ileum. (medscape.com)
  • They push across as they start to transition into the transverse colon. (medscape.com)
  • The third lift is a transverse colon lift. (medscape.com)
  • That will help with the transition and potentially give you that same transverse colon lift. (medscape.com)
  • Sometimes, we'll need two assistants to push from the right side and the left side, in order to splint up on the transverse colon. (medscape.com)
  • In February 2019, the patient complained of discomfort in the right abdomen, and a CT scan showed wall thickening from the ascending colon to the transverse colon ( Fig. 2 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Embryologically, the colon develops partly from the midgut (ascending colon to proximal transverse colon) and partly from the hind gut (distal transverse colon to sigmoid colon). (medscape.com)
  • The ascending colon takes a right-angled turn just below the liver (right colic or hepatic flexure) and becomes the transverse colon, which has a horizontal course from right to left. (medscape.com)
  • The transverse colon again takes a right-angled turn just below the spleen (left colic or splenic flexure, which is attached to the diaphragm by the phrenocolic ligament) and becomes the descending (left) colon, which lies vertically in the most lateral left part of the abdominal cavity. (medscape.com)
  • The greater omentum has several parts, including the 4-layered omental apron hanging down off of the transverse colon and the 2-layered gastrocolic ligament connecting the greater curvature of the stomach and the transverse colon. (medscape.com)
  • The junction of the proximal two thirds and distal one third of the transverse colon, where the terminal branches of the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries meet, is the watershed area, which is prone to ischemia. (medscape.com)
  • Lateral to ascending and descending colon are the right and left paracolic gutters of the peritoneal cavity, through which fluid/pus in the upper abdomen can trickle down into the pelvic cavity. (medscape.com)
  • Does the level of inferior mesenteric artery ligation affect short-term and long-term outcomes of patients with sigmoid colon cancer or rectal cancer? (biomedcentral.com)
  • For sigmoid colon or rectal cancer, a definite consensus regarding the optimal level ligating the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) has not been reached. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We performed this study to determine whether the ligation level significantly affected short-term and long-term outcomes of patients with sigmoid colon or rectal cancer after curative laparoscopic surgery. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Medical records of patients with sigmoid colon or rectal cancer who had undergone curative laparoscopic surgery between January 2008 and December 2014 at the Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine were reviewed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Level of IMA ligation did not significantly affect long-term outcomes of patients with sigmoid colon or rectal cancer after curative laparoscopic surgery. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Curative surgery remains the basis of treating rectal cancer and sigmoid colon cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Similarly, the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons has proposed LT in the textbook of colon and rectal surgery considering the decreased blood supply in the proximal colon observed after HT, while HT should be performed among patients suspected to have involved lymph nodes around IMA or situations where extravascular dissection was needed to obtain additional proximal colon to avoid excessive tension of anastomosis [ 16 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The American Cancer Society estimated that 104,610 new cases of colon and rectal cancer were diagnosed in the United States in 2020. (medscape.com)
  • The 2020 estimate for mortality from colon and rectal cancer is 53,200. (medscape.com)
  • Segelman J, Singnomklao T, Hellborg H, Martling A. Differences in MDT assessment and treatment between patients with stage IV colon and rectal cancer. (cancercentrum.se)
  • The potential for improved outcome in patients with hepatic metastases from colon cancer: A population-based study. (cancercentrum.se)
  • The combination of this method with a yearly fecal occult blood test is recommended to reduce the risk of a right colon tumor, which may be difficult to visualize with colonoscopy alone. (medscape.com)
  • Here, we applied capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry, which enables comprehensive and quantitative analysis of charged metabolites, to simultaneously measure their levels in tumor and grossly normal tissues obtained from 16 colon and 12 stomach cancer patients. (aacrjournals.org)
  • At operation, we found a bucket-handle tear of the colonic mesentery, which was the patient's primary injury and cause of the perforated colon. (nih.gov)
  • Examination of the ileum and colon using a flexible endoscope. (rchsd.org)
  • Diminutive intramucosal invasive (Tis) sigmoid colon carcinoma. (bvsalud.org)
  • 17. Glassy cell carcinoma of the colon with human chorionic gonadotropin-production. (nih.gov)
  • The effect of age and gender on outcome after surgery for colon carcinoma. (cancercentrum.se)
  • A 60-year-old woman underwent colonoscopy , which revealed a red, 5-mm protruded lesion in the sigmoid colon , surrounded by white spots in white - light imaging. (bvsalud.org)
  • Kudos to Dr Douglas Rex, a master of colonoscopy education for our era, for recently providing some great tips on achieving cecal intubation in difficult colons . (medscape.com)
  • Virtual colonoscopy: a CT scan image of the colon that does not require the use of an endoscope. (news-medical.net)
  • Abraham said having a traditional colonoscopy is ideal because it allows the physician to view the entire colon and it is both diagnostic and therapeutic. (news-medical.net)
  • It found people who got a colonoscopy were 53 less likely to die from colon cancer than people who weren't screened. (news-medical.net)
  • citation needed] The sigmoid colon begins at the superior aperture of the lesser pelvis, where it is continuous with the iliac colon, and passes transversely across the front of the sacrum to the right side of the pelvis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Behind the sigmoid colon are the external iliac vessels, ovary, obturator nerve, the left Piriformis, and left sacral plexus of nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • When I request a sigmoid lift or right-side down lift, I tell my team to apply pressure down toward the left pelvis, in the left iliac crest. (medscape.com)
  • Volvulus in the elderly commonly occurs in the sigmoid colon, whereas in infants and children it is more likely to occur in the midgut. (wikipedia.org)
  • This part of the colon normally lies within the pelvis, but due to its freedom of movement it is liable to be displaced into the abdominal cavity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ascending (right) colon lies vertically in the most lateral right part of the abdominal cavity. (medscape.com)
  • For those who want other options, there is a stool blood test the College recommends people get annually, or a flexible sigmoidoscopy - a thin camera tube that's inserted that looks at the lower parts of the colon - that people should get every five years. (news-medical.net)
  • Diverticulosis often occurs in the sigmoid colon in association with increased intraluminal pressure and focal weakness in the colonic wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another extremely common problem, called diverticulosis, starts when tiny pouches that develop in the sigmoid colon, says Harvard Health Publishing, It affects about a third of Americans by age 60. (livestrong.com)
  • Diverticulosis of the Large Intestine Diverticulosis is the presence of one or more balloon-like sacs (diverticula), usually in the large intestine (colon). (msdmanuals.com)
  • the ascending colon is also related to the duodenum . (medscape.com)
  • Colon cancer is the most common, and the most preventable, form of gastrointestinal cancer and the third most common cause of cancer-related death in the United States. (medscape.com)
  • Quantification of 94 metabolites in colon and 95 metabolites in stomach involved in glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, the TCA and urea cycles, and amino acid and nucleotide metabolisms resulted in the identification of several cancer-specific metabolic traits. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The present report describes a case of gastric cancer colon metastasis diagnosed 8 years and 10 months after gastrectomy for advanced gastric cancer. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Right hemicolectomy was performed, and pathological examination revealed colon metastasis from gastric cancer. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In colon metastasis not originating from infiltration of gastric cancer, endoscopic findings often reveal multiple polypoid or linitis plastica-like lesions due to submucosal development ( 5 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • According to a new guidance statement from the American College of Physicians all adults should get screened for colon cancer once they get older to reduce their risk of dying from the nation's number two cancer killer. (news-medical.net)
  • If polyps are identified, they are usually removed at the time of the procedure so they do not get a chance to grow into cancer, thereby preventing colon cancer," said Dr. Bincy Abraham, assistant professor of medicine - gastroenterology at BCM. (news-medical.net)
  • According to the ACP, most adults should get screened for colon cancer beginning at age 50. (news-medical.net)
  • People with a family history of colon cancer and others considered high-risk should get screened starting at age 40, or 10 years younger than the age of when your youngest family member was diagnosed with colon cancer. (news-medical.net)
  • Other risk factors for colon cancer include age, race - African Americans have highest rates in U.S. - history of polyps or inflammatory bowel disease. (news-medical.net)
  • Colon cancer is largely preventable as long as a person gets screened appropriately, said a gastroenterologist from the NCI-designated Dan L. Duncan Cancer Center at Baylor College of Medicine. (news-medical.net)
  • Colon cancer is expected to take more than 51,000 American lives this year, second to only lung cancer. (news-medical.net)
  • March is National Colon Cancer Awareness Month. (news-medical.net)
  • Colon cancer is the most common type of gastrointestinal cancer. (medscape.com)
  • Colon cancer is now often detected during screening procedures. (medscape.com)
  • Surgery is the only curative modality for localized colon cancer (stage I-III). (medscape.com)
  • Cancer staging and survival in colon cancer is dependent on the quality of the pathologists' specimen examination. (cancercentrum.se)
  • Loco-regional recurrence from colon cancer: A population-based study. (cancercentrum.se)
  • Colon cancer management and outcome in relation to individual hospitals in a defined population. (cancercentrum.se)
  • Pathological processes in the SIGMOID COLON region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE). (bvsalud.org)
  • The colon is identified with haustra (irregular incomplete sacculations confer regular complete valvulae conniventes in jejunum). (medscape.com)
  • If your sigmoid colon is sensitive or inflamed, your gastrocolic reflex may cause pain because your colon narrows and bends in this area,' says Dr. Cash. (livestrong.com)
  • If a meal causes a gastrocolic reflex and your sigmoid colon is filled with hard stool, that can be painful,' says Dr. Cash. (livestrong.com)
  • Visualization and removal of polyps in the colon using an endoscope. (rchsd.org)
  • pathologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the colon. (medscape.com)
  • [ 1 ] The image below depicts standard colectomies for adenocarcinoma of the colon. (medscape.com)
  • A flexible sigmoidoscopy only looks at a small portion of the colon and it could miss polyps or cancers in the right side of the colon. (news-medical.net)
  • This kind typically affects the entire colon and can result in episodes of severe bloody diarrhea as well as stomach pain, exhaustion, and significant weight loss. (vejthani.com)
  • In the ascending and descending colon, they are present anteriorly and on the posterolateral and posteromedial aspects. (medscape.com)
  • If you find that you're getting a loop in the colon as it dives into the pelvis, you can have the nurse's assistant, if they're able to, push up from the patient's left side down position with a V-shaped positioning on the mid-abdomen pushing upward. (medscape.com)
  • Because the sigmoid colon is located in the lower left part of your abdomen, problems with the sigmoid colon cause lower left abdominal pain. (livestrong.com)
  • It can be severe in people of any age, although it is most serious in older people, especially those taking corticosteroids or other medications that suppress the immune system and thus increase the risk of infection, including colon infection. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In 1908, Miles for the first time introduced the concept of en bloc removal of cancerous tissues and drainage lymph node systems [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The colon is supplied by the superior mesenteric artery through its right colic and middle colic branches and by the inferior mesenteric artery through its left colic and multiple sigmoid branches. (medscape.com)
  • Let's start with lift number one, which occurs during the early transition of the sigmoid loop. (medscape.com)
  • The fifth lift that I'll do occurs at the bend at the lower sigmoid. (medscape.com)
  • A continuing series of anastomoses between the distal branch of the proximal artery and the proximal branch of the distal artery runs along the mesenteric (inner) border of the colon and is called the marginal artery. (medscape.com)
  • Procesos patológicos en la región del COLON SIGMOIDE del INTESTINO GRUESO. (bvsalud.org)
  • The colon is a 5-6-ft long, U-shaped part of the large intestine ( lower gastrointestinal tract ). (medscape.com)
  • The nurse or assistant would push until we passed the sigmoid colon on the left side of the patient. (medscape.com)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate EFTR of a large target lesion using a newly developed large overtube ligation system in an ex vivo porcine colon. (sages.org)
  • This proof of concept study suggests that en bloc EFTR for large colonic lesions is feasible using a newly developed overtube ligation system. (sages.org)
  • Your stomach sends a message to your brain, and your brain causes your sigmoid colon to contract. (livestrong.com)