Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Colon, Descending: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between TRANSVERSE COLON and the SIGMOID COLON.Colon, Sigmoid: A segment of the COLON between the RECTUM and the descending colon.Colon, Ascending: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the TRANSVERSE COLON. It passes cephalad from the cecum to the caudal surface of the right lobe of the LIVER where it bends sharply to the left, forming the right colic flexure.Colon, Transverse: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between ASCENDING COLON and DESCENDING COLON. It passes from the RIGHT COLIC FLEXURE across the ABDOMEN, then turns sharply at the left colonic flexure into the descending colon.HT29 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells such as the GOBLET CELLS.Azoxymethane: A potent carcinogen and neurotoxic compound. It is particularly effective in inducing colon carcinomas.Diverticulum, Colon: A pouch or sac opening from the COLON.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Colonic Diseases: Pathological processes in the COLON region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.1,2-Dimethylhydrazine: A DNA alkylating agent that has been shown to be a potent carcinogen and is widely used to induce colon tumors in experimental animals.Colitis: Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Dimethylhydrazines: Hydrazines substituted with two methyl groups in any position.Colectomy: Excision of a portion of the colon or of the whole colon. (Dorland, 28th ed)Colonoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Caco-2 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.Sigmoid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SIGMOID COLON.Rectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Gastrointestinal Motility: The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Rectum: The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Cecum: The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.Dextran Sulfate: Long-chain polymer of glucose containing 17-20% sulfur. It has been used as an anticoagulant and also has been shown to inhibit the binding of HIV-1 to CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. It is commonly used as both an experimental and clinical laboratory reagent and has been investigated for use as an antiviral agent, in the treatment of hypolipidemia, and for the prevention of free radical damage, among other applications.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Butyrates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxypropane structure.Anticarcinogenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Intestinal Polyps: Discrete abnormal tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the INTESTINE. A polyp is attached to the intestinal wall either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.Rats, Inbred F344Colitis, Ulcerative: Inflammation of the COLON that is predominantly confined to the MUCOSA. Its major symptoms include DIARRHEA, rectal BLEEDING, the passage of MUCUS, and ABDOMINAL PAIN.Intestine, Large: A segment of the LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the CECUM; the COLON; and the RECTUM.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Colostomy: The surgical construction of an opening between the colon and the surface of the body.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Genes, APC: Tumor suppressor genes located in the 5q21 region on the long arm of human chromosome 5. The mutation of these genes is associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI) and GARDNER SYNDROME, as well as some sporadic colorectal cancers.Cecal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the CECUM.Aberrant Crypt Foci: Clusters of colonic crypts that appear different from the surrounding mucosa when visualized after staining. They are of interest as putative precursors to colorectal adenomas and potential biomarkers for colorectal carcinoma.Sigmoid Diseases: Pathological processes in the SIGMOID COLON region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Enema: A solution or compound that is introduced into the RECTUM with the purpose of cleansing the COLON or for diagnostic procedures.Mucins: High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid: A reagent that is used to neutralize peptide terminal amino groups.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Cathartics: Agents that are used to stimulate evacuation of the bowels.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Mice, Inbred BALB CTransplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Intestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.Cyclooxygenase 2: An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Adenomatous Polyposis Coli: A polyposis syndrome due to an autosomal dominant mutation of the APC genes (GENES, APC) on CHROMOSOME 5. The syndrome is characterized by the development of hundreds of ADENOMATOUS POLYPS in the COLON and RECTUM of affected individuals by early adulthood.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Microsatellite Instability: The occurrence of highly polymorphic mono- and dinucleotide MICROSATELLITE REPEATS in somatic cells. It is a form of genome instability associated with defects in DNA MISMATCH REPAIR.Intestinal Obstruction: Any impairment, arrest, or reversal of the normal flow of INTESTINAL CONTENTS toward the ANAL CANAL.Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein: A negative regulator of beta-catenin signaling which is mutant in ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI and GARDNER SYNDROME.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Diverticulitis, Colonic: Inflammation of the COLONIC DIVERTICULA, generally with abscess formation and subsequent perforation.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Mice, Inbred C57BLBarium Sulfate: A compound used as an x-ray contrast medium that occurs in nature as the mineral barite. It is also used in various manufacturing applications and mixed into heavy concrete to serve as a radiation shield.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Sulindac: A sulfinylindene derivative prodrug whose sulfinyl moiety is converted in vivo to an active NSAID analgesic. Specifically, the prodrug is converted by liver enzymes to a sulfide which is excreted in the bile and then reabsorbed from the intestine. This helps to maintain constant blood levels with reduced gastrointestinal side effects.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Methylhydrazines: Hydrazines substituted by one or more methyl groups in any position.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Chronic, non-specific inflammation of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Etiology may be genetic or environmental. This term includes CROHN DISEASE and ULCERATIVE COLITIS.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Adenomatous Polyps: Benign neoplasms derived from glandular epithelium. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Mucin-2: A gel-forming mucin found predominantly in SMALL INTESTINE and variety of mucous membrane-containing organs. It provides a protective, lubricating barrier against particles and infectious agents.Intestinal Perforation: Opening or penetration through the wall of the INTESTINES.Esophagoplasty: A plastic operation on the esophagus. (Dorland, 28th ed)Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Digestive System: A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Megacolon: Dilatation of the COLON, often to alarming dimensions. There are various types of megacolon including congenital megacolon in HIRSCHSPRUNG DISEASE, idiopathic megacolon in CONSTIPATION, and TOXIC MEGACOLON.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Myenteric Plexus: One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the gut. Its neurons project to the circular muscle, to other myenteric ganglia, to submucosal ganglia, or directly to the epithelium, and play an important role in regulating and patterning gut motility. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases: Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Sigmoidoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the sigmoid flexure.Gastrointestinal Contents: The contents included in all or any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Fatty Acids, Volatile: Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Anastomosis, Surgical: Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.Deoxycholic Acid: A bile acid formed by bacterial action from cholate. It is usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. Deoxycholic acid acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, is reabsorbed itself, and is used as a choleretic and detergent.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Colitis, Ischemic: Inflammation of the COLON due to colonic ISCHEMIA resulting from alterations in systemic circulation or local vasculature.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Jejunum: The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Levamisole: An antihelminthic drug that has been tried experimentally in rheumatic disorders where it apparently restores the immune response by increasing macrophage chemotaxis and T-lymphocyte function. Paradoxically, this immune enhancement appears to be beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis where dermatitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia, and nausea and vomiting have been reported as side effects. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p435-6)Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Crohn Disease: A chronic transmural inflammation that may involve any part of the DIGESTIVE TRACT from MOUTH to ANUS, mostly found in the ILEUM, the CECUM, and the COLON. In Crohn disease, the inflammation, extending through the intestinal wall from the MUCOSA to the serosa, is characteristically asymmetric and segmental. Epithelioid GRANULOMAS may be seen in some patients.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic: Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Camptothecin: An alkaloid isolated from the stem wood of the Chinese tree, Camptotheca acuminata. This compound selectively inhibits the nuclear enzyme DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE I. Several semisynthetic analogs of camptothecin have demonstrated antitumor activity.Genes, ras: Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.Defecation: The normal process of elimination of fecal material from the RECTUM.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Colonoscopes: Specially designed endoscopes for visualizing the interior surface of the colon.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Organoplatinum Compounds: Organic compounds which contain platinum as an integral part of the molecule.Adenoma, Villous: An adenoma of the large intestine. It is usually a solitary, sessile, often large, tumor of colonic mucosa composed of mucinous epithelium covering delicate vascular projections. Hypersecretion and malignant changes occur frequently. (Stedman, 25th ed)Piroxicam: A cyclooxygenase inhibiting, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that is well established in treating rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis and used for musculoskeletal disorders, dysmenorrhea, and postoperative pain. Its long half-life enables it to be administered once daily.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Leucovorin: The active metabolite of FOLIC ACID. Leucovorin is used principally as an antidote to FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS.Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Peristalsis: A movement, caused by sequential muscle contraction, that pushes the contents of the intestines or other tubular organs in one direction.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Colonic Diseases, Functional: Chronic or recurrent colonic disorders without an identifiable structural or biochemical explanation. The widely recognized IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME falls into this category.Colonography, Computed Tomographic: A non-invasive imaging method that uses computed tomographic data combined with specialized imaging software to examine the colon.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Ileostomy: Surgical creation of an external opening into the ILEUM for fecal diversion or drainage. This replacement for the RECTUM is usually created in patients with severe INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES. Loop (continent) or tube (incontinent) procedures are most often employed.Senna Extract: Preparations of Cassia senna and C. angustifolia (see SENNA PLANT). They contain sennosides, which are anthraquinone type CATHARTICS and are used in many different preparations as laxatives.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.DNA Mismatch Repair: A DNA repair pathway involved in correction of errors introduced during DNA replication when an incorrect base, which cannot form hydrogen bonds with the corresponding base in the parent strand, is incorporated into the daughter strand. Excinucleases recognize the BASE PAIR MISMATCH and cause a segment of polynucleotide chain to be excised from the daughter strand, thereby removing the mismatched base. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Butyric Acid: A four carbon acid, CH3CH2CH2COOH, with an unpleasant odor that occurs in butter and animal fat as the glycerol ester.Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors: A subclass of cyclooxygenase inhibitors with specificity for CYCLOOXYGENASE-2.Thymidylate Synthase: An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes the reaction 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate and dUMP to dihydrofolate and dTMP in the synthesis of thymidine triphosphate. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 2.1.1.45.Intestinal Polyposis: The growth of INTESTINAL POLYPS. Growth processes include neoplastic (ADENOMA and CARCINOMA) and non-neoplastic (hyperplastic, mucosal, inflammatory, and other polyps).Curcumin: A yellow-orange dye obtained from tumeric, the powdered root of CURCUMA longa. It is used in the preparation of curcuma paper and the detection of boron. Curcumin appears to possess a spectrum of pharmacological properties, due primarily to its inhibitory effects on metabolic enzymes.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Dinoprostone: The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Submucous Plexus: One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the enteric nervous system. The submucous (Meissner's) plexus is in the connective tissue of the submucosa. Its neurons innervate the epithelium, blood vessels, endocrine cells, other submucosal ganglia, and myenteric ganglia, and play an important role in regulating ion and water transport. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Sialomucins: A subcategory of mucins that contain SIALIC ACID.Gastrointestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.Diverticulosis, Colonic: A pathological condition characterized by the presence of a number of COLONIC DIVERTICULA in the COLON. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial, including colon aging, motor dysfunction, increases in intraluminal pressure, and lack of dietary fibers.Bifidobacterium: A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.TCF Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding proteins that are primarily expressed in T-LYMPHOCYTES. They interact with BETA CATENIN and serve as transcriptional activators and repressors in a variety of developmental processes.Wnt Proteins: Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous: An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Cocarcinogenesis: The combination of two or more different factors in the production of cancer.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.

Inhibition of in vitro enteric neuronal development by endothelin-3: mediation by endothelin B receptors. (1/8609)

The terminal colon is aganglionic in mice lacking endothelin-3 or its receptor, endothelin B. To analyze the effects of endothelin-3/endothelin B on the differentiation of enteric neurons, E11-13 mouse gut was dissociated, and positive and negative immunoselection with antibodies to p75(NTR )were used to isolate neural crest- and non-crest-derived cells. mRNA encoding endothelin B was present in both the crest-and non-crest-derived cells, but that encoding preproendothelin-3 was detected only in the non-crest-derived population. The crest- and non-crest-derived cells were exposed in vitro to endothelin-3, IRL 1620 (an endothelin B agonist), and/or BQ 788 (an endothelin B antagonist). Neurons and glia developed only in cultures of crest-derived cells, and did so even when endothelin-3 was absent and BQ 788 was present. Endothelin-3 inhibited neuronal development, an effect that was mimicked by IRL 1620 and blocked by BQ 788. Endothelin-3 failed to stimulate the incorporation of [3H]thymidine or bromodeoxyuridine. Smooth muscle development in non-crest-derived cell cultures was promoted by endothelin-3 and inhibited by BQ 788. In contrast, transcription of laminin alpha1, a smooth muscle-derived promoter of neuronal development, was inhibited by endothelin-3, but promoted by BQ 788. Neurons did not develop in explants of the terminal bowel of E12 ls/ls (endothelin-3-deficient) mice, but could be induced to do so by endothelin-3 if a source of neural precursors was present. We suggest that endothelin-3/endothelin B normally prevents the premature differentiation of crest-derived precursors migrating to and within the fetal bowel, enabling the precursor population to persist long enough to finish colonizing the bowel.  (+info)

Expression of nitric oxide synthase in inflammatory bowel disease is not affected by corticosteroid treatment. (2/8609)

AIM: To examine the effect of corticosteroid treatment on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the colon of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: Four groups of patients were studied: (1) ulcerative colitis treated with high dose corticosteroids (six patients, 10 blocks); (2) ulcerative colitis patients who had never received corticosteroids (10 patients, 16 blocks); (3) Crohn's disease treated with high dose corticosteroids (12 patients, 24 blocks); (4) Non-inflammatory, non-neoplastic controls (four patients, six blocks). Full thickness paraffin sections of colons removed at surgery were immunostained with an antibody raised against the C terminal end of iNOS. Sections were assessed semiquantitatively for the presence and degree of inflammation and immunoreactivity for nitric oxide synthase. RESULTS: Cases of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease with active inflammation showed strong staining for nitric oxide synthase. The staining was diffuse in ulcerative colitis and patchy in Crohn's disease, in accordance with the distribution of active inflammation. Staining was seen in epithelial cells and was most intense near areas of inflammation such as crypt abscesses. Non-inflamed epithelium showed no immunoreactivity. Treatment with corticosteroids made no difference to the amount of nitric oxide synthase. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of nitric oxide synthase is increased in both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease and appears to be unaffected by treatment with corticosteroids. Disease severity necessitated surgery in all the cases included in this study, regardless of whether or not the patients had received long term corticosteroid treatment. It seems therefore that a high level of iNOS expression and, presumably, production of nitric oxide characterise cases which are refractory to clinical treatment; this suggests that specific inhibition of the enzyme may be a useful therapeutic adjunct.  (+info)

Colon and rectal anastomoses do not require routine drainage: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (3/8609)

OBJECTIVE: Many surgeons continue to place a prophylactic drain in the pelvis after completion of a colorectal anastomosis, despite considerable evidence that this practice may not be useful. The authors conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to determine if placement of a drain after a colonic or rectal anastomosis can reduce the rate of complications. METHODS: A search of the Medline database of English-language articles published from 1987 to 1997 was conducted using the terms "colon," "rectum," "postoperative complications," "surgical anastomosis," and "drainage." A manual search was also conducted. Four randomized controlled trials, including a total of 414 patients, were identified that compared the routine use of drainage of colonic and/or rectal anastomoses to no drainage. Two reviewers assessed the trials independently. Trial quality was critically appraised using a previously published scale, and data on mortality, clinical and radiologic anastomotic leakage rate, wound infection rate, and major complication rate were extracted. RESULTS: The overall quality of the studies was poor. Use of a drain did not significantly affect the rate of any of the outcomes examined, although the power of this analysis to exclude any difference was low. Comparison of pooled results revealed an odds ratio for clinical leak of 1.5 favoring the control (no drain) group. Of the 20 observed leaks among all four studies that occurred in a patient with a drain in place, in only one case (5%) did pus or enteric content actually appear in the effluent of the existing drain. CONCLUSIONS: Any significant benefit of routine drainage of colon and rectal anastomoses in reducing the rate of anastomotic leakage or other surgical complications can be excluded with more confidence based on pooled data than by the individual trials alone. Additional well-designed randomized controlled trials would further reinforce this conclusion.  (+info)

Segmental colonic transit after oral 67Ga-citrate in healthy subjects and those with chronic idiopathic constipation. (4/8609)

Measurement of segmental colonic transit is important in the assessment of patients with severe constipation. 111In-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) has been established as the tracer of choice for these studies, but it is expensive and not readily available. 67Ga-citrate is an inexpensive tracer and when given orally is not absorbed from the bowel. It was compared with 111In-DTPA in colonic transit studies in nonconstipated control subjects and then in patients with idiopathic constipation. METHODS: Studies were performed after oral administration of 3 MBq (81 microCi) 67Ga-citrate or 4 MBq (108 microCi) 111In-DTPA in solution. Serial abdominal images were performed up to 96 h postinjection, and computer data were generated from geometric mean images of segmental retention of tracer, mean activity profiles and a colonic tracer half-clearance time. RESULTS: There were no differences in segmental retention of either tracer or in mean activity profiles between control subjects and constipated patients. Results in constipated subjects were significantly different from those in controls. The mean half-clearance times of tracer for control subjects were 28.8 h for 67Ga-citrate and 29.9 h for 111In-DTPA in control subjects and 75.0 h for 67Ga-citrate and 70.8 h for 111In-DTPA in constipated patients. CONCLUSION: Oral 67Ga-citrate can be used as a safe alternative to 111In-DTPA for accurate measurement of segmental colonic transit.  (+info)

Modulation of distal colonic epithelial barrier function by dietary fibre in normal rats. (5/8609)

BACKGROUND: Dietary fibre influences the turnover and differentiation of the colonic epithelium, but its effects on barrier function are unknown. AIMS: To determine whether altering the type and amount of fibre in the diet affects paracellular permeability of intestinal epithelium, and to identify the mechanisms of action. METHODS: Rats were fed isoenergetic low fibre diets with or without supplements of wheat bran (10%) or methylcellulose (10%), for four weeks. Paracellular permeability was determined by measurement of conductance and 51Cr-EDTA flux across tissue mounted in Ussing chambers. Faecal short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations were assessed by gas chromatography, epithelial kinetics stathmokinetically, and mucosal brush border hydrolase activities spectrophotometrically. RESULTS: Body weight was similar across the dietary groups. Conductance and 51Cr-EDTA flux were approximately 25% higher in animals fed no fibre, compared with those fed wheat bran or methylcellulose in the distal colon, but not in the caecum or jejunum. Histologically, there was no evidence of epithelial injury or erosion associated with any diet. The fibres exerted different spectra of effects on luminal SCFA concentrations and pH, and on mucosal indexes, but both bulked the faeces, were trophic to the epithelium, and stimulated expression of a marker of epithelial differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: Both a fermentable and a non-fermentable fibre reduce paracellular permeability specifically in the distal colon, possibly by promoting epithelial cell differentiation. The mechanisms by which the two fibres exert their effects are likely to be different.  (+info)

The role of psychological and biological factors in postinfective gut dysfunction. (6/8609)

BACKGROUND: Both psychological and physiological disturbances have been implicated in the aetiopathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). AIMS: To investigate how the psychological factors act, and the involvement of infective and physiological factors. METHODS: Consecutive patients hospitalised for gastroenteritis reported life events for the previous 12 months, and past illness experiences on standardised questionnaires. They also completed psychometric questionnaires for anxiety, neuroticism, somatisation, and hypochondriasis. In some patients, rectal biopsy specimens were obtained during the acute illness and at three months postinfection. RESULTS: Ninety four patients completed all questionnaires: 22 patients were diagnosed with IBS after their gastroenteritis (IBS+), and 72 patients returned to normal bowel habits (IBS-). IBS+ patients reported more life events and had higher hypochondriasis scores than IBS- patients. The predictive value of the life event and hypochondriasis measures was highly significant and independent of anxiety, neuroticism, and somatisation scores, which were also elevated in IBS+ patients. Rectal biopsy specimens from 29 patients showed a chronic inflammatory response in both IBS+ and IBS- patients. Three months later, specimens from IBS+ patients continued to show increased chronic inflammatory cell counts but those from IBS- patients had returned to normal levels. IBS+ and IBS- patients exhibited rectal hypersensitivity and hyper-reactivity and rapid colonic transit compared with normal controls, but there were no significant differences between IBS+ and IBS- patients for these physiological measurements. CONCLUSION: Psychological factors most clearly predict the development of IBS symptoms after gastroenteritis but biological mechanisms also contribute towards the expression of symptoms.  (+info)

Is early post-operative treatment with 5-fluorouracil possible without affecting anastomotic strength in the intestine? (7/8609)

Early post-operative local or systemic administration of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is under investigation as a means to improve outcome after resection of intestinal malignancies. It is therefore quite important to delineate accurately its potentially negative effects on anastomotic repair. Five groups (n = 24) of rats underwent resection and anastomosis of both ileum and colon: a control group and four experimental groups receiving daily 5-FU, starting immediately after operation or after 1, 2 or 3 days. Within each group, the drug (or saline) was delivered either intraperitoneally (n = 12) or intravenously (n = 12). Animals were killed 7 days after operation and healing was assessed by measurement of anastomotic bursting pressure, breaking strength and hydroxyproline content. In all cases, 5-FU treatment from the day of operation or from day 1 significantly (P<0.025) and severely suppressed wound strength; concomitantly, the anastomotic hydroxyproline content was reduced. Depending on the location of the anastomosis and the route of 5-FU administration, even a period of 3 days between operation and first dosage seemed insufficient to prevent weakening of the anastomosis. The effects of intravenous administration, though qualitatively similar, were quantitatively less dramatic than those observed after intraperitoneal delivery. Post-operative treatment with 5-FU, if started within the first 3 days after operation, is detrimental to anastomotic strength and may compromise anastomotic integrity.  (+info)

Low tumour cell proliferation at the invasive margin is associated with a poor prognosis in Dukes' stage B colorectal cancers. (8/8609)

The conflicting results about the prognostic impact of tumour cell proliferation in colorectal cancer might be explained by the heterogeneity observed within these tumours. We have investigated whether a systematic spatial heterogeneity exists between different compartments, and whether the presence of such a systematic heterogeneity has any impact on survival. Fifty-six Dukes' stage B colorectal cancers were carefully morphometrically quantified with respect to the immunohistochemical expression of the proliferative marker Ki-67 at both the luminal border and the invasive margin. The proliferative activity was significantly higher at the luminal border compared with the invasive margin (P<0.001), although the two compartments were also significantly correlated with each other. Tumours with low proliferation at the invasive margin had a significantly poorer prognosis both in univariate (P = 0.014) and in multivariate survival analyses (P = 0.042). We conclude that Dukes' B colorectal cancers exhibit a systematic spatial heterogeneity with respect to proliferation, and tumours with low proliferation at the invasive margin had a poor prognosis. The present data independently confirm recent results from the authors, and provide new insights into the understanding of tumour cell proliferation in colorectal cancer.  (+info)

Mouse Colonic Smooth Muscle Cells from Creative Bioarray are isolated from tissue of pathogen-free laboratory mice. Mouse Colonic Smooth Muscle Cells are grown in T25 tissue culture flasks pre-coated with gelatin-based solution for 0.5 hour and incubated in Creative Bioarrays Cell Culture Medium generally for 3-7 days. Cultures are then expanded. Prior to shipping, cells are detached from flasks and immediately cryo-preserved in vials. Each vial contains at least 1x10^6 cells per ml and is delivered frozen ...
MEKK1-MKK4-JNK-AP1 Pathway Negatively Regulates Rgs4 Expression in Colonic Smooth Muscle Cells. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
BACKGROUND: The predominant colonic short chain fatty acids, acetate, propionate, and butyrate, are oxidised into CO2 in colonocytes from rat and humans in the preferred order of butyrate (C4) , propionate (C3) , acetate (C2)- hence butyrate is considered to be the principal oxidative substrate for colonocytes. AIMS: To compare colonocyte oxidation of valerate (C5), hexanoate (C6), and octanoate (C8) with that of butyrate. METHODS: Isolated rat colonocytes were incubated in the presence of a concentration range of 1-14C labelled C2-C8 fatty acids. Oxidation rates were obtained by quantifying the production of 14CO2, and Vmax (maximum velocity) and K(m) (Michaelis-Menten constant) were calculated by computer fitting of the data to a Michaelis-Menten plot. RESULTS: The K(m) value of acetate (0.56 (SEM 0.02) mmol/l) was about fourfold higher than the K(m) of butyrate (0.13 (0.01) mmol/l), whereas the K(m) values of valerate (0.19 (0.01) mmol/l), hexanoate (0.19 (0.01) mmol/l), and octanoate (0.16 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Crohns disease associated SNP rs6651252 impacts MYC gene expression in human colonic epithelial cells. AU - Matthews, Stephen M.. AU - Eshelman, Melanie A.. AU - Berg, Arthur S.. AU - Koltun, Walter A.. AU - Yochum, Gregory S.. PY - 2019/2. Y1 - 2019/2. N2 - Crohns disease (CD) is a debilitating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that arises from chronic inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified over 200 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with a predisposition for developing IBD. For the majority, the causal variant and target genes affected are unknown. Here, we investigated the CD-associated SNP rs6651252 that maps to a gene desert region on chromosome 8. We demonstrate that rs6651252 resides within a Wnt responsive DNA enhancer element (WRE) and that the disease associated allele augments binding of the TCF7L2 transcription factor to this region. Using CRISPR/ Cas9 directed gene editing and ...
Increased mucosal infiltration by leucocytes is a characteristic feature of inflammatory bowel disease and chemotactic factors play a key role in the recruitment of inflammatory cells. Intestinal epithelial cells act as the interface between the contents of the gut lumen and the internal milieu, which places them in an ideal position to detect and respond to proinflammatory stimuli.. In this study we have shown that human colonic cell lines, HT29-19A and Caco-2, express distinct patterns of chemokine secretion, both constitutively and after stimulation by inflammatory agonists. HT29-19A cells, which have a phenotype similar to that expected of Cl− secretory cells in the crypt epithelium,18 secreted high levels of both IL-8 and GROα, primarily in response to TNF-α and IL-1. These chemokines were secreted in parallel, probably via a common pathway as judged by their virtually identical time course for secretion and dose responsiveness to cytokine stimulation, suggesting that they may have ...
B129 Mouse Colonic Microvascular Endothelial Cells from Creative Bioarray are isolated from colonic tissue of pathogen-free laboratory B129S2/SvPasCrl mice. B129 Mouse Colonic Microvascular Endothelial Cells are grown in T25 tissue culture flasks pre-coated with gelatin-based coating solution for 2 min and incubated in Creative Bioarray Culture Complete Growth Medium generally for 3-7 days. Cultures are then expanded. Prior to shipping, cells are detached from flasks and immediately cryo-preserved in vials. Each vial contains at least 1x10^6 cells per ml and are delivered frozen. The method we use to isolate endothelial cells was developed based on a combination of established and our proprietary methods. These cells are pre-coated with PECAM-1 antibody, following the application of magnetic pre-coated with secondary antibody ...
Distorted bands from human colon samples - posted in SDS-PAGE and Western Blotting: I have been running western blots for some time now and I am having difficulty running some human colon samples that perhaps I could get advice on. In brief my protocol is as follows: To 0.12g of colon tissue, I add 1ml of RIPA (0.96g Tris, 3.5g NaCL, 0.24g EDTA, 0.3g EGTA, 4g Na Doxycholate, 4ml Triton-X 100, 4ml 10% SDS, made up to 400ml with dH2). I leave the tissue in RIPA for 10 mins on ice, after whic...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The G-protein coupled receptor 56, expressed in colonic stem and cancer cells, binds progastrin to promote proliferation and carcinogenesis. AU - Jin, Guangchun. AU - Sakitani, Kosuke. AU - Wang, Hongshan. AU - Jin, Ying. AU - Dubeykovskiy, Alexander. AU - Worthley, Daniel L.. AU - Tailor, Yagnesh. AU - Wang, Timothy C.. PY - 2017/1/1. Y1 - 2017/1/1. N2 - Overexpression of human progastrin increases colonic mucosal proliferation and colorectal cancer progression in mice. The G-protein coupled receptor 56 (GPR56) is known to regulate cell adhesion, migration, proliferation and stem cell biology, but its expression in the gut has not been studied. We hypothesized that the promotion of colorectal cancer by progastrin may be mediated in part through GPR56. Here, we found that GPR56 expresses in rare colonic crypt cells that lineage trace colonic glands consistent with GPR56 marking long-lived colonic stem-progenitor cells. GPR56 was upregulated in transgenic mice overexpressing human ...
This project aims to better understand the role of Src kinase on the development of colon cancer. Enhanced Src expression and activity are commonly elevated in colon cancer, with progressively higher activity observed as tumors progress and metastasize, however, the specific mechanism by which Src promotes cancer progression are still under investigation. First, we examined the potential for biological cooperativity between APC (adenomatous polyposis coli), a tumor suppressor often mutated in early stages of colon cancer, and elevated Src activity, using conditionally immortalized mouse colon epithelial cell lines, IMCE (APC +/min) and YAMC (APC +/+) as a model. The APC genotype did not affect the ability of Src to disrupt cell-cell junctions and promote cell invasiveness. However, IMCE cells exhibited increased capacity for oncogenic Src-mediated anchorage-independent proliferation as compared to YAMC cells. This property was correlated with enhanced â-catenin expression and activity, but not ...
The aim of this project was to develop a system using the methods and techniques of computerised image processing and analysis in order to quantitatively describe patterns of movement in smooth muscle. The algorithms developed have been applied to the investigation of the co-ordination of motility of rabbit colon in vitro. The MAGISCAN 2 image processor used in this project is designed to analyse single still photographic images from a television camera. In the analysis of movement it is essential to process sequences of images with respect to time. These must be captured at a rate much faster than the period of the movements being investigated. To define precisely complex movements such as gut peristalsis large data sets must be used. Typically this requires the processing of several thousand photographs, the photographs being taken at a rate of three frames/sec over a period of half an hour. The most efficient way to achieve this is to capture, fully analyse and store the derived parameters of ...
We present a theoretical and computational framework to model the colonic crypt organisation in the human intestine. We construct a theoretical and computational framework to model the colonic crypt b
in NVP-BHG712 viable cells was eluted from the cells with a mixture of acetic acid, ethanol and water . The plates were agitated on a micro titer plate shaker
A29 (Background) It has been estimated that approximately 1010 of normal adult colonic epithelial cells, each having a lifespan of 3-4days, are shed daily from the lower two-thirds of colon crypts; thus, using colonocytes to develop a screening test is an attainable goal. There is a need for sensitive and specific diagnostic and prognostic molecular markers which can monitor early patterns of gene expression in non-invasive exfoliated colonocytes shed in the stool. There were a few studies of RNA -based detection method because of the characteristics in stool. We report here the mass RNA analysis using stool in colorectal cancer. (Method) The study included 15 patients with colorectal cancer, and 15 control patients without neoplastic disease of the colon and rectum. RNA was isolated from routinely collected stool samples using a modified method. The expression levels of survivin, livin, Akt-1, caveolin, histone deacetylase(HDAC)1, matrix metalloproteinases(MMP)-2, MMP-7, MMP-9, MMP-12, hepatoma ...
The Jets have their starting offensive line set for 2014 after re-signing right guard Willie Colon on Wednesday. The $2 million contract is for one year,...
Interleukin 10 inhibits interferon γ- and tumor necrosis factor α-stimulated activation of NADPH oxidase 1 in human colonic epithelial cells and the mouse colon (2009 ...
Both of my older brothers had colon cancer; the oldest died at 36 and the other lost his colon at 48. This was when my family learned that we hold the mutation for Lynch syndrome. Lynch syndrome is an inherited disorder that increases your risk for a dozen different early onset cancers, particularly cancers of the colon and rectum. My particular mutation also holds implications for cancer of the stomach, small intestine, liver, gallbladder ducts, upper urinary tract, brain and skin.
Download Celia and Willie by Celia Cruz and Willie Colon at MP3mixx.com! High Quality, Preview Available. Songs start at just $0.15!
During this evolution from the gut pathology mentioned while in the documents to what was published inside the paper, boy or girl threes case is a primary illustration. Just after ileocolonoscopy (which, GMC prosecution and defence gurus agreed, was not clinically indicated116), the hospitals pathologists identified all colonic samples to generally be "inside normal histological limits ...
Official Post from Youre A Kitty! Studio by Giselle Colon: Ive updated the price tiers to reflect adding cosplay into all of this! I know I have some people at the $5 tier that are donating $10 so if youd like all the benefits of the $10 tier then go to Edit your patronage (or something like that) and you can select the $10 tier. Im pretty sure it does
Participant eligibility includes age, gender, type and stage of disease, and previous treatments or health concerns. Guidelines differ from study to study, and identify who can or cannot participate. There is no guarantee that every individual who qualifies and wants to participate in a trial will be enrolled. Please contact the study team to discuss whether or not you are eligible to participate in a study.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of fluid perfusion and cleansing on canine colonic motor activity. AU - Sarna, S. K.. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - We investigated the effect of absorbable and nonabsorbable fluid perfusion and cleansing on colonic motor activity in eight intact conscious dogs. Each dog was instrumented with an indwelling catheter in the proximal colon and seven strain gauge transducers on the entire colon. After an overnight fast, a control recording was made for 3 h, followed by 3 h of perfusion and 3 additional h of postperfusion recording. Next day, a 3-h recording was made when the colon was empty. The colon exhibited normal migrating and nonmigrating motor complexes in the control uncleansed state. The perfusion of absorbable electrolyte or nonabsorbable Colyte solution immediately disrupted the migrating motor complexes and replaced them with almost continuous but irregular contractions at all recording sites. Both solutions significantly prolonged the mean and total duration per hour ...
Charrier , C , Duncan , G J , Reid , M D , Rucklidge , G J , Henderson , D , Young , P , Russell , V J , Aminov , R I , Flint , H J & Louis , P 2006 , A novel class of CoA-transferase involved in short-chain fatty acid metabolism in butyrate-producing human colonic bacteria Microbiology , vol 152 , no. 1 , pp. 179-185 . DOI: 10.1099/MIC.0.28412- ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prolonged ambulatory monitoring of colonic motor activity in the pig. AU - Crowell, M. D.. AU - Musial, F.. AU - French, W.. AU - Kittur, D.. AU - Anderson, D.. AU - Whitehead, W. E.. PY - 1992/9. Y1 - 1992/9. N2 - The aim of this study was to develop a chronic model suitable for repeated, long-term studies of the interaction of behavior and colonic function in unrestrained pigs. Cecostomies were created in three 20-30 kg micropigs under general anesthesia. Fistulas were created by suturing the bowel to the abdominal wall. Recordings were made by passing a small (8F) solid-state pressure transducer through the fistula into the proximal bowel and connecting it to a battery-operated data logger worn in a vest on the pigs back. Cecostomies have remained patent and trouble-free for over 18 months. No serious infections have occurred. Preliminary data from a total of thirteen 24-h recording sessions showed 54% of all contractile activity to be in the 2-4 cpm frequency range. ...
Recently, we delineated the mechanism in which graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), the major detrimental effect of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, is enhanced by pathogenic colon-derived donor dendritic cells (DC) in a murine model. First, we will find the genetic signature of these DC using RNA sequence assay. Secondly, we will identify the equivalent human DC from post-transplant patients blood sample. The genetic profile of pathogenic colon-derived DC will provide us with a powerful biomarker to predict and treat severe GVHD. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Measurement of the Nucleus Area and Nucleus/Cytoplasm and Mitochondria/Nucleus Ratios in Human Colon Tissues by Dual-Colour Two-Photon Microscopy Imaging. AU - Su Lim, Chang. AU - Kim, Eun-Sun. AU - Yeon Kim, Ji. AU - Taek Hong, Seung. AU - Chun, Hoon-Jai. AU - Eun Kang, Dong. AU - Cho, Bong-Rae. PY - 2015/12/17. Y1 - 2015/12/17. N2 - We developed two-photon (TP) probes for DNA (ABI-Nu), cytoplasm (Pyr-CT), and mitochondria (BF-MT). We found that ABI-Nu binds to AT in the minor groove, while ABI-Nu and BF-MT are effective for tracking in the cytoplasm and mitochondria, respectively. These probes showed very large effective two-photon action cross section values of 2230, 1555, and 790 Göppert-Mayer units (1GM=10-50 cm4s photon-1 molecule-1) at 740nm with emission maxima at 473, 561, and 560nm, respectively, in each organelle. Using these probes, we quantitatively estimated the mean nuclear area and the ratios of nuclei to cytoplasm and mitochondria to nuclei in human colon ...
Descending rabbit colon, stripped ofmuscularis externa, absorbs Na and Cl under short-circuit conditions and exhibits a residual ion flux, consistent with HCO3 secretion, whose magnitude is approximately equal to the rate of active Cl absorption. Net K transport was not observed under short-circuit conditions. The results of ion replacement studies and of treatment with ouabain or amiloride suggest that the short-circuit currentI sc is determined solely by the rate of active Na transport and that the net movements of Cl and HCO3 are mediated by a Na-independent, electrically-neutral, anion exchange process. Cyclic AMP stimulates an electrogenic Cl secretion, abolishes HCO3 secretion but does not affect the rate of Na absorption under short-circuit conditions. Studies of the effect of transepithelial potential difference on the serosa-to-mucosa fluxesJ sm i of Na, K and Cl suggest thatJ sm Na ,J sm K and one-third ofJ sm Cl may be attributed to ionic diffusion. The permeabilities of the passive
博士論文. Volume regulation is one of the most important cell functions to maintain cell homeostasis in a variety of physiological and pathological conditions, where cells are subject to osmotic perturbation. Although colon crypts have been reported to shrink during Cl,SUP,-,/SUP, secretion in response to secretagogue stimulation, it is not yet clear whether or how individual secretory cells located in colon crypts restore their cell volume. To study this, he visualized individual cells in the crypt isolated from the guinea pig distal colon using two-photon laser scanning microscopy, and their volume changes in response to carbachol (CCh), a cholinergic agonist, were compared with those of a human colonic epithelial T84 cell line. Both T84 cells and fundus crypt cells, but not upper crypt cells, showed shrinkage (termed a secretory volume decrease: SVD) after CCh stimulation, and surprisingly, even under continuous stimulation by CCh, they recovered their original cell volume (called a ...
We (30) have recently reported that the majority of mouse LS colon sensory neurons respond to heat, protons, and capsaicin, consistent with the expression of TRPV1 channels. In the present report, we examined, in greater detail, the acid-sensitive currents in this population of colon sensory neurons as well as in a second TL sensory pathway innervating the distal colon. We found that visceral sensory neurons labeled from the colon are functionally distinct from unlabeled neurons, which likely project to nonvisceral targets, such as the skin or muscle. Whereas most unlabeled DRG neurons generated transient amiloride-sensitive currents in response to acid, most LS and TL colon sensory neurons responded with slowly activating, sustained currents that were reversibly inhibited by the TRPV1 blocker capsazepine. Consistent with the role of TRPV1 as the principal mediator of acid-sensitive currents in colon sensory neurons, the peak current and fraction of neurons responding to acid were significantly ...
The populations of dominant species within the human colonic microbiota can potentially be modified by dietary intake with consequences for health. Here we examined the influence of precisely controlled diets in 14 overweight men. Volunteers were provided successively with a control diet, diets high …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ureteral replacement with reconfigured colon substitute. AU - Pope, John. AU - Koch, Michael. PY - 1996/5. Y1 - 1996/5. N2 - Purpose: Upper ureteral defects are often too extensive to repair by direct anastomosis or with use of a bladder flap. Ureteral substitution may be the only remaining alternative to restoring urinary drainage from the kidney to the bladder. This effect is usually achieved by interposing a segment of small bowel between the proximal collecting system and bladder. If ileum is not available other substitution alternatives must be sought. Materials and Methods: We report a new technique in which a tube constructed from a small piece of ascending colon was used to replace a large ureteral defect. Results: Excellent short-term results were achieved by replacing the strictured ureteral segment with a reconfigured colon segment as shown by symptomatic and radiographic improvement. Conclusions: A reconfigured colon segment can be used for ureteral reconstruction in ...
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Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a highly heterogeneous disease worldwide. Long non‑coding RNA (lncRNA) tumor suppressor candidate 7 (TUSC7) plays a crucial role in the development of several cancers. However, the role of TUSC7 in the tumorigenesis of CRC has not been explored. The TUSC7‑overexpressing CRC cell lines SW480 and CaCo‑2 were generated to investigate the effects of TUSC7 on the growth, migration, invasion and epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) of CRC cells. CCK‑8, wound‑healing and Transwell assays were used to evaluate CRC cell proliferation, migration and invasion. The mRNA and protein expression of TUSC7 were detected by quantitative real‑time PCR and immunoblotting, respectively. In the present study, we observed that the expression of TUSC7 was decreased in CRC cells compared to the expression in the normal colon epithelial cell line NCM460. Moreover, overexpression of TUSC7 inhibited CRC cell proliferation, metastasis, invasion and EMT. These findings indicated ...
Ascending Colon Membrane Lysate Catalog Number: XBL-10523 By Type: Tissue Species: Human Diagnosis: Normal Tested Applications: WB Size: 0.1 mg ...
In development of colorectal cancer (CRC), stem cell (SC) overpopulation underlies tumor initiation and progression, but it is incompletely understood which dysregulated mechanisms cause SC overpopulation. Because neuroendocrine cell (NEC) and SC populations both reside in the SC niche at the normal crypt bottom, we hypothesized that i) NECs play a role in maintaining the SC population, and ii) changes in the NEC population contributes to SC overpopulation and altered epithelial: stromal interactions during tumorigenesis. Immunofluorescence mapping and flow cytometry were used to analyze SC niche structure and cell-cell interactions in normal and neoplastic colonic tissues from Caucasian and African-American patients. In normal colonic crypts, most cells (77%) staining positively for the colonic SC marker ALDH1, also co-stained for the NE cell marker chromogranin-A (CGA). In the progression from normal to normal-appearing FAP to adenomatous to malignant colonic tissue, the proportion of ...
Hello [ColleagueName], I found this podcast titled Geoffrey Colon on Disruptive Marketing on the AMA Website that may help in professional development. You can find out more about it here, Geoffrey Colon on Disruptive ...
Despite there being no clearcut advantages, one of the most common recommendations in IBS management is to increase the amount of dietary fibres. In some IBS patients fibres have a deleterious effect on pain and bloating. It has been shown that butyrate can increase colonic sensitivity in rats. Our purpose is to study whether butyrogenic fibres can modify rectal sensitivity and symptoms in IBS and healthy control through a modification of colonic flora ...
Health, table width 218 border 0 cellspacing ...a target _self href http://www.eurekalert.org/multimedia/pub/12012...,Inflammation,in,colon,may,get,doused,before,fueling,cancer,development,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Another perplexing aspect of the /32-microglobulin association of CD1 proteins has recently been demonstrated by a report of P2microglobulin-independent expression of the human C D l d protein by intestinal epithelial cells. Immunoprecipitations from lysates of =I-labeled normal colonic epithelial cells performed with these mAbs, or with a mAb raised against a bacterial fusion protein constructed from the human C D l d cDNA sequence (Bilsland and Milstein, 1991), revealed a 100-kDa band under nonreducing conditions and a single 37-kDa band after reduction. 1987a). In similar fashion, two separate epitopes have been defined on the C D l b molecule, whereas the four anti-CDlc mAbs so far examined in this fashion appear to bind to the same or overlapping epitopes (Amiot et al. 1986, 1987b; Favaloro et al. 1987a). The relationship of these serologic epitopes to the protein structure of CD1 is currently unknown. , 1989). This variable reactivity with trypsin-cleaved CDla further underscores the ...
Im getting surgery on Match 6th, removing 80 percent of my colon at first. (Three stage surgery) Ive been prescribed Flagyl and Pred. I was wondering if...
In the UK alone the statistics make sombre reading. Did you know that most people can suffer with problems in their colon at some time in their life, those less fortunate suffer long term? Its one of those subjects that no-one wants to openly discuss either and that means you may not get support when you need it and you may not have the information you need to make informed choices. Understanding is part of the key and thats what this website is about. Because your Colon works to eliminate waste from your body it is an integral part of keeping you well and healthy.. The colon works hard on your behalf clearing the toxins that enter your system and trying to evacuate the toxins on a regular basis. Help your colon to help yourself! As your colon acts as the sewage system for your body you can get problems if it gets blocked or overloaded. Think about the effects a blocked or faulty sewer would have on your home.. ...
The Mets arent expected to make Bartolo Colon available at this years trade deadline, Andy Martino of the New York Daily News reports, barring a situation where "trading him would somehow directly improve their playoff chances." Colon, Dillon Gee and Jon Niese were all being shopped by the Mets during the offseason but none were dealt, a non-move that could end up being a prudent one for the team given that Zack Wheeler was lost for the season due to Tommy John surgery.. Colon has essentially been seen as a trade candidate ever since he signed his two-year, $20MM free agent contract in January 2014. As Martino puts it, "the Mets might has well have issued Colon a jersey with PLACEHOLDER on the back" as the thinking was that the Mets would eventually use the veteran as a trade chip once one of their younger arms was ready to take his spot in the rotation. The Mets didnt get much interest about Colon at last years trade deadline, however, and despite testing his market over the winter, the ...
Learn more about Pólipos de Colon at Portsmouth Regional Hospital DefiniciónCausasFactores de riesgoSíntomasDiagnósticoTratamientoPrevenció...
Learn more about Angiodisplasia del Colon at Medical City Dallas DefiniciónCausasFactores de RiesgoSíntomasDiagnósticoTratamientoPrevenció...
Researchers have identified an enzyme that is absent in healthy colon tissue but abundant in colon cancer cells. The enzyme appears to drive the conversion of normal colon tissue into cancer by attaching sugar molecules, or glycans, to certain proteins in the cell.
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The multigenic nature of human tumors presents a fundamental challenge for cancer research. To capture this genetic complexity we generated multigenic models of colon cancer in Drosophila-double, triple and quadruple combinations of transgenes representing mutations found together in sequenced human colon tumors. We then investigated the tumorigenic and metastatic potential of each of these combinations by targeting them specifically to the adult Drosophila colon as it shows important similarities to the human colon in terms of the signaling pathways that regulate its maintenance. We focused our initial analysis on three quadruple combinations: 1) rasG12V p53RNAi apcRNAi ptenRNAi, 2) rasG12V p53RNAi apcRNAi Smad4RNAi and 3) egfr p53RNAi apcRNAi Smad4RNAi. These models recapitulated key features of human cancer, including proliferation and multilayering of the colon epithelium, evasion of apoptosis and a senescence-like process, epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT), migration and dissemination ...
put him on his back, " i said, oozing confidence, "im going through the abdomen." they nodded. and did so. once everything was ready we all started scrubbing and the sister started draping the patient. i tried to envisage what i would be doing in a while. i decided that id reflect the right colon up and pull the ivc out of the way, rather than reflecting the left colon up, which would mean id have more to do with the aorta. my reason had little to do with the blood vessels but rather had to do with the fact that the right colon can be reflected right out of the way whereas the left colon cant because it continues down to the rectum which is pretty much fixed. truth be told, the aorta is easier to work with than the ivc, but i just felt id get more exposure on the right. in my mind i was just trying to convince myself that it was going to be fine when the great orthopaedic consultant entered. he greeted us all and thanked me for my help before quickly going into the theater to make sure ...
BACKGROUND: Colon cancer occurrence is increasing worldwide, making it the third most frequent cancer. Although many therapeutic options are available and quite efficient at the early stages, survival is strongly decreased when the disease has spread to other organs. The identification of molecular markers of colon cancer is likely to help understanding its course and, eventually, to uncover novel genes to be targeted by drugs. In this study, we compared gene expression in a set of 95 human colon cancer samples to that in 19 normal colon mucosae, focusing on 401 genes from 5 selected pathways (Apoptosis, Cancer, Cholesterol metabolism and lipoprotein signaling, Drug metabolism, Wnt/beta-catenin ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Gpr109a limits microbiota-induced IL-23 production to constrain ILC3-mediated colonic inflammation. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Our colon can be a magnet of all the things that we eat-thats why it serves as a double edge. Why? IT may be of benefit if we live a nutritious lifestyle i.e. balanced diet, eating nutritious foods, etc… however, it can be very detrimental if we are the type of person who lives in a quick lifestyle-fast foods, canned goods, processed meat and the likes. This is where our colon can be both harmful and beneficial.
Dr. Zadeh responded: Depends. The answer to this question really depends on the specific type of |a href="/topics/colonic" track_data="{
When beginning a detox, the first organ that needs to be addressed is the colon. The colon is the bodys number 1 elimination channel, and unless it is properly working, detoxifying other organs of the body will be nowhere near as beneficial-and in some cases, can even cause harm. This is because if you are detoxing with a sluggish colon, the toxins we are trying to remove from the body will have no way of exiting. They can then recirculate around the body, causing damage.. A backed-up, sluggish colon can be at the heart of many health problems. With bowel cancer making it into the top 3 most common cancers diagnosed each year in Australia, it is easy to see just how important bowel health is.. When faecal matter is backed up in the colon, it becomes toxic. Doing a colon detox (using my Colon Detox #1 AND Colon Detox #2) can help you to resolve problems that you never even imagined! Cleaning your colon has been known to help:. ...
During surgery, the cancer is removed following sound oncological principles. We remove a small length of healthy colon on either side of the cancer to ensure that no microscopic cancer cells are left behind.
Have you seen what happens to a plant when it is starved of water? Drink plenty of fresh clear fluids. Make sure that all aspects of your body are well hydrated with refreshing cleansing fluids by taking those fluids on a regular basis in their safest most natural form.. Water is the most important ingredient in your diet. Without enough water you will stress your system. Make sure your body doesnt go short so that the colon can work.. ...
Learn about all the various causes of swollen colon development and its symptoms. One of them actually bleeds a little and the blood looks like it may be slightly pus-y though im. A swollen colon can be caused by an infection, blood flow problems, disease, or chemicals in the colon.
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Immune mechanisms, possibly involving cell-surface molecules such as CD44, have been invoked to explain the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. We used monoclonal antibodies against epitopes encoded within the variable region of CD44 to investigate CD44 isoform expression in colon, small intestine, and liver in patients with various intestinal disorders and in controls. Biopsy samples from patients with ulcerative colitis showed significantly increased epithelial expression of CD44 isoforms containing the v6 and v3 epitopes, detected with antibodies 2F10 and 3G5, respectively. CD44v6 was detected on colonic crypt epithelial cells in 23 of 25 ulcerative colitis samples compared with 3 of 18 colonic Crohns disease samples (p = 3.0 x 10(-6); odds ratio 57.5 [95% CI 6.83-702]) and 3 of 52 controls (22 normal colon, 10 infective colitis, 2 radiation colitis, and 18 colonic Crohns disease; p | 1 x 10(-8); odds ratio 199 [25.5-2294]). No significant expression of CD44v6, CD44v3, or CD44v8/9 was found
ECCO - European Crohn´s and Colitis Organisation. The European Crohn\s and Colitis Organisation is a highly active non-profit association focusing on Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD).
The complement system is a potent effector of innate immunity. To elucidate the pathophysiological role of the complement system in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), we evaluated the development of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in genetically complement C5-deficient mice. We used DBA2/J mice, which are genetically deficient in complement C5. DBA1/J mice have a normal complement system, and were used as controls. Experimental colitis was induced by the oral administration of 3.5% (w/v) DSS in their drinking water for 10 days. On day 10, all mice were sacrificed and their colons were collected. The development of colitis was assessed by the histological score, disease activity index, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and macroscopic changes of the colon. Body weight loss was more apparent in the DBA2/J mice than in control DBA1/J mice. The colon length was shorter in the DBA2/J mice than in DBA1/J mice. The disease activity index, histological colitis score, and MPO activity were all ...
Introduction: Human are exposed to arsenic threats in several ways. Our drinking water for instance, can be hazardous due to the contamination of arsenic-based pesticide and herbicide into our water supply. The most vulnerable part of our body due to ingestion of arsenic is our gastrointestinal system. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of chronic exposure to organic arsenic (Monosodium methylarsonate, MSMA) on the surface topography of rats colonic mucosa by using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Materials and Methods: 30 Sprague Dawley rats were given daily oral gavage of MSMA 42.13 mg/kg, which is 1/30 LD50, and 30 Sprague Dawley rats acted as control. 10 exposed rats and 10 control rats were sacrificed at regular intervals (2 months, 4 months and 6 months) and their colon specimens were examined by SEM. Results: In the control group, the colonic mucosa appeared normal with uniform size individual glandular units and has a central crypt orifice. The goblet cells were ...
Berberine reduces cAMP-induced chloride secretion in T84 human colonic carcinoma cells through inhibition of basolateral KCNQ1 channels
Butyrates are important as food for cells lining the mammalian colon (colonocytes). Without butyrates for energy, colon cells undergo autophagy (self digestion) and die.[1] Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which include butyrate, are produced by beneficial colonic bacteria (probiotics) that feed on, or ferment prebiotics, which are plant products that contain adequate amounts of dietary fiber. These SCFAs benefit the colonocytes (cells of the colon) by increasing energy production and cell proliferation, and may protect against colon cancer.[2]. Butyrate is a major metabolite in colonic lumen arising from bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber and has been shown to be a critical mediator of the colonic inflammatory response. In fact, butyrate is responsible for about 70% of energy from the colonocytes, being a critical SCFA in the colon homeostasis[3]. Butyrate possesses both preventive and therapeutic potential to counteract inflammation-mediated ulcerative colitis (UC) and colorectal cancer. ...
Ischaemic colitis. Endoscopic view of the interior of a patients colon (large intestine) affected by ischaemic colitis. Ischaemic colitis is the inflammation of the colon due to reduced blood supply. Ischaemia is an uncommon cause of colitis and is caused by narrowing of the arteries supplying the intestines by atherosclerosis (the build up of plaque on the inner lining of an artery). Bloody diarrhoea and abdominal pain may be a symptom of chronic conditions. - Stock Image C025/0068
TGFβ stimulated a fibrogenic phenotype in Ccd-18co colonic myofibroblasts, characterized by an increase in actin stress fibers and mature focal adhesions, and increased αSMA protein expression, while CARD-024 repressed αSMA protein expression in a dose-dependent manner. Culture of colonic myofibroblasts on physiological high stiffness substrates induced morphological changes with increased actin stress fibers and focal adhesion staining, induction of αSMA protein expression, FAK phosphorylation, induction of fibrogenic genes, and repression of COX-2 and IL-1β. CARD-024 treatment repressed the stiffness-induced morphological features including stellate cell morphology and the maturation of focal adhesions. CARD-024 repressed the stiffness-mediated induction of αSMA protein expression, FAK phosphorylation, and MLCK and ET-1 gene expression. In addition, CARD-024 partially stimulated members of the COX-2/IL-1β inflammatory pathway ...
OBJECTIVE: We sought to quantify the anti-inflammatory effects of two cannabinoid drugs, cannabidiol (CBD) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), in cultured cell lines and compared this effect with experimentally inflamed explant human colonic tissue. These effects were explored in acutely and chronically inflamed colon, using inflammatory bowel disease and appendicitis explants. DESIGN: Caco-2 cells and human colonic explants collected from elective bowel cancer, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or acute appendicitis resections, and were treated with the following drug treatments: vehicle, an inflammatory protocol of interferon γ (IFNγ) and tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα; 10 ng/ml), inflammation and PEA (10 µM), inflammation and CBD (10 µM), and PEA or CBD alone, CBD or vehicle were added simultaneously with IFNγ ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - IFNγ induces DNA methylation-silenced GPR109A expression via pSTAT1/p300 and H3K18 acetylation in colon cancer. AU - Bardhan, Kankana. AU - Paschall, Amy V.. AU - Yang, Dafeng. AU - Chen, May R.. AU - Simon, Priscilla S.. AU - Bhutia, Yangzom D.. AU - Martin, Pamela Moore. AU - Thangaraju, Muthusamy. AU - Browning, Darren D. AU - Ganapathy, Vadivel. AU - Heaton, Christopher M.. AU - Gu, Keni. AU - Lee, Jeffrey R. AU - Liu, Kebin. PY - 2015/7/1. Y1 - 2015/7/1. N2 - Short-chain fatty acids, metabolites produced by colonic microbiota from fermentation of dietary fiber, act as anti-inflammatory agents in the intestinal tract to suppress proinflammatory diseases. GPR109A is the receptor for short-chain fatty acids. The functions of GPR109A have been the subject of extensive studies; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying GPR109A expression is largely unknown. We show that GPR109A is highly expressed in normal human colon tissues, but is silenced in human colon carcinoma cells. ...
Background and aims: Interleukin-12 (IL-12), a p35/p40 heterodimer, plays a pivotal rote in the immune response in Crohns disease (CD). Since IL-12 p40 dimers act as IL-12 antagonists, we assayed p40 dimer proteins to modulate chronic intestinal inflammation. Methods: We generated a fusion protein consisting of the IL-12(p40) subunit fused to the constant region of IgG2b. IL-12(p40)-IgG2b was tested in a murine 2,4,6,-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) colitis model and in lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMNC) from patients with CD in vitro. Results: Dimeric IL-12(p40)-IgG2b fusion protein bound specifically to the IL-12 receptor. In concentrations ...
The role of obesity in regulation of microRNA (miRNA) expression in distal and proximal colon was assessed: 1) isolation and quantification methods for miRNAs were established in rat liver tissue; 2) miRNA expression patterns were compared using miRNA PCR arrays in lean proximal and distal colonic tissue; and 3) the influence of obesity on miRNA expression in these colonic regions was investigated by screening cancer miRNA coding genes in colonic mucosal samples from Zucker obese and lean rats. Up-regulation of 20 miRNAs was observed in obese liver tissue. Colonic mucosal miRNA expression patterns and abundance differed for distal and proximal colonic regions in both lean and obese tissue. Obesity exerted a profound region-specific effect on miRNA expression patterns and levels indicating biologically distinct tissue in distal and proximal colon. Obesity markedly affects miRNA gene regulation, and miRNA is a key molecular player in the genesis of colon cancer.
YM-31636 is a potent and selective 5-HT3 agonist.[1] Systemic administration of YM-31636 increased the number of fecal pellets in rats, and improves colonic motility. It also increases colonic secretions, but not to the point of inducing diarrhea. In addition, it did not reduce the visceral pain threshold, or increase the intensity of visceral pain.[2] These properties indicate that it could be a useful treatment for constipation. ...
A great big reminder to get your colon checked. Visitors to the state Capitol get a chance to tour a giant colon set up inside the rotunda - all for a good reason, of course. Colon cancer is one of the most preventable and detectable forms of cancer facing folks here in Wisconsin and also nationwide, says Eric Schutt with the Wisconsin Chapter of the American Cancer Society . If you can get those screenings early enough, you can certainly get it treated, to beat the cancer. Colon cancer will strike thousand of families in the state this year. According to Cancer Society statistics, 2,930 new colorectal cancer cases will be diagnosed this year, and over 900 Wisconsinites will die of the disease. In addition to genetic causes, colon cancer has also been linked to smoking, alcohol abuse, as well as diet and exercise Schutt says some people are still put off by colon cancer screenings and colonoscopies. There may be an education factor here, he says. They aren't quite sure of what all is ...
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a multifactorial disorder marked by recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort and altered bowel function. It affects between 10 and 20 percent of people in the developed world, about one-third of whom have IBS associated with diarrhea (IBS-D).. Certain factors that alter gastrointestinal function can contribute to IBS symptoms, including stress, prior gastroenteritis, changes in the gut microbiome, and bile acids and short-chain fatty acids, which may stimulate serotonin (5-HT) release and increase colonic permeability and motility.. Still, the underlying cause of IBS in many cases remains unknown. Michael Camilleri, M.D., of Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn., says the ultimate goal "is a better understanding of the mechanisms behind this syndrome so we can foster individualized, specific treatment for IBS patients." So far, that goal remains unrealized.. The only drug currently approved for IBS-D is alosetron, a 5-HT3 antagonist that may relieve abdominal pain and ...
The Museum Proposal is intended to save the crumbling structure which used to be the Newark Jailhouse. The neglect of the property lead to salvaging and re-purposing most of the structure into the Mus...
The estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) is the predominant ER in the human colonic epithelium. Levels of ERβ are reduced in colorectal cancer compared to normal colon tissue. In a previous study, we generated ERβ-expressing colon cancer cells and showed that ERβ inhibits proliferation as well as colon cancer xenograft growth, as a consequence of ERβ mediated inhibition of cell-cycle pathways.. The present study was conducted to investigate genome wide changes by ERβ in three human colon cancer cell lines (SW480, HT29 and HCT116). They have very low or no levels of ERβ expression and were transduced with lentivirus containing an ERβ expression cassette. Microarray studies showed that ERβ regulated 623, 643 and 124 genes for SW480, HT29 and HCT116, respectively.. Comparisons showed few genes in common for the three cell lines. However, over representation analysis showed that several themes, such as cell proliferation, cell communication and apoptosis were regulated in all of the cell ...
Lactulose is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and no enzyme capable of hydrolysis of this disaccharide is present in human gastrointestinal tissue. As a result, oral doses of lactulose reach the colon virtually unchanged. In the colon, lactulose is broken down primarily to lactic acid, and also to small amounts of formic and acetic acids, by the action of colonic bacteria, which results in an increase in osmotic pressure and slight acidification of the colonic contents. This in turn causes an increase in stool water content and softens the stool.. Since lactulose does not exert its effect until it reaches the colon, and since transit time through the colon may be slow, 24 to 48 hours may be required to produce the desired bowel movement.. Lactulose given orally to man and experimental animals resulted in only small amounts reaching the blood. Urinary excretion has been determined to be 3% or less and is essentially complete within 24 hours.. ...
In addition to its ability to act as a promising inducer of tumor-specific cell death, TRAIL has also been shown to stimulate signaling pathways leading to cancer cell survival. We examined the changes of anti-apoptotic Mcl-1 protein level following TRAIL treatment of human cell lines representing different stages of colon carcinogenesis-adenocarcinoma (HT-29, HCT116) or secondary metastasis (SW620), together with cell line derived from human fetal colon (FHC). While TRAIL was capable of triggering an anti-apoptotic signaling leading to significant early ERK-mediated transcriptional up-regulation of Mcl-1 in selected colon adenocarcinoma cell lines, none or very limited effects were demonstrated in cell lines derived from colon lymph node metastasis or fetal colon, respectively. We demonstrated an immediate impact of Mcl-1 protein level manipulations on the Course of early acute apoptotic response of colon adenocarcinoma cells to TRAIL. It is therefore essential to consider the dynamics of ...
The goal of this study was to characterize p53 tumor suppressor pathway in colon-specific carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM)-induced mouse colon tumor and to assess the usefulness of this animal model to evaluate novel anti-cancer drugs. The acute exposure of mice to AOM showed no overall induction of p53-regulated genes. Subdued p53 gene activation in the colon corresponded to a drop in the expression of its transcriptional co-activator, p300. The status of p53 pathway was further analyzed using AOM-induced mouse colon tumor and the cell line (AJ02-NM0) generated from the primary tumor. Wild type p53 protein, constitutively expressed in this model, showed no detectable DNA binding activity nor did it activate p21 expression. The cell line studies revealed that p53 activity was inhibited by a constitutive interaction with Mdm2. The p53-activating p19/ARF protein did not appear to have significant effect on the standing of p53 pathway in this cell line. p53 was activated by Doxorubicin, 5-FU and the recently
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Chelko SP, Schmiedt CW, Lewis TH, et al. Vasopressin-induced constriction of the isolated rat occipital artery is segment dependent. J Vasc Res. 2013;50(6):478-85. PMID: 24192548.. Mastropaolo M, Zizzo MG, Auteri M, et al. Arginine vasopressin, via activation of post-junctional V1 receptors, induces contractile effects in mouse distal colon. Regul Pept. 2013 Nov 10;187:29-34. PMID: 24185041.. Salazar M, Hu BB, Vazquez J, et al. Exogenous Vasopressin-Induced Hyponatremia in Patients With Vasodilatory Shock: Two Case Reports and Literature Review. J Intensive Care Med. 2013 Oct 7. [Epub ahead of print]. PMID: 24106070. ...
Backgrounds and aims Interleukin (IL)-36 cytokines are members from the IL-1 cytokine family members. had been confirmed on the proteins amounts. The inhibitors for ERK1/2 (PD98059 and U0216) and a p38 MAPK (SB203580) considerably decreased the IL-1-induced IL-36 mRNA appearance. Furthermore, the siRNAs particular for NF-B p65 and AP-1 (c-Jun) considerably reduced the appearance of IL-1-induced IL-36 mRNA. Conclusions Colonic myofibroblasts are mobile way to obtain IL-36 in the intestine. IL-36 appearance was induced with the mix of IL-1 and TNF- via activation of MAPKs and transcription elements, NF-B and AP-1. Launch Inflammatory bowel illnesses (IBD), ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohns disease [1], are chronic intestinal disorders of unidentified etiology. The pathogenesis of IBD is normally regarded as an aberrant response from the mucosal disease fighting capability towards luminal antigens such as for example dietary elements and/or commensal bacterias in genetically prone people [2C5]. ...
Continued From Above... The descending colon is a hollow tube that is part of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Its diameter is roughly 2.5 inches (7 cm), while its length is approximately 9 to 10 inches (25 cm). It contains many small pouches, known as haustra, along its length that increase its surface area and help to move feces through the colon. At its superior end, the descending colon connects to the transverse colon at the splenic flexure just inferior to the spleen. From the splenic flexure, the descending colon extends inferiorly toward the left hip before turning about 90 degrees to the right and forming the sigmoid colon.. Like all parts of the gastrointestinal tract, the descending colon consists of four major tissue layers surrounding a hollow lumen. The mucosa forms the innermost layer that surrounds the lumen and is in contact with fecal matter stored in the colon. Mucosa is a mucous membrane made of simple columnar epithelial tissue and a thin underlying layer of areolar ...
Shochat, D; Pant, K D.; and Goldenberg, D M., "Colon-specific antigen-p (csap). II. Further characterization in colorectal and pancreatic cancer." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 4387 ...
But early in colon cancer development, these growth-controlling hormones are "lost" and not expressed, disrupting GCCs activity, and, Dr. Waldman believes, contributing to tumor formation. Using two separate mouse models that mimic the development of colon cancer in people, his team showed that GCC signaling blocks such tumors from forming. According to Dr. Waldman, the group found that GCC stops tumors from forming through two different mechanisms. In one case, it controls cell growth, while in the other, it maintains "regulation of genomic integrity.". In one mouse cancer model, the animals carried mutations in the APC gene, which causes colon polyps that frequently lead to colon cancer. Mice in the other cancer-development model were exposed to a commonly used experimental cancer-causing agent, azoxymethane. "We modeled both ways that humans develop colon cancer, and studied the effects of a lack of GCC on the incidence of colon cancer development," he explains.. "We found that in animals ...
Specific SCFA may reduce the risk of developing gastrointestinal disorders, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, a greater increase in SCFA production and potentially a greater delivery of SCFA, specifically butyrate, to the distal colon may result in a protective effect. 3 4 5 Beneficial Bacteria. The beneficial bacterial of the glut flora is health-enhancing and serves to prevent the overgrowth of potentially harmful bacteria in the gut. There is always a competition for resources (space and food) in the large intestine between beneficial and detrimental bacteria. A ratio of 80-85% beneficial to 15-20% potentially detrimental bacteria generally is considered normal within the intestines.. ...
I have had Crohns Disease since I was 12 years old and I am now 39 with a permanent ileostomy since 2008. I have still since had several surgeries (20) that has now left me with only a little over 100 cm of small intestine left, no colon at all. I have to say that this has not been an easy road by far and now I am on TPN and tube feedings. I am supposed to have my tube changed out tomorrow for a more smaller, less painful and more discreet tube. I will post later tomorrow to let everyone know how that went. I have read a lot of the comments above from people suffering from some of the same things I suffer from like dehydration, stoma irritation (which can be extremely painful), blockages, fatigue, pain, etc. Well here are some of the things that have helped me. When it comes to dehydration, drink things that are high in electrolytes like gatorade and powerade. Try these and limit your water intake during the day cause water goes right through you and you will find you are emptying your bag 100 ...
View Stock Photo of Colon Mucosa Or Glandular Epithelium And Underlying Connective And Smooth Muscle Tissue Lm X140. Find premium, high-resolution photos at Getty Images.
poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-2 (PARP-2) is a newly described member of the PARP family of nuclear enzymes. Previous studies have shown pharmacological inhibition of PARP activity to have a beneficial role in attenuating inflammation. We developed a chemically modified 2′-O-(2-methoxy)ethyl antisense oligonucleotide (ISIS 110251) inhibitor of PARP-2 and tested it for efficacy in the interleukin (IL)-10-deficient mouse. In tissue culture, ISIS 110251 reduced PARP-2 mRNA expression in a concentration- and sequence-specific manner. In 129 Sv/Ev mice, ISIS 110251 reduced PARP-2 mRNA in liver by 80%. This reduction was dependent upon treatment duration and was independent of the method of delivery. In interleukin-10-deficient mice with established colitis, treatment with ISIS 110251 normalized colonic epithelial barrier and transport function, reduced proinflammatory cytokine secretion and inducible nitric-oxide synthase activity, and attenuated inflammation. Our data demonstrate that selective ...
Hi Monica, let me introduce myself. Im a caregiver for my Mom who was dx with OVCA stage IIIB october 7th 2005, she is currently in remission that we know of... she will be having her doctors visit this Wednesday to see what he says about all the tests she has been taking. I have been reading lots and lots of the postings here for about 2 months but I couldn`t find out how to reply.. so Im familiar with your case and admire the strength you have had for the past 6 years right? You are so lucky to have found your cancer at an early stage. My Moms cancer was dx to be on the liver, diaphragm, near colon at the time. She had a big tumor which was removed but no debulking surgery, she had 6 round of carboplat plus bristaxol for 6 months then a 2nd look surgery were out of 10 biospsies 2(diaphragm and somewhere in abdomen)turned out positive for inplant not actually tumors but cancerous cells is what I understood.. so she had 2 more chemos(same kind)her last one was July 5th 2006 and from that day ...
In humans, colonoscopy is the gold standard for the diagnosis of inflammatory changes of the colon wall. Aim of this study was the identification of less i
Immunohistochemical staining of DENND6B in human colon tissue shows distinct membranous positivity in glandular cells. Samples were probed using a DENND6B Polyclonal Antibody (Product # PA5-56195 ...
Anti-FCN2 Rabbit pAb Anti-FCN2, rabbit polyclonal, recognizes the ~35 kDa FCN2 protein in human colon tissue. It is validated for use in Western blotting. - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
Finden Sie alle Bücher von McKean, John R. - Colonic Diseases. Bei der Büchersuchmaschine eurobuch.com können Sie antiquarische und Neubücher VERGLEICHEN UND SOFORT zum Bestpreis bestellen. 0896039617
Buy our Caco 2 (human colonic carcinoma cell line) whole cell lysate. ab3950 has been validated in western blot. Abcam now offers a 12-month guarantee.
Over the past 20 years our understanding of the molecular etiology of colon cancer has expanded dramatically. Despite this, colon cancer remains a significant h...
I was excited to be contacted by U.S. News & World Report for an article about life after having a colectomy. What can people do once they have an ostomy? Anything they want.
These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). These products are not meant to diagnose‚ treat or cure any disease or medical condition. Please consult your doctor before starting any exercise or nutritional supplement program or before using these or any product during pregnancy or if you have a serious medical condition. ...
CBSis Dennis Colon, speaks with Minority Report Podcast hosts Erik Requidan and Kerel Cooper about what it means to be a #GirlDad.
The impact of varying concentrations of Celmanax™ on Escherichia coli O157:H7 E318N colonization of a colonic cell line (n = 6-8). A confluent monolayer of a
Many people like colonics, but is a colonic good for weight loss? Colonics can help remove fecal matter and parasites from our colons, but they will not,
E - 1+2+3+4 (1. je slo ena z do asn ch as - rugae gastricae - je-li aludek pr zdn , 2. je pokryta na vnit n m povrchu jednovrstevn m cylindrick m epitelem, 3. m 3 vrstvy hladk ch sval v tunica muscularis externa, 4. je pokryta na vn j m povrchu jednovrstevn m dla dicov m epitelem - mezotelem). Struktury, zvy uj c absorp n plochu tenk ho st eva ...
The colon can heal itself in a remarkable fast way, much like the inside of our mouth. It is possible to see big improvements from colitis in little time.
Barrio Balboa is one of the 18 corregimientos of La Chorrera District. The population is of 33,214 peoples, and its representant is Pedro A. Montero H.. http://lachorrera.gob.pa/administracion. ...
T0: No evidence of cancer in the colon or rectum.. *Tis: Carcinoma in situ; Cancer cells are found only in the epithelium or ... Colon cancer staging is an estimate of the amount of penetration of a particular cancer. It is performed for diagnostic and ... M1b: Metastasis to more than 1 other part of the body beyond the colon, rectum or regional lymph nodes. Any T, any N. ... Turnbull RB Jr, Kyle K, Watson FR, et al: Cancer of the colon: the influence of the no touch isolation technique on survival ...
Colón (Spanish pronunciation: [koˈlon]) is a province of Panama. The capital is the city of Colón. It covers an area of 4,575.5 ... "Municipios (Distritos) de Colón". Editorial OX. Retrieved 15 November 2012.. *^ As at 1 July 2010; adjusted for under- ... Colón District Barrio Norte1, Barrio Sur1, Buena Vista, Cativá, Ciricito, Sabanitas, Salamanca, Limón, Nueva Providencia, ... Colón Province is divided into 5 distritos (districts) and subdivided into 40 corregimientos.[4] ...
Pages in category "People from Colón Department (Honduras)". The following 35 pages are in this category, out of 35 total. This ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:People_from_Colón_Department_(Honduras)&oldid=466122336" ...
Inclusion of a diagram of the colon, labeling e.g. 'sigmoid colon', 'ascending colon', 'descending colon','transverse colon' ... The squatting theory is looking better and better, now that Burkitt's hunch about fiber has failed in the case of colon cancer ...
The Secret Life of Willie Colón) and the launching of his record label Willie Colon Presents.[13] For 2018 Colón kicked off his ... "LMEC Commissioner Willie Colon". Home2.nyc.gov. Retrieved May 3, 2010.. *^ Willie Colón Endorses Hillary Clinton for President ... Chávez addressed Colón via Twitter [19] ("shoemaker tend to your shoes"). After Chávez' death, Willie Colón endorsed opposition ... "Willie Colón - News Blog » Blog Archive » Freed Political Prisoner General Antonio Rivero Thanks Willie Colón - YouTube". ...
... is a municipality and a city in the northern Honduran department of Colón slightly inland at 38 m elevation in the ... There is a Rehabilitation Center (Centro de Rehabilitacion Integral de Colon - CRICOL ) which provides high - quality ... is one of the most populated cities in the northern part of Honduras and is the most populated city in the Department of Colón ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tocoa,_Colón&oldid=898833356" ...
Sarcoma, Oral Cancer, Liver Cancer, and Colon Cancer[edit]. BHLHE41 has been shown to suppress the expression of vascular ... It has been shown that the normal tissue adjacent to colon carcinomas show high levels of BHLHE41 expression.[35] Research is ...
2005). "Assessment of JC polyoma virus in colon neoplasms". Dis. Colon. Rectum. 48 (1): 86-91. doi:10.1007/s10350-004-0737-2. ... as JCV has been found in malignant colon tumors, but these findings are still controversial.[13] ...
Colon. *Ascending colon. *Hepatic flexure. *Transverse colon. *Splenic flexure. *Descending colon. *Sigmoid colon ...
Colon Poetry 2005 Ryszard Kapuściński Podróże z Herodotem Journeys with Herodotus Autobiography ...
The company was formed by a merger between Britain's Reckitt & Colman plc and the Dutch company Benckiser NV in December 1999. Bart Becht became CEO of the new company and has been credited for its transformation, focusing on core brands and improving efficiency in the supply chain. The new management team's strategy of "innovation marketing".[20] - a combination of increased marketing spend and product innovation, focusing on consumer needs - has been linked to the company's ongoing success. For example, in 2008, the company's "rapid succession of well publicised new product variants" were credited for helping them "to capture shoppers' imagination".[21] Business Week has also noted that "40% of Reckitt Benckiser's $10.5 billion in 2007 revenues came from products launched within the previous three years."[22] In October 2005, RB agreed to purchase the over-the-counter drugs manufacturing business of Boots Group, Boots Healthcare International, for £1.9 billion. The three main brands acquired ...
colon. ፦ Preface colon (introduces speech from a descriptive prefix). ፧ question mark. ፨ paragraph separator. Grammar[edit]. ...
While the main purpose of the train is as a commuter rail for those living in Panama City and working in Colon, it has also ... The Corozal (Panama City)-Colón train leaves at 7:15 a.m., and the return train leaves at 5:15 p.m., with a traveling time of ... The route stretches 47.6 miles (76.6 km) across the Isthmus of Panama from Colón (Atlantic) to Balboa (Pacific, near Panama ... Starting in May 1850, what would become the city of Aspinwall (now Colón) was founded on 650 acres (260 ha) on the western end ...
Colon Rectum. 50 (8): 1169-81. doi:10.1007/s10350-006-0842-5. PMID 17347903. Gassler N, Herr I, Keith M, Autschbach F, Schmitz- ... 5-aminosalicylate (ASA) has been shown to reduce β-catenin and its localization to the nucleus in colon cancer cells isolated ... "Adjuvant immunochemotherapy with protein-bound polysaccharide K for colon cancer in relation to oncogenic β-catenin activation ...
... of colon cancers.[46] miR-34a is also generally under-expressed in primary neuroblastoma tumors.[47] ... "Tumor-suppressive miR-34a induces senescence-like growth arrest through modulation of the E2F pathway in human colon cancer ...
Colon/rectum. *colorectal polyp: Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. *Juvenile polyposis syndrome. *Familial adenomatous polyposis/ ...
Colon/rectum. *colorectal polyp: Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. *Juvenile polyposis syndrome. *Familial adenomatous polyposis/ ...
"Los Angeles Colon and Rectal Surgical Associates. 2012.. [unreliable source?] *^ Dal Monte PP, Tagariello C, Sarago M, et al. ( ... Colon Rectum. 53 (5): 803-11. doi:10.1007/DCR.0b013e3181cdafa7. PMID 20389215.. ... Colon Rectum. 52 (9): 1665-71. doi:10.1007/DCR.0b013e3181af50f4. PMID 19690499.. ...
Colon/rectum. *colorectal polyp: Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. *Juvenile polyposis syndrome. *Familial adenomatous polyposis/ ...
Colon, Jorge. "A Call for a Response From The International Chemistry Community. (Science For Haiti)." Chemistry International ... Machlis, Gary E, Jorge Colón, and Jean E. McKendry. Science for Haiti: A Report on Advancing Haitian Science and Science ...
New Jersey was once one of the most reliably Republican states in the Northeast. From 1948 to 1988, it voted Republican in all but two elections: John F. Kennedy in his narrow victory over Richard Nixon in 1960, and Lyndon Johnson's 44-state landslide of 1964. However, the brand of Republicanism practiced in New Jersey has historically been a moderate one. As the national party tilted more to the right, the state's voters became more friendly to Democrats. The state narrowly went for Bill Clinton in 1992 and has voted Democratic in every election since then. In all but one election since 1996, the Democrats have carried it by double digits. While Republicans remain competitive at the state and local level, at the presidential level New Jersey is now reckoned as part of the solid bloc of blue states in the Northeast. Democrats have several structural advantages in New Jersey during presidential elections. The northeastern portion, including Newark, Jersey City, Elizabeth and Paterson, contains ...
... transverse colon, spleen, adrenal gland, or kidney. Very often they also spread to the important blood or lymphatic vessels and ... hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer (Lynch syndrome); and familial adenomatous polyposis. PanNETs have been associated with ... if the cancer is invading or compressing the duodenum or colon. In such cases, bypass surgery might overcome the obstruction ...
Colon, Raul. "Early Development of the United States Defensive Missile System". Aeroflight. Archived from the original on 2007- ...
Colon/rectum. *colorectal polyp: Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. *Juvenile polyposis syndrome. *Familial adenomatous polyposis/ ...
Colon polyps are a fleshy growth on the inside the colon lining that may become cancerous. Symptoms of colon polyps include ... There are various types of colon polyps. Learn about causes, polyp size, signs, and how to prevent colon polyps. ... Colon Cancer. Colon cancer is a malignancy that arises from the inner lining of the colon. Most, if not all, of these cancers ... Colon Cancer Symptoms. Colon cancer or colorectal cancer often begins as a benign growth known as a colon polyp. After the ...
How to take care of your Colon health? Consult Aloe Expert... ... The most deathly disease shared among men and women-Colon ... colon cancer symptoms , How to Recognize Colon Cancer Symptoms-Healthy Wealthy - Duration: 2:10. Healthy Wealthy 88,298 views ... Doctors Are In A Shock This Kills 93% Of Colon Cancer In Just 2 Days , Life well lived - Duration: 3:41. Life Well Lived 86,750 ... 5 Symptoms Of Colon Cancer You Should Not Ignore - Duration: 4:29. Remedies For You 1,756,898 views ...
A polyp is a projection (growth) of tissue from the inner lining of the colon into the lumen (hollow center) of the colon. ... Colon Polyps (Sessile or Traditional Serrated Adenomas). Polyps that tend to grow as slightly flattened, broad-based polyps are ... Colon Pathology. These questions and answers are meant to help you understand the medical language used in the pathology report ... Invasive Adenocarcinoma of the Colon. Adenocarcinoma is a type of cancer that starts in the cells that form glands making mucus ...
T0: No evidence of cancer in the colon or rectum.. *Tis: Carcinoma in situ; Cancer cells are found only in the epithelium or ... Colon cancer staging is an estimate of the amount of penetration of a particular cancer. It is performed for diagnostic and ... M1b: Metastasis to more than 1 other part of the body beyond the colon, rectum or regional lymph nodes. Any T, any N. ... Turnbull RB Jr, Kyle K, Watson FR, et al: Cancer of the colon: the influence of the no touch isolation technique on survival ...
Learn about symptoms, risk factors, treatment, and the latest statistics.
We rely on advertising to help fund our award-winning journalism.. We urge you to turn off your ad blocker for The Telegraph website so that you can continue to access our quality content in the future.. Thank you for your support.. ...
Colorectal cancer screening saves lives. If you are 50 years old or older, get screened now. If you think you may be at increased risk for colorectal cancer, speak with your doctor about when to begin screening, which test is right for you, and how often to get tested.
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Colon cancer is #2 killer, next to heart attack. No stool handling and very simple. Over 1000 people per week die in USA alone ... reduce the risk of death from colon cancer by one-third (33%). Colon cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the ... Over 1,000 people per week die of Colon Cancer in USA alone.. Test yourself in the privacy of your home. Over 145,000 diagnosed ... Anyone over 40 years old should check yourself for colon cancer. Please advice of this to elderly people. Please do this test ...
Pseudodiverticulosis Diverticulosis of the colon is characterized by diverticula in the colon. They represent herniations of ... Diverticulosis of the colon is characterized by diverticula in the colon. They represent herniations of the colonic mucosa and ... Diseases of the Colon and Rectum, 54, 1326-1338.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Golder, M., Ster, I. C., Babu, P., Sharma, A., Bayat, M., & Farah, A. (2011). Demographic determinants of risk, colon ...
I wanted to do something and created the idea for "Cars Against Colon Cancer", a car show held at Kingswood Oxford in May to ... Yale research suggests diet soda drinkers are less likely to see a recurrence of colon cancer than patients who do not drink ... Recently, she underwent a surgical procedure that removed her entire colon, rectum and anus, along with part of ... ... Yale Study Finds Diet Soda Linked To Lower Risk Of Colon Cancer Recurrence ...
Going to colon by Ship. The quote of $35 for taxi. Is that in US dollars?? Are there admission fees for the zoo and other ... Travel from Panama City to Colon 30 November 2017 * Location of the last stop for the train from Colon to Panama 20 November ... When you get to Colon, look for the green SET taxis (Servicio Especial de Turismo). The drivers speak English and most have a ... going to colon by Ship. The quote of $35 for taxi. Is that in US dollars?? ...
Check out the latest Mercedes Colon photo gallery, biography, pics, pictures, interviews, news, forums and blogs at Rotten ...
COLON.* The PUNCTUATION [1] mark (:). It has an anticipatory effect, leading from what precedes to what follows. The following ... co·lon1 / ˈkōlən/ • n. a punctuation mark (:) indicating: ∎ that a writer is introducing a quotation or a list of items. ∎ that ... Home Literature and the Arts Language, Linguistics, and Literary Terms Language and Linguistics Colon (grammar) ... COLON. The PUNCTUATION mark (:). It has an anticipatory effect, leading from what precedes to what follows. The following are ...
The transverse colon is the longest region of the colon and is located between the ascending colon and descending colon. It is ... Lastly, the serosa is the outermost layer of the transverse colon that acts as the skin of the colon. Just like the skin of our ... Water, nutrients, and vitamins are absorbed through the walls of the colon to be used by the tissues of the body. The colon ... Much of the absorption and feces formation of the colon takes place in the transverse colon, making it a very important region ...
Visitors can walk through the inflatable colon to see cancer cells and polyps up close. (March 22) ... 10-foot high replica of the human colon was on display Friday in Miami to educate people about colorectal cancer. ... A 30-foot long, 10-foot high replica of the human colon was on display Friday in Miami to educate people about colorectal ... Visitors can walk through the inflatable colon to see cancer cells and polyps up close. (March 22) AP ...
Colon Cancer Screening. English Español Polskie 中文 PDF Is colon cancer screening available through the World Trade Center ... What is the risk from colon cancer screening?. Some procedures used to examine the colon do present minimal risk, but for most ... When am I eligible for colon cancer screening?. Colon cancer screening is recommended to begin at the age of 50, and should ... What are the benefits of colon cancer screening?. Colon cancer screening looks for cancer before you feel symptoms from the ...
Information for people interested in enrolling the World Trade Center Health Program or those who are currently in the Program and want more information, and for clinicians who work with the Clinical Centers of Excellence to provide monitoring and treatment services.
If you have family health history of colorectal (colon) cancer, you may be more likely to get it yourself. Collecting your ...
Colón (Spanish pronunciation: [koˈlon]) is a province of Panama. The capital is the city of Colón. It covers an area of 4,575.5 ... "Municipios (Distritos) de Colón". Editorial OX. Retrieved 15 November 2012.. *^ As at 1 July 2010; adjusted for under- ... Colón District Barrio Norte1, Barrio Sur1, Buena Vista, Cativá, Ciricito, Sabanitas, Salamanca, Limón, Nueva Providencia, ... Colón Province is divided into 5 distritos (districts) and subdivided into 40 corregimientos.[4] ...
The Secret Life of Willie Colón) and the launching of his record label Willie Colon Presents.[13] For 2018 Colón kicked off his ... "LMEC Commissioner Willie Colon". Home2.nyc.gov. Retrieved May 3, 2010.. *^ Willie Colón Endorses Hillary Clinton for President ... Chávez addressed Colón via Twitter [19] ("shoemaker tend to your shoes"). After Chávez death, Willie Colón endorsed opposition ... "Willie Colón - News Blog » Blog Archive » Freed Political Prisoner General Antonio Rivero Thanks Willie Colón - YouTube". ...
Historia del Teatro Colón, Vol I-III, Cinetea, Buenos Aires, 1969.. *Ferro, Valenti. Las voces del Teatro Colón, Buenos Aires, ... Las historias más insólitas del Teatro Colón. 2002. *Sessa, Aldo, Manuel Mujica Láinez, Vida y gloria del Teatro Colón. 1983. ... The first Teatro Colón[edit]. The first Teatro Colón was designed by Charles Pellegrini, and proved to be a successful venue ... "Teatro Colón de Buenos Aires". Las óperas del Teatro Colón. Retrieved 15 May 2016.. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style: ...
Tocoa, Colón is a municipality and a city in the northern Honduran department of Colón slightly inland at 38 m elevation in the ... There is a Rehabilitation Center (Centro de Rehabilitacion Integral de Colon - CRICOL ) which provides high - quality ... is one of the most populated cities in the northern part of Honduras and is the most populated city in the Department of Colón ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tocoa,_Colón&oldid=898833356" ...
Dam Colon Cancer Ride. Register Now. Dam Colon Cancer Ride • Prairie du Sac, WI Cycling ...
  • citation needed] The sigmoid colon begins at the superior aperture of the lesser pelvis, where it is continuous with the iliac colon, and passes transversely across the front of the sacrum to the right side of the pelvis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Behind the sigmoid colon are the external iliac vessels, overy, obturator nerve, the left Piriformis, and left sacral plexus of nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diverticulosis often occurs in the sigmoid colon in association with increased intraluminal pressure and focal weakness in the colonic wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • Volvulus in the elderly commonly occurs in the sigmoid colon, whereas in infants and children it is more likely to occur in the midgut. (wikipedia.org)
  • It begins at the level of the iliac crest, where it is continuous with the descending colon, and ends in the sigmoid colon at the superior aperture of the lesser pelvis. (wikipedia.org)
  • It passes downward through the left hypochondrium and lumbar regions, along the outer border of the left kidney and ends at the lower left part of the abdomen where it continues as the sigmoid colon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sigmoid colon volvulus, also known as sigmoid volvulus, is a common cause of bowel obstruction and constipation. (wikipedia.org)
  • If viable, it can be fixed to lateral wall of abdomen or pelvis If sigmoid colon is gangrenous, then Hartmann's operation or Paul Milulikz operation is done Sriram Bhat (2012). (wikipedia.org)
  • Today, colonic hygienists or colon hydrotherapists perform colon irrigations. (webmd.com)
  • Colon cleansing may be branded colon hydrotherapy, a colonic or colonic irrigation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Colonic irrigation also known as colon hydrotherapy, colonic hydrotherapy, or a "colonic", is a treatment which is used "to wash out the contents of the large bowel by means of copious enemas using water or other medication. (wikipedia.org)
  • During a colonic, water is introduced into the colon and then it is flushed out and this is repeated until the entire colon is cleared. (wikipedia.org)
  • Colón was drafted in the tenth round of the 2007 MLB Draft by the San Diego Padres. (wikipedia.org)
  • The building houses the Museo Alcázar de Diego Colón, whose collection exhibits the Caribbean's most important ensemble of European late medieval and Renaissance works of art, which were acquired in the 1950s. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 1880s, the French Inter-Oceanic Canal Company arrived to find the port of Colón (then Aspinwall) just a few streets wide and long while the rest of Manzanillo Island was still a swamp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trombone player, composer, and bandleader Willie Colón is one of the pioneers of Latin American music. (apple.com)
  • Colón has been instrumental in the careers of such Latin musicians as Rubén Blades, who first sang with Colón's band in 1975, and Celia Cruz, for whom Colón has produced such albums as Only They Could Have Done This Album in 1977 and the highly successful duet album Celia & Willie in 1981. (apple.com)
  • In 1975, Colón balanced his schedule as director of the Latin Jazz All Stars with studies in music theory, composition, and orchestration. (apple.com)
  • In 1978, Colón was named Musician, Producer, and Trombone Player of the Year in a readers poll conducted by Latin New York. (apple.com)
  • In September 2004, Colón received the Lifetime Achievement Grammy Award from the Latin Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Colón currently serves as NYC Mayor Michael Bloomberg's representative advisor and liaison to the Latin Media Entertainment Commission (to which Robert De Niro and Jennifer Lopez serve as the celebrity chairs). (wikipedia.org)
  • For the football player, see Willie Colon (American football) . (wikipedia.org)
  • In May 2007 Willie Colon sued Ruben Blades for breach of contract. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yahoo Sports and Big League Impact joined forces with CC Sabathia and Willie Colon to hold a fantasy draft for charity and the pros were generous with their fantasy football advice as well. (yahoo.com)
  • February 21, 2014 9:02 PM EST Salsa greats and social activists Rubén Blades and Willie Colon have, separately, been the most outspoken of the many music artists who have expressed solidarity this week with protestors in Venezuela. (billboard.com)
  • Willie Colon (born April 9, 1983) is a former American football offensive guard. (wikipedia.org)
  • http://news.steelers.com/team/player/64035/ Steelers Player Bio Steelers Re-sign OL Colon SI.com, March 11, 2009 Steelers Sign Willie Colon & Jonathan ScottMike Vukovcan, CBSLocal (Pittsburgh) Orr, Conor (15 March 2013). (wikipedia.org)
  • Colón "makes the relation between diaspora and Caribbean homeland the central theme of his work," particularly in his 1971 Christmas album, Asalto Navideño . (wikipedia.org)
  • The great portworks and docks built by the U.S. government in the former Canal Zone at Cristóbal, now essentially a suburb, make Colón one of the most important ports of the Caribbean Sea . (britannica.com)
  • Cristóbal Colón was sent to the Caribbean and foundered near Pinar del Río, Cuba, on 29 September 1895. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like most of the Caribbean coast of Central America, Colón possesses an extremely wet tropical climate owing to the powerful, wet trade winds flowing onto high mountains throughout the year. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike most parts of this coast, however, February and March are sufficiently dry that Colón fits into the tropical monsoon climate (Köppen Am) category rather than a tropical rainforest climate (Af) as found in most Caribbean coastal areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Colon is a clinical associate professor for counseling and development graduate studies in education at Purdue Calumet, where she earned her master's degree in counseling. (purdue.edu)
  • As a student and teaching assistant to the distinguished cellist and pedagogue Janos Starker, Colón earned a master's degree from the Indiana University Jacobs School of Music in 1989. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hij heeft een broer, Carlos Colón Jr. ( Carlito ) en een zus, Stacy Colón, die beiden ook actief zijn in het worstelen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Il est le fils de Carlos Colón Sr., le frère de Carlito et le cousin de Epico . (wikipedia.org)
  • Occasionnellement, il lutte dans des matches en équipe avec Carlito pour le World Wrestling Council. (wikipedia.org)
  • Le 25 août, pour son premier match à Raw , il bat Charlie Haas déguisé en Carlito , avec un saut de l'ange du haut de la troisième corde. (wikipedia.org)
  • Le 12 septembre, il apparaît à SmackDown en compagnie de son frère Carlito , ils défont les champions par équipe, Les Ex-Edgeheads ( Curt Hawkins et Zack Ryder ), dans un match sans enjeu. (wikipedia.org)
  • Angel manager Mike Scioscia, left, checks on pitcher Bartolo Colon, who was eventually taken out of the game in the second inning. (latimes.com)
  • The shy Colon will face the brash Martinez, his favorite pitcher no less, and his team the same way he has faced everybody this year -- by remaining calm on the mound and with a steady dose of the hard stuff. (mlb.com)
  • Joseph Colón (born February 18, 1990) is a Puerto Rican professional baseball pitcher who is currently a free agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2015, the Indians converted Colón from a starting pitcher into a relief pitcher. (wikipedia.org)
  • Román Benedicto Colón (born August 13, 1979) is a Dominican former professional baseball pitcher. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this game Colón went 3-for-4, including the first hit and the first run scored against Estrellas pitcher Don Elston, making history as the first player to do it in the new stadium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Le 26 janvier 2008, Colón a fait ses débuts à la Florida Championship Wrestling , battant Shawn Osbourne. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flat polyps are the least common type of colon polyp , and are flat or even slightly depressed. (medicinenet.com)
  • A polyp is a projection (growth) of tissue from the inner lining of the colon into the lumen (hollow center) of the colon. (cancer.org)
  • Most are noncancerous (benign), but one type, the adenomatous polyp, is associated with changes (called mutations) in the DNA of the lining of the colon. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • However, many other classification schemes, some of which are completely unrelated, also use colons and other punctuation in various functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The colon ( : ) is a punctuation mark consisting of two equally sized dots centered on the same vertical line. (wikipedia.org)
  • Luca Serianni, an Italian scholar who helped to define and develop the colon as a punctuation mark, identified four punctuational modes for it: syntactical-deductive, syntactical-descriptive, appositive, and segmental. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the summer of 1955, Colón formed part of the Diablos Rojos del México club of the Mexican League. (wikipedia.org)