The process of negotiation between representatives of an employee organization, association or union, and representatives of the employer.
Collective behavior of an aggregate of individuals giving the appearance of unity of attitude, feeling, and motivation.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)
The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The procedures through which a group approaches, attacks, and solves a common problem.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.
Physical motion, i.e., a change in position of a body or subject as a result of an external force. It is distinguished from MOVEMENT, a process resulting from biological activity.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.
Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.
The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.
Aquatic vertebrate sensory system in fish and amphibians. It is composed of sense organs (canal organs and pit organs) containing neuromasts (MECHANORECEPTORS) that detect water displacement caused by moving objects.
Written or other literary works whose subject matter is medical or about the profession of medicine and related areas.
The state of society as it exists or in flux. While it usually refers to society as a whole in a specified geographical or political region, it is applicable also to restricted strata of a society.
Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.
A social science dealing with group relationships, patterns of collective behavior, and social organization.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Specific assays that measure the migration of cells. They are commonly used to measure the migration of immune cells in response to stimuli and the inhibition of immune cell migration by immunosuppressive factors.
Work-related situations in which the employees as a group refuse to work until certain conditions of employment are granted by the employer.
Organizations comprising wage and salary workers in health-related fields for the purpose of improving their status and conditions. The concept includes labor union activities toward providing health services to members.
An order of fish comprising salmons, trouts, whitefish, graylings, and other families. They are both marine and freshwater fish, found in all oceans and are quite numerous in the Northern Hemisphere. (From Nelson: Fishes of the World)
Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.
The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.
Coordination of nursing services by various nursing care personnel under the leadership of a professional nurse. The team may consist of a professional nurse, nurses' aides, and the practical nurse.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
Methods and techniques used to modify or select cells and develop conditions for growing cells for biosynthetic production of molecules (METABOLIC ENGINEERING), for generation of tissue structures and organs in vitro (TISSUE ENGINEERING), or for other BIOENGINEERING research objectives.
Occasions to commemorate an event or occasions designated for a specific purpose.
The process by which an aspect of self image is developed based on in-group preference or ethnocentrism and a perception of belonging to a social or cultural group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
Individuals connecting by family, work or other interests. It also includes connectivity facilitated by computer-based communications.
The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
The informal or formal organization of a group of people based on a network of personal relationships which is influenced by the size and composition, etc., of the group.
Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.
Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.
Persons having a sense of persistent identification with, and expression of, gender-coded behaviors not typically associated with one's anatomical sex at birth, and with or without a desire to undergo SEX REASSIGNMENT PROCEDURES.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The body of truths or facts accumulated in the course of time, the cumulated sum of information, its volume and nature, in any civilization, period, or country.
Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.
The family Sturnidae, in the order PASSERIFORMES. The starling family also includes mynahs and oxpeckers.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
Eating other individuals of one's own species.
A space which has limited openings for entry and exit combined with unfavorable natural ventilation such as CAVES, refrigerators, deep tunnels, pipelines, sewers, silos, tanks, vats, mines, deep trenches or pits, vaults, manholes, chimneys, etc.
The forces and principles of action of matter and energy.
A family of freshwater fish comprising the minnows or CARPS.
The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.
Group of fish under the superorder Acanthopterygii, separate from the PERCIFORMES, which includes swamp eels, mullets, sticklebacks, seahorses, spiny eels, rainbowfishes, and KILLIFISHES. The name is derived from the six taxa which comprise the group. (From, 8/4/2000)
A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.
The process of bargaining in order to arrive at an agreement or compromise on a matter of importance to the parties involved. It also applies to the hearing and determination of a case by a third party chosen by the parties in controversy, as well as the interposing of a third party to reconcile the parties in controversy.
Organizations and individuals cooperating together toward a common goal at the local or grassroots level.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The theory of the political, economic, and social equality of the sexes and organized activity on behalf of women's rights and interests. (Webster New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Social media model for enabling public involvement and recruitment in participation. Use of social media to collect feedback and recruit volunteer subjects.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A province of eastern Canada, one of the Maritime Provinces with NOVA SCOTIA; PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND; and sometimes NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR. Its capital is Fredericton. It was named in honor of King George III, of the House of Hanover, also called Brunswick. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p828 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p375)
Consideration and concern for others, as opposed to self-love or egoism, which can be a motivating influence.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
Behavior in defense of an area against another individual or individuals primarily of the same species.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
People who engage in occupational sexual behavior in exchange for economic rewards or other extrinsic considerations.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.
The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.
Gas poisoning, also known as carbon monoxide poisoning, occurs when a person inhales toxic levels of carbon monoxide, which can lead to symptoms such as headache, dizziness, and nausea, and in severe cases, death.
The internal individual struggle resulting from incompatible or opposing needs, drives, or external and internal demands. In group interactions, competitive or opposing action of incompatibles: antagonistic state or action (as of divergent ideas, interests, or persons). (from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The motion of fluids, especially noncompressible liquids, under the influence of internal and external forces.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Physical reactions involved in the formation of or changes in the structure of atoms and molecules and their interactions.
The exertion of a strong influence or control over others in a variety of settings--administrative, social, academic, etc.
Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).
The human ability to adapt in the face of tragedy, trauma, adversity, hardship, and ongoing significant life stressors.
Social rank-order established by certain behavioral patterns.
Instinctual patterns of activity related to a specific area including ability of certain animals to return to a given place when displaced from it, often over great distances using navigational clues such as those used in migration (ANIMAL MIGRATION).
Anchoring points where the CYTOSKELETON of neighboring cells are connected to each other. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON attach to the membrane through the transmembrane linkers, CADHERINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to cadherins in the neighboring cell membranes. In sheets of cells, they form into adhesion belts (zonula adherens) that go all the way around a cell.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A physical property showing different values in relation to the direction in or along which the measurement is made. The physical property may be with regard to thermal or electric conductivity or light refraction. In crystallography, it describes crystals whose index of refraction varies with the direction of the incident light. It is also called acolotropy and colotropy. The opposite of anisotropy is isotropy wherein the same values characterize the object when measured along axes in all directions.
The measure of that part of the heat or energy of a system which is not available to perform work. Entropy increases in all natural (spontaneous and irreversible) processes. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A process of complicated morphogenetic cell movements that reorganizes a bilayer embryo into one with three GERM LAYERS and specific orientation (dorsal/ventral; anterior/posterior). Gastrulation describes the germ layer development of a non-mammalian BLASTULA or that of a mammalian BLASTOCYST.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.
Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.
Significant decline in economic activity spread across the economy, lasting more than a few months, normally visible in real gross domestic product, real income, employment, industrial production, and wholesale-retail sales. (National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc,, accessed 4/23/2009)
The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.
Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.
Differences of opinion or disagreements that may arise, for example, between health professionals and patients or their families, or against a political regime.
Cognitive mechanism based on expectations or beliefs about one's ability to perform actions necessary to produce a given effect. It is also a theoretical component of behavior change in various therapeutic treatments. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.
Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.
Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
It is the study of social phenomena which characterize the learned, shared, and transmitted social activities of particular ethnic groups with focus on the causes, consequences, and complexities of human social and cultural variability.
The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.
A technique that uses LASERS to trap, image, and manipulate small objects (biomolecules, supramolecular assembles, DENDRIMERS) in three dimensional space. (From Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology Terms, 4th ed.)
Any enhancement of a motivated behavior in which individuals do the same thing with some degree of mutual stimulation and consequent coordination.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)
The study of fluid channels and chambers of tiny dimensions of tens to hundreds of micrometers and volumes of nanoliters or picoliters. This is of interest in biological MICROCIRCULATION and used in MICROCHEMISTRY and INVESTIGATIVE TECHNIQUES.
The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The application of electronic, computerized control systems to mechanical devices designed to perform human functions. Formerly restricted to industry, but nowadays applied to artificial organs controlled by bionic (bioelectronic) devices, like automated insulin pumps and other prostheses.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
General agreement or collective opinion; the judgment arrived at by most of those concerned.
A continuous protein fiber consisting primarily of FIBROINS. It is synthesized by a variety of INSECTS and ARACHNIDS.
In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.
The quality or state of being independent and self-directing, especially in making decisions, enabling professionals to exercise judgment as they see fit during the performance of their jobs.
The condition in which reasonable knowledge regarding risks, benefits, or the future is not available.
A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
Principles, models, and laws that apply to complex interrelationships and interdependencies of sets of linked components which form a functioning whole, a system. Any system may be composed of components which are systems in their own right (sub-systems), such as several organs within an individual organism.
The subfamily of myosin proteins that are commonly found in muscle fibers. Myosin II is also involved a diverse array of cellular functions including cell division, transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and maintaining MICROVILLI structure.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.
The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.
Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
The statistical manipulation of hierarchically and non-hierarchically nested data. It includes clustered data, such as a sample of subjects within a group of schools. Prevalent in the social, behavioral sciences, and biomedical sciences, both linear and nonlinear regression models are applied.
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
The measurement of frequency or oscillation changes.
An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.
Sexual behavior that prevents or reduces the spread of SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or PREGNANCY.
Continuous frequency distribution of infinite range. Its properties are as follows: 1, continuous, symmetrical distribution with both tails extending to infinity; 2, arithmetic mean, mode, and median identical; and 3, shape completely determined by the mean and standard deviation.
An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.
The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
The practice of indulging in sexual relations for money.
Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.
A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.
An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.
The circulation or wide dispersal of information.
Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.
The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Theoretical representations and constructs that describe or explain the structure and hierarchy of relationships and interactions within or between formal organizational entities or informal social groups.
The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.
The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.
A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.
A class of annelid worms with few setae per segment. It includes the earthworms such as Lumbricus and Eisenia.
The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
Introduction of changes which are new to the organization and are created by management.
The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.
The status of health in urban populations.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.

Bargaining health benefits in the workplace: an inside view. (1/14)

Before contract negotiations in 1999, the author served on an "issue-based" health benefits committee of faculty union representatives and university administrators. Although the committee solicited estimates from health insurers regarding the impact of higher copayments on monthly premiums, in subsequent negotiations, the projected cost savings did not lead to changes in coverage or copayments. The explanations offered are (1) national or regional employers may be reluctant to raise employees' health benefit copayments when labor markets are tight; (2) collective bargaining, particularly when other, nonmonetary issues are being bargained, may lead to results different from those from a strictly competitive model; and (3) employers with market power in the product market may shift these highest costs to consumers through higher prices.  (+info)

An evaluation of emergency room services during the New York City house officer strike. (2/14)

A chart audit of emergency services provided by attending staff during the New York City House Officers' strike is compared to an audit of work previously performed by house staff. The usual quality of services provided in this institution was maintained during the strike. However, deficiencies in quality noted in house staff charts, continued to be noted in the charts of attending staff. Failure to improve quality of medical records when trained staff substitute for trainees suggests that the central strike issue of poor working conditions contributes to low quality of care.  (+info)

Brazilian union actions for workers' health protection. (3/14)

CONTEXT: Many authors have emphasized the importance of worker strength through unionized organizations, in relation to the improvement of working procedures, and have reported on the decisiveness of labor movement actions in achieving modifications within the field of work and health. OBJECTIVE: To describe the ways in which Brazilian unions have tried to intervene in health-illness and work processes, identifying the existence of commonality in union actions in this field. TYPE OF STUDY: Qualitative study. SETTING: Postgraduate Program, Environmental Health Department, Faculdade de Saude Publica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Union health advisers and directors were interviewed. Documents relating to union action towards protecting workers' health were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: Unions articulate actions regarding workers' health of a technical and political nature that involve many aspects and high complexity. These have been divided into thematic categories for better analysis. DISCUSSION: Union actions regarding workers' health in Brazil are restricted to some unions, located mainly in the southern, southeastern and northeastern regions of the country. Nonetheless, the unions undertaking such actions represent many professions of great economic and political importance. CONCLUSIONS: The recent changes in health and safety at work regulations, recognition of professional diseases, creation of workers' health services and programs within the unified health system, and operational improvements in companies' specialized safety and occupational medicine services, all basically result from union action. There is commonality of union action in this field in its seeking of technical and political strengthening for all workers and their general and local representation. This has the objective of benefiting collective bargaining between employers and workers. Inter-institutional action on behalf of workers' rights guarantees and amplifies the improvement of health and working conditions.  (+info)

Effect of the new contract on GPs' working lives and perceptions of quality of care: a longitudinal survey. (4/14)


The United Mine Workers of American and the recognition of occupational respiratory diseases, 1902-1968. (5/14)

This study examines the early efforts of the United Mine Workers of America to illuminate the problem of occupational respiratory diseases in the coal fields. The union used the hearings of the US Anthracite Coal Strike Commission of 1902-3 to draw public attention to "miners' asthma." In 1915, it began to agitate for the provision of workers' compensation benefits for victims of this disorder. Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, the union's Welfare and Retirement Fund disseminated information on advances in understanding chronic pulmonary diseases of mining. In particular, the miners' fund promoted the British conceptualization of a distinctive coal workers' pneumoconiosis. At the same time, the staff of the union health plan pressed the US Public Health Service and the Pennsylvania Department of Health to investigate the prevalence of occupational respiratory diseases among bituminous miners. Taken together, these endeavors contributed significantly to growing recognition of the severity and extent of this important public health problem and thus helped lay the foundation for the Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969.  (+info)

Are physicians' strikes ever morally justifiable? A call for a return to tradition. (6/14)

Though physicians strike provides an opportunity to generate more knowledge about the process in which legitimacy of an organization can be restored, it meets with a great deal of resistance not only by the public but from within the medical profession. This paper critically examines the legitimacy of strike by medical doctors heretofore referred to as physicians. Though critically reflecting on strikes of physicians in general, the paper makes more emphasis on Africa where physician strikes are rampant. More importantly, the paper argues that strike implies a failure for everyone in the organization (including the strikers themselves), not only the responsible government or authority. This is because when a strike occurs, an organization/fraternity is subjected to questions, scrutiny and slander. It becomes difficult to decouple what is said, decided and done. Traditionally, all medical fraternities the world-over are committed to acting comfortably to external demands-guaranteeing the patients' lives and public health. By paying attention to external reactions, the medical fraternity adapts and learns what ought and should be done so that it is never again caught in the same messy. At the same time, the fraternity prepares itself for the future strikes. When the fraternity and those outside consider it is doing up to the external expectations, its lost legitimacy is restored. When legitimacy is restored, external pressure like once disturbed water returns to normal.  (+info)

Mobilising community collectivisation among female sex workers to promote STI service utilisation from the government healthcare system in Andhra Pradesh, India. (7/14)


Risk reduction and perceived collective efficacy and community support among female sex workers in Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra, India: the importance of context. (8/14)


Cadherins are a family of transmembrane proteins that play a crucial role in cell-cell adhesion in the human body. They are responsible for the formation and maintenance of tissues and organs by linking neighboring cells together. There are over 20 different types of cadherins, each with its own unique function and distribution in the body. Cadherins are involved in a wide range of biological processes, including embryonic development, tissue repair, and cancer progression. In the medical field, cadherins are often studied as potential targets for therapeutic interventions. For example, some researchers are exploring the use of cadherin inhibitors to treat cancer by disrupting the adhesion between cancer cells and normal cells, which can help prevent the spread of the disease. Additionally, cadherins are being studied as potential biomarkers for various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disorders.

Gas poisoning, also known as gas exposure or gas intoxication, refers to the harmful effects that can occur when a person inhales toxic gases or fumes. These gases can be found in a variety of settings, including industrial workplaces, homes with faulty gas appliances, and areas affected by natural disasters such as wildfires or volcanic eruptions. The symptoms of gas poisoning can vary depending on the type of gas and the level of exposure. Common symptoms include headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, confusion, and difficulty breathing. In severe cases, gas poisoning can lead to unconsciousness, respiratory failure, and even death. Treatment for gas poisoning typically involves removing the person from the source of the gas and providing supportive care to manage symptoms. In some cases, medical treatment may be necessary to address more serious complications. Prevention is the best way to avoid gas poisoning. This can include proper ventilation in workspaces and homes, regular maintenance of gas appliances, and following safety guidelines when working with hazardous materials.

In the medical field, water is a vital substance that is essential for the proper functioning of the human body. It is a clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that makes up the majority of the body's fluids, including blood, lymph, and interstitial fluid. Water plays a crucial role in maintaining the body's temperature, transporting nutrients and oxygen to cells, removing waste products, and lubricating joints. It also helps to regulate blood pressure and prevent dehydration, which can lead to a range of health problems. In medical settings, water is often used as a means of hydration therapy for patients who are dehydrated or have fluid imbalances. It may also be used as a diluent for medications or as a component of intravenous fluids. Overall, water is an essential component of human health and plays a critical role in maintaining the body's normal functions.

Molecular motor proteins are a class of proteins that use energy from ATP hydrolysis to move along a track or filament, such as microtubules or actin filaments. These proteins are essential for a wide range of cellular processes, including cell division, intracellular transport, and muscle contraction. There are several types of molecular motor proteins, including myosins, kinesins, dyneins, and adenylate kinases. Myosins are responsible for muscle contraction, while kinesins and dyneins are involved in intracellular transport. Adenylate kinases are involved in energy metabolism. Molecular motor proteins are often referred to as "engines" of the cell because they use chemical energy to perform mechanical work. They are also important for the proper functioning of many cellular processes, and defects in these proteins can lead to a variety of diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, muscular dystrophy, and cancer.

Proteins are complex biomolecules made up of amino acids that play a crucial role in many biological processes in the human body. In the medical field, proteins are studied extensively as they are involved in a wide range of functions, including: 1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the body, such as digestion, metabolism, and energy production. 2. Hormones: Proteins that regulate various bodily functions, such as growth, development, and reproduction. 3. Antibodies: Proteins that help the immune system recognize and neutralize foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria. 4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across cell membranes, such as oxygen and nutrients. 5. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide support and shape to cells and tissues, such as collagen and elastin. Protein abnormalities can lead to various medical conditions, such as genetic disorders, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of proteins is essential for developing effective treatments and therapies for these conditions.

In the medical field, "silk" typically refers to a type of protein fiber that is derived from the cocoons of silkworms. Silk has been used in various medical applications due to its unique properties, such as its strength, elasticity, and biocompatibility. One common use of silk in medicine is in the development of sutures, which are used to close incisions during surgery. Silk sutures are preferred by many surgeons because they are less likely to cause inflammation and scarring compared to synthetic sutures. Silk is also used in the production of various medical devices, such as artificial tendons, ligaments, and heart valves. These devices are designed to mimic the properties of natural tissue and can be used to replace damaged or diseased tissue. In addition, silk has been studied for its potential use in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Researchers have explored the use of silk as a scaffold for growing new tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and skin. Overall, silk has a wide range of potential applications in the medical field due to its unique properties and versatility.

Drosophila proteins are proteins that are found in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which is a widely used model organism in genetics and molecular biology research. These proteins have been studied extensively because they share many similarities with human proteins, making them useful for understanding the function and regulation of human genes and proteins. In the medical field, Drosophila proteins are often used as a model for studying human diseases, particularly those that are caused by genetic mutations. By studying the effects of these mutations on Drosophila proteins, researchers can gain insights into the underlying mechanisms of these diseases and potentially identify new therapeutic targets. Drosophila proteins have also been used to study a wide range of biological processes, including development, aging, and neurobiology. For example, researchers have used Drosophila to study the role of specific genes and proteins in the development of the nervous system, as well as the mechanisms underlying age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.

Myosin type II is a type of myosin, which is a protein that plays a crucial role in muscle contraction. It is one of the main types of myosin found in striated muscles, such as skeletal and cardiac muscles. Myosin type II is responsible for generating force during muscle contraction by interacting with actin filaments. Myosin type II is composed of two heavy chains and two light chains, which are arranged in a head-tail configuration. The head region of the myosin molecule contains the ATPase activity, which hydrolyzes ATP to provide the energy needed for muscle contraction. The tail region of the myosin molecule interacts with actin filaments, allowing the myosin molecule to slide along the actin filament and generate force. In skeletal muscles, myosin type II is responsible for the contraction of individual muscle fibers. In cardiac muscles, myosin type II is responsible for the coordinated contraction of the heart muscle, which pumps blood throughout the body. Myosin type II is also found in smooth muscles, which are responsible for involuntary contractions in organs such as the stomach and blood vessels.

Rac GTP-binding proteins are a family of small GTPases that play a crucial role in regulating various cellular processes, including cell migration, cytoskeletal rearrangement, and vesicle trafficking. They are involved in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, which is essential for cell shape, motility, and division. Rac GTPases are activated by the exchange of GDP (guanosine diphosphate) for GTP (guanosine triphosphate) on the protein, which causes a conformational change that allows it to interact with downstream effector proteins. Once activated, Rac GTPases can regulate the activity of various signaling pathways, including the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, which is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation. Dysregulation of Rac GTPases has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, understanding the role of Rac GTPases in cellular processes is important for developing new therapeutic strategies for these diseases.

Kinesin is a type of motor protein that plays a crucial role in the movement of organelles and vesicles within cells. It uses energy from ATP hydrolysis to move along microtubules, which are part of the cell's cytoskeleton. Kinesin is involved in a variety of cellular processes, including intracellular transport, cell division, and the maintenance of cell shape. In the medical field, kinesin is of interest because it has been implicated in several diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, as well as certain types of cancer.

In the medical field, neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors of cells that can occur in any part of the body. These growths can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are usually slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body. They can cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, or difficulty moving the affected area. Examples of benign neoplasms include lipomas (fatty tumors), hemangiomas (vascular tumors), and fibromas (fibrous tumors). Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous and can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. They can cause a wide range of symptoms, depending on the location and stage of the cancer. Examples of malignant neoplasms include carcinomas (cancers that start in epithelial cells), sarcomas (cancers that start in connective tissue), and leukemias (cancers that start in blood cells). The diagnosis of neoplasms typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy (the removal of a small sample of tissue for examination under a microscope). Treatment options for neoplasms depend on the type, stage, and location of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences.

Actins are a family of globular, cytoskeletal proteins that are essential for the maintenance of cell shape and motility. They are found in all eukaryotic cells and are involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell division, muscle contraction, and intracellular transport. Actins are composed of two globular domains, the N-terminal and C-terminal domains, which are connected by a flexible linker region. They are capable of polymerizing into long, filamentous structures called actin filaments, which are the main component of the cytoskeleton. Actin filaments are dynamic structures that can be rapidly assembled and disassembled in response to changes in the cellular environment. They are involved in a variety of cellular processes, including the formation of cellular structures such as the cell membrane, the cytoplasmic cortex, and the contractile ring during cell division. In addition to their role in maintaining cell shape and motility, actins are also involved in a number of other cellular processes, including the regulation of cell signaling, the organization of the cytoplasm, and the movement of organelles within the cell.

Actomyosin is a complex protein structure that is composed of actin and myosin filaments. It is found in muscle cells and is responsible for muscle contraction. Actin filaments are thin, flexible fibers that are arranged in a lattice-like structure, while myosin filaments are thicker and more rigid. When a muscle cell is stimulated to contract, the actin and myosin filaments interact with each other, causing the muscle to shorten and generate force. Actomyosin is also involved in the movement of cells and the maintenance of cell shape. In the medical field, actomyosin is an important target for the development of drugs to treat a variety of conditions, including heart disease, cancer, and muscle disorders.

Biopolymers are large molecules made up of repeating units of smaller molecules called monomers. In the medical field, biopolymers are often used as biomaterials, which are materials that are designed to interact with biological systems in a specific way. Biopolymers can be used to create a wide range of medical devices, such as implants, scaffolds for tissue engineering, and drug delivery systems. They can also be used as diagnostic tools, such as in the development of biosensors. Some examples of biopolymers used in medicine include proteins, nucleic acids, and polysaccharides.

Rho GTP-binding proteins are a family of small GTPases that play important roles in regulating the cytoskeleton and cell motility. They are involved in a variety of cellular processes, including cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation. Rho GTPases are activated by the exchange of GDP for GTP on their guanosine triphosphate (GTP) binding site, and they are deactivated by the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP. They are named after the rho subunit of the rho factor in Escherichia coli, which was the first member of the family to be identified.

Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) is a type of phospholipid, which is a molecule that is essential for the structure and function of cell membranes. It is composed of two fatty acid chains, each containing 16 carbon atoms, and a phosphate group attached to a choline molecule. DMPC is a common component of biological membranes and is often used in scientific research to study the properties of cell membranes and the behavior of membrane proteins. It is also used in the production of liposomes, which are small, spherical structures that can be used to deliver drugs and other molecules into cells.

Zebrafish proteins refer to proteins that are expressed in the zebrafish, a small freshwater fish that is commonly used as a model organism in biomedical research. These proteins can be studied to gain insights into the function and regulation of proteins in humans and other organisms. Zebrafish are particularly useful as a model organism because they have a similar genetic makeup to humans and other vertebrates, and they develop externally, making it easy to observe and manipulate their development. Additionally, zebrafish embryos are transparent, allowing researchers to visualize the development of their organs and tissues in real-time. Zebrafish proteins have been studied in a variety of contexts, including the development of diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. By studying zebrafish proteins, researchers can identify potential therapeutic targets and develop new treatments for these diseases.

In the medical field, lipid bilayers refer to the two layers of phospholipid molecules that form the basic structure of cell membranes. The lipid bilayer is composed of a hydrophilic (water-loving) head and a hydrophobic (water-fearing) tail. The hydrophilic heads face outward, towards the aqueous environment of the cell, while the hydrophobic tails face inward, towards each other. This arrangement creates a barrier that separates the inside of the cell from the outside environment, while also allowing for the selective passage of molecules in and out of the cell. The lipid bilayer is essential for maintaining the integrity and function of cells, and is involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell signaling, metabolism, and transport.

Bacterial proteins are proteins that are synthesized by bacteria. They are essential for the survival and function of bacteria, and play a variety of roles in bacterial metabolism, growth, and pathogenicity. Bacterial proteins can be classified into several categories based on their function, including structural proteins, metabolic enzymes, regulatory proteins, and toxins. Structural proteins provide support and shape to the bacterial cell, while metabolic enzymes are involved in the breakdown of nutrients and the synthesis of new molecules. Regulatory proteins control the expression of other genes, and toxins can cause damage to host cells and tissues. Bacterial proteins are of interest in the medical field because they can be used as targets for the development of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. They can also be used as diagnostic markers for bacterial infections, and as vaccines to prevent bacterial diseases. Additionally, some bacterial proteins have been shown to have therapeutic potential, such as enzymes that can break down harmful substances in the body or proteins that can stimulate the immune system.

Membrane proteins are proteins that are embedded within the lipid bilayer of a cell membrane. They play a crucial role in regulating the movement of substances across the membrane, as well as in cell signaling and communication. There are several types of membrane proteins, including integral membrane proteins, which span the entire membrane, and peripheral membrane proteins, which are only in contact with one or both sides of the membrane. Membrane proteins can be classified based on their function, such as transporters, receptors, channels, and enzymes. They are important for many physiological processes, including nutrient uptake, waste elimination, and cell growth and division.

Myosins are a family of motor proteins that are responsible for muscle contraction in animals. They are found in almost all eukaryotic cells, including muscle cells, and play a crucial role in the movement of intracellular organelles and vesicles. In muscle cells, myosins interact with actin filaments to generate force and movement. The process of muscle contraction involves the binding of myosin heads to actin filaments, followed by the movement of the myosin head along the actin filament, pulling the actin filament towards the center of the sarcomere. This sliding of actin and myosin filaments past each other generates the force required for muscle contraction. There are many different types of myosins, each with its own specific function and localization within the cell. Some myosins are involved in the movement of organelles and vesicles within the cytoplasm, while others are involved in the movement of chromosomes during cell division. Myosins are also involved in a variety of other cellular processes, including cell migration, cytokinesis, and the formation of cell junctions.

Green Fluorescent Proteins (GFPs) are a class of proteins that emit green light when excited by blue or ultraviolet light. They were first discovered in the jellyfish Aequorea victoria and have since been widely used as a tool in the field of molecular biology and bioimaging. In the medical field, GFPs are often used as a marker to track the movement and behavior of cells and proteins within living organisms. For example, scientists can insert a gene for GFP into a cell or organism, allowing them to visualize the cell or protein in real-time using a fluorescent microscope. This can be particularly useful in studying the development and function of cells, as well as in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. GFPs have also been used to develop biosensors, which can detect the presence of specific molecules or changes in cellular environment. For example, researchers have developed GFP-based sensors that can detect the presence of certain drugs or toxins, or changes in pH or calcium levels within cells. Overall, GFPs have become a valuable tool in the medical field, allowing researchers to study cellular processes and diseases in new and innovative ways.

In the medical field, "gold" typically refers to the use of gold compounds in the treatment of certain medical conditions. Gold has been used in medicine for centuries, and it is still used today in the treatment of certain autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. Gold therapy involves the administration of gold compounds, usually in the form of a pill or injection, to help reduce inflammation and pain. The exact mechanism of action of gold therapy is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve the modulation of the immune system and the production of anti-inflammatory molecules. Gold therapy is generally considered safe and effective, although it can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and skin rashes. It is important to note that gold therapy is not suitable for everyone, and it should only be used under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional.

In the medical field, a mutant protein refers to a protein that has undergone a genetic mutation, resulting in a change in its structure or function. Mutations can occur in the DNA sequence that codes for a protein, leading to the production of a protein with a different amino acid sequence than the normal, or wild-type, protein. Mutant proteins can be associated with a variety of medical conditions, including genetic disorders, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. For example, mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes can increase the risk of breast and ovarian cancer, while mutations in the huntingtin gene can cause Huntington's disease. In some cases, mutant proteins can be targeted for therapeutic intervention. For example, drugs that inhibit the activity of mutant proteins or promote the degradation of mutant proteins may be used to treat certain types of cancer or other diseases.

In the medical field, ions are charged particles that are either positively or negatively charged. They are formed when an atom gains or loses electrons, and they play a crucial role in many bodily functions. For example, ions such as sodium, potassium, calcium, and chloride are essential for maintaining the proper balance of fluids in the body, which is necessary for proper nerve and muscle function. Imbalances in these ions can lead to a variety of medical conditions, such as hypertension, heart disease, and muscle cramps. In addition, ions are also important in the transmission of nerve impulses and the functioning of the immune system. They are also used in medical treatments such as electrotherapy and iontophoresis, which involve the application of electrical currents to the body to treat various conditions.

In the medical field, "neoplasm invasiveness" refers to the ability of a cancerous tumor to invade and spread beyond its original site of origin. This can occur through the bloodstream or lymphatic system, or by direct extension into surrounding tissues. The degree of invasiveness of a neoplasm can be an important factor in determining the prognosis and treatment options for a patient. More invasive tumors are generally considered to be more aggressive and may be more difficult to treat. However, the specific characteristics of the tumor, such as its type, stage, and location, as well as the overall health of the patient, can also play a role in determining the prognosis. Invasive neoplasms may also be referred to as malignant tumors, as they have the potential to spread and cause harm to surrounding tissues and organs. Non-invasive neoplasms, on the other hand, are generally considered to be benign and are less likely to spread.

DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is a molecule that carries genetic information in living organisms. It is composed of four types of nitrogen-containing molecules called nucleotides, which are arranged in a specific sequence to form the genetic code. In the medical field, DNA is often studied as a tool for understanding and diagnosing genetic disorders. Genetic disorders are caused by changes in the DNA sequence that can affect the function of genes, leading to a variety of health problems. By analyzing DNA, doctors and researchers can identify specific genetic mutations that may be responsible for a particular disorder, and develop targeted treatments or therapies to address the underlying cause of the condition. DNA is also used in forensic science to identify individuals based on their unique genetic fingerprint. This is because each person's DNA sequence is unique, and can be used to distinguish one individual from another. DNA analysis is also used in criminal investigations to help solve crimes by linking DNA evidence to suspects or victims.

In the medical field, protons are subatomic particles that have a positive charge and are found in the nucleus of an atom. They are one of the two types of particles that make up atomic nuclei, the other being neutrons, which have no charge. Protons are important in medical applications because they can be used in a type of radiation therapy called proton therapy. Proton therapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses beams of protons to target and destroy cancer cells while minimizing damage to surrounding healthy tissue. This is because protons have a unique property called the Bragg peak, which allows them to deposit most of their energy at a specific depth in the body before coming to a stop. This makes proton therapy particularly effective for treating certain types of cancer, such as brain tumors and pediatric cancers.

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infections refer to the presence of the HIV virus in the body. HIV is a retrovirus that attacks and weakens the immune system, making individuals more susceptible to infections and diseases. HIV is transmitted through contact with infected bodily fluids, such as blood, semen, vaginal fluids, and breast milk. The most common modes of transmission include unprotected sexual contact, sharing needles or syringes, and from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. HIV infections can be diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of the virus or antibodies produced in response to the virus. Once diagnosed, HIV can be managed with antiretroviral therapy (ART), which helps to suppress the virus and prevent the progression of the disease to AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). It is important to note that HIV is not the same as AIDS. HIV is the virus that causes AIDS, but not everyone with HIV will develop AIDS. With proper treatment and management, individuals with HIV can live long and healthy lives.

Transcription factors are proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences and controlling the transcription of genetic information from DNA to RNA. They play a crucial role in the development and function of cells and tissues in the body. In the medical field, transcription factors are often studied as potential targets for the treatment of diseases such as cancer, where their activity is often dysregulated. For example, some transcription factors are overexpressed in certain types of cancer cells, and inhibiting their activity may help to slow or stop the growth of these cells. Transcription factors are also important in the development of stem cells, which have the ability to differentiate into a wide variety of cell types. By understanding how transcription factors regulate gene expression in stem cells, researchers may be able to develop new therapies for diseases such as diabetes and heart disease. Overall, transcription factors are a critical component of gene regulation and have important implications for the development and treatment of many diseases.

Cytoskeletal proteins are a diverse group of proteins that make up the internal framework of cells. They provide structural support and help maintain the shape of cells. The cytoskeleton is composed of three main types of proteins: microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules. Microfilaments are the thinnest of the three types of cytoskeletal proteins and are composed of actin filaments. They are involved in cell movement, cell division, and muscle contraction. Intermediate filaments are thicker than microfilaments and are composed of various proteins, including keratins, vimentin, and desmin. They provide mechanical strength to cells and help maintain cell shape. Microtubules are the thickest of the three types of cytoskeletal proteins and are composed of tubulin subunits. They play a crucial role in cell division, intracellular transport, and the maintenance of cell shape. Cytoskeletal proteins are essential for many cellular processes and are involved in a wide range of diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and muscle diseases.

In the medical field, RNA, Messenger (mRNA) refers to a type of RNA molecule that carries genetic information from DNA in the nucleus of a cell to the ribosomes, where proteins are synthesized. During the process of transcription, the DNA sequence of a gene is copied into a complementary RNA sequence called messenger RNA (mRNA). This mRNA molecule then leaves the nucleus and travels to the cytoplasm of the cell, where it binds to ribosomes and serves as a template for the synthesis of a specific protein. The sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule determines the sequence of amino acids in the protein that is synthesized. Therefore, changes in the sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule can result in changes in the amino acid sequence of the protein, which can affect the function of the protein and potentially lead to disease. mRNA molecules are often used in medical research and therapy as a way to introduce new genetic information into cells. For example, mRNA vaccines work by introducing a small piece of mRNA that encodes for a specific protein, which triggers an immune response in the body.

Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a type of bacteria that is commonly found in the human gut. E. coli proteins are proteins that are produced by E. coli bacteria. These proteins can have a variety of functions, including helping the bacteria to survive and thrive in the gut, as well as potentially causing illness in humans. In the medical field, E. coli proteins are often studied as potential targets for the development of new treatments for bacterial infections. For example, some E. coli proteins are involved in the bacteria's ability to produce toxins that can cause illness in humans, and researchers are working to develop drugs that can block the activity of these proteins in order to prevent or treat E. coli infections. E. coli proteins are also used in research to study the biology of the bacteria and to understand how it interacts with the human body. For example, researchers may use E. coli proteins as markers to track the growth and spread of the bacteria in the gut, or they may use them to study the mechanisms by which the bacteria causes illness. Overall, E. coli proteins are an important area of study in the medical field, as they can provide valuable insights into the biology of this important bacterium and may have potential applications in the treatment of bacterial infections.

RNA, Small Interfering (siRNA) is a type of non-coding RNA molecule that plays a role in gene regulation. siRNA is approximately 21-25 nucleotides in length and is derived from double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules. In the medical field, siRNA is used as a tool for gene silencing, which involves inhibiting the expression of specific genes. This is achieved by introducing siRNA molecules that are complementary to the target mRNA sequence, leading to the degradation of the mRNA and subsequent inhibition of protein synthesis. siRNA has potential applications in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, viral infections, and genetic disorders. It is also used in research to study gene function and regulation. However, the use of siRNA in medicine is still in its early stages, and there are several challenges that need to be addressed before it can be widely used in clinical practice.

In the medical field, peptides are short chains of amino acids that are linked together by peptide bonds. They are typically composed of 2-50 amino acids and can be found in a variety of biological molecules, including hormones, neurotransmitters, and enzymes. Peptides play important roles in many physiological processes, including growth and development, immune function, and metabolism. They can also be used as therapeutic agents to treat a variety of medical conditions, such as diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. In the pharmaceutical industry, peptides are often synthesized using chemical methods and are used as drugs or as components of drugs. They can be administered orally, intravenously, or topically, depending on the specific peptide and the condition being treated.

In the medical field, macromolecular substances refer to large molecules that are composed of repeating units, such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids. These molecules are essential for many biological processes, including cell signaling, metabolism, and structural support. Macromolecular substances are typically composed of thousands or even millions of atoms, and they can range in size from a few nanometers to several micrometers. They are often found in the form of fibers, sheets, or other complex structures, and they can be found in a variety of biological tissues and fluids. Examples of macromolecular substances in the medical field include: - Proteins: These are large molecules composed of amino acids that are involved in a wide range of biological functions, including enzyme catalysis, structural support, and immune response. - Carbohydrates: These are molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms that are involved in energy storage, cell signaling, and structural support. - Lipids: These are molecules composed of fatty acids and glycerol that are involved in energy storage, cell membrane structure, and signaling. - Nucleic acids: These are molecules composed of nucleotides that are involved in genetic information storage and transfer. Macromolecular substances are important for many medical applications, including drug delivery, tissue engineering, and gene therapy. Understanding the structure and function of these molecules is essential for developing new treatments and therapies for a wide range of diseases and conditions.

Occupational diseases are illnesses or injuries that are caused by exposure to hazards or conditions in the workplace. These hazards or conditions can include chemicals, dusts, fumes, radiation, noise, vibration, and physical demands such as repetitive motions or awkward postures. Occupational diseases can affect various systems in the body, including the respiratory system, skin, eyes, ears, cardiovascular system, and nervous system. Examples of occupational diseases include asbestosis, silicosis, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, carpal tunnel syndrome, and hearing loss. Occupational diseases are preventable through proper safety measures and regulations in the workplace. Employers are responsible for providing a safe and healthy work environment for their employees, and workers have the right to report hazards and seek medical attention if they experience any symptoms related to their work.

Neoplasm metastasis refers to the spread of cancer cells from a primary tumor to other parts of the body. This occurs when cancer cells break away from the primary tumor, enter the bloodstream or lymphatic system, and travel to distant organs or tissues, where they can form new tumors. Metastasis is a major cause of cancer-related deaths, as it makes the disease more difficult to treat and increases the risk of complications. The ability of cancer cells to metastasize is a key factor in determining the prognosis for patients with cancer.

In the medical field, carrier proteins are proteins that transport molecules across cell membranes or within cells. These proteins bind to specific molecules, such as hormones, nutrients, or waste products, and facilitate their movement across the membrane or within the cell. Carrier proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the proper balance of molecules within cells and between cells. They are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including nutrient absorption, hormone regulation, and waste elimination. There are several types of carrier proteins, including facilitated diffusion carriers, active transport carriers, and ion channels. Each type of carrier protein has a specific function and mechanism of action. Understanding the role of carrier proteins in the body is important for diagnosing and treating various medical conditions, such as genetic disorders, metabolic disorders, and neurological disorders.

DNA primers are short, single-stranded DNA molecules that are used in a variety of molecular biology techniques, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. They are designed to bind to specific regions of a DNA molecule, and are used to initiate the synthesis of new DNA strands. In PCR, DNA primers are used to amplify specific regions of DNA by providing a starting point for the polymerase enzyme to begin synthesizing new DNA strands. The primers are complementary to the target DNA sequence, and are added to the reaction mixture along with the DNA template, nucleotides, and polymerase enzyme. The polymerase enzyme uses the primers as a template to synthesize new DNA strands, which are then extended by the addition of more nucleotides. This process is repeated multiple times, resulting in the amplification of the target DNA sequence. DNA primers are also used in DNA sequencing to identify the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. In this application, the primers are designed to bind to specific regions of the DNA molecule, and are used to initiate the synthesis of short DNA fragments. The fragments are then sequenced using a variety of techniques, such as Sanger sequencing or next-generation sequencing. Overall, DNA primers are an important tool in molecular biology, and are used in a wide range of applications to study and manipulate DNA.

"Unions and Collective Bargaining". Tangian, Andranik (2009). Towards computer-aided collective bargaining: Enhancing the trade ... The parties often refer to the result of the negotiation as a collective bargaining agreement (CBA) or as a collective ... but collective bargaining is needed for wage growth". Nordic Labour Journal. Buidens, Wayne, and others. "Collective Gaining: A ... collective bargaining under the industry norm", in Torsten Müller & Kurt Vandaele & Jeremy Waddington (eds.) Collective ...
King Syze + Skammadix: Collective Bargaining (Accessed: 14 February 2014 Collective Bargaining on iTunes (Accessed: February, ... Collective Bargaining Track listing (Accessed: February, 2014) "Not On Label". Discogs. "Collective Bargaining - King Syze". ... Collective Bargaining is the third studio album by underground rapper and Army of the Pharaohs member King Syze. It was ... Collective Bargaining was not released on a label. An Extended Play version was released on to iTunes on 13 August 2013. ...
... is an aim of trade unions or labor unions to reach a collective agreement that covers all ... See Collective bargaining coverage from Reforms under Macron have since allowed enterprise agreements ... While sectoral bargaining used to be standard in the UK, enterprise bargaining was advocated by the 1968 report of the Royal ... Countries that have sectoral collective bargaining have significantly higher rates of coverage than those with enterprise or ...
The Collective Bargaining Convention is an International Labour Organization Convention. As of 2022, the convention is ratified ... Organized labour portal Freedom of association Freedom of assembly Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention " ...
The NFL collective bargaining agreement (CBA) is a labor agreement which reflects the results of collective bargaining ... "Full term sheet of proposed collective bargaining agreement". "NFL players approve collective bargaining agreement, ushering in ... The first collective bargaining agreement was reached in 1968 after player members of the NFLPA voted to go on strike to ... "NFL-NFLPA Collective Bargaining Agreement 2011" (PDF). NFL Labor. August 4, 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 5 ...
The NBA collective bargaining agreement (CBA) is a contract between the National Basketball Association (NBA) (the commissioner ... "NBA, players ratify new collective bargaining agreement" (Press release). NBA. December 23, 2016. Retrieved December 28, 2016. ... Collective agreements, National Basketball Association labor relations, Rules of the National Basketball Association). ...
The collective bargaining agreement was initially to last for six seasons and be open to re-negotiation in 1998, but was ... The NHL Collective Bargaining Agreement (CBA) is the basic contract between the National Hockey League (NHL) (32 team owners ... The 2011-12 NHL season was the final year of the then-current collective bargaining agreement, as the NHL Players' Association ... "NHL, NHLPA sign Collective Bargaining Agreement". National Hockey League. January 12, 2013. Retrieved January 13, 2013. "NHL, ...
... "a framework of enabling conditions for collective bargaining", and "an action plan to promote collective bargaining" that is ... bargaining and coverage. Article 4 requires member states (1) to "aim to increase the collective bargaining coverage" and to (a ... The Collective Bargaining and Wage Directive is a proposed European Union Directive on the setting of minimum wages and ... UK labour law European labour law Proposal for a Collective Bargaining and Wage Directive COM/2020/682 final (European Union ...
"A Collective Bargain". Jane McAlevey (January 7, 2020). A Collective Bargain: Unions, Organizing, and the Fight for Democracy. ... A Collective Bargain: Unions, Organizing, and the Fight for Democracy is a 2020 non-fiction book by union organizer Jane ... "A Collective Bargain: Unions, Organizing, and the Fight for Democracy". Publishers Weekly. October 10, 2019. Retrieved 6 ... A Collective Bargain' lays out a union organizing plan that could save democracy. ... The bulk of the book is a kind of primer ...
The New York City Office of Collective Bargaining (OCB) is an agency of the New York City government that regulates labor ... It is similar to the state Public Employment Relations Board (PERB). Official website Office of Collective Bargaining in the ... including certification of collective bargaining representatives, mediation, impasse panels, and arbitration. ...
"Canada ratifies the Collective Bargaining Convention". 14 June 2017. Retrieved 27 December 2017. Text of the Convention ... Article 4 goes on to collective bargaining. It requires that the law promotes "the full development and utilisation of ... The Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention (1949) No 98 is an International Labour Organization Convention. It ... articles 4 to 6 require the positive creation of rights to collective bargaining, and that each member state's law promotes it ...
The Employee's Rights to Representation, Consultation and Collective Bargaining Ordinance (Chinese: 僱員代表權、諮詢權及集體談判權條例) is a ... A majority of the LAB members deemed it inappropriate to bring the collective bargaining into operation. It was frozen with ... Further provisions included the establishment of collective bargaining and the imposition on employers of a duty to allow trade ... in which the pro-democrats used it as an attack on the FTU which supported the repeal of the collective bargaining. Hong Kong ...
11 U.S.C. § 1113, "Rejection of Collective Bargaining Agreements," codifies under what circumstances collective bargaining ... Supreme Court concluded that a debtor could reject a collective bargaining agreement without engaging in collective bargaining ... The debtor's rejection of the collective bargaining agreement does not terminate the debtor's duty to bargain with the union ... collective bargaining agreements U.S. Bankruptcy Code U.S. Code Title 11, via United States Government Printing Office U.S. ...
In collective bargaining, surface bargaining is a strategy in which one of the parties "merely goes through the motions", with ... Based upon the "totality" of a party's actions during collective bargaining, surface bargaining may be found if there was a ... In this regard, it is a form of bad faith bargaining. Distinguishing surface bargaining from good faith bargaining is extremely ... or failing to follow generally accepted procedures for collective bargaining may also be seen as signs of surface bargaining. ...
... whether the admission would promote orderly collective bargaining; and the extent to which the applicant party may disrupt the ... In Fuel Retailers Association of SA v Motor Industry Bargaining Council [2001] 6 BLLR 605 (LC), an important case in South ... South African labour law Fuel Retailers Association of SA v Motor Industry Bargaining Council (J2612/00) [2001] ZALC 46 (28 ... the threshold for admission and other requirements of the constitution of the bargaining council. The court concluded that the ...
... collective bargaining; and the encouragement of economic co-operatives. The CCF, while rhetorically socialist, did not ...
Picketing Collective Bargaining Attempting to Enforce an active Collective Bargaining Agreement Filing an Unfair Labor Practice ... "Collective Bargaining , AFL-CIO". Retrieved 2023-04-14. "Investigate Charges , National Labor Relations Board". www ... Similarly, a violation of a collective bargaining agreement, standing alone, may not constitute an unfair labor practice unless ... labor practice charge could also be resolved through the grievance and arbitration procedure of the collective bargaining ...
Collective Bargaining. Thirty-fourth Annual ANG Convention. Ottawa, Ontario: American Newspaper Guild. July 24-28, 1967. p. 12 ...
Collective Bargaining , Ministry of Labour, Training and Skills Development. Contact Us - Ontario Labour Relations Board "OWTL ... One of the most important powers of the Ontario Labour Relations Board is the ability to certify trade unions as collective ... The library also holds the OLRB collection of bargaining unit certificates issued from 1962 to the present. Certificates issued ... bargaining agents. The Board is also in charge of the union formation, termination and decertification. It also commonly deals ...
"Collective Bargaining". Concordia University of Edmonton. Retrieved 2022-07-01. "U of L officially opens new Edmonton campus - ... The strike lasted for 11 days, with CUEFA and the university reaching a four-year collective agreement on January 15. As a ...
Collective Bargaining Under the Industry Norm". In Müller, Torsten; Vandaele, Kurt; Waddington, Jeremy, eds. (2019). Collective ... Social security and collective wage bargaining policies were rolled back following economic imbalances in the 1980s and the ... Additionally, in 2018, collective bargaining coverage was 90% in Iceland, 88.8% in Finland (2017), 88% in Sweden, 82% in ... "Collective bargaining coverage". OECD. Retrieved 30 June 2021. Kjellberg, Anders (4 April 2006). "The Swedish unemployment ...
... free collective bargaining". The context was the difficulty maintaining external balance without sacrificing two sacrosanct ... One involved attempts to compress wages within a bargaining sector while compressing wages between sectors and maximizing ...
"ATA/A4A Opposes Pilot Unions". Collective Bargaining Facts. 28 June 2010.[permanent dead link] "TSA stops mask enforcement ...
Rojot, Jacques (2006). "International Collective Bargaining". In Morley, Michael J.; Gunnigle, Patrick; Collings, David (eds ...
... collective bargaining rights; and the structure of pension plans". In contrast, he argued the case at hand created no such ...
... increased collective bargaining power, a $15-an-hour minimum wage, as well as free tuition and Universal Healthcare (typically ... collective bargaining rights; defending social programs; same-sex marriage; immigration reform; and unabridged access to ... The 1824 "corrupt bargain" had strengthened their suspicion of Washington politics. ... Jacksonians feared the concentration of ...
"Collective Bargaining Sessions". Grinnell College. Archived from the original on 29 April 2023. Retrieved 29 April 2023. Pope, ... In October 2022, the union and the college began the collective bargaining process. Many Grinnell alumni have won awards and ...
Collective bargaining is a way nations promote CSR. In Germany, CSR is kept at the industry level instead of the workplace; ... In comparison with the U.S. that covers 25.5% of its blue and white-collar workforce under collective bargaining and the U.K. ... Job security, wage increases with industry growth are key aspects of collective bargaining in the German labor system. There is ... Fulton, L. (2020). "Collective Bargaining / Germany". Retrieved 2020-11-01. "German Trade Union ...
... to secure a stronger collective bargaining position and frequent increases in the minimum wage. From the 1990s onward, and in ... collective bargaining rights; improvements in housing, health and education; social insurance; pensions; economic policies ...
... is a collective bargaining agreement that is not part of the underlying or primary collective bargaining agreement (CBA) but is ... It limits the collective bargaining agreements that parties can register for eligibility for workplace tribunals enforcement ... "Working Around WorkChoices: Collective Bargaining and the Common Law". Melbourne University Law Review. 2007. Coalition of ... "Memorandum of Agreement." Collective Bargaining Agreement. July 14, 1993. Office of the Comptroller. State of Connecticut. " ...
Report addressing collective bargaining as an effective instrument for achieving the basic AAUP objectives of protecting ... Policy for Collective Bargaining Chapters. 1. When a chapter of the Association enters into collective bargaining, it has an ... Where a group of employees chooses collective bargaining, trustees and administrators have an obligation to bargain in good ... Statement on Collective Bargaining The statement that follows was initially adopted in 1973 and revised in 1984, 2009, and 2017 ...
... was worsened by a lack of urgency to get a deal done well before its collective bargaining agreement expired, something he ... David Stern is talking about collective bargaining again, and is taking lessons from football. The Associated Press reports: ... David Stern is talking about collective bargaining again, and is taking lessons from football. The Associated Press reports:. ... was worsened by a lack of urgency to get a deal done well before its collective bargaining agreement expired, something he ...
Lorimer Collective Bargaining Award. The Lorimer Collective Bargaining Award is established in honour of Joyce and Doug Lorimer ... outstanding contributions to improving the terms and conditions of employment of Ontario university faculty through bargaining. ...
This commission recommended collective bargaining in order to reconcile the union and the employers. As the commission wrote, a ... Without collective bargaining, he said, workers "cannot exercise a restraining influence upon the wayward members of their own ... Book traversal links for A debate on collective bargaining and the IWW. * On contracts and the IWW ... The U.S. government increasingly promoted collective bargaining in the early part of the 20th century. To take one important ...
And he declared that strengthening collective bargaining is one way to close that gap. ... Obama: Collective bargaining can close the income gap December 5, 2013 1:51 PM CST By Mark Gruenberg * ... And he said, to applause, that one part of that roadmap is "to ensure our collective bargaining laws function as theyre ... And he declared that strengthening collective bargaining is one way to close that gap. But the president didnt stop there. ...
Home » About SCC » Students Right to Know / Consumer Information » Collective Bargaining Agreement ... Collective Bargaining Agreement. FY23-27 Collective Bargaining Agreement. * Signature Page. FY21-22 Collective Bargaining ...
... February 17, 2011 ... Testimony on Collective Bargaining to Senate Committee (February 2011). February 17, 2011 ...
Bargaining: Essentials of Collective Bargaining Law. The topics addressed in Bargaining: Essentials of Collective Bargaining ... Sample: Collective Bargaining Series - Volume 1, Chapter 1. Sample: Collective Bargaining Series - Volume 2, Chapter 4 ... Lancaster House presents your new bargaining companion!. Introducing a paperback series on collective bargaining. These ... Bargaining : Job Security, Layoff and Recall, Contracting Out, Downsizing. The topics addressed in Bargaining: Job Security, ...
It gives the history of the collective bargaining system. ... This Ebook will give detailed survey on the Collective ... Collective Bargaining Agreement: Trends Across The Globe. This Ebook will give a detailed survey on the Collective Bargaining ... It gives the history of the collective bargaining system, its interdependence on International Law with emphasis on the ...
Austria: New collective agreement in the electricity sector. The trade union GPA has negotiated a new collective agreement in ... Finland: New collective agreement for port operators. A collective agreement on the terms and conditions of employment for ... the obligation to perform collective bargaining at both the company (if it has at least 10 employees) and at the sectoral level ... the possibility to perform collective bargaining at the national level; new obligations for employers to inform and consult ...
Included are examples of collective bargaining by waste pickers in Brazil, domestic workers in Uruguay, street traders in ... This brief summarizes the findings of a set of case studies of collective bargaining by informal workers in five different ... This brief summarizes the findings of a set of case studies of collective bargaining by informal workers in five different ... Included are examples of collective bargaining by waste pickers in Brazil, domestic workers in Uruguay, street traders in ...
... collective-bargaining rights and right-to-work laws are not the same thing. Collective bargaining rights dictate whether ... The second part of collective bargaining are the laws that determine the scope of bargaining (the provisions that must, may, or ... Teachers are always free to organize but if employees want to negotiate a binding contract (also called a collective-bargaining ... Shaw, Dara Zeehandelaar, Ph.D. "A Primer on Right-to-Work and Collective Bargaining in Education." The Fordham Institute, 12/12 ...
Negotiated a collective bargaining agreement with the Motion Picture Editors Guild after the editors walked off a reality ...
Major Collective Bargaining Settlements Public Use File, 1/1989 - 12/1989 in the Series: Records About Major Collective ... Bargaining Agreements, created 1974 - 1995, documenting the period 1974 - 1995 - Record Group 257 (info). ...
... the latest news and information about Collective Bargaining from ... has confirmed in writing that it now recognises IMPACT as the representative of the airlines pilots for collective bargaining ...
Knowing when to take a step back while maintaining your bottom line is crucial to successful collective bargaining," Zhu said. ... We are looking forward to setting up a factory union in the near future and formalizing collective bargaining meetings between ... Foshan jewellery workers end strike after collective bargaining with management 28 August 2014 ...
Keith speaks with reporter Meg Linehan of The Athletic about the National Womens Soccer League signing their first collective ... NWSL ratifies 1st collective bargaining agreement hoping it leads to more stability ... LINEHAN: I think the collective bargaining agreement is absolutely very key to the league trying to sort out everything that ... The players union struck a deal with the league to ratify the first collective bargaining agreement in womens professional ...
The East Central College Board of Trustees unanimously approved the negotiated collective bargaining agreement with faculty for ...
Fire Department Collective Bargaining Agreement and other public policy research within from Pioneer Institute. ... Fire Department Collective Bargaining Agreement If the proposed collective bargaining agreement between the City of Boston and ... Statement on Proposed City of Boston - Fire Department Collective Bargaining Agreement. April 29, 2014. /3 Comments/in Better ... If the collective bargaining agreement is approved as described, fire department employees will receive retroactive checks this ...
... mandate collective bargaining with teachers unions. The other two permit school districts to bargain collectively, but do not ... Collective Bargaining and School Performance. Posted in Education by John Moser. Supporters of the public employee unions have ... Does collective bargaining correlate with performance by students on standardized tests? Of the five states whose students ... This "data" started to be passed around via Twitter and Facebook; for example, "5 states forbid collective bargaining for ...
Ohioians voting overwhelmingly to restore collective bargaining rights for public workers. Good news out of Ohio tonight: It ... Ohioians vot-ing over-whelm-ing-ly to restore col-lec-tive bar-gain-ing rights for pub-lic workers […] ... vic-to-ry for the mid-dle class with their over-whelm-ing rejec-tion of a Repub-li-can attempt to strip away col-lec-tive bar- ...
Testimony: Senate Bill 701, Paycheck Protection, and Collective Bargaining Agreements. By Patrick Ishmael on Feb 18, 2020 ... and collective bargaining agreements. Click on the link below to read the full testimony. ...
What is Collective Bargaining? Collective bargaining consists of negotiations between an employer and a group of employees so ... The result of collective bargaining procedures is a collective agreement. Employees are often represented in bargaining by a ... Tags: collective_bargaining, labor_relations public_sector, labor_studies labor_law labor law workplace employment smlr ... Collective bargaining is governed by federal and state statutory laws, administrative agency regulations, and judicial ...
Weber, Arnold R. (1963) "The Structure of Collective Bargaining and Bargaining Power: Foreign Experiences," Journal of Law and ...
... after getting involved in Collective Bargaining Agreement (CBA) negotiations. ... Improve your conditions: member involvement makes a difference in collective bargaining agreement negotiations. 9 May 2022 ... I have attended Collective Bargaining Agreement (CBA) discussions several times. The shipowners delegation consists of four ... after getting involved in Collective Bargaining Agreement (CBA) negotiations The CBA between Nautilus and the Dutch Association ...
"Strengthening collective bargaining is key to ensuring a fair distribution of the inflation shock between workers and employers ... With the recent adoption of the directive on minimum wages and collective bargaining, the European Union has adopted a similar ... OECD: collective bargaining the solution to the cost of living crisis. 28.09.22 ... The findings align with UNI Europas own research on the link between strong collective bargaining and less income inequality. ...
CWU and PBL Sign New Collective Bargaining Agreement Oct 7, 2021 Success at long last: CWU and PBL Sign New Collective ... On Wednesday, the Christian Workers Union (CWU) and the Port of Belize Limited (PBL) signed a new collective bargaining ... It is being described as a momentous occasion, because while collective bargaining agreements are to be revised every three ... Success at long last: CWU and PBL Sign New Collective Bargaining Agreement ...
... which expands collective bargaining rights to over 20,000 Nevada state employees - the largest statewide expansion of ... collective bargaining rights in 16 years.The bill, expected to be signed into law by Gov. ... Public service workers across the country lauded the passage of Nevada Senate Bill 135, which expands collective bargaining ... Union Momentum Grows: 20,000 Nevada State Employees to Gain Collective Bargaining Rights. ...
Human resources-Labor and collective bargaining conditions. When employing personnel, provisions of labor and collective ...
The purpose of this paper is to examine the bargaining agenda of selected major Canadian unions on womens issues and the ... first section highlights the union agenda and the common provisions the unions have been pursuing at the collective bargaining ... The second section analyzes the frequency of the collective agreement clauses on womens issues overall and of selected unions ... effectiveness of their efforts towards incorporating these issues into their collective agreements. The ...
  • It is being described as a momentous occasion, because while collective bargaining agreements are to be revised every three years, the last CBA was signed back in 2002, eighteen years ago. (
  • The effect of collective bargaining rights is concentrated among sheriffs' offices that subsequently adopted collective bargaining agreements, and the adoption of these agreements is associated with increases in violent misconduct. (
  • The East Central College Board of Trustees unanimously approved the negotiated collective bargaining agreement with faculty for the 2017-2018 school year at the July 20 meeting. (
  • With the recent adoption of the directive on minimum wages and collective bargaining, the European Union has adopted a similar view. (
  • With their new freedom to negotiate, Nevada state employees can use their collective voice to negotiate a host of workplace issues, among them wages, paid leave and ways to improve safety on the job. (
  • Yet collective bargaining tends to increase wages, which could improve officer behavior. (
  • Workers, especially those at risk of unfair treatment, rely on collective bargaining to provide them with a safe work environment and fair wages. (
  • The benefits of collective bargaining extend far beyond wages. (
  • Making it easier for willing workers to form unions, increasing penalties for corporate violations of labor laws, defending collective bargaining in the public sector, and halting and reversing the spread of so-called right-to-work laws will give workers the leverage they need to bargain for better wages and benefits and to set high labor standards for all workers. (
  • Strengthening collective bargaining is key to ensuring a fair distribution of the inflation shock between workers and employers. (
  • In the longer term, a stronger voice for workers and more robust competition between employers would ensure a re-balancing of bargaining power. (
  • Regularly provides advice to employers regarding union organizing, certification and collective bargaining negotiations. (
  • Collective bargaining consists of negotiations between an employer and a group of employees so as to determine the conditions of employment. (
  • The evidence and advice is clear, it is now up to national governments to take decisive action and strengthen collective bargaining. (
  • Collective bargaining is an effective instrument for achieving these objectives, and therefore the Association supports the right of faculty, other academic professionals, and graduate students to form unions. (
  • Tenure-line and non-tenure-line faculty, graduate employees, and academic professionals at both public and private institutions are entitled to choose to engage in collective bargaining in order to ensure an effective role in the governance of the institution. (
  • They should not resort to litigation or other means having the purpose or effect of restraining or coercing the faculty in its choice of collective bargaining. (
  • The presence of institutions of faculty governance does not preclude the need for or usefulness of collective bargaining. (
  • The Lorimer Collective Bargaining Award is established in honour of Joyce and Doug Lorimer of the Wilfrid Laurier University Faculty Association and is instituted to honour and recognize outstanding contributions to improving the terms and conditions of employment of Ontario university faculty through bargaining. (
  • Therefore, the Association believes that employees and administrations in collective bargaining should seek mutual agreement on methods of dispute resolution, such as mediation, fact-finding, or arbitration. (
  • Negotiated a collective bargaining agreement with the Motion Picture Editors Guild after the editors walked off a reality television series. (
  • The result of collective bargaining procedures is a collective agreement. (
  • On Wednesday, the Christian Workers Union (CWU) and the Port of Belize Limited (PBL) signed a new collective bargaining agreement (CBA) for the staff at PBL. (
  • Collective bargaining is a process where a group of employees, assisted by a labor union, negotiates contract terms and crafts a collective bargaining agreement (CBA) with an employer. (
  • A collective bargaining agreement includes these and many other terms. (
  • 90 percent of workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement have access to sick days, compared to 73 percent of non-union workers. (
  • A safe work environment is another critical term in any collective bargaining agreement. (
  • Where a group of employees chooses collective bargaining, trustees and administrators have an obligation to bargain in good faith with the union and should not resort to litigation or any other means intended to avoid this obligation. (
  • We are looking forward to setting up a factory union in the near future and formalizing collective bargaining meetings between union representatives and the company as soon as possible. (
  • Employees are often represented in bargaining by a union or other labor organization. (
  • Analyze and evaluate the process of union representation, collective bargaining, contract administration, and dispute resolution, the roles of labor and management representatives within their respective entities, and the impact of technology tools. (
  • While the NLRA declared collective bargaining is the "policy of the United States," not all employees have access nor the ability to form a union. (
  • She also wants to eliminate "high-stakes testing" and authorize a new legal requirement that teachers can organize and collectively bargain in every state. (
  • Development of guidelines, tools, and procedures to support Member States in planning and monitoring progress in improving health systems performance need to factor in the urgent need for expanding education and training, employment and career development and the right to organize and collective bargaining of health workers and their trade unions. (
  • Public service workers across the country lauded the passage of Nevada Senate Bill 135, which expands collective bargaining rights to over 20,000 Nevada state employees - the largest statewide expansion of collective bargaining rights in 16 years. (
  • For example, the Railway Labor Act (RLA) of 1926 grants collective bargaining rights to railroad and airline workers and extends to other transportation employees as well. (
  • The National Labor Act excludes workers such as agricultural laborers, independent contractors, supervisors, and managerial employees from creating a bargaining unit. (
  • The erosion of collective bargaining has been the single largest factor suppressing wage growth for middle-wage workers over the last few decades. (
  • The goal of collective bargaining is to negotiate with a company's management, with employees and executives on equal footing. (
  • Whether employees may bargain collectively with their employer depends on a number of factors, including the employees' industry, employer, and state laws. (
  • According to the AFL-CIO , three-quarters of private employees and two-thirds of public employees have the right to collective bargaining . (
  • Employees in specific industries may be entitled to collective bargaining rights under several federal laws. (
  • More broadly, the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) of 1935 grants other private-sector employees the right to bargain collectively. (
  • Multiple international human rights conventions, including the United Nations , recognize the right to collective bargaining as a way for employees to negotiate fairly. (
  • Collective bargaining is governed by federal and state statutory laws, administrative agency regulations, and judicial decisions. (
  • and with working people across the country taking collective action in their workplaces to join unions, it's clear that Americans are eager for pro-worker solutions to level the playing field for working people in an economy that favors the wealthy. (
  • Read on to better understand how collective bargaining works, determine whether a worker is entitled to this process, some vital terms, and what happens if both parties reach an impasse. (
  • Ryanair management has confirmed in writing that it now recognises IMPACT as the representative of the airline's pilots for collective bargaining. (
  • When they get to the bargaining table, the members intend to advocate for their patients, says Crane. (
  • One of the most important pieces of progressive labor laws comes from the idea of collective bargaining. (
  • They want to be able to sit at the bargaining table and explain to Allina that things aren't working, that [the current system] isn't sustainable. (
  • As a national organization that has historically played a major role in formulating and implementing the principles that govern relationships in academic life, the Association promotes collective bargaining to reinforce and secure the principles of academic freedom and tenure, fair workplace procedures, and the economic security of the profession. (
  • We provide quasi-experimental empirical evidence on the effects of collective bargaining rights on violent incidents of misconduct. (
  • The findings align with UNI Europa's own research on the link between strong collective bargaining and less income inequality. (
  • Dhammika Dharmapala, Richard H. McAdams & John Rappaport, "The Effect of Collective Bargaining Rights on Law Enforcement: Evidence from Florida," University of Chicago Public Law & Legal Theory Paper Series, No. 655 (2018). (
  • When employing personnel, provisions of labor and collective bargaining law must be observed. (
  • On the contrary, collective bargaining can be used to increase the effectiveness of those institutions by extending their areas of competence, defining their authority, and strengthening their voice in areas of shared authority and responsibility. (
  • Our empirical strategy exploits a 2003 Florida Supreme Court decision (Williams), which conferred collective bargaining rights on sheriffs' deputies, resulting in a substantial increase in unionization among these officers. (
  • Our estimates imply that collective bargaining rights led to a substantial increase in violent incidents of misconduct among sheriffs' offices, relative to police departments. (
  • The right to collective bargaining does not stop at the national level. (