Molecular Dynamics Simulation
Lateral Line System
Medicine in Literature
Cell Migration Assays
Anniversaries and Special Events
Cell Surface Extensions
Molecular Motor Proteins
Dissent and Disputes
Protein Structure, Tertiary
Monte Carlo Method
Myosin Type II
Molecular Sequence Data
Interviews as Topic
Principal Component Analysis
Neural Networks (Computer)
rac GTP-Binding Proteins
Bargaining health benefits in the workplace: an inside view. (1/14)Before contract negotiations in 1999, the author served on an "issue-based" health benefits committee of faculty union representatives and university administrators. Although the committee solicited estimates from health insurers regarding the impact of higher copayments on monthly premiums, in subsequent negotiations, the projected cost savings did not lead to changes in coverage or copayments. The explanations offered are (1) national or regional employers may be reluctant to raise employees' health benefit copayments when labor markets are tight; (2) collective bargaining, particularly when other, nonmonetary issues are being bargained, may lead to results different from those from a strictly competitive model; and (3) employers with market power in the product market may shift these highest costs to consumers through higher prices. (+info)
An evaluation of emergency room services during the New York City house officer strike. (2/14)A chart audit of emergency services provided by attending staff during the New York City House Officers' strike is compared to an audit of work previously performed by house staff. The usual quality of services provided in this institution was maintained during the strike. However, deficiencies in quality noted in house staff charts, continued to be noted in the charts of attending staff. Failure to improve quality of medical records when trained staff substitute for trainees suggests that the central strike issue of poor working conditions contributes to low quality of care. (+info)
Brazilian union actions for workers' health protection. (3/14)CONTEXT: Many authors have emphasized the importance of worker strength through unionized organizations, in relation to the improvement of working procedures, and have reported on the decisiveness of labor movement actions in achieving modifications within the field of work and health. OBJECTIVE: To describe the ways in which Brazilian unions have tried to intervene in health-illness and work processes, identifying the existence of commonality in union actions in this field. TYPE OF STUDY: Qualitative study. SETTING: Postgraduate Program, Environmental Health Department, Faculdade de Saude Publica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Union health advisers and directors were interviewed. Documents relating to union action towards protecting workers' health were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: Unions articulate actions regarding workers' health of a technical and political nature that involve many aspects and high complexity. These have been divided into thematic categories for better analysis. DISCUSSION: Union actions regarding workers' health in Brazil are restricted to some unions, located mainly in the southern, southeastern and northeastern regions of the country. Nonetheless, the unions undertaking such actions represent many professions of great economic and political importance. CONCLUSIONS: The recent changes in health and safety at work regulations, recognition of professional diseases, creation of workers' health services and programs within the unified health system, and operational improvements in companies' specialized safety and occupational medicine services, all basically result from union action. There is commonality of union action in this field in its seeking of technical and political strengthening for all workers and their general and local representation. This has the objective of benefiting collective bargaining between employers and workers. Inter-institutional action on behalf of workers' rights guarantees and amplifies the improvement of health and working conditions. (+info)
Effect of the new contract on GPs' working lives and perceptions of quality of care: a longitudinal survey. (4/14)(+info)
The United Mine Workers of American and the recognition of occupational respiratory diseases, 1902-1968. (5/14)This study examines the early efforts of the United Mine Workers of America to illuminate the problem of occupational respiratory diseases in the coal fields. The union used the hearings of the US Anthracite Coal Strike Commission of 1902-3 to draw public attention to "miners' asthma." In 1915, it began to agitate for the provision of workers' compensation benefits for victims of this disorder. Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, the union's Welfare and Retirement Fund disseminated information on advances in understanding chronic pulmonary diseases of mining. In particular, the miners' fund promoted the British conceptualization of a distinctive coal workers' pneumoconiosis. At the same time, the staff of the union health plan pressed the US Public Health Service and the Pennsylvania Department of Health to investigate the prevalence of occupational respiratory diseases among bituminous miners. Taken together, these endeavors contributed significantly to growing recognition of the severity and extent of this important public health problem and thus helped lay the foundation for the Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969. (+info)
Are physicians' strikes ever morally justifiable? A call for a return to tradition. (6/14)Though physicians strike provides an opportunity to generate more knowledge about the process in which legitimacy of an organization can be restored, it meets with a great deal of resistance not only by the public but from within the medical profession. This paper critically examines the legitimacy of strike by medical doctors heretofore referred to as physicians. Though critically reflecting on strikes of physicians in general, the paper makes more emphasis on Africa where physician strikes are rampant. More importantly, the paper argues that strike implies a failure for everyone in the organization (including the strikers themselves), not only the responsible government or authority. This is because when a strike occurs, an organization/fraternity is subjected to questions, scrutiny and slander. It becomes difficult to decouple what is said, decided and done. Traditionally, all medical fraternities the world-over are committed to acting comfortably to external demands-guaranteeing the patients' lives and public health. By paying attention to external reactions, the medical fraternity adapts and learns what ought and should be done so that it is never again caught in the same messy. At the same time, the fraternity prepares itself for the future strikes. When the fraternity and those outside consider it is doing up to the external expectations, its lost legitimacy is restored. When legitimacy is restored, external pressure like once disturbed water returns to normal. (+info)
Mobilising community collectivisation among female sex workers to promote STI service utilisation from the government healthcare system in Andhra Pradesh, India. (7/14)(+info)
Risk reduction and perceived collective efficacy and community support among female sex workers in Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra, India: the importance of context. (8/14)(+info)
Cadherins are a family of transmembrane proteins that play a crucial role in cell-cell adhesion in the human body. They are responsible for the formation and maintenance of tissues and organs by linking neighboring cells together. There are over 20 different types of cadherins, each with its own unique function and distribution in the body. Cadherins are involved in a wide range of biological processes, including embryonic development, tissue repair, and cancer progression. In the medical field, cadherins are often studied as potential targets for therapeutic interventions. For example, some researchers are exploring the use of cadherin inhibitors to treat cancer by disrupting the adhesion between cancer cells and normal cells, which can help prevent the spread of the disease. Additionally, cadherins are being studied as potential biomarkers for various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disorders.
Gas poisoning, also known as gas exposure or gas intoxication, refers to the harmful effects that can occur when a person inhales toxic gases or fumes. These gases can be found in a variety of settings, including industrial workplaces, homes with faulty gas appliances, and areas affected by natural disasters such as wildfires or volcanic eruptions. The symptoms of gas poisoning can vary depending on the type of gas and the level of exposure. Common symptoms include headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, confusion, and difficulty breathing. In severe cases, gas poisoning can lead to unconsciousness, respiratory failure, and even death. Treatment for gas poisoning typically involves removing the person from the source of the gas and providing supportive care to manage symptoms. In some cases, medical treatment may be necessary to address more serious complications. Prevention is the best way to avoid gas poisoning. This can include proper ventilation in workspaces and homes, regular maintenance of gas appliances, and following safety guidelines when working with hazardous materials.
In the medical field, water is a vital substance that is essential for the proper functioning of the human body. It is a clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that makes up the majority of the body's fluids, including blood, lymph, and interstitial fluid. Water plays a crucial role in maintaining the body's temperature, transporting nutrients and oxygen to cells, removing waste products, and lubricating joints. It also helps to regulate blood pressure and prevent dehydration, which can lead to a range of health problems. In medical settings, water is often used as a means of hydration therapy for patients who are dehydrated or have fluid imbalances. It may also be used as a diluent for medications or as a component of intravenous fluids. Overall, water is an essential component of human health and plays a critical role in maintaining the body's normal functions.
Molecular motor proteins are a class of proteins that use energy from ATP hydrolysis to move along a track or filament, such as microtubules or actin filaments. These proteins are essential for a wide range of cellular processes, including cell division, intracellular transport, and muscle contraction. There are several types of molecular motor proteins, including myosins, kinesins, dyneins, and adenylate kinases. Myosins are responsible for muscle contraction, while kinesins and dyneins are involved in intracellular transport. Adenylate kinases are involved in energy metabolism. Molecular motor proteins are often referred to as "engines" of the cell because they use chemical energy to perform mechanical work. They are also important for the proper functioning of many cellular processes, and defects in these proteins can lead to a variety of diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, muscular dystrophy, and cancer.
Proteins are complex biomolecules made up of amino acids that play a crucial role in many biological processes in the human body. In the medical field, proteins are studied extensively as they are involved in a wide range of functions, including: 1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the body, such as digestion, metabolism, and energy production. 2. Hormones: Proteins that regulate various bodily functions, such as growth, development, and reproduction. 3. Antibodies: Proteins that help the immune system recognize and neutralize foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria. 4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across cell membranes, such as oxygen and nutrients. 5. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide support and shape to cells and tissues, such as collagen and elastin. Protein abnormalities can lead to various medical conditions, such as genetic disorders, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of proteins is essential for developing effective treatments and therapies for these conditions.
In the medical field, "silk" typically refers to a type of protein fiber that is derived from the cocoons of silkworms. Silk has been used in various medical applications due to its unique properties, such as its strength, elasticity, and biocompatibility. One common use of silk in medicine is in the development of sutures, which are used to close incisions during surgery. Silk sutures are preferred by many surgeons because they are less likely to cause inflammation and scarring compared to synthetic sutures. Silk is also used in the production of various medical devices, such as artificial tendons, ligaments, and heart valves. These devices are designed to mimic the properties of natural tissue and can be used to replace damaged or diseased tissue. In addition, silk has been studied for its potential use in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Researchers have explored the use of silk as a scaffold for growing new tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and skin. Overall, silk has a wide range of potential applications in the medical field due to its unique properties and versatility.
Drosophila proteins are proteins that are found in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which is a widely used model organism in genetics and molecular biology research. These proteins have been studied extensively because they share many similarities with human proteins, making them useful for understanding the function and regulation of human genes and proteins. In the medical field, Drosophila proteins are often used as a model for studying human diseases, particularly those that are caused by genetic mutations. By studying the effects of these mutations on Drosophila proteins, researchers can gain insights into the underlying mechanisms of these diseases and potentially identify new therapeutic targets. Drosophila proteins have also been used to study a wide range of biological processes, including development, aging, and neurobiology. For example, researchers have used Drosophila to study the role of specific genes and proteins in the development of the nervous system, as well as the mechanisms underlying age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.
Myosin type II is a type of myosin, which is a protein that plays a crucial role in muscle contraction. It is one of the main types of myosin found in striated muscles, such as skeletal and cardiac muscles. Myosin type II is responsible for generating force during muscle contraction by interacting with actin filaments. Myosin type II is composed of two heavy chains and two light chains, which are arranged in a head-tail configuration. The head region of the myosin molecule contains the ATPase activity, which hydrolyzes ATP to provide the energy needed for muscle contraction. The tail region of the myosin molecule interacts with actin filaments, allowing the myosin molecule to slide along the actin filament and generate force. In skeletal muscles, myosin type II is responsible for the contraction of individual muscle fibers. In cardiac muscles, myosin type II is responsible for the coordinated contraction of the heart muscle, which pumps blood throughout the body. Myosin type II is also found in smooth muscles, which are responsible for involuntary contractions in organs such as the stomach and blood vessels.
Rac GTP-binding proteins are a family of small GTPases that play a crucial role in regulating various cellular processes, including cell migration, cytoskeletal rearrangement, and vesicle trafficking. They are involved in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, which is essential for cell shape, motility, and division. Rac GTPases are activated by the exchange of GDP (guanosine diphosphate) for GTP (guanosine triphosphate) on the protein, which causes a conformational change that allows it to interact with downstream effector proteins. Once activated, Rac GTPases can regulate the activity of various signaling pathways, including the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, which is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation. Dysregulation of Rac GTPases has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, understanding the role of Rac GTPases in cellular processes is important for developing new therapeutic strategies for these diseases.
Kinesin is a type of motor protein that plays a crucial role in the movement of organelles and vesicles within cells. It uses energy from ATP hydrolysis to move along microtubules, which are part of the cell's cytoskeleton. Kinesin is involved in a variety of cellular processes, including intracellular transport, cell division, and the maintenance of cell shape. In the medical field, kinesin is of interest because it has been implicated in several diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, as well as certain types of cancer.
In the medical field, neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors of cells that can occur in any part of the body. These growths can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are usually slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body. They can cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, or difficulty moving the affected area. Examples of benign neoplasms include lipomas (fatty tumors), hemangiomas (vascular tumors), and fibromas (fibrous tumors). Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous and can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. They can cause a wide range of symptoms, depending on the location and stage of the cancer. Examples of malignant neoplasms include carcinomas (cancers that start in epithelial cells), sarcomas (cancers that start in connective tissue), and leukemias (cancers that start in blood cells). The diagnosis of neoplasms typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy (the removal of a small sample of tissue for examination under a microscope). Treatment options for neoplasms depend on the type, stage, and location of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences.
Actins are a family of globular, cytoskeletal proteins that are essential for the maintenance of cell shape and motility. They are found in all eukaryotic cells and are involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell division, muscle contraction, and intracellular transport. Actins are composed of two globular domains, the N-terminal and C-terminal domains, which are connected by a flexible linker region. They are capable of polymerizing into long, filamentous structures called actin filaments, which are the main component of the cytoskeleton. Actin filaments are dynamic structures that can be rapidly assembled and disassembled in response to changes in the cellular environment. They are involved in a variety of cellular processes, including the formation of cellular structures such as the cell membrane, the cytoplasmic cortex, and the contractile ring during cell division. In addition to their role in maintaining cell shape and motility, actins are also involved in a number of other cellular processes, including the regulation of cell signaling, the organization of the cytoplasm, and the movement of organelles within the cell.
Actomyosin is a complex protein structure that is composed of actin and myosin filaments. It is found in muscle cells and is responsible for muscle contraction. Actin filaments are thin, flexible fibers that are arranged in a lattice-like structure, while myosin filaments are thicker and more rigid. When a muscle cell is stimulated to contract, the actin and myosin filaments interact with each other, causing the muscle to shorten and generate force. Actomyosin is also involved in the movement of cells and the maintenance of cell shape. In the medical field, actomyosin is an important target for the development of drugs to treat a variety of conditions, including heart disease, cancer, and muscle disorders.
Biopolymers are large molecules made up of repeating units of smaller molecules called monomers. In the medical field, biopolymers are often used as biomaterials, which are materials that are designed to interact with biological systems in a specific way. Biopolymers can be used to create a wide range of medical devices, such as implants, scaffolds for tissue engineering, and drug delivery systems. They can also be used as diagnostic tools, such as in the development of biosensors. Some examples of biopolymers used in medicine include proteins, nucleic acids, and polysaccharides.
Rho GTP-binding proteins are a family of small GTPases that play important roles in regulating the cytoskeleton and cell motility. They are involved in a variety of cellular processes, including cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation. Rho GTPases are activated by the exchange of GDP for GTP on their guanosine triphosphate (GTP) binding site, and they are deactivated by the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP. They are named after the rho subunit of the rho factor in Escherichia coli, which was the first member of the family to be identified.
Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) is a type of phospholipid, which is a molecule that is essential for the structure and function of cell membranes. It is composed of two fatty acid chains, each containing 16 carbon atoms, and a phosphate group attached to a choline molecule. DMPC is a common component of biological membranes and is often used in scientific research to study the properties of cell membranes and the behavior of membrane proteins. It is also used in the production of liposomes, which are small, spherical structures that can be used to deliver drugs and other molecules into cells.
Zebrafish proteins refer to proteins that are expressed in the zebrafish, a small freshwater fish that is commonly used as a model organism in biomedical research. These proteins can be studied to gain insights into the function and regulation of proteins in humans and other organisms. Zebrafish are particularly useful as a model organism because they have a similar genetic makeup to humans and other vertebrates, and they develop externally, making it easy to observe and manipulate their development. Additionally, zebrafish embryos are transparent, allowing researchers to visualize the development of their organs and tissues in real-time. Zebrafish proteins have been studied in a variety of contexts, including the development of diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. By studying zebrafish proteins, researchers can identify potential therapeutic targets and develop new treatments for these diseases.
In the medical field, lipid bilayers refer to the two layers of phospholipid molecules that form the basic structure of cell membranes. The lipid bilayer is composed of a hydrophilic (water-loving) head and a hydrophobic (water-fearing) tail. The hydrophilic heads face outward, towards the aqueous environment of the cell, while the hydrophobic tails face inward, towards each other. This arrangement creates a barrier that separates the inside of the cell from the outside environment, while also allowing for the selective passage of molecules in and out of the cell. The lipid bilayer is essential for maintaining the integrity and function of cells, and is involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell signaling, metabolism, and transport.
Bacterial proteins are proteins that are synthesized by bacteria. They are essential for the survival and function of bacteria, and play a variety of roles in bacterial metabolism, growth, and pathogenicity. Bacterial proteins can be classified into several categories based on their function, including structural proteins, metabolic enzymes, regulatory proteins, and toxins. Structural proteins provide support and shape to the bacterial cell, while metabolic enzymes are involved in the breakdown of nutrients and the synthesis of new molecules. Regulatory proteins control the expression of other genes, and toxins can cause damage to host cells and tissues. Bacterial proteins are of interest in the medical field because they can be used as targets for the development of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. They can also be used as diagnostic markers for bacterial infections, and as vaccines to prevent bacterial diseases. Additionally, some bacterial proteins have been shown to have therapeutic potential, such as enzymes that can break down harmful substances in the body or proteins that can stimulate the immune system.
Membrane proteins are proteins that are embedded within the lipid bilayer of a cell membrane. They play a crucial role in regulating the movement of substances across the membrane, as well as in cell signaling and communication. There are several types of membrane proteins, including integral membrane proteins, which span the entire membrane, and peripheral membrane proteins, which are only in contact with one or both sides of the membrane. Membrane proteins can be classified based on their function, such as transporters, receptors, channels, and enzymes. They are important for many physiological processes, including nutrient uptake, waste elimination, and cell growth and division.
Myosins are a family of motor proteins that are responsible for muscle contraction in animals. They are found in almost all eukaryotic cells, including muscle cells, and play a crucial role in the movement of intracellular organelles and vesicles. In muscle cells, myosins interact with actin filaments to generate force and movement. The process of muscle contraction involves the binding of myosin heads to actin filaments, followed by the movement of the myosin head along the actin filament, pulling the actin filament towards the center of the sarcomere. This sliding of actin and myosin filaments past each other generates the force required for muscle contraction. There are many different types of myosins, each with its own specific function and localization within the cell. Some myosins are involved in the movement of organelles and vesicles within the cytoplasm, while others are involved in the movement of chromosomes during cell division. Myosins are also involved in a variety of other cellular processes, including cell migration, cytokinesis, and the formation of cell junctions.
Green Fluorescent Proteins (GFPs) are a class of proteins that emit green light when excited by blue or ultraviolet light. They were first discovered in the jellyfish Aequorea victoria and have since been widely used as a tool in the field of molecular biology and bioimaging. In the medical field, GFPs are often used as a marker to track the movement and behavior of cells and proteins within living organisms. For example, scientists can insert a gene for GFP into a cell or organism, allowing them to visualize the cell or protein in real-time using a fluorescent microscope. This can be particularly useful in studying the development and function of cells, as well as in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. GFPs have also been used to develop biosensors, which can detect the presence of specific molecules or changes in cellular environment. For example, researchers have developed GFP-based sensors that can detect the presence of certain drugs or toxins, or changes in pH or calcium levels within cells. Overall, GFPs have become a valuable tool in the medical field, allowing researchers to study cellular processes and diseases in new and innovative ways.
In the medical field, "gold" typically refers to the use of gold compounds in the treatment of certain medical conditions. Gold has been used in medicine for centuries, and it is still used today in the treatment of certain autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. Gold therapy involves the administration of gold compounds, usually in the form of a pill or injection, to help reduce inflammation and pain. The exact mechanism of action of gold therapy is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve the modulation of the immune system and the production of anti-inflammatory molecules. Gold therapy is generally considered safe and effective, although it can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and skin rashes. It is important to note that gold therapy is not suitable for everyone, and it should only be used under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional.
In the medical field, a mutant protein refers to a protein that has undergone a genetic mutation, resulting in a change in its structure or function. Mutations can occur in the DNA sequence that codes for a protein, leading to the production of a protein with a different amino acid sequence than the normal, or wild-type, protein. Mutant proteins can be associated with a variety of medical conditions, including genetic disorders, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. For example, mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes can increase the risk of breast and ovarian cancer, while mutations in the huntingtin gene can cause Huntington's disease. In some cases, mutant proteins can be targeted for therapeutic intervention. For example, drugs that inhibit the activity of mutant proteins or promote the degradation of mutant proteins may be used to treat certain types of cancer or other diseases.
In the medical field, ions are charged particles that are either positively or negatively charged. They are formed when an atom gains or loses electrons, and they play a crucial role in many bodily functions. For example, ions such as sodium, potassium, calcium, and chloride are essential for maintaining the proper balance of fluids in the body, which is necessary for proper nerve and muscle function. Imbalances in these ions can lead to a variety of medical conditions, such as hypertension, heart disease, and muscle cramps. In addition, ions are also important in the transmission of nerve impulses and the functioning of the immune system. They are also used in medical treatments such as electrotherapy and iontophoresis, which involve the application of electrical currents to the body to treat various conditions.
In the medical field, "neoplasm invasiveness" refers to the ability of a cancerous tumor to invade and spread beyond its original site of origin. This can occur through the bloodstream or lymphatic system, or by direct extension into surrounding tissues. The degree of invasiveness of a neoplasm can be an important factor in determining the prognosis and treatment options for a patient. More invasive tumors are generally considered to be more aggressive and may be more difficult to treat. However, the specific characteristics of the tumor, such as its type, stage, and location, as well as the overall health of the patient, can also play a role in determining the prognosis. Invasive neoplasms may also be referred to as malignant tumors, as they have the potential to spread and cause harm to surrounding tissues and organs. Non-invasive neoplasms, on the other hand, are generally considered to be benign and are less likely to spread.
DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is a molecule that carries genetic information in living organisms. It is composed of four types of nitrogen-containing molecules called nucleotides, which are arranged in a specific sequence to form the genetic code. In the medical field, DNA is often studied as a tool for understanding and diagnosing genetic disorders. Genetic disorders are caused by changes in the DNA sequence that can affect the function of genes, leading to a variety of health problems. By analyzing DNA, doctors and researchers can identify specific genetic mutations that may be responsible for a particular disorder, and develop targeted treatments or therapies to address the underlying cause of the condition. DNA is also used in forensic science to identify individuals based on their unique genetic fingerprint. This is because each person's DNA sequence is unique, and can be used to distinguish one individual from another. DNA analysis is also used in criminal investigations to help solve crimes by linking DNA evidence to suspects or victims.
In the medical field, protons are subatomic particles that have a positive charge and are found in the nucleus of an atom. They are one of the two types of particles that make up atomic nuclei, the other being neutrons, which have no charge. Protons are important in medical applications because they can be used in a type of radiation therapy called proton therapy. Proton therapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses beams of protons to target and destroy cancer cells while minimizing damage to surrounding healthy tissue. This is because protons have a unique property called the Bragg peak, which allows them to deposit most of their energy at a specific depth in the body before coming to a stop. This makes proton therapy particularly effective for treating certain types of cancer, such as brain tumors and pediatric cancers.
HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infections refer to the presence of the HIV virus in the body. HIV is a retrovirus that attacks and weakens the immune system, making individuals more susceptible to infections and diseases. HIV is transmitted through contact with infected bodily fluids, such as blood, semen, vaginal fluids, and breast milk. The most common modes of transmission include unprotected sexual contact, sharing needles or syringes, and from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. HIV infections can be diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of the virus or antibodies produced in response to the virus. Once diagnosed, HIV can be managed with antiretroviral therapy (ART), which helps to suppress the virus and prevent the progression of the disease to AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). It is important to note that HIV is not the same as AIDS. HIV is the virus that causes AIDS, but not everyone with HIV will develop AIDS. With proper treatment and management, individuals with HIV can live long and healthy lives.
Transcription factors are proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences and controlling the transcription of genetic information from DNA to RNA. They play a crucial role in the development and function of cells and tissues in the body. In the medical field, transcription factors are often studied as potential targets for the treatment of diseases such as cancer, where their activity is often dysregulated. For example, some transcription factors are overexpressed in certain types of cancer cells, and inhibiting their activity may help to slow or stop the growth of these cells. Transcription factors are also important in the development of stem cells, which have the ability to differentiate into a wide variety of cell types. By understanding how transcription factors regulate gene expression in stem cells, researchers may be able to develop new therapies for diseases such as diabetes and heart disease. Overall, transcription factors are a critical component of gene regulation and have important implications for the development and treatment of many diseases.
Cytoskeletal proteins are a diverse group of proteins that make up the internal framework of cells. They provide structural support and help maintain the shape of cells. The cytoskeleton is composed of three main types of proteins: microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules. Microfilaments are the thinnest of the three types of cytoskeletal proteins and are composed of actin filaments. They are involved in cell movement, cell division, and muscle contraction. Intermediate filaments are thicker than microfilaments and are composed of various proteins, including keratins, vimentin, and desmin. They provide mechanical strength to cells and help maintain cell shape. Microtubules are the thickest of the three types of cytoskeletal proteins and are composed of tubulin subunits. They play a crucial role in cell division, intracellular transport, and the maintenance of cell shape. Cytoskeletal proteins are essential for many cellular processes and are involved in a wide range of diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and muscle diseases.
In the medical field, RNA, Messenger (mRNA) refers to a type of RNA molecule that carries genetic information from DNA in the nucleus of a cell to the ribosomes, where proteins are synthesized. During the process of transcription, the DNA sequence of a gene is copied into a complementary RNA sequence called messenger RNA (mRNA). This mRNA molecule then leaves the nucleus and travels to the cytoplasm of the cell, where it binds to ribosomes and serves as a template for the synthesis of a specific protein. The sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule determines the sequence of amino acids in the protein that is synthesized. Therefore, changes in the sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule can result in changes in the amino acid sequence of the protein, which can affect the function of the protein and potentially lead to disease. mRNA molecules are often used in medical research and therapy as a way to introduce new genetic information into cells. For example, mRNA vaccines work by introducing a small piece of mRNA that encodes for a specific protein, which triggers an immune response in the body.
Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a type of bacteria that is commonly found in the human gut. E. coli proteins are proteins that are produced by E. coli bacteria. These proteins can have a variety of functions, including helping the bacteria to survive and thrive in the gut, as well as potentially causing illness in humans. In the medical field, E. coli proteins are often studied as potential targets for the development of new treatments for bacterial infections. For example, some E. coli proteins are involved in the bacteria's ability to produce toxins that can cause illness in humans, and researchers are working to develop drugs that can block the activity of these proteins in order to prevent or treat E. coli infections. E. coli proteins are also used in research to study the biology of the bacteria and to understand how it interacts with the human body. For example, researchers may use E. coli proteins as markers to track the growth and spread of the bacteria in the gut, or they may use them to study the mechanisms by which the bacteria causes illness. Overall, E. coli proteins are an important area of study in the medical field, as they can provide valuable insights into the biology of this important bacterium and may have potential applications in the treatment of bacterial infections.
RNA, Small Interfering (siRNA) is a type of non-coding RNA molecule that plays a role in gene regulation. siRNA is approximately 21-25 nucleotides in length and is derived from double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules. In the medical field, siRNA is used as a tool for gene silencing, which involves inhibiting the expression of specific genes. This is achieved by introducing siRNA molecules that are complementary to the target mRNA sequence, leading to the degradation of the mRNA and subsequent inhibition of protein synthesis. siRNA has potential applications in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, viral infections, and genetic disorders. It is also used in research to study gene function and regulation. However, the use of siRNA in medicine is still in its early stages, and there are several challenges that need to be addressed before it can be widely used in clinical practice.
In the medical field, peptides are short chains of amino acids that are linked together by peptide bonds. They are typically composed of 2-50 amino acids and can be found in a variety of biological molecules, including hormones, neurotransmitters, and enzymes. Peptides play important roles in many physiological processes, including growth and development, immune function, and metabolism. They can also be used as therapeutic agents to treat a variety of medical conditions, such as diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. In the pharmaceutical industry, peptides are often synthesized using chemical methods and are used as drugs or as components of drugs. They can be administered orally, intravenously, or topically, depending on the specific peptide and the condition being treated.
In the medical field, macromolecular substances refer to large molecules that are composed of repeating units, such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids. These molecules are essential for many biological processes, including cell signaling, metabolism, and structural support. Macromolecular substances are typically composed of thousands or even millions of atoms, and they can range in size from a few nanometers to several micrometers. They are often found in the form of fibers, sheets, or other complex structures, and they can be found in a variety of biological tissues and fluids. Examples of macromolecular substances in the medical field include: - Proteins: These are large molecules composed of amino acids that are involved in a wide range of biological functions, including enzyme catalysis, structural support, and immune response. - Carbohydrates: These are molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms that are involved in energy storage, cell signaling, and structural support. - Lipids: These are molecules composed of fatty acids and glycerol that are involved in energy storage, cell membrane structure, and signaling. - Nucleic acids: These are molecules composed of nucleotides that are involved in genetic information storage and transfer. Macromolecular substances are important for many medical applications, including drug delivery, tissue engineering, and gene therapy. Understanding the structure and function of these molecules is essential for developing new treatments and therapies for a wide range of diseases and conditions.
Occupational diseases are illnesses or injuries that are caused by exposure to hazards or conditions in the workplace. These hazards or conditions can include chemicals, dusts, fumes, radiation, noise, vibration, and physical demands such as repetitive motions or awkward postures. Occupational diseases can affect various systems in the body, including the respiratory system, skin, eyes, ears, cardiovascular system, and nervous system. Examples of occupational diseases include asbestosis, silicosis, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, carpal tunnel syndrome, and hearing loss. Occupational diseases are preventable through proper safety measures and regulations in the workplace. Employers are responsible for providing a safe and healthy work environment for their employees, and workers have the right to report hazards and seek medical attention if they experience any symptoms related to their work.
Neoplasm metastasis refers to the spread of cancer cells from a primary tumor to other parts of the body. This occurs when cancer cells break away from the primary tumor, enter the bloodstream or lymphatic system, and travel to distant organs or tissues, where they can form new tumors. Metastasis is a major cause of cancer-related deaths, as it makes the disease more difficult to treat and increases the risk of complications. The ability of cancer cells to metastasize is a key factor in determining the prognosis for patients with cancer.
In the medical field, carrier proteins are proteins that transport molecules across cell membranes or within cells. These proteins bind to specific molecules, such as hormones, nutrients, or waste products, and facilitate their movement across the membrane or within the cell. Carrier proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the proper balance of molecules within cells and between cells. They are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including nutrient absorption, hormone regulation, and waste elimination. There are several types of carrier proteins, including facilitated diffusion carriers, active transport carriers, and ion channels. Each type of carrier protein has a specific function and mechanism of action. Understanding the role of carrier proteins in the body is important for diagnosing and treating various medical conditions, such as genetic disorders, metabolic disorders, and neurological disorders.
DNA primers are short, single-stranded DNA molecules that are used in a variety of molecular biology techniques, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. They are designed to bind to specific regions of a DNA molecule, and are used to initiate the synthesis of new DNA strands. In PCR, DNA primers are used to amplify specific regions of DNA by providing a starting point for the polymerase enzyme to begin synthesizing new DNA strands. The primers are complementary to the target DNA sequence, and are added to the reaction mixture along with the DNA template, nucleotides, and polymerase enzyme. The polymerase enzyme uses the primers as a template to synthesize new DNA strands, which are then extended by the addition of more nucleotides. This process is repeated multiple times, resulting in the amplification of the target DNA sequence. DNA primers are also used in DNA sequencing to identify the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. In this application, the primers are designed to bind to specific regions of the DNA molecule, and are used to initiate the synthesis of short DNA fragments. The fragments are then sequenced using a variety of techniques, such as Sanger sequencing or next-generation sequencing. Overall, DNA primers are an important tool in molecular biology, and are used in a wide range of applications to study and manipulate DNA.
Collective Bargaining (album)
Sectoral collective bargaining
Collective Bargaining Convention, 1981
NFL collective bargaining agreement
NBA Collective Bargaining Agreement
NHL Collective Bargaining Agreement
Collective Bargaining and Wage Directive
A Collective Bargain
New York City Office of Collective Bargaining
Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention, 1949
Employee's Rights to Representation, Consultation and Collective Bargaining Ordinance
11 U.S.C. § 1113 - Rejection of Collective Bargaining Agreements
Fuel Retailers Association v Motor Industry Bargaining Council
History of Saskatchewan
Unfair labor practice
The Cincinnati Post
Ontario Labour Relations Board
Concordia University of Edmonton
Airlines for America
Global union federation
Egan v Canada
Democratic Party (United States)
Corporate social responsibility
General Confederation of Labour (Argentina)
Statement on Collective Bargaining | AAUP
Collective bargaining, now with urgency - ESPN - TrueHoop- ESPN
Lorimer Collective Bargaining Award - OCUFA
A debate on collective bargaining and the IWW | libcom.org
Obama: Collective bargaining can close the income gap
Collective Bargaining Agreement - Shawnee Community College
Testimony on Collective Bargaining to Senate Committee (February 2011)
Collective Bargaining Series - Lancaster House
Collective Bargaining Agreement: Trends Across The Globe - Replicon
Collective bargaining highlights - February 2023 | etui
Informal Workers and Collective Bargaining: Five Case Studies | WIEGO
Right to Work and Collective Bargaining - VEA Website
Negotiated Collective Bargaining Agreement with Motion Pictures Editors Guild | Loeb & Loeb LLP
NARA - AAD - Fielded Search - Major Collective Bargaining Settlements Public Use File, 1/1989 - 12/1989
All about Collective Bargaining, news and information
Foshan jewellery workers end strike after collective bargaining with management | China Labour Bulletin
NWSL ratifies 1st collective bargaining agreement hoping it leads to more stability | WGLT
Board of Trustees Approves Collective Bargaining Agreement
Statement on Proposed City of Boston - Fire Department Collective Bargaining Agreement | Latest News
Collective Bargaining and School Performance | No Left Turns
Ohioians voting overwhelmingly to restore collective bargaining rights for public workers :: NPI's Cascadia Advocate
Testimony: Senate Bill 701, Paycheck Protection, and Collective Bargaining Agreements - Show Me Institute
Collective Bargaining Law - Collective Bargaining - Research Guides at Rutgers University
"The Structure of Collective Bargaining and Bargaining Power: Foreign E" by Arnold R. Weber
Improve your conditions: member involvement makes a difference in collective bargaining agreement negotiations
OECD: collective bargaining the solution to the cost of living crisis - UNI Europa
Success at long last: CWU and PBL Sign New Collective Bargaining Agreement | Channel5Belize.com
Union Momentum Grows: 20,000 Nevada State Employees to Gain Collective Bargaining Rights | Local 551: Minneapolis Public...
Information - Services - Formalities by subjects - Labor and collective bargaining conditions - Dienstleistungsportal Bayern
Women's Issues and Collective Bargaining - Industrial Relations Centre - Queens University
- It is being described as a momentous occasion, because while collective bargaining agreements are to be revised every three years, the last CBA was signed back in 2002, eighteen years ago. (channel5belize.com)
- The effect of collective bargaining rights is concentrated among sheriffs' offices that subsequently adopted collective bargaining agreements, and the adoption of these agreements is associated with increases in violent misconduct. (uchicago.edu)
Negotiated Collective Bargainin1
- The East Central College Board of Trustees unanimously approved the negotiated collective bargaining agreement with faculty for the 2017-2018 school year at the July 20 meeting. (eastcentral.edu)
- With the recent adoption of the directive on minimum wages and collective bargaining, the European Union has adopted a similar view. (uni-europa.org)
- With their new freedom to negotiate, Nevada state employees can use their collective voice to negotiate a host of workplace issues, among them wages, paid leave and ways to improve safety on the job. (afscmemn.org)
- Yet collective bargaining tends to increase wages, which could improve officer behavior. (uchicago.edu)
- Workers, especially those at risk of unfair treatment, rely on collective bargaining to provide them with a safe work environment and fair wages. (kirasystems.com)
- The benefits of collective bargaining extend far beyond wages. (kirasystems.com)
- Making it easier for willing workers to form unions, increasing penalties for corporate violations of labor laws, defending collective bargaining in the public sector, and halting and reversing the spread of so-called right-to-work laws will give workers the leverage they need to bargain for better wages and benefits and to set high labor standards for all workers. (epi.org)
- Strengthening collective bargaining is key to ensuring a fair distribution of the inflation shock between workers and employers. (uni-europa.org)
- In the longer term, a stronger voice for workers and more robust competition between employers would ensure a re-balancing of bargaining power. (uni-europa.org)
- Regularly provides advice to employers regarding union organizing, certification and collective bargaining negotiations. (hicksmorley.com)
- Collective bargaining consists of negotiations between an employer and a group of employees so as to determine the conditions of employment. (rutgers.edu)
- The evidence and advice is clear, it is now up to national governments to take decisive action and strengthen collective bargaining. (uni-europa.org)
- Collective bargaining is an effective instrument for achieving these objectives, and therefore the Association supports the right of faculty, other academic professionals, and graduate students to form unions. (aaup.org)
- Tenure-line and non-tenure-line faculty, graduate employees, and academic professionals at both public and private institutions are entitled to choose to engage in collective bargaining in order to ensure an effective role in the governance of the institution. (aaup.org)
- They should not resort to litigation or other means having the purpose or effect of restraining or coercing the faculty in its choice of collective bargaining. (aaup.org)
- The presence of institutions of faculty governance does not preclude the need for or usefulness of collective bargaining. (aaup.org)
- The Lorimer Collective Bargaining Award is established in honour of Joyce and Doug Lorimer of the Wilfrid Laurier University Faculty Association and is instituted to honour and recognize outstanding contributions to improving the terms and conditions of employment of Ontario university faculty through bargaining. (ocufa.on.ca)
- Therefore, the Association believes that employees and administrations in collective bargaining should seek mutual agreement on methods of dispute resolution, such as mediation, fact-finding, or arbitration. (aaup.org)
- Negotiated a collective bargaining agreement with the Motion Picture Editors Guild after the editors walked off a reality television series. (loeb.com)
- The result of collective bargaining procedures is a collective agreement. (rutgers.edu)
- On Wednesday, the Christian Workers Union (CWU) and the Port of Belize Limited (PBL) signed a new collective bargaining agreement (CBA) for the staff at PBL. (channel5belize.com)
- Collective bargaining is a process where a group of employees, assisted by a labor union, negotiates contract terms and crafts a collective bargaining agreement (CBA) with an employer. (kirasystems.com)
- A collective bargaining agreement includes these and many other terms. (kirasystems.com)
- 90 percent of workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement have access to sick days, compared to 73 percent of non-union workers. (kirasystems.com)
- A safe work environment is another critical term in any collective bargaining agreement. (kirasystems.com)
- Where a group of employees chooses collective bargaining, trustees and administrators have an obligation to bargain in good faith with the union and should not resort to litigation or any other means intended to avoid this obligation. (aaup.org)
- We are looking forward to setting up a factory union in the near future and formalizing collective bargaining meetings between union representatives and the company as soon as possible. (clb.org.hk)
- Employees are often represented in bargaining by a union or other labor organization. (rutgers.edu)
- Analyze and evaluate the process of union representation, collective bargaining, contract administration, and dispute resolution, the roles of labor and management representatives within their respective entities, and the impact of technology tools. (nationalparalegal.edu)
- While the NLRA declared collective bargaining is the "policy of the United States," not all employees have access nor the ability to form a union. (kirasystems.com)
- She also wants to eliminate "high-stakes testing" and authorize a new legal requirement that teachers can organize and collectively bargain in every state. (edweek.org)
- Development of guidelines, tools, and procedures to support Member States in planning and monitoring progress in improving health systems performance need to factor in the urgent need for expanding education and training, employment and career development and the right to organize and collective bargaining of health workers and their trade unions. (who.int)
- Public service workers across the country lauded the passage of Nevada Senate Bill 135, which expands collective bargaining rights to over 20,000 Nevada state employees - the largest statewide expansion of collective bargaining rights in 16 years. (afscmemn.org)
- For example, the Railway Labor Act (RLA) of 1926 grants collective bargaining rights to railroad and airline workers and extends to other transportation employees as well. (kirasystems.com)
- The National Labor Act excludes workers such as agricultural laborers, independent contractors, supervisors, and managerial employees from creating a bargaining unit. (kirasystems.com)
- The erosion of collective bargaining has been the single largest factor suppressing wage growth for middle-wage workers over the last few decades. (epi.org)
- The goal of collective bargaining is to negotiate with a company's management, with employees and executives on equal footing. (kirasystems.com)
- Whether employees may bargain collectively with their employer depends on a number of factors, including the employees' industry, employer, and state laws. (kirasystems.com)
- According to the AFL-CIO , three-quarters of private employees and two-thirds of public employees have the right to collective bargaining . (kirasystems.com)
- Employees in specific industries may be entitled to collective bargaining rights under several federal laws. (kirasystems.com)
- More broadly, the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) of 1935 grants other private-sector employees the right to bargain collectively. (kirasystems.com)
- Multiple international human rights conventions, including the United Nations , recognize the right to collective bargaining as a way for employees to negotiate fairly. (kirasystems.com)
- Collective bargaining is governed by federal and state statutory laws, administrative agency regulations, and judicial decisions. (rutgers.edu)
- and with working people across the country taking collective action in their workplaces to join unions, it's clear that Americans are eager for pro-worker solutions to level the playing field for working people in an economy that favors the wealthy. (afscmemn.org)
- Read on to better understand how collective bargaining works, determine whether a worker is entitled to this process, some vital terms, and what happens if both parties reach an impasse. (kirasystems.com)
- Ryanair management has confirmed in writing that it now recognises IMPACT as the representative of the airline's pilots for collective bargaining. (nova.ie)
- When they get to the bargaining table, the members intend to advocate for their patients, says Crane. (medscape.com)
- One of the most important pieces of progressive labor laws comes from the idea of collective bargaining. (kirasystems.com)
- They want to be able to sit at the bargaining table and explain to Allina that things aren't working, that [the current system] isn't sustainable. (medscape.com)
- What Benefits Does Collective Bargaining Provide? (kirasystems.com)
- As a national organization that has historically played a major role in formulating and implementing the principles that govern relationships in academic life, the Association promotes collective bargaining to reinforce and secure the principles of academic freedom and tenure, fair workplace procedures, and the economic security of the profession. (aaup.org)
- We provide quasi-experimental empirical evidence on the effects of collective bargaining rights on violent incidents of misconduct. (uchicago.edu)
- The findings align with UNI Europa's own research on the link between strong collective bargaining and less income inequality. (uni-europa.org)
- Dhammika Dharmapala, Richard H. McAdams & John Rappaport, "The Effect of Collective Bargaining Rights on Law Enforcement: Evidence from Florida," University of Chicago Public Law & Legal Theory Paper Series, No. 655 (2018). (uchicago.edu)
- When employing personnel, provisions of labor and collective bargaining law must be observed. (bayern.de)
- On the contrary, collective bargaining can be used to increase the effectiveness of those institutions by extending their areas of competence, defining their authority, and strengthening their voice in areas of shared authority and responsibility. (aaup.org)
- Our empirical strategy exploits a 2003 Florida Supreme Court decision (Williams), which conferred collective bargaining rights on sheriffs' deputies, resulting in a substantial increase in unionization among these officers. (uchicago.edu)
- Our estimates imply that collective bargaining rights led to a substantial increase in violent incidents of misconduct among sheriffs' offices, relative to police departments. (uchicago.edu)
- The right to collective bargaining does not stop at the national level. (kirasystems.com)