Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.
A technique for assisting the circulation by decreasing the afterload of the left ventricle and augmenting the diastolic pressure. It may be achieved by intra-aortic balloon, or by implanting a special pumping device in the chest, or externally by applying a negative pressure to the lower extremities during cardiac systole.
The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
Complete blockage of blood flow through one of the CORONARY ARTERIES, usually from CORONARY ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).
Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Precursor of plasmin (FIBRINOLYSIN). It is a single-chain beta-globulin of molecular weight 80-90,000 found mostly in association with fibrinogen in plasma; plasminogen activators change it to fibrinolysin. It is used in wound debriding and has been investigated as a thrombolytic agent.
A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.
The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)
A number of ligaments on either side of, and serving as a radius of movement of, a joint having a hingelike movement. They occur at the elbow, knee, wrist, metacarpo- and metatarsophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, and distal interphalangeal joints of the hands and feet. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
The region of the thorax that includes the PLEURAL CAVITY and MEDIASTINUM.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Motion pictures of the passage of contrast medium through blood vessels.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
The symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION.
Precordial pain at rest, which may precede a MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Percutaneous transluminal procedure for removing atheromatous plaque from the coronary arteries. Both directional (for removing focal atheromas) and rotational (for removing concentric atheromatous plaque) atherectomy devices have been used.
Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.
Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.
A benign tumor composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It can be surrounded by a thin layer of connective tissue (encapsulated), or diffuse without the capsule.
Musculoskeletal manipulation based on the principles of OSTEOPATHIC MEDICINE developed in 1874 by Dr Andrew Taylor Still.
Muscular pain in numerous body regions that can be reproduced by pressure on TRIGGER POINTS, localized hardenings in skeletal muscle tissue. Pain is referred to a location distant from the trigger points. A prime example is the TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DYSFUNCTION SYNDROME.
The systematic and methodical manipulations of body tissues best performed with the hands for the purpose of affecting the nervous and muscular systems and the general circulation.
Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.
NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.
A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.
Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.
The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.
The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.
Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.
Compounds that bind to and stimulate PURINERGIC P2X RECEPTORS. Included under this heading are agonists for specific P2X receptor subtypes.
Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
The three membranes that cover the BRAIN and the SPINAL CORD. They are the dura mater, the arachnoid, and the pia mater.
Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck.
Surgical removal of an obstructing clot or foreign material from a blood vessel at the point of its formation. Removal of a clot arising from a distant site is called EMBOLECTOMY.
Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Use of infusions of FIBRINOLYTIC AGENTS to destroy or dissolve thrombi in blood vessels or bypass grafts.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.

The effect of cardiac contraction on collateral resistance in the canine heart. (1/1214)

We determined whether the coronary collateral vessels develop an increased resistance to blood flow during systole as does the cognate vascular bed. Collateral resistance was estimated by measuring retrograde flow rate from a distal branch of the left anterior descending coronary artery while the main left coronary artery was perfused at a constant pressure. Retrograde flow rate was measured before and during vagal arrest. We found that in 10 dogs the prolonged diastole experienced when the heart was stopped caused no significant change in the retrograde flow rate, which indicated that systole has little effect on the collateral resistance. However, when left ventricular end-diastolic pressure was altered by changing afterload or contractility, a direct relationship between end-diastolic pressure and collateral resistance was noted.  (+info)

Effect of coronary occlusion on left ventricular function with and without collateral supply during beating heart coronary artery surgery. (2/1214)

OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of coronary occlusion and collateral supply on left ventricular (LV) function during beating heart coronary artery surgery. DESIGN: Prospective intraoperative study, performed at baseline, during wall stabilisation, coronary artery occlusion, and 2 and 10 minutes after reperfusion. Transoesophageal M mode echocardiograms, simultaneous high fidelity LV pressure, and thermodilution cardiac output were measured. LV anterior wall thickening, thinning velocities, thickening fraction, regional work, and power production were derived. Asynchrony during the isovolumic periods was quantified as cycle efficiency. SETTING: Tertiary referral cardiac centre. PATIENTS: 14 patients with stable angina, mean (SD) age 62 (7) years, undergoing left anterior descending artery grafting using the "Octopus" device. RESULTS: Collaterals were absent in nine patients and present in five. Epicardial stabilisation did not affect LV function. Results are expressed as mean (SD). Coronary occlusion (15.6 (2) minutes) depressed anterior wall thickening (1.4 (0.6) v 2.6 (0.6) cm/s) and thinning velocities (1.4 (0.5) v 3.0 (0.6) cm/s), regional work (2.2 (0.8) v 4.6 (0.6) mJ/cm2), and power (21 (4) v 33 (5) mW/cm2) in patients without collaterals (p < 0.05 for all), but only wall thinning (3.5 (0.5) v 4.8 (0.5) cm/s, p < 0.05) in patients with collaterals. All returned to baseline within 10 minutes of reperfusion. Cycle efficiency and regional work were impaired at baseline and fell during occlusion, regardless of collaterals. Within 10 minutes of reperfusion both had increased above baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Coronary occlusion for up to 15 minutes during beating heart coronary artery surgery depressed standard measurements of systolic and diastolic anterior wall function in patients without collaterals, but only those of diastolic function in patients with collaterals. Regional synchrony decreased in both groups. All disturbances regressed within 10 minutes of reperfusion.  (+info)

Late massive haemoptyses from bronchopulmonary collaterals in infarcted segments following pulmonary embolism. (3/1214)

Massive, recurrent haemoptyses requiring blood transfusions occurred in a patient who had been diagnosed as having pulmonary thromboembolism 3 months earlier. To the authors' knowledge this is the first case report of this kind, in which massive haemoptyses were proved to be caused by large bronchopulmonary collaterals that had developed in the infarcted lung segments affected by embolism. Selective embolization of the collaterals proved to be therapeutic and life saving.  (+info)

Isolated femoropopliteal bypass graft for limb salvage after failed tibial reconstruction: a viable alternative to amputation. (4/1214)

PURPOSE: Femoropopliteal bypass grafting procedures performed to isolated popliteal arteries after failure of a previous tibial reconstruction were studied. The results were compared with those of a study of primary isolated femoropopliteal bypass grafts (IFPBs). METHODS: IFPBs were only constructed if the uninvolved or patent popliteal segment measured at least 7 cm in length and had at least one major collateral supplying the calf. When IFPB was performed for ischemic lesions, these lesions were usually limited to the digits or small portions of the foot. Forty-seven polytetrafluoroethylene grafts and three autogenous reversed saphenous vein grafts were used. RESULTS: Ankle brachial pressure index (ABI) increased after bypass grafting by a mean of 0.46. Three-year primary life table patency and limb-salvage rates for primary IFPBs were 73% and 86%, respectively. All eight IFPBs performed after failed tibial bypass grafts remained patent for 2 to 44 months, with patients having viable, healed feet. CONCLUSION: In the presence of a suitable popliteal artery and limited tissue necrosis, IFPB can have acceptable patency and limb-salvage rates, even when a polytetrafluoroethylene graft is used. Secondary IFPB can be used to achieve limb salvage after failed tibial bypass grafting.  (+info)

Relief of obstructive pelvic venous symptoms with endoluminal stenting. (5/1214)

PURPOSE: To select patients for percutaneous transluminal stenting of chronic postthrombotic pelvic venous obstructions (CPPVO), we evaluated the clinical symptoms in a cohort of candidates and in a series of successfully treated patients. METHODS: The symptoms of 42 patients (39 women) with CPPVO (38 left iliac; average history, 18 years) were recorded, and the venous anatomy was studied by means of duplex scanning, subtraction venography, and computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Successfully stented patients were controlled by means of duplex scanning and assessment of symptoms. RESULTS: The typical symptoms of CPPVO were reported spontaneously by 24% of patients and uncovered by means of a targeted interview in an additional 47%. Of 42 patients, 15 had venous claudication, four had neurogenic claudication (caused by dilated veins in the spinal canal that arise from the collateral circulation), and 11 had both symptoms. Twelve patients had no specific symptoms. Placement of a stent was found to be technically feasible in 25 patients (60%), was attempted in 14 patients, and was primarily successful in 12 patients. One stent occluded within the first week. All other stents were fully patent after a mean of 15 months (range, 1 to 43 months). Satisfaction was high in the patients who had the typical symptoms, but low in those who lacked them. CONCLUSION: Venous claudication and neurogenic claudication caused by venous collaterals in the spinal canal are typical clinical features of CPPVO. We recommend searching for these symptoms, because recanalization by means of stenting is often feasible and rewarding.  (+info)

Quantification of collateral flow in humans: a comparison of angiographic, electrocardiographic and hemodynamic variables. (6/1214)

OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of collateral vascular circulation according to hemodynamic variables and its relation to myocardial ischemia. BACKGROUND: There is limited information regarding the hemodynamic quantification of recruitable collateral vessels. METHODS: Angiography of the donor coronary artery was performed before and during balloon coronary occlusion in 63 patients with one vessel disease. Patients were divided into groups of those with an absence of collateral vessels (group 1, n = 10), those with recruitable collateral vessels (group 2, n = 23) and those with spontaneously visible collateral vessels (group 3, n = 30). During balloon inflation the coronary wedge/aortic pressure ratio (Pw/Pao) was determined as were collateral blood flow velocity variables, using a 0.014" Doppler guide wire. Myocardial ischemia was defined as > or =0.1 mV ST-shift on a 12 lead electrocardiogram at 1 min coronary occlusion. RESULTS: Myocardial ischemia was present in all patients of group 1, in 14 patients of group 2 and in 3 patients of group 3. Recruitable collateral flow without ischemia showed similar hemodynamic values as in group 3 while these values were similar to group 1 in regard to the presence of recruitable collateral vessels showing ischemia. Logistic regression analysis revealed both Pw/Pao and Vi(col) as independent predictors for the function of collateral vessels. CONCLUSIONS: Hemodynamic variables of collateral vascular circulation are better markers of the functional significance of collateral vessels than is coronary angiography. The total collateral blood flow velocity integral and coronary wedge/aortic pressure ratio are good and independent predictors of the function of collateral vessels producing complementary information.  (+info)

Recovery of contractility of viable myocardium during inotropic stimulation is not dependent on an increase of myocardial blood flow in the absence of collateral filling. (7/1214)

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine whether contractile recovery induced by dobutamine in dysfunctioning viable myocardium supplied by nearly occluded vessels is related to an increase in blood flow in the absence of collaterals. BACKGROUND: Dobutamine is used to improve contractility in ventricular dysfunction during acute myocardial infarction. However, it is unclear whether a significant increase in regional blood flow may be involved in dobutamine effect. METHODS: Twenty patients with 5- to 10-day old anterior infarction and > or =90% left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis underwent 99mTc-Sestamibi tomography (to assess myocardial perfusion) at rest and during low dose (5 to 10 microg/kg/min) dobutamine echocardiography. Rest echocardiography and scintigraphy were repeated >1 month after revascularization. Nine patients had collaterals to the infarcted territory (group A), and 11 did not (group B). RESULTS: Baseline wall motion score was similar in both groups (score 15.9+/-1.3 vs. 17.4+/-2.0, p = NS), whereas significant changes at dobutamine and postrevascularization studies were detected (F[2,30] = 409.79, p < 0.0001). Wall motion score improved significantly (p < 0.001) in group A both at dobutamine (-5.3+/-2.2) and at postrevascularization study (-5.5+/-1.9), as well as in group B (-3.9+/-2.8 and -4.5+/-2.4, respectively). Baseline 99mTc-Sestamibi uptake was similar in both groups (62.9+/-9.7% vs. 60.3+/-10.4%, p = NS), whereas at dobutamine and postrevascularization studies a significant change (F[2,30] = 65.17, p < 0.0001) and interaction between the two groups (F[2,30] = 33.14, p < 0.0001) were present. Tracer uptake increased significantly in group A both at dobutamine (+ 10.9+/-7.9%, p < 0.001) and at postrevascularization study (12.1+/-8.7%, p < 0.001). Conversely, group B patients showed no change in tracer uptake after dobutamine test (-0.4+/-5.8, p = NS), but only after revascularization (+8.8+/-7.2%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The increase in contractility induced by low dose dobutamine infusion in dysfunctional viable myocardium supplied by nearly occluded vessels occurs even in the absence of a significant increase in blood flow.  (+info)

Angiographic abnormalities associated with alterations in regional myocardial blood flow in coronary artery disease. (8/1214)

To evaluate the association between alterations in myocardial blood flow and angiographic findings, myocardial blood flow was compared in 26 patients with asymergy, 15 patients with a similar extent of coronary artery disease but without asynergy, and 10 patients without coronary artery disease or obvious myocardial or valvular disease. Myocardial blood flow was measured at rest with an Anger camera and PDP-11/20 computer after the intracoronary injection of 133xenon. In comparison with the normal subjects, whole heart blood flow was significantly reduced in patients with asynergy. In addition, myocardial blood flow in regions of anteroapical asynergy was reduced (85-7 +/- 7-0 ml/min per 100 g3 in controls to 65-4 +/- 4-5, P less than 0-05) and a similar reduction was noted in regions of posterolateral asymergy (91-5 +/- 8-8 in controls to 66-8 +/- 5-0, P less than 0-05). In general, regional myocardial blood flow was reduced distal to left anterior descending or left circumflex stenosis of less than 50 per cent, with a trend toward further reduction distal to less than 75 per cent stenosis. In these same patients, the presence of anteroapical or posterolateral asynergy resulted in a similar trend to even greater reduction of flow. The effect of collaterals was variable: 7 of 8 patients without asynergy but with less than 75 per cent left anterior descending stenosis and collateral circulation to the lower left anterior descending quadrant had minimally reduced flows. However, in the 17 patients with anteroapical asynergy, regional myocardial blood flow was very similar in the 9 patients with collaterals compared with the 8 patients without them. This study suggests that the degree of coronary artery stenosis and presence of asynergy are both important in evaluating alterations in myocardial blood flow in coronary artery disease, while the role of collaterals remains uncertain.  (+info)

Collateral growth and coronary angiogenesis are chronic adaptations to myocardial ischemia. Collateralization helps to restore blood flow and as a result salvages myocardium in severely ischemic myocardial regions. Thus, good collateral development in patients with severe coronary artery disease (CAD) improves ventricular function and prognosis (1-3).. However, coronary collateral development is different among patients even with similar degrees of coronary artery stenosis. Several factors, such as diabetes mellitus (4) and duration of myocardial ischemic symptoms (5) have been reported to effect coronary collateral development. At the cellular level, inflammatory cells, especially monocytes have an important role in collateralization. In a series of experimental studies with animals, it has been shown that monocytes are important elements for development of collateral vessels (6-7). In a recent study, it has been demonstrated that increased circulating monocyte count is related to good ...
AbstractBackground:Well-developed coronary collateral circulation usually results in fewer infarct size, improved cardiac function, and fewer mortality. Traditional coronary risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, and smoking) have some effects on coronary collateral circulation. However, the associat
The possibility that variation in the extent of native collateral circulation is an important determinant of variation in ischemic injury when acute arterial occlusion occurs or disease becomes manifest has historically been overlooked or minimized-, with the exception of those who study or treat acute ischemic stroke7-14 (and references therein), some coronary investigators4-6,69 (and references therein), and among vascular surgeons who frequently encounter or perform arterial occlusions.70,71 This presumably extends, in part, from the small diameter typical of native collaterals in most healthy individuals that is beyond the resolution of digital angiography (,0.2 mm), from the misconception that such minute vessels cannot mediate significant flow in the acute setting until remodeling has occurred, and from the inability to experimentally change native collateral extent to test its importance. The latter restriction has begun to yield in recent studies in which collateral extent was found to ...
Since the first description of the coronary collateral circulation in 1958,15 extensive investigations have been performed to elucidate the mechanisms that stimulate coronary collateral growth. Buschmann and colleagues16 were able to show a significant increase in collateral formation after 7 weeks of intermittent external counterpulsation in 23 patients with stable CAD in comparison with an inactive control group. An increase of collateral blood flow was detected by Zbinden in a nonrandomized clinical trial in 40 patients10 following regular physical exercise, performed 3 times a week over 3 months. However, PCI of the diseased vessel was performed before exercise training was initiated, which eliminated any possible ischemic trigger of collateral formation.. The underlying mechanism for increasing collateral blood flow has been the center of considerable debate.17 There are 2 distinct mechanisms that can be activated in the presence of ischemia caused by a flow-limiting lesion in an epicardial ...
Collateral circulation affects the prognosis of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) treated by thrombolysis. The present study performed a systematic assessment of the impact of the collateral circulation status on the outcomes of patients receiving thrombolysis treatment. Relevant full‑text articles from the Cochrane Library, Ovid, Medline, Embase and PubMed databases published from January 1, 2000 to November 1, 2016 were retrieved. The quality of the studies was assessed and data were extracted by 2 independent investigators. The random‑effects model was used to estimate the impact of good vs. poor collateral circulation, as well as baseline characteristics, on the outcome within the series presented as risk ratios. Subgroup analyses explored the potential factors that may interfere with the effects of the collateral circulation status on the outcome. A total of 29 studies comprising 4,053 patients were included in the present meta‑analysis. A good collateral circulation status ...
The assessment of adequate ulnar collateral supply to the hand is mandatory prior to the harvest of the radial artery as a conduit for coronary artery bypass grafting. However, there is currently no one test which is widely used in all centres. We report a new and objective method of assessing ulnar collateral supply to the hand prior to harvest of the radial artery. This technique involves assessing the presence of a hyperaemic flow response to occlusion of the radial artery using an intraoperative transit time flowmeter. We found this technique to be objective and reliable, and would advocate its use in patients with a positive Allens test ...
Coronary collateral circulation from the cardiac lumen was studied in 36 anesthetized, open-chest dogs with hearts beating in situ. The coronary arteries were cannulated and perfused from an isolated, nonradioactive blood source while 131I-labeled blood circulated through the cardiac lumen for 2 minutes. Ventricular fibrillation was then produced, and luminal blood samples and myocardial tissue samples were obtained for radioactive assay and calculation of the amount of luminal blood appearing as a part of the myocardial blood volume. These volumes were obtained from both ventricles and the atria under (1) normal antegrade coronary flow conditions, (2) myocardial ischemia, (3) left and right ventricular hypertension, and (4) coronary occlusion. Small quantities of luminal blood appeared in the left ventricular myocardium under normal coronary flow conditions while considerably larger amounts were found in the right ventricle and atria. There was no significant increase of the luminal ...
Besides severity of coronary obstruction [37, 38], numerous factors that could possibly attenuate the development and biological function of coronary collaterals have been reported such as old age [39], traditional risk factors for coronary artery disease [40-44], hyperlipoprotein (a) [45], hyperuricemia [46] and elevated serum levels of CRP [47], TNF-a [48], N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide [38] and mimecan [49], and high neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio [50]. In contrast, higher plasma levels of MCP-1 [51] or apelin [52] were associated with better coronary collateral development. The presence and extent of spontaneously visible coronary collaterals was also affected by plasma chemokine concentrations, as higher collateralization was associated with increased concentration of the angiogenic ligand and decreased concentrations of angiostatic ligands, and interferon-c [53]. It is known that diabetes mellitus aggressively induces atherosclerosis and may be more susceptible to myocardial ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Impaired leptomeningeal collateral flow contributes to the poor outcome following experimental stroke in the type 2 diabetic mice. AU - Akamatsu, Yosuke. AU - Nishijima, Yasuo. AU - Lee, Chih Cheng. AU - Yang, Shih Yen. AU - Shi, Lei. AU - An, Lin. AU - Wang, Ruikang K.. AU - Tominaga, Teiji. AU - Liu, Jialing. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - Collateral status is an independent predictor of stroke outcome. However, the spatiotemporal manner in which collateral flow maintains cerebral perfusion during cerebral ischemia is poorly understood. Diabetes exacerbates ischemic brain damage, although the impact of diabetes on collateral dynamics remains to be established. Using Doppler optical coherent tomography, a robust recruitment of leptomeningeal collateral flow was detected immediately after middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion in C57BL/6 mice, and it continued to grow over the course of 1 week. In contrast, an impairment of collateral recruitment was evident in the Type 2 ...
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a major health concern for Americans and people worldwide. Arteriogenesis, an adaptive remodeling process in which pre-existing collateral arterioles remodel to form large diameter conductance arteries, has received recent attention for its therapeutic potential in treating CHD, but the mechanisms regulating the process remain incompletely understood. In particular, little is known about how collateral flow, and the resulting effect of shear stress acting along the collateral vessel wall, regulates coronary collateralization. This Thesis combines a series of experimental systems to define the responses evoked in endothelial cells exposed to hemodynamic waveforms characteristic of coronary collateral vessels and the subsequent paracrine effects on smooth muscle cells. Initially, a lumped parameter model of the human coronary collateral circulation was used to simulate normal (NCC) and adaptive remodeling (ACC) coronary collateral shear stress waveforms. These ...
Further analysis of the IMS-III cohort of patients show that collateral status influence outcomes and those with intermediate collaterals seem to benefit the most from endovascular therapy. With the ESCAPE trial, collateral status was used as an inclusion criteria (patients with poor collaterals being excluded from the trial) and outcomes improved significantly in the endovascular group vs the IV tPA group. MR-CLEAN which was a study that did not use collateral status as an inclusion criteria did not have as significant overall good outcomes as the other published endovascular trials. Possibly because they included patients with poor collaterals, who dont benefit from either endovascular or IV tPA treatments as the infarct grows too rapidly for recanalization to have an effect. Had IMS-III recruited patients based on collateral status as in ESCAPE, we may have had a positive trial three years earlier. As we continue to understand the pathophysiological reasons for the success of the recent ...
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death in industrialized countries. Current therapies for restoration of coronary flow are percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or surgical revascularization. However, inherent to them are procedure-related risks and the fact that CAD progression is not prevented. Additionally, up to one fourth of all CAD patients are not amenable to standard revascularization therapies. Thus, there is a need for alternative therapies. Coronary collaterals as natural bypasses are anastomoses without an intervening capillary bed between portions of the same coronary artery or between different coronary arteries. The coronary collateral circulation is prevalent in humans and in CAD the amount of collateral flow is directly related to infarct size, all-cause- and cardiac mortality. Thus, the goal is to promote collateral function in the sense of prophylactic myocardial salvage.. Coronary (collateral) blood flow occurs almost entirely during diastole. Fluid ...
Coronary collateral circulation plays an important role to protect myocardium from ischemia, preserve myocardial contractility and reduce cardiovascular events. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with poor coronary collateral development and
Previous clinical studies showed that the coronary wedge pressure is increased in the presence of collateral vessels, presumably as a consequence of a reduced collateral vascular resistance, resulting in a reduction of signs of ischemia during brief coronary occlusion ([3, 4, 6]). Our current understanding of the collateral circulation is limited, partly due to the lack of methods capable of expressing the development of the collateral vascular bed in terms of flow and resistance. The dynamic behavior of collateral vessels as seen angiographically before and during balloon coronary occlusion can be examined by blood flow velocity analysis in the contralateral donor coronary artery ([6, 7]). These studies demonstrated that a balloon coronary occlusion results in a transient 10% to 70% increase in coronary blood flow velocity in the contralateral artery when collateral vessels are present, although this phenomenon is marked in the absence of collateral vessels. Blood flow velocity changes in the ...
Conventional methods for qualitatively assessing human coronary collaterals include postmortem coronary angiography (5), patients history of a walking-through angina pectoris (30), nuclear cardiology techniques (31), recording of IC and surface ECG (19)and coronary wedge pressure (32)during PTCA and angiographic grading during vessel patency or occlusion (9). Positron emission tomography has been demonstrated to provide quantitative data of collateral flow to a vascular region of interest (31). However, this can be achieved only in the presence of a naturally occurring coronary artery occlusion of the ipsilateral vessel. The PTCA model for collateral assessment can be used in every patient with a stenotic lesion to be dilated. The presence of ECG ST-segment changes as a sign of myocardial ischemia is regarded to be quite sensitive in studies on collaterals (30). An ECG obtained during PTCA from an IC guidewire with its tip distal to the occluded stenosis can be used even more effectively. For ...
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Current knowledge of the collateral circulation remains sparse, and a noninvasive method to better characterize the role of collaterals is desirable. The aim of our study was to investigate the presence and distal flow of collaterals by using a new MR perfusion territory imaging, vessel-encoded arterial spin-labeling (VE-ASL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-six patients with internal carotid artery (ICA) or middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis were identified by sonography, VE-ASL was performed to assess the presence and function of collateral flow. The perfusion information was combined with VE maps into high signal-intensity-to-noise-ratio 3-colored maps of the left carotid, right carotid, and posterior circulation territories. The presence of the anterior and posterior collateral flow was demonstrated by the color of the standard anterior cerebral artery/MCA flow territory. The distal function of collateral flow was categorized as adequate (cerebral blood flow [CBF] >= ...
RESULTS: A total 269 patients were participated in the study population (55 in CIN(+) group, 214 in CIN(-) group). The blood creatinine levels were significantly higher in the CIN(+) group on the 48-72 hours following the coronary angiography. In the studied population, 70 out of 269 patients had a good CCC according the Rentrop classification (64 patients [30%] in the CIN(-) group, six patients [16%] in the CIN(+) group). The frequency of the well-developed coronary collaterals were significantly higher in the CIN(-) group ( ...
Background: We hypothesized that cerebral perfusion deficits are more severe in acute stroke patients with poor collaterals and that the severity would increase over time if reperfusion does not occur.. Methods: This is a substudy of DEFUSE 2. Collaterals were assessed on conventional angiography and dichotomized as poor vs. good flow. DWI and PWI were performed before and within 12 hrs after endovascular therapy; PWI lesion volumes were determined using a Tmax,6sec threshold. The hypoperfusion ratio (HR) was calculated by determining the proportion of the PWI lesion that had severe Tmax delay (,10sec). Acute lesion growth was defined as the difference between the baseline and follow-up DWI volume.. Part 1: In patients with an ICA or M1 occlusion we compared the HR to the collateral score. An ROC curve assessed whether the HR predicts the collateral score.. Part 2: Among patients who did not experience early reperfusion, the difference between the baseline and follow-up HR was assessed and ...
The extent of collateral circulation in 46 patients who had intracoronary thrombolysis within six hours of the onset of acute myocardial infarction was evaluated. Patients who had had a previous myocardial infarction (4 cases) or who had spontaneously recanalized infarct related coronary arteries (5 cases) were excluded from the analysis. Collateral development was graded during coronary cineangiography according to the extent of opacification of the collateral and epicardial arteries distal to the site of occlusion (collateral index 0 to 3). Angina was considered to be present before myocardial infarction if it had occurred more than one week before acute myocardial infarction. Collateral channels were visible in only two of 19 patients without angina before infarction and nine of the 18 patients with angina before infarction. The prevalence of angina and the collateral index were not significantly influenced by the extent of coronary vessel disease. It is concluded that myocardial ischaemia is ...
Rentrop et al. researched collateral filling of stenotic coronary artery during inflation of the PTA balloon. Contrast dye was injected as soon as the patient developed ST-T changes on ECG or angina, but no later than 90 seconds after inflation of the balloon.
The differences in the extent of collateral circulation among patients with seemingly similar clinical characteristics raise the possibility that genetic and molecular differences may play a role in collateral development. Because circulating monocytes are considered the key element in the development of collateral circulation, we set out to uncover novel transcriptional determinants of human coronary collateralization using a combination of established and newly developed microarray bioinformatics analysis techniques. The principal finding of this study is that the monocyte transcriptome of closely matched patients with CAD who possess abundant collateral circulation is significantly different from the transcriptome of collateral-poor CAD subjects. Interestingly, many of the observed changes in gene expression in this study parallel prior observations in a mouse model of hind-limb ischemia.37. The key differences include significant alterations in transcriptional regulation of specific ...
Background: Collateral grade on cerebral angiography has great predictive significance for patient outcome, which is important to determine indication for endovascular therapy in acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Distal hyperintense vessels (DHV) on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery imaging (FLAIR) is a noninvasive and useful imaging marker that reflects leptomeningeal collateral flow. We investigated whether DHV in patients with AIS was associated with collaterals grade on cerebral angiography and clinical outcome after endovascular therapy.. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed patients with AIS who had internal carotid artery or middle cerebral artery occlusion in three comprehensive stroke centers from August 2011 to July 2015. We selected those who underwent FLAIR sequence before endovascular therapy. Presence of DHV was evaluated using a previously-published method. Collateral grades on pre-treatment cerebral angiography were assessed with the American Society of Interventional and ...
Obesity is associated with impaired coronary collateral vessel development. Yilmaz, M.B.; Biyikoglu, S.F.; Akin, Y.; Guray, U.; Kisacik, H.L.; Korkmaz, S. // International Journal of Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders;Dec2003, Vol. 27 Issue 12, p1541 BACKGROUND:: Chronic myocardial ischaemia due to coronary artery stenosis or occlusion has been shown to increase the growth of coronary collateral circulation. Collateralization leads to increased oxygen delivery to the area at risk and hence may reduce ischaemia, prevent infarction and... ...
We have demonstrated that in patients with AIS with terminal ICA or proximal MCA occlusions, the degree of collateral circulation on admission CTA correlates with the admission DWI lesion volume. Moreover, using a simple and reliable grading system, we have identified a malignant CTA collateral profile that is highly specific for patients with large baseline infarcts at high risk for poor long-term outcome. Our CTA collateral score of zero has ,95% specificity for admission DWI lesion volume ,100 mL and a ,90% rate of 3-month death or dependency. These findings are relevant for clinical practice because CTA is more widely available in the emergency setting than MR imaging-DWI. In addition, CTA collateral grading may provide a useful alternative for patients ineligible for MR imaging. Conventional angiography is the reference standard test for collateral evaluation because it incorporates the timing of collateral filling.16 However, its major drawbacks include its invasiveness and the time ...
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a global problem - over 202 million people worldwide are estimated to have PAD. In the United States alone, PAD results in $21 billion in annual costs and is the leading cause of lower limb amputation. PAD arises when atherosclerotic plaques block arteries in the lower limbs, thereby limiting blood flow to the distal tissue. A promising therapeutic approach to restore distal blood flow is to stimulate the lumenal growth of the patients own pre-existing collateral arteries that bypass the occlusion(s) (i.e. arteriogenesis). Unfortunately, large clinical trials have had limited success to date, highlighting the critical need to better understand the basic mechanisms regulating arteriogenesis.. Arteriogenesis occurs in response to increased blood flow through the collateral arteries that bypass an occluded artery. We have recently demonstrated that arteriogenesis varies along collateral artery pathways due to differences in regional hemodynamics (Heuslein and ...
No. Wellens T-waves are always AFTER an episode of pain, and when no ECG was recorded DURING the pain. But we know from reperfusion trials that this is exactly the same kind of T-wave inversion we get after reperfusion. So, extrapolating backward in time, those who have Wellens had upright T-waves with ST elevation at the time of their pain. They had spontaneous reperfusion (which is very common in STEMI) and when the were pain free with open artery (or good collateral circulation), then the ECG was recorded and showed T-wave inversion. In Wellens study, all 180 patients had EITHER an open LAD or good collateral circulation to the anterior wall.. ReplyDelete ...
RESULTS: Factors associated with good outcome on univariable analysis were younger age, female sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, small infarct core (ASPECTS ≥8), vessel recanalization, lower pre-tPA NIHSS scores, and good collaterals according to Tan methodology, ASPECTS methodology, and Miteff methodology. On multivariable logistic regression, only lower NIHSS scores (OR, 1.186 per point; 95% CI, 1.079-1.302; P = .001), recanalization (OR, 5.599; 95% CI, 1.560-20.010; P = .008), and good collaterals by the Miteff method (OR, 3.341; 95% CI, 1.203-5.099; P = .014) were independent predictors of good outcome. Poor collaterals by the Miteff system (OR, 2.592; 95% CI, 1.113-6.038; P = .027), Maas system (OR, 2.580; 95% CI, 1.075-6.187; P = .034), and ASPECTS method ≤5 points (OR, 2.685; 95% CI, 1.156-6.237; P = .022) were independent predictors of extremely poor outcomes. ...
The human coronary circulation is not an end-arterial system. Coronary collateral circulation has been shown to have a significant protective
Our ability to link amplified arteriogenesis to a unique hemodynamic stimulus (ie, reversed flow with increase shear stress magnitude) was facilitated by the development of a LSF approach for mouse hindlimb collaterals.18 We developed that approach because, despite the known importance of hemodynamic stimuli in driving collateral development, there was a surprising lack of quantitative data on the hemodynamic changes within these arteries. This is likely because both the small size of the arteries (,100 μm) and the fact that different surgical models elicit arteriogenesis along different collateral pathways.2 Using LSF,18 we determined the occurrence of at least 3 distinct hemodynamic conditions in these collateral vessels: a nonreversed increase in shear stress near the feeding entrance to the collateral loop, an increase in shear stress from low/oscillating flow to sustained high shear stress at the central anastomotic region, and an increase in shear stress but in a reversed direction at the ...
Clinical outcome after mechanical thrombectomy (MT) for large vessel occlusion (LVO) stroke is influenced by the intracerebral collateral status. We tested the hypothesis that patients with preexisting ipsilateral extracranial carotid artery stenosis (CAS) would have a better collateral status compared to non-CAS patients. Additionally, we evaluated MT-related adverse events and outcome for both groups.Over a 7-year period, we identified all consecutive anterior circulation MT patients (excluding extracranial carotid artery occlusion and dissection). Patients were grouped into those with CAS ≥ 50% according to the NASCET criteria and those without significant carotid stenosis (non-CAS). Collateral status was rated on pre-treatment CT- or MR-angiography according to the Tan Score. Furthermore, we assessed postinterventional infarct size, adverse events and functional outcome at 90 days.We studied 281 LVO stroke patients, comprising 46 (16.4%) with underlying CAS ≥ 50%. Compared to non-CAS ...
Methods and Results-We screened for signaling components that are activated in response to administration of FGF-2 to cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and detected a significant increase of Rap2 but not of other Ras family members, which corresponded to a strong upregulation of Rap2 and C-Raf in growing collaterals from rabbits with femoral artery occlusion. Small interfering RNAs directed against Rap2 did not affect FGF-2 induced proliferation of VSMC but strongly inhibited their migration. Inhibition of FGF receptor-1 (FGFR1) signaling by infusion of a sulfonic acid polymer or infection with a dominant-negative FGFR1 adenovirus inhibited Rap2 upregulation and collateral vessel growth. Similarly, expression of dominant-negative Rap2 blocked arteriogenesis, whereas constitutive active Rap2 enhanced collateral vessel growth.. ...
Results and Discussion: Receiver Operating Characteristics demonstrated no improvement using frequency dependant impedance compared to the constant part of the collateral impedance. The functional parameters aCon and cIMP were better than the total blood flow for the characterization of collateral function. The collateral function improved significantly during occlusion time (aCON in one= 0.20+/-0.17, two=0.22+/-0.25, three and more month= 0.28+/-0.18 cm*s-1*mmHg-1). A predominant systolic, diastolic or combined collateral flow profile was not correlated to the collateral function. Considering the anatomic location of Levin 17 patients had one, 15 two and 24 three different collateral pathways. In the majority of cases (63 of 91 patients) a septal pathway was included. In all patients the comparison of the Rentrop grading, the anatomic location classification and the collateral connection grading showed only for the latter an independent and significant relation with the collateral function. In ...
Collateral blood flow plays a pivotal role in steno-occlusive internal carotid artery (ICA) disease to prevent irreversible ischaemic damage. Our aim was to investigate the effect of carotid artery disease upon cerebral perfusion and cerebrovascular reactivity and whether haemodynamic impairment is influenced at brain tissue level by the existence of primary and/or secondary collateral. Eighty-eight patients with steno-occlusive ICA disease and 29 healthy controls underwent MR examination. The presence of collaterals was determined with time-of-flight, two-dimensional phase contrast MRA and territorial arterial spin labeling (ASL) imaging. Cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular reactivity were assessed with ASL before and after acetazolamide. Cerebral haemodynamics were normal in asymptomatic ICA stenosis patients, as opposed to patients with ICA occlusion, in whom the haemodynamics in both hemispheres were compromised. Haemodynamic impairment in the affected brain region was always present in
We previously showed that prompt reperfusion and angiographic collateral vessels may impact myocardial salvage and infarct transmural extent among patients with an occluded IRA. In the current investigation, we found that in addition to time to reperfusion and collateral vessels, the angiographic area at risk and the initial TIMI flow grade at the time of PCI are independent predictors of myocardial salvage by multivariate analysis. The novel index of myocardial salvage described here compares favorably with infarct transmurality to predict wall motion recovery after an acute STEMI.. Previous experimental studies have shown that the final infarct size closely correlates with the mass of jeopardized myocardium within the territory of the IRA (9). It is known that reperfusion of an occluded artery results in greater improvement in regional LV function when collateral vessels are present in the acute phase of myocardial infarction (10). However, the adjunctive effect that collateral flow might have ...
CONTRAST-ENHANCED CARDIAC COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY (CT) is being increasingly used for the investigation of patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Recent technological developments have allowed the reliable diagnosis of both coronary stenosis and occlusion with this modality. In addition to the identification of luminal stenosis, CT has the potential to visualize coronary plaque, collateral circulation, myocardium, and left ventricular function. Although the typical CT appearance of chronic coronary occlusion (extensive calcification and negative remodeling within the artery, potential presence of collateral coronary circulation and, in most cases, impaired left ventricular function associated with thinned myocardium) is well known, characteristics of acute occlusion have not been well described. The distinction between acute and chronic coronary occlusion has particular importance for the management of patients presenting with acute chest pain. In this series of cases, we highlight some ...
OBJECTIVES. The aim of this study was to evaluate myocardial blood flow regulation in collateral-dependent myocardium of patients with coronary artery disease. BACKGROUND. Despite great clinical relevance, perfusion correlates of collateral circulation in humans have rarely been estimated by quantitative methods at rest and during stress. METHODS. Nineteen patients with angina and isolated occlusion of the left anterior descending (n = 14) or left circumflex (n = 5) coronary artery were evaluated. Using positron emission tomography and nitrogen-13 ammonia, we obtained flow measurements at baseline, during atrial pacing-induced tachycardia and after intravenous administration of dipyridamole (0.56 mg/kg body weight over 4 min). Flow values in collateral-dependent and remote areas were compared with values in 13 normal subjects. RESULTS. Flow at rest was similar in collateralized and remote myocardium (0.61 +/- 0.11 vs. 0.63 +/- 0.17 ml/min per g, mean +/- 1 SD), and both values were lower than ...
INTRODUCTION Stimulation of coronary collateral vessel growth by therapeutic angiogenesis (TA) offers an alternative treatment option for patients with refractory angina. Several TA modalities, including delivery to the heart of angiogenic growth factors (proteins or genes) and cells have been tested in clinical trials in the past two decades, but so far none of them resulted in significant therapeutic efficacy in large scale studies. This review attempts to identify the main obstacles hindering clinical success and recommends measures to overcome them in the future. AREAS COVERED After stating the medical need and rational for TA, and listing and briefly discussing past and current TA clinical trials, three main areas of obstacles are described: conceptual questions, technical limitations and clinical design uncertainties. Based on scientific and technical advances and lessons learned in past clinical trials, potential solutions to overcome some of these obstacles are proposed. EXPERT OPINION
A collateralized debt obligation is an investment that is backed by a collection of several different assets. While collateralized...
In stroke due to middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion, collaterals may sustain tissue in the peripheral MCA territory, extending the time window for recanalizing therapies. However, MCA occlusions often block some or all of the lenticulostriate (LS) arteries originating from the M1 segment, eliminating blood flow to dependent territories in the striatum, which have no collateral supply. This study examines whether mechanical thrombectomy (MTE) can avert imminent striatal infarction in patients with acute MCA occlusion.279 patients with isolated MCA occlusion subjected to MTE were included. Actual LS occlusions and infarctions were assigned to predefined LS occlusion and LS infarct patterns derived from known LS vascular anatomy. The predictive performance of LS occlusion patterns regarding ensuing infarction in striatal subterritories was assessed by standard statistical measures.LS occlusion patterns predicted infarction in associated striatal subterritories with a positive predictive ...
OBJECTIVE: Elevated mean platelet volume (MPV) has been proposed as a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD) and is associated with poor clinical outcome in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We aimed to evaluate the association of MPV with presence of coronary collateral vessel (CCV) in patients with ACS.. METHODS: A total of 417 patients with ACS were included in the study. All patients underwent coronary angiography on the first day after admission and patients with a greater than or equal to 80% obstruction in at least one epicardial coronary artery were included in the study. The CCVs are graded according to the Rentrop scoring system and a Rentrop grade 0 was accepted as no CCV development (group 1), Rentrop grade 1-2-3 were accepted as presence of CCV development (group 2).. RESULTS: The median of MPV was 9.1±1.4fl. Mean age was 60±12 year. Group 1 consisted of 233 (55.9%) patients and Group 2 consisted of 184 (44.1%) patients. Presence of CCV was significantly associated with high ...
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Blood supply through collateral pathways improves regional cerebral blood flow and may protect against ischemic events. The effect of collaterals on the risk of stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA), in the presence of angiographic severe internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis, was assessed. METHODS: Angiographic collateral filling through anterior communicating and posterior communicating arteries and retrograde filling through ophthalmic arteries were determined in all patients at entry into the North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial. Kaplan-Meier event-free survival analyses were performed on 339 medically treated and 342 surgically treated patients. RESULTS: The presence of collaterals supplying the symptomatic ICA increased with severity of stenosis. Two-year risk of hemispheric stroke in medically treated patients with severe ICA stenosis was reduced in the presence of collaterals: 27.8% to 11.3% (P=0.005). Similar reductions were observed for
Aneurysm surgery: optic nerve often displaced superiorly by aneurysm, vs. falciform ligament (sharp tethering edge). Early opening of optic canal & falciform ligament to free optic nerve --, decrease risk of visual deficit. If clipped, orbit dependent on collateral supply from ECA (maxillary, facial arteries ...
This report studies the Global Collateralized Debt Obligation Market, analyzes and researches the Collateralized Debt Obligation development status and...
Decreased collateral vessel formation in the diabetic peripheral limbs is characterised by abnormalities of the angiogenic response to ischemia. Hyperglycemia is known to activate protein kinase C (PKC) affecting the expression and activity of growth factors such as VEGF and PDGF. The present study investigates the role of PKCδ in diabetes-induced poor collateral vessel formation and inhibition of angiogenic factors expression and actions. Ischemic adductors muscles of diabetic Prkcd+/+ mice exhibited reduced blood reperfusion, vascular density and number of small vessels as compared to non-diabetic Prkcd+/+ mice. By contrast, diabetic Prkcd-/- mice showed significant increased blood flow, capillary density and number of capillaries. Although expression of various PKC isoforms were unchanged, activation of PKCδ was increased in diabetic Prkcd+/+ mice. VEGF and PDGF mRNA and protein expression were decreased in muscles of diabetic Prkcd+/+ mice and normalized in diabetic Prkcd-/- mice. ...
There is intense controversy as to the mechanisms underlying chronic but reversible left ventricular (LV) ischemic dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the physiology underlying this condition in a canine model of noninfarcted collateral-dependent myocardium. METHODS: Six mongrel dogs were instrumented with ameroid constrictors on the left circumflex and right coronary arteries and a partial occluder on the left anterior descending coronary artery. The animals were followed up for 6 mo. Every 6 wk, measurements of regional wall thickening (M-mode echo), myocardial blood flow ((13)N-ammonia PET), oxygen consumption ((11)C-acetate PET), and glucose uptake ((18)F-FDG PET) were obtained. After 6 mo, myocardial blood flow reserve (during adenosine infusion) and regional contractile reserve (during infusion of a low dose of dobutamine) were also investigated. RESULTS: Following ameroid implantation, regional thickening decreased in the posterior wall (to 34% +/- 13% of baseline; P , ...
Natural adaptation to femoral artery occlusion in animals by collateral artery growth restores only approximately 35% of adenosine-recruitable maximal conductance (C(max)) probably because initially elevated fluid shear stress (FSS) quickly normalize
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Looking for online definition of collateral bundle in the Medical Dictionary? collateral bundle explanation free. What is collateral bundle? Meaning of collateral bundle medical term. What does collateral bundle mean?
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Many collateral adjectives enter the language because English regularly substitutes attributive use of the noun itself (or of a verbal noun from a related verb) for use of an adjective, so true adjectives are often missing. Adjectives are then borrowed from Greek or Latin for technical and academic usage, where true adjectives are preferred over attributive use of nouns. Because of this, collateral adjectives tend to be more technical or academic in tone than their corresponding nouns. Some collateral adjectives have a related noun which may be a near synonym for the noun in question. For example, one adjective for business is commercial, which also has a cognate noun commerce. Because there is no one-to-one correspondence between adjective and noun in English, and there is no regular derivation that they upset, they are not actually suppletive. Some nouns have both collateral and derived adjectives. For example, for the noun father there is derived fatherly alongside collateral paternal, and ...
Hemorrhage: Trans-Arterial Embolization for Hemorrhage or Vascular Malformations. Veterinary patients occasionally suffer from hypovolemic shock secondary to severe hemorrhage from a number of different causes including neoplasia, coagulopathy, GI ulceration, and trauma. In the majority of cases, standard medical and surgical procedures can be used to stabilize these often severely debilitated animals. Occasionally, standard therapies fail and alternatives are necessary.. For example, severe epistaxis can typically be managed conservatively. However, once intractable, few options remain. Carotid ligation can be performed and although this may temporize bleeding, once collateral blood supply develops bleeding may resume and no further treatment options exist. This is an especially important consideration when the underlying cause of epistaxis persists because the patient remains at risk for bleeding. An alternative to carotid ligation that permits repeated treatments if necessary is ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - MR Perfusion to Determine the Status of Collaterals in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke. T2 - A Look Beyond Time Maps. AU - Nael, Kambiz. AU - Doshi, A.. AU - De Leacy, R.. AU - Puig, J.. AU - Castellanos, M.. AU - Bederson, J.. AU - Naidich, T. P.. AU - Mocco, J.. AU - Wintermark, M.. PY - 2018/2/1. Y1 - 2018/2/1. N2 - BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients with acute stroke with robust collateral flow have better clinical outcomes and may benefit from endovascular treatment throughout an extended time window. Using a multiparametric approach, we aimed to identify MR perfusion parameters that can represent the extent of collaterals, approximating DSA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with anterior circulation proximal arterial occlusion who had baseline MR perfusion and DSA were evaluated. The volume of arterial tissue delay (ATD) at thresholds of 2- 6 seconds (ATD2- 6seconds) and 6 seconds (ATD6seconds) in addition to corresponding values of normalized CBV and CBF was calculated ...
Arteriogenesis, the adaptive outward growth of pre-existing collateral arteries, is the most efficient endogenous rescue mechanisms in vertebrates against the occlusion of a major artery (biological bypass). Here, collateral growth was induced using the first model for cerebral arteriogenesis, the 3-vessel occlusion (3-VO) rat model. (I) 3-VO resulted in a significant diameter increase within 7 days in the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) and posterior communicating artery (Pcom), classifying the region of interest. Immunhistological staining demonstrated proliferative activation and macrophage invasion, already 24h post 3-VO within the PCA, confirming the arteriogenic phenotype. Furthermore, activation of the PCA endothelium was detected within 3 days post 3-VO by scanning electron microscopy. (II) For analysing the molecular mechanism of cerebral arteriogenesis, collateral tissue from the growing PCA was selectively isolated. Here, 24h post 3-VO 164 genes were detected to be significantly ...
Lee CW, Stabile E, Kinnaird T, Shou M, Devaney JM, Epstein SE, Burnett MS. Temporal patterns of gene expression after acute hindlimb ischemia in mice: insights into the genomic program for collateral vessel development. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004 Feb 04; 43(3):474-82 ...
To date, regenerative laboratories have attempted to engineer only a few whole organs. This endeavor requires engineering not only the organ but also vascular tissues to maintain a healthy organ with full functionality. We concentrated our initial efforts on developing the microvasculature and systemic support in the BEL and found that collateral systemic circulation developed in all animals that survived 2 weeks or longer. Because BEL was supplied with oxygenated rather than deoxygenated blood, we were unable to assess gas exchange due to a lack of an oxygen gradient at the alveolar capillary junction.. GE related to angiogenesis and lung tissue development indicated that tissue development was still in progress 1 month after transplantation. Histological examination of tissues indicated that collateral circulation developed in all animals as early as 2 weeks after transplant. Histological evaluation showed progression in lung and airway epithelial cell development with an associated increase ...
A method of delivering an arteriogenic factor. The factor is delivered in a medically effective manner to structurally enlarge an existing blood vessel. A distal portion of a catheter can be advanced to an existing blood vessel to deliver the arteriogenic factor.
Collateral sprouting of axons in the pe-ripheral nervous system is a branching out-growth of new axon terminals from non-injured axons into adjacent denervated regions of tar-get tissue. The initiation of collateral sprouting is probably triggered by the interaction between the factors released by degenerated neural pathways or denervated target tissue, and pu-tative interaction between the injured and non-injured neurons within a dorsal root ganglion (transneuronal mechanism). Sprouting of axons along the neurilemmal tubes of Schwann cells was investigated by an end-to-side anastomo-sis of a peroneal nerve segment to the intact su-ral nerve on the hind limb of the rat. In group A, the peroneal nerve segment from the contrala-teral limb was attached to the sural nerve. No-ne of the nerves on the side of the anastomosis were injured. In group B, the same procedure was used as in group A. In addition, dorso-cutaneous nerves from the L4-L6 spinal segments were cut. Injured neurons were therefore ...
Formats for Collaterals: The formats, as per NSE Clearing, that are required for submission of documents for Trading Members operating in the Capital Market Segment. Know more about Formats for Collaterals Today, visit NSE India.
An arterial exam looks at the arteries in the body. Arteries carry blood to cells and organs. An upper extremity arterial evaluation examines blood flow in the arms and a lower extremity arterial evaluation examines arteries in the legs. Normally the inner wall of the arteries is smooth. When the inner lining becomes hard and thick, atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) develops. This can cause an artery to narrow (called a stenosis) or close off completely (called an occlusion). When this happens, blood must go through other blood vessels to get around the blockage causing alternate circulation called collateral circulation. Atherosclerosis occurs in all arteries to some degree however the arteries of the neck, heart and legs are most commonly affected. Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) refers to the blockages in the arms or legs.. An arterial evaluation is done to examine the arteries in the arms or legs to look at the blood flow to locate stenosis or occlusion.. An arterial ...
An arterial exam looks at the arteries in the body. Arteries carry blood to cells and organs. An upper extremity arterial evaluation examines blood flow in the arms and a lower extremity arterial evaluation examines arteries in the legs. Normally the inner wall of the arteries is smooth. When the inner lining becomes hard and thick, atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) develops. This can cause an artery to narrow (called a stenosis) or close off completely (called an occlusion). When this happens, blood must go through other blood vessels to get around the blockage causing alternate circulation called collateral circulation. Atherosclerosis occurs in all arteries to some degree however the arteries of the neck, heart and legs are most commonly affected. Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) refers to the blockages in the arms or legs.. An arterial evaluation is done to examine the arteries in the arms or legs to look at the blood flow to locate stenosis or occlusion.. An arterial ...
There is evidence of lateral STEMI with hyperacute T-waves in V5 and V6 and I and aVL. So this is consistent with circumflex occlusion. However, it is common for circ occlusions to show little on the ECG, at least in the literature. My experience is that there is nearly always evidence of it to an expert reader with a discerning eye. As for V1, RV involvement only happens with RCA ACS: with a proximal occlusion in which the RV does not get collateral circulation from the LAD, there can be RV STEMI with ST elevation in V1. These certainly can cause hypotension. In this case, the hypotension was due to poor LV function from LAD STEMI.. Delete ...
shows. The primary purpose of this device is to find out what processes are going on in our head at the moment. Assign a study of after a serious headache to prevent hemorrhage. The second useful action of REG is that determines the blood flow through the main, main vessels and the collateral circulation of the , that is, the flow of blood currents bypassing the main vessels, if for any reason they can not cope with their work. Before the invention of rheoencephalography, such ailments as neurocirculatory dystonia and migraine and diseases were not considered. To prove them from a medical point of view is almost impossible. A person is considered healthy. The organs function normally, which means that the person writhing with a headache,( and men are sick of migraines, too!) Is likely to be feigning. After all, amazingly, from the headache these people are helped only by those means that contain caffeine. And only the study REG regrouped everything in its place. She proved their presence in a ...
Depends: It depends if the vessel is an artery or a vein, the size of the vessel, collateral circulation, co-existing illnesses etc. Blood clot in a vein can travel to lung and cause lung infarction. Clot in an artery may damage the tissue/organ supplied by that artery. Heart attack is one example of clot in an artery. For good health - Have a diet rich in fresh vegetables, fruits, whole grains, milk and milk products, nuts, beans, legumes, lentils and small amounts of lean meats. Avoid saturated fats. Drink enough water daily, so that your urine is mostly colorless. Exercise at least 150 minutes/week and increase the intensity of exercise gradually. Do not use tobacco, alcohol, weed or street drugs in any form. Practice safe sex, if you have sex. ...Read more ...
The Arteriograph is a diagnostic instrument which is able to measure the severity of arteriosclerosis. This is the condition of arterial blockage caused by inflammation or damage within arteries followed by an over production of a compound known as plaque created by the body to repair the damage. Plaque is made up of cholesterol, minerals such as calcium, specialised red blood cells known as platelets and other clotting factors. The Arteriograph is a simple and painless, non invasive investigation that can diagnose arteriosclerosis at an early stage . Symptoms of arterial blockage include chest pain from blocking heart arteries, or the loss of sensation, numbness, or cramp in the lower limbs as the leg arteries block. These symptoms tend not to occur until a considerable amount of an artery is blocked and other arteries are no longer able to offer effective collateral circulation. Symptoms of cardiovascular disease leading to heart attacks and strokes usually appear only in the last and late ...
Each monthly episode will discuss recent publications in the fields of genomics and precision medicine of cardiovascular disease.
Annual precipitation in the largely agricultural South-Central United States is characterized by a primary wet season in May and June, a mid-summer dry period in July and August, and a second precipit
The Mammalian Phenotype (MP) Ontology is a community effort to provide standard terms for annotating phenotypic data. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated phenotype data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
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Citi, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong job: Apply for Cash and Collateral Management Assistant Vice President in Citi, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong. Operations jobs available with eFinancialCareers.
NEW YORK - J.P. Morgan today announced that its Projections & Simulations service is now available globally. Part of the Securities Collateral Management product, Projections & Simulations provides se...
15th Annual Collateral Management Forum, Oct 2021 (Not Final), Amsterdam, Netherlands, organized by Fleming.. Find conference details | CLocate
Collateral Damage - StarCraft II - Legacy of the Void: A Short Story By: MATT BURNS A crowd stands outside the safe house on Anselm, the people shifting and jostling and craning their necks for a chance...
March 12, 2001 (HedgeWorld.com) The Bank for International Settlements this week released a report on the use of collateral to manage counterparty risk in terms of creditworthiness and liquidity.
Stephen Emmerson and Richard Barrett publishers associated with the ebook 24 declassified collateral damage. Wurm im apfel is its esotericism from Reinhard Dö hls few video. Wurm modes are to like particular, Italian and fertile click in an incredible and reviewing kingdom.
Meanwhile Open Europe looks at a proposal that was reportedly floated a day or so ago by the boss of the Eurozones bailout fund as a (partial) solution to the problem posed by the Finnish insistence that any funds advanced by Finland to Greece be adequately collateralized. The idea was that some or all of the collateral should take the form of yet-to-be nationalized chunks of Greek banks, a plan so evidently absurd that I thought it would be dead before I could post on it. I might have been wrong. Open Europe believes that it may survive long enough to be presented when Eurozone finance ministers meet on September 16. Open Europe notes that the plan has one slight snag: ...
USD Coin-as the name suggests, is one of the top 15 completely collateralized USD stable coin, which is deemed to have its price movement around $1. USDC is issued and completely regulated by financial institutions against which these institutions maint
This specially designed product is used to encircle a blood vessel. A special material (hygroscopic compressed casein) inside the donut shaped constrictor imbibes fluid over time. It slowly occludes the blood vessel ...
This is known as collateral circulation. The saphenous nerve is a branch of the femoral nerve that runs with the great ... Removal of the saphenous vein will not hinder normal circulation in the leg. The blood that previously flowed through the ... a clot fragment can migrate to the deep venous system and to the pulmonary circulation. Also it can be associated with, or ...
with A. Morgan Jones: Bramwell, C.; Jones, A. M. (October 1941). "Coarctation of the aorta: the collateral circulation". Br. ... and to the features of the circulation in athletes are well known. J. Crighton Bramwell's father Byrom Bramwell and eldest ...
"The collateral arterial circulation in the pelvis. An angiographic study". American Journal of Roentgenology. 102 (2): 392-400 ...
Leptomeningeal collateral circulation Moore KL, Dalley AR. Clinically Oriented Anatomy, 4th Ed., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ...
The radial artery is also used to evaluate the collateral circulation of blood through the hands; applying pressure through ... adequate collateral circulation can be ascertained by how quickly normal colour returns after the pressure is removed. The ... "Evaluation of collateral circulation of the hand". Journal of Clinical Monitoring. 8 (1): 28-32. doi:10.1007/BF01618084. ISSN ... It travels superiorly to anastomose with the radial collateral artery around the elbow joint Palmar carpal branch of radial ...
... so there is potential for collateral circulation here. The venous drainage of the duodenum follows the arteries. Ultimately ...
"The Clinical Significance of the Pulmonary Collateral Circulation". Circulation. American Heart Association. 24: 677-690. doi: ... Largely for this reason, bronchial artery circulation is usually sacrificed during lung transplants, instead relying on the ... persistence of a microcirculation (presumably arising from the deoxygenated pulmonary circulation) to provide perfusion to the ...
The result may be the development of collateral circulation. Presentation includes the following:[citation needed] Clubbing The ... Mathematical models are used to address the issue of pressure level alterations of circulation after the procedures. The ... or a mixture of oxygenated and unoxygenated blood entering the systemic circulation. It is caused by structural defects of the ... and these models permit clear analyses of the pressure increase allowing doctors to avoid possible venous circulation ...
Stead, SW; Stirt JA (1985). "Assessment of digital blood flow and palmar collateral circulation". Int J Clin Monit Comput. 2 (1 ... Allen's test looks for abnormal circulation. If color returns quickly as described above, Allen's test is considered to ... demonstrate normal circulation. If the pallor persists for some time after the patient opens their fingers, this suggests a ...
Collateral circulation gives "tree root" or "spider leg" appearance. Angiograms may also show occlusions (blockages) or ... The main symptom is pain in the affected areas, at rest and while walking (claudication). The impaired circulation increases ... The king's doctors prescribed complete rest and electric treatment to stimulate circulation, but as they were either unaware of ... Piazza G, Creager MA (April 2010). "Thromboangiitis obliterans". Circulation. 121 (16): 1858-61. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA. ...
Schaper WK, Xhonneux R, Jageneau AH (November 1965). "Stimulation of the coronary collateral circulation by lidoflazine (R 7904 ...
There is no collateral circulation present besides the end arteries. Examples of an end artery include the splenic artery that ... The results are severe because the blood flow to that region is completely stopped since there is no collateral circulation. ...
Collateral circulation[edit]. The circulation after ligature of the internal iliac artery is carried on by the anastomoses of: ... At birth, when the placental circulation ceases, the pelvic portion only of the umbilical artery remains patent gives rise to ...
... Cerebral circulation Leptomeningeal collateral circulation Fenrich, Matija; Habjanovic, Karlo ... for collateral circulation in the cerebral circulation. If one part of the circle becomes blocked or narrowed (stenosed) or one ... "Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography of carotid-basilar collateral circulation in subclavian steal". Stroke. 19 (8): 1036-1042 ... The circle of Willis is a part of the cerebral circulation and is composed of the following arteries: Anterior cerebral artery ...
"Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography of carotid-basilar collateral circulation in subclavian steal". Stroke. 19 (8): 1036-42. ... Classically, SSS is a consequence of a redundancy in the circulation of the brain and the flow of blood. SSS results when the ... Lord R, Adar R, Stein R (1969). "Contribution of the circle of Willis to the subclavian steal syndrome". Circulation. 40 (6): ... This is because of collateral vessels. As in vertebral-subclavian steal, coronary-subclavian steal may occur in patients who ...
There is usually collateral circulation between the superior and inferior orbital veins. The blood-vessels of the eyeball ( ...
Schaper W, The collateral circulation of the heart, New York, N.Y.: Elsevier, 1971. Kolibash AJ, et al., "Coronary collateral ... Cohen M and KP Rentrop, et al., "Limitation of myocardial ischemia by collateral circulation during sudden controlled coronary ... Fujita M, "Importance of angina for development of collateral circulation," British Heart Journal 1987; 57: 139-43.. ... collateral circulation, and, in any case, sometimes precedes, and often prevents, infarction by relieving the critically ...
... the fine collateral circulation that it supplies is obliterated. Patients often survive on the collateral circulation from the ... A collateral circulation develops around the blocked vessels to compensate for the blockage, but the collateral vessels are ... This is also the case when the arterial constriction and collateral circulation are bilateral. Moyamoya syndrome is unilateral ... The arteries are either sewn directly into the brain circulation, or placed on the surface of the brain to reestablish new ...
... providing a collateral circulation. This collateral circulation allows for blood to continue circulating if the subclavian is ...
Pulsatile back-bleeding from distal innominate artery stump should be checked to insure collateral circulation. In patients ... Innominate artery ligation leaves the carotid and subclavian circulations intact. ... and the carotid artery or the opposite carotid artery and the subclavian artery may be performed to restore normal circulation ...
This means that collateral circulation develops in the lower esophagus, abdominal wall, stomach, and rectum. The small blood ...
The genicular anastomosis provides collateral circulation to supply the leg when the knee is fully flexed. When the knee ...
Symptoms from poor blood circulation in the arm is uncommon due to collateral circulation in the arm. Young adults without risk ...
In these cases, the supply may be divided, some vessels sacrificed with expectation of adequate collateral circulation. In the ...
This selective sparing is due to the collateral circulation offered to macular tracts by the middle cerebral artery. ...
However, it takes time for sufficient collateral circulation to develop, making affected areas more vulnerable for sudden ... Individuals with arterial thrombosis or embolism often develop collateral circulation to compensate for the loss of arterial ...
Due to extensive collateral circulation, a coronary thrombus does not necessarily cause tissue death and may be asymptomatic.[ ... A large thrombus here slows overall blood circulation to heart tissue as well as may mechanically compress a coronary artery. ... Skyschally, Andreas; Erbel, Raimund; Heusch, Gerd (April 2003). "Coronary microembolization". Circulation Journal. 67 (4): 279- ... Circulation. 115 (8): 1051-8. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.675934. PMID 17325255. Borovac, Josip Anđelo; D'Amario, Domenico; ...
With time, the small vessels that comprise a collateral path for porto-caval circulation become engorged and dilated. These ... results in the development of significant collateral circulation between the portal system and systemic venous drainage (porto- ... caval circulation). Portal venous congestion causes venous blood leaving the stomach and intestines to be diverted along ... this intervention allows portal blood an alternative avenue for draining into systemic circulation. In bypassing the flow- ...
The body grows new blood vessels in wound healing, and as collateral circulation around blocked or atherosclerotic blood ...
When the pressure increases in the portal veins, a collateral circulation develops, causing visible veins such as oesophageal ... In systemic circulation oxygenated blood is pumped by the left ventricle through the arteries to the muscles and organs of the ... In pulmonary circulation the pulmonary veins return oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium, which empties into the ... However, in pulmonary circulation, the arteries carry deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs, and veins return blood ...
... which can cause economic collateral damage if production flows to regions or industries that have a lower price of carbon- ... Shutdown of thermohaline circulation. Flora and fauna. *Effects on Ecosystems *Mass mortality event ...
Circle of Willis Diagram of the arterial circulation at the base of the brain. Carotid endarterectomy Carotid body This article ... The internal carotid artery can receive blood flow via an important collateral pathway supplying the brain, the cerebral ...
The values are reversed in the pulmonary circulation.) In addition to carrying oxygen, blood also carries hormones, waste ...
medial collateral artery. *branches to the deltoid muscle. *Superior ulnar collateral artery *Posterior ulnar recurrent artery ...
These blood vessels develop as part of a collateral circulation that occurs to drain blood from the abdomen as a result of ... 941-42 This collateral circulation occurs because the lower part of the esophagus drains into the left gastric vein, which is a ...
RFA allows very specific treatment targeting of the desired tissue with a precise line of demarcation that avoids collateral ... Circulation. 122: 2239-2245. doi:10.1161/circulationaha.110.970350. PMID 21098435. http://www.theheart.org/article/214333.do " ... and that it is very specific for treating the desired tissue without significant collateral damage.[citation needed] Documented ...
When the pressure increases in the portal veins, a collateral circulation develops, causing visible veins such as oesophageal ... In systemic circulation oxygenated blood is pumped by the left ventricle through the arteries to the muscles and organs of the ... In pulmonary circulation the pulmonary veins return oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium, which empties into the ... However, in pulmonary circulation, the arteries carry deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs, and veins return blood ...
Its floor presents the following parts: the hippocampus, the fimbria hippocampi, the collateral eminence, and the choroid ... If its production is bigger than reabsorption or its circulation is blocked - the enlargement of the ventricles may appear and ...
from the collateral sulcus against the inferior horn - creating the Collateral eminence on the lateral floor of the horn ... If its production is bigger than reabsorption or its circulation is blocked - the enlargement of the ventricles may appear and ...
"The neuropsychiatric syndrome associated with hepatic cirrhosis and an extensive portal collateral circulation". Q. J. Med. 25 ... incapable of metabolising the waste products or because portal venous blood bypasses the liver through collateral circulation ... Nitrogenous waste products accumulate in the systemic circulation (hence the older term "portosystemic encephalopathy"). The ...
In the early 20th century Słowo's circulation was 20,000 and it was the first Polish newspaper to publish a serialisation of ... during the First World War as many of the offensives were fought across its local geography causing significant collateral ...
Circulation of blood was interrupted by tying off blood vessels at both ends of the wound to create a condition similar to that ... and compared their victims to collateral damage from Allied bombings. But this defense, which was in any case rejected by the ...
... found only in the mesenteric circulation. They are short vessels that directly connect the arterioles and venules at opposite ... "Circulating Humoral Factors and Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Patients with Differing Coronary Collateral Support" (PDF) ... Circulation. 109 (24): 2986-92. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000130639.97284.EC. PMID 15184289.. ...
Killing - At common law life ended with cardiopulmonary arrest[8] - the total and irreversible cessation of blood circulation ... or the killing of enemy combatants by lawful combatants as well as causing collateral damage to non-combatants during a war.[9] ...
It is associated with notching of the ribs (because of collateral circulation), hypertension in the upper extremities, and weak ... Long-term follow-up and prediction of outcome after surgical correction". Circulation. 80 (4): 840-5. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.80.4. ... Circulation. 111 (5): 622-628. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000154549.53684.64. ISSN 0009-7322. Ntsinjana, Hopewell N; Hughes, Marina L ...
systemic circulation to pulmonary artery shunt Blalock-Taussig shunt. SVC to the right PA Glenn procedure. ...
The Whitehall Study.». Circulation, 82(6), 1990, pàg. 1925-1931. *↑ Cole C, Hill G, Farzad E, Bouchard A, Moher D, Rody K, Shea ... L'exercici regular per a les persones amb claudicació ajuda a obrir petits vasos alternatius (flux col·lateral) i, sovint, ... Surgical treatment of peripheral circulation disorders)» (en alemany). Helvetica Chirurgica Acta, 21, 5/6, 1954, pàg. 499-533. ...
In this three-stage procedure, the right atrium is disconnected from the pulmonary circulation. The systemic venous return goes ... "Management of ventricular septal defect with pulmonary atresia and major aorto pulmonary collateral arteries: Challenges and ... many surgeries will be needed in order to help stimulate normal circulation of blood to the heart.If uncorrected, babies with ... allowing mixing of the pulmonary and systemic circulations, but prostaglandin E1 can be dangerous as it can cause apnea. ...
systemic circulation to pulmonary artery shunt Blalock-Taussig shunt. SVC to the right PA Glenn procedure. ... and that it is very specific for treating the desired tissue without significant collateral damage.[citation needed] ... RFA allows very specific treatment targeting of the desired tissue with a precise line of demarcation that avoids collateral ...
This selective sparing is due to the collateral circulation offered to macular tracts by the middle cerebral artery.[9] ...
He also had notoriously bad aim - often leaving a trail of collateral damage (in the form of bullet-riddled pedestrians) in his ... Publicity campaigns were devised to boost circulation and increase public visibility of Li'l Abner, often coordinating with ... Within three years Abner's circulation climbed to 253 newspapers, reaching over 15,000,000 readers. Before long he was in ... with a circulation of more than 900 newspapers in North America and Europe. ...
Blood supply to the cerebral cortex is part of the cerebral circulation. Cerebral arteries supply the blood that perfuses the ... Neurons send excitatory fibers to neurons in the thalamus and also send collaterals to the thalamic reticular nucleus that ...
Alongside the desire to still destroy hardened targets but while reducing the severity of fallout collateral damage depositing ... the imprecise global circulation models used, and ends by stating that the evidence of other models, point to substantial ... The authors used a global circulation model, ModelE from the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, which they noted "has ... this paper was based on simulations with a three-dimensional global circulation model.[53] (Two years later Alexandrov ...
constant circulation (circulation is a noun: can co-occur with the attributive adjective constant) ... Examples are happiness (from the adjective happy), circulation (from the verb circulate) and serenity (from the adjective ...
The coronary arteries are the arterial blood vessels of coronary circulation, which transport oxygenated blood to the heart ... Wynn GJ, Noronha B, Burgess MI (2008). "Functional significance of the conus artery as a collateral to an occluded left ... and which provides collateral blood flow to the heart when the left anterior descending artery is occluded.[6][7] ... The arteries can additionally be categorized based on the area of the heart they provide circulation for. These categories are ...
Compression should not cut off the circulation of the limb.[7]. *Elevation: Keeping the sprained joint elevated (in relation to ... "Nonoperative Treatment for Partial Ruptures of the Lateral Collateral Ligament Occurring in Combination With Complete Ruptures ...
Collateral circulation is the alternate circulation around a blocked artery or vein via another path, such as nearby minor ... portocaval collateral circulation). Dictionary.com collateral circulation. ... Collateral circulation is created (within months) around the blocked central vein via a generally winding path, usually from a ... An example of the usefulness of collateral circulation is a systemic thromboembolism in cats. This is when a thrombotic embolus ...
The leptomeningeal collateral circulation (also known as leptomeningeal anastomoses or pial collaterals) is a network of small ... There is anatomical variation in collateral circulation from person to person, and as we age, collateral vessels decrease in ... Coyle, Peter (1994). "Collateral Pial Arteries". In Bevan, Rosemary D.; Bevan, John A. (eds.). The Human Brain Circulation. The ... Therapies that attempt to optimize leptomeningeal collateral circulation appear to improve outcomes following acute ischaemic ...
collateral circulation Collateral circulation is the process in which a system of small, normally closed arteries opens up and ...
A, Hemodynamic assessment of the coronary collateral circulation. Example of assessment of the coronary collateral flow by ... Frequency distribution of collateral flow and factors influencing collateral channel development. Functional collateral channel ... Schematic diagram of the assessment of the coronary collateral circulation. Assessment of the coronary collateral flow by ... Assessment of the collateral circulation by pressure-derived CFI currently represents the gold standard and is calculated as ...
Impairment of Collateral Formation in Lipoprotein(a) Transgenic Mice. Ryuichi Morishita, Minako Sakaki, Kei Yamamoto, Sota ... Impairment of Collateral Formation in Lipoprotein(a) Transgenic Mice. Ryuichi Morishita, Minako Sakaki, Kei Yamamoto, Sota ... Collateral Formation in Lp(a) Transgenic Mice. First, we used the hindlimb ischemia model to determine the effects of high ... Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Circulation.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person ...
Collateral blood vessels develop by growth of pre or newly formed structures in almost all vascular provinces as a consequence ... Venous level collaterals in the coronary system; M.V. Cohen, J.M. Downey. Microvascular collaterals in the coronary circulation ... Collateral circulation of the brain; K.-A. Hossmann. Limb collaterals; W. Schoop. Neurohumoral and pharmacologic regulation of ... The role of growth factors in collateral development; E.F. Unger. Interactions of the coronary and collateral circulations; K.W ...
The extent of collateral circulation in 46 patients who had intracoronary thrombolysis within six hours of the onset of acute ... Collateral development was graded during coronary cineangiography according to the extent of opacification of the collateral ... Collateral channels were visible in only two of 19 patients without angina before infarction and nine of the 18 patients with ... The prevalence of angina and the collateral index were not significantly influenced by the extent of coronary vessel disease. ...
Artwork demonstrating the benefits of collateral circulation. Collateral circulation is the development of alternative blood ... Caption: Collateral circulation. Artwork demonstrating the benefits of collateral circulation. Collateral circulation is the ... collateral circulation, cut out, cut outs, cut-out, cut-outs, cutout, cutouts, illustration, medical, medicine, white ... Keywords: anastamoses, anastomosing, anastomosis, artwork, blockage, blocked, blood supply, blood vessel, circulation, ...
It cuts off collateral circulation to the whole appendage. causing tissue damage. It can lead to tissue necrosis and amputation ...
Your Name) thought you would like to see the Circulation Research web site. ... Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Circulation Research. ...
What is collateral circulation? Meaning of collateral circulation as a finance term. What does collateral circulation mean in ... Definition of collateral circulation in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... collateral circulation does not always occur.. Collateral circulation and stroke. ... Huperzine a for memory. ... new drug for ... collateral. (redirected from collateral circulation). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Encyclopedia, ...
... the cerebral venous collateral has been far less concerned than arterial counterparts. It is not until latter part of twentieth ... Collateral circulation of the brain. Neurology. 1961;11(4 Pt 2):9-15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Tong LS., Yu Y., Tang J., Lou M., Zhang J.H. (2019) Cerebral Venous Collateral Circulation. In: Lou M. et al. (eds) Cerebral ... Faber JE, Chilian WM, Deindl E, van Royen N, Simons M. A brief etymology of the collateral circulation. Arterioscler Thromb ...
The Functional Significance of the Human Coronary Collateral Circulation. Pantel S. Vokonas, M.D.; Richard H. Helfant, M.D.; ... Vokonas PS, Helfant RH, Gorlin R. The Functional Significance of the Human Coronary Collateral Circulation.. Ann Intern Med. ; ... 26 of 33 subjects with collaterals had a positive two-step exercise test compared with 14 of 29 without collaterals (P , 0.05 ... A slightly but insignificantly (P , 0.2) higher prevalence of normal resting electrocardiograms occurred in the collaterals ...
Lipomas, lumps and bumps, from the perspective of PetMassage canine massage. This discussion is part of the preparation for the continuing ed workshop I will be facilitating, at the IAAMB/ACWT - NBCAAM Conference this September, in Seattle. In the 4-hour workshop titled, "Canine Myofascial Release: Techniques to Discover and Track Movement," well be wrist-deep in…. Read More ...
Role of Genetic Variation in Collateral Circulation in the Evolution of Acute Stroke. A Multimodal Magnetic Resonance Imaging ... Role of Genetic Variation in Collateral Circulation in the Evolution of Acute Stroke ... Role of Genetic Variation in Collateral Circulation in the Evolution of Acute Stroke ... Role of Genetic Variation in Collateral Circulation in the Evolution of Acute Stroke ...
Collateral Circulation via the Ascending Pharyngeal Artery Arising from the Internal Carotid Artery. Akira Uchino ... I, however, diagnose that there was an acquired occlusion of the ICA at its origin with a development of collateral circulation ... Collateral Circulation via the Ascending Pharyngeal Artery Arising from the Internal Carotid Artery ... Collateral Circulation via the Ascending Pharyngeal Artery Arising from the Internal Carotid Artery ...
Association of statin pretreatment with collateral circulation and final infarct volume in acute ischemic stroke patients: A ... Association of statin pretreatment with collateral circulation and final infarct volume in acute ischemic stroke patients: A ... Association of statin pretreatment with collateral circulation and final infarct volume in acute ischemic stroke patients: A ... Association of statin pretreatment with collateral circulation and final infarct volume in acute ischemic stroke patients: A ...
The Range of Adaptation by Collateral Vessels After Femoral Artery Occlusion. Inka Eitenmüller, Oscar Volger, Alexander Kluge, ... The Range of Adaptation by Collateral Vessels After Femoral Artery Occlusion. Inka Eitenmüller, Oscar Volger, Alexander Kluge, ... The Range of Adaptation by Collateral Vessels After Femoral Artery Occlusion. Inka Eitenmüller, Oscar Volger, Alexander Kluge, ... Your Name) thought you would like to see the Circulation Research web site. ...
Coronary collateral circulation from the cardiac lumen was studied in 36 anesthetized, open-chest dogs with hearts beating in ... Study of Luminal Coronary Collateral Circulation in the Beating Canine Heart. THOMAS W. MOIR ... Your Name) thought you would like to see the Circulation Research web site. ... Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Circulation Research. ...
Relationship between stroke etiology and collateral status in anterior circulation large vessel occlusion.. ... 6.4%). Preexisting CAS was an independent predictor for favorable collateral status in multivariable models (Odds ratio: 3.3, p ... Collateral status was rated on pre-treatment CT- or MR-angiography according to the Tan Score. Furthermore, we assessed ... would have a better collateral status compared to non-CAS patients. Additionally, we evaluated MT-related adverse events and ...
poor collateral circulation, as well as baseline characteristics, on the outcome within the series presented as risk ratios. ... A good collateral circulation status was revealed to have a beneficial effect on favorable functional outcome (modified Rankin ... Collateral circulation affects the prognosis of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) treated by thrombolysis. The present ... Wufuer, A., Wubuli, A., Mijiti, P., Zhou, J., Tuerxun, S., Cai, J., Ma, J., Zhang, X.Impact of collateral circulation status ...
Assessment of Intracranial Collaterals on CT Angiography in Anterior Circulation Acute Ischemic Stroke. L.L.L. Yeo, P. Paliwal ... Assessment of Intracranial Collaterals on CT Angiography in Anterior Circulation Acute Ischemic Stroke ... Assessment of Intracranial Collaterals on CT Angiography in Anterior Circulation Acute Ischemic Stroke ... Assessment of Intracranial Collaterals on CT Angiography in Anterior Circulation Acute Ischemic Stroke ...
The findings of this study provide new information on retinal circulation and describe new patterns of collateral circulation, ... Four patterns of retinal collateral circulation have been recognised:. *. "Looped" collateral pattern. This arterovenous ... Four patterns of retinal collateral circulation have been recognised: (1) looped collateral pattern-this arterovenous ... Collateral blood vessels are particularly important in many organs, such as the coronary and skeletal muscle circulations. In ...
Long-term prognosis of patients with coronary artery disease with or without coronary collateral circulation ... Circulation 86(4 Suppl. 1): I855, 1992. Hematological parameters and coronary collateral circulation in patients with stable ... Coronary collateral circulation and distal coronary runoff: the key factors in pre-serving myocardial contractility in patients ... Impact of Coronary Collateral Circulation on QT Dispersion in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease. Europace 7: S49-S49, 2005 ...
Methysergide and indomethacin treatments invoked a 2-3 fold increase in collateral and peripheral resistances, and collateral ... During this period, nutritional blood was supplied to the collateral bed from the partially obstructed femoral vessel. This ... The collateral blood flow and resistance remained unchanged during this period. ... untreated animals did not show a significant variation in collateral and peripheral resistances following partial or complete ...
Yildirim T, Avci E, Kırıs T, Hasan K. The relationship between coronary collateral circulation and contrast induced nephropathy ... The relationship between coronary collateral circulation and contrast induced nephropathy in patients with non-ST elevation ... KEY WORDS: Kidney diseases; Collateral circulation; Non-ST elevation myocardial infarction; Coronary angiography ... For the purpose of evaluating the coronary collaterals, the Rentrop classification was used.. RESULTS: A total 269 patients ...
The neuro-psychiatric syndrome -Associated with chronic liver disease and an extensive portal-systemic collateral circulation, ... Associated with chronic liver disease and an extensive portal-systemic collateral circulation * Navigate this Journal ...
The grading standard of collateral vessels display [6]: level 0: no collateral vessels; level 1: collateral vessels did not ... Comparison of collateral circulation display rate and NIHSS score of the patients at different stage of disease progression ... Collateral circulation vessels of the patients with cerebral infarction were observed according to the head image. The SWI ... Cerebral infarction, Collateral circulation, Magnetic susceptibility weighted imaging. Introduction. The key to the treatment ...
... in treatment of the collateral circulation of cerebr.. ... in treatment of the collateral circulation of cerebral ... Conclusion: Magnetic susceptibility weighted imaging can accurately display the collateral circulation of the patients with ... Clinical application of magnetic susceptibility weighted imaging in treatment of collateral circulation of cerebral infarction ... collateral circulation and SWI corrected phase values were compared between the patients with different degree of collateral ...
  • Collateral circulation is the alternate circulation around a blocked artery or vein via another path, such as nearby minor vessels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even though the main vessels to the leg are blocked, enough blood can get to the tissues in the leg via the collateral circulation to keep them alive. (wikipedia.org)
  • The leptomeningeal collateral circulation (also known as leptomeningeal anastomoses or pial collaterals) is a network of small blood vessels in the brain that connects branches of the middle, anterior and posterior cerebral arteries (MCA, ACA, and PCA), with variation in its precise anatomy between individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • During a stroke, leptomeningeal collateral vessels allow limited blood flow when other, larger blood vessels provide inadequate blood supply to a part of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is anatomical variation in collateral circulation from person to person, and as we age, collateral vessels decrease in diameter and number. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leptomeningeal collateral vessels allow limited cerebral blood flow and brain tissue perfusion when the brain receives insufficient blood supply through an artery, via a series of anastomotic connections between cerebral arteries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leptomeningeal collateral vessels from the anterior cerebral artery and posterior cerebral artery appeared to allow for perfusion of some brain tissue to persist, partially compensating for the loss of the major vessel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Descriptions of leptomenigeal collateral vessels are found in Thomas Willis' Cerebri Anatome (1664). (wikipedia.org)
  • Collateral blood vessels develop by growth of pre or newly formed structures in almost all vascular provinces as a consequence of progressing stenosis of the main artery. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Collateral circulation is the development of alternative blood vessels to tissue that is already supplied by a blood vessel. (sciencephoto.com)
  • But although all people have collateral blood vessels in their brains, collateral circulation does not always occur. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These vessels are connected by small collaterals, which likely arise from the ascending pharyngeal artery. (ajnr.org)
  • All patients received cranial magnetic susceptibility weighted imaging followed by the observation of brain imaging as well as vascular collateral circulation and SWI corrected phase values were compared between the patients with different degree of collateral vessels. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Among 120 cerebral infarction patients, there were 85 cases of patients, whose SWI images showed collateral vessels, accounting for 70.83%, including 46 cases of level 1 and 39 cases of level 2. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The SWI images of remaining 35 cases did not show the collateral vessels, described as level 0 and there was significant difference in SWI corrected phase values between the patients with different degree of collateral vessels. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The earlier the collateral vessels develop, the faster the cerebral perfusion recovers, which can restore the function of damaged brain tissues in the ischemic penumbra region. (alliedacademies.org)
  • In addition, thoracic computed tomography angiography revealed numerous periesophageal arterial vessels, tortuous and dilated bronchial arteries, and an enlarged tortuous left phrenic artery, consistent with systemic bronchial and non-bronchial collateral arterial circulation development. (avmi.net)
  • 4 , 5 Wiggers was unable to document functional collateral vessels in the dog heart and thought it unlikely that sufficient blood supply could result from the collateral circulation in the human heart. (bmj.com)
  • However, there are functionally relevant anastomotic vessels, known as collateral arteries, which interconnect epicardial coronary arteries. (duhnnae.com)
  • Collateral circulation is a network of tiny blood vessels, and, under normal conditions, not open. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • When the coronary arteries narrow to the point that blood flow to the heart muscle is limited (coronary artery disease), collateral vessels may enlarge and become active. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • METHODS:A total of 45 pati ents with LAD-CTO were divided into two groups of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to observe the hemodynamic changes (fractional flow reserve [FFR] and instantaneous wave-free ratio [iFR]) before and after opening the chronic total occlusion (CTO), in order to provide collateral circulating donor vessels to the CTO, and observe the changes in iFR and FFR. (iospress.com)
  • [1] Following total or subtotal occlusion of an epicardial artery, arteriogenesis (recruitment of preexisting collateral channels) occurs conjointly with angiogenesis (sprouting of new vessels) to salvage the ischemic myocardium by shunting the blood from nonjeopardized territories. (wikidoc.org)
  • Blood samples for MPV were analyzed by K3 EDTA and collateral vessels were graded according to the Rentrop classification. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, it should be mentioned that in elderly patients with a high ejection fraction and normal diastolic function, the development of collateral vessels is low. (eujournal.org)
  • In a closed circulation , found in larger animals, the blood flows in vessels, which usually contain a series of one-way valves to maintain the flow in one direction. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Objective- Collateral arteriogenesis, the growth of existing arterial vessels to a larger diameter, is a fundamental adaptive response that is often critical for the perfusion and survival of tissues downstream of chronic arterial occlusion(s). (ahajournals.org)
  • Circulation established through an anastomosis between two vessels supplying or draining two adjacent vascular areas. (tabers.com)
  • Collateral blood vessels boost by means of development of pre or newly shaped constructions in just about all vascular provinces on account of progressing stenosis of the most artery. (piperlinley.com)
  • We emphasize that pressures in the epicardial arteries were not altered by this embolization procedure and the collateral growth in epicardial vessels must have been related to the distal myocardial ischemia, rather than any alterations in a pressure gradient between two adjacent vascular territories. (piperlinley.com)
  • As portal hypertension develops, the formation of collateral vessels and arterial vasodilation progresses, which results in increased blood flow to the portal circulation. (nih.gov)
  • Collateral circulation is where new blood vessels develop and reroute the blood around the obstruction. (marijuanadoctors.com)
  • In order to compensate for the narrowed/occluded middle cerebral and anterior cerebral arteries, the small branches of the vessels dilate and establish further connections inside the brain (called collateral circulation). (washington.edu)
  • The brain also develops other collateral vessels through the pial circulation. (washington.edu)
  • In a more advanced stage, even the collateral vessels become occluded. (washington.edu)
  • In advanced stages of the disease, as the collateral vessels shut down, very severe brain ischemia and severe strokes occur. (washington.edu)
  • Collateral development is a time consuming process, and arterial stenosis and occlusion often progress faster than growth of the alternative routes. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Collateral development was graded during coronary cineangiography according to the extent of opacification of the collateral and epicardial arteries distal to the site of occlusion (collateral index 0 to 3). (bmj.com)
  • 6 mm were not able to establish a collateral circulation and thus fed with blood ischemic area, which places an emphasis on studies in which it was stated that a much greater importance in the collateral circulation has completeness of the Willis circle because in this case, it has a protective role in the prevention of stroke in patients with occlusion of the internal carotid artery. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Methods- Perfusion, diffusion, and T 2 -weighted magnetic resonance imaging were performed on collateral-poor (congenic-Bc) and collateral-rich (congenic-B6) mice at 1, 5, and 24 hours after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. (ahajournals.org)
  • Results- Although perfusion-deficit volumes were similar between strains 1 hour after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion, diffusion-deficit volumes were 32% smaller in collateral-rich mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • 0.005) than collateral-poor mice, with no difference in perfusion-diffusion mismatch volumes because of penumbral death occurring 5 to 24 hours after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in collateral-poor mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • I, however, diagnose that there was an acquired occlusion of the ICA at its origin with a development of collateral circulation from the VA to the ICA via the ascending pharyngeal artery. (ajnr.org)
  • Relationship between stroke etiology and collateral status in anterior circulation large vessel occlusion. (onmedica.com)
  • Clinical outcome after mechanical thrombectomy (MT) for large vessel occlusion (LVO) stroke is influenced by the intracerebral collateral status. (onmedica.com)
  • Additionally, we evaluated MT-related adverse events and outcome for both groups.Over a 7-year period, we identified all consecutive anterior circulation MT patients (excluding extracranial carotid artery occlusion and dissection). (onmedica.com)
  • Animals were divided into 6 groups which received either agonist (Serotonin or Acetylcholine) or antagonist (Methysergide, Parachlorophenylalanine (PCPA), Reserpine and PCPA, Indomethacin or Imidazole) or both;Resting, untreated animals did not show a significant variation in collateral and peripheral resistances following partial or complete occlusion of the femoral artery. (iastate.edu)
  • In their search to find ways to reduce ischemia and possibly prevent death in patients with refractory angina, Stoller and Seiler, in 2014, moved into an undiscovered country and advanced a novel therapeutic strategy involving stimulation of extracardiac collaterals through occlusion of the internal mammary artery. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1 In this issue of Circulation: Cardiovascular Interventions , Stoller and Seiler 2 take another step from temporary internal mammary artery (IMA) occlusion now to report on the effects of permanent percutaneous right internal mammary artery (RIMA) occlusion. (ahajournals.org)
  • The primary end point was the change in collateral flow index (CFI) derived from pressure, (CFI pressure , [ P occlusion − P venous ]/[ P aorta − P venous ]), using a pressure sensor guidewire distal to the balloon occlusion. (ahajournals.org)
  • Patients One thousand one hundred and eighty-one patients with chronic stable CAD undergoing 1771 quantitative, coronary pressure-derived collateral flow index measurements, as obtained during a 1-min coronary balloon occlusion (CFI is the ratio between mean distal coronary occlusive pressure and mean aortic pressure both subtracted by central venous pressure). (bmj.com)
  • In this context, the status of the coronary collateral circulation should be assessed functionally during occlusion rather than structurally during vessel patency by angiography in order to obtain an accurate quantitative rather than qualitative measure of the prognosticator in question. (bmj.com)
  • The gray area indicates the area at risk for myocardial infarction in case of the LAD occlusion and in the absence of collaterals (corresponding to the infarct size in the example on the right side). (beds.ac.uk)
  • Although collateral blood flow after epicardial coronary occlusion may be sufficient in some patients to meet myocardial needs at rest, the prevalent view is that collateral circulation is generally not sufficient to meet myocardial demands during exercise [ 4 ] and may not prevent myocardial ischemia during coronary occlusion. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Except for the situation with a known chronic total coronary occlusion, there is currently no technique to quantify the collateral circulation non-invasively in human. (beds.ac.uk)
  • A total of 102 patients with AIS due to large vessel occlusion in the anterior circulation who underwent multimodal CT imaging and who were treated endovascularly were included. (nih.gov)
  • Exemplary images of two patients with an occlusion of the left carotid terminus and excellent (top row, A-D) and poor collateral flow (bottom row, E-H). The occlusion of the distal left internal carotid artery can be identified on coronal reformations of the single-phase computed tomography (CT) angiography (spCTA) (A, E: arrowheads). (nih.gov)
  • Using Doppler optical coherent tomography, a robust recruitment of leptomeningeal collateral flow was detected immediately after middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion in C57BL/6 mice, and it continued to grow over the course of 1 week. (jneurosci.org)
  • Of these, 185 patients had M1 middle cerebral artery ± intracranial internal carotid artery occlusion, where baseline collateral status could be measured. (nih.gov)
  • Any time there is an increased peripheral resistance (B) (spasm, intramural extravascular compression following infarction, etc), stasis in related main vessel and in collaterals both outside and within the plaque is expected with hemorrhage, plaque rupture and trombosis (C). On the other hand, it is difficult to accept that acute occlusion of a pin-point lumen bypassed by preexisting functioning collaterals (D) may result in infarct necrosis or sudden death. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Collateral blood flow can prolong the survival time of brain tissue after occlusion of the intracranial artery , so improving collateral blood flow may become a potential therapeutic target for ischemic stroke . (bvsalud.org)
  • During the first occlusion, recruitable collateral circulation (RCC) to the occluded myocardium was detected by myocardial contrast echocardiography in 6 patients (Group C) and was not seen in 12 (Group N). In Group N, all patients manifested signs of severe ischemia during each inflation. (elsevier.com)
  • Occlusion of the Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA) in the anterior circulation, or its branches is the most common site, accounting for approximately 90% of infarcts and two thirds of all first strokes. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • It is highly important to study the effect of SPG stimulation on the augmentation of collateral blood flow and to relate it to the subject's cerebral blood flow status, the extent of the collateral vessel potency prior to the stimulation and the relation of the vessel occlusion site to the vasodilatory effect. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the Rentrop angiographic grading of coronary collaterals on myocardial perfusion in patients with single-vessel chronic total occlusion (CTO) and no prior myocardial infarction (MI). (elsevier.com)
  • Collateral improvement is a time eating procedure, and arterial stenosis and occlusion usually development quicker than progress of the choice routes. (piperlinley.com)
  • A subset of patients survive the acute ICVA occlusion stage and continue to suffer recurrent strokes and transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) in posterior circulation despite aggressive medical therapy in the subacute and chronic period ( 1 - 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Collateral circulation is the process in which a system of small, normally closed arteries opens up and starts to carry blood to part of the heart when a coronary artery is blocked, or to part of the brain when a cerebral artery is blocked. (heart.org)
  • Collateral circulation in the heart tissue will sometimes bypass the blockage in the main artery and supply enough oxygenated blood to enable the cardiac tissue to survive and recover. (wikipedia.org)
  • In these patients, demonstration of multiple flows related to collateral circulation between the left and right coronary arteries on the interventricular septum by colored Doppler and presence of reverse flow from the coronary artery into the pulmonary artery on colored Doppler echocardiogram suggest this anomaly. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We tested the hypothesis that patients with preexisting ipsilateral extracranial carotid artery stenosis (CAS) would have a better collateral status compared to non-CAS patients. (onmedica.com)
  • This anastomotic vessel is characterised by a link between the cilioretinal artery and retinal arterial circulation. (bmj.com)
  • Given the confusing evidences regarding traditional cardiovascular risk factors on coronary collateral circulation, we performed this meta-analysis protocol to investigate the relationship between traditional risk factors of coronary artery disease and coronary collateral circulation. (ovid.com)
  • 2. one of the physiologic doctrines used in hydrotherapy to modify blood circulation in an area of the body that has a single artery supplying blood to the deep as well as the superficial areas. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Angiographically defined collateral circulation and risk of stroke in patients with severe carotid artery stenosis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The effect of collaterals on the risk of stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA), in the presence of angiographic severe internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis, was assessed. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Objective To expand the limited information on the prognostic impact of quantitatively obtained collateral function in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and to estimate causality of such a relation. (bmj.com)
  • The relevance of these collateral arteries is a matter of ongoing debate, but increasing evidence indicates a relevant protective role in patients with coronary artery disease. (duhnnae.com)
  • KeywordsAngiogenesis Arteriogenesis Coronary artery disease Coronary collateral circulation Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-1741-7015-11-143 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. (duhnnae.com)
  • In that context and bluntly, my primary interest in the field of the collateral circulation was not initiated with a vision of eradicating the consequences of coronary artery disease (CAD) by promoting the growth of natural bypasses. (youscribe.com)
  • However, a patent contralateral coronary artery increases the back pressure in this collateral-receiving territory, which underestimates the degree of collateralization. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The criteria below is utilized to distinguish a collateral vessel from a segment of a parent epicardial artery. (wikidoc.org)
  • The sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodal branches of the right coronary artery are not considered collaterals unless they meet the aforementioned criteria for length or termination at an epicardial artery. (wikidoc.org)
  • Human albumin was efficacious in improving collateral flow and outcome after stroke in the db/db mice, enabling perfusion to proximal MCA territory that was usually not reached by retrograde flow from anterior cerebral artery without treatment. (jneurosci.org)
  • The arterial refilling occurs by collateral circulation, and the antegrade flow to distal bed, since the arrival of collateral artery and retrograde flow to proximal segments from collateral artery. (netkey.at)
  • Objective The aim of this study was to assess the effect of coronary collateral circulation (CCC) on QT dispersion (QTD) in coronary artery disease. (inonu.edu.tr)
  • Collaterals, which develop in response to ischemic stimuli derived from coronary artery disease (CAD), contribute to reduction of infarct size, left ventricular dysfunction, and mortality. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We conclude that coronary collaterals preserve exercise capacity in spite of the low coronary flow reserve in the recipient coronary artery. (elsevier.com)
  • The 2 ACAs connect through the anterior communicating artery (ACoA), thus joining the left and right carotid circulations. (medscape.com)
  • The PCoA extends posteriorly to connect with the primary segment of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA), allowing collateral flow to pass between the anterior and posterior circulations. (medscape.com)
  • however, the arteriogenic significance of reversed flow direction, occurring in numerous collateral artery segments after femoral artery ligation, is unknown. (ahajournals.org)
  • Our objective was to determine if reversed flow direction in collateral artery segments differentially regulates endothelial cell signaling and arteriogenesis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Approach and Results- Collateral segments experiencing reversed flow direction after femoral artery ligation in C57BL/6 mice exhibit increased pericollateral macrophage recruitment, amplified arteriogenesis (30% diameter and 2.8-fold conductance increases), and remarkably permanent (12 weeks post femoral artery ligation) remodeling. (ahajournals.org)
  • FETAL CIRCULATION Fetal circulation is illustrated, showing right-to-left shunting (dashed arrows) through patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), pulmonary artery (PA) to aorta (Ao), and patent foramen ovale (PFO), right atrium (RA) to left atrium (LA). RV = right ventricle. (tabers.com)
  • The SPG is the source of parasympathetic innervations to the anterior cerebral circulation, which comprises the middle cerebral artery, the anterior cerebral artery, and their tributaries. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • After the distal anastomosis, the left subclavian artery was ligated at its origin and the descending thoracic aorta, and proximally to the distal anastomosis, to prevent a rupture of the aneurysmatic collateral arteries. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Coronary blood flow dynamics were investigated in 9 patients with isolated coronary artery disease of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) with good collateral flow (grade 2 or 3 of Rentrop's classification) from the right coronary artery (RCA) and 20 patients with normal coronary arteries as controls. (elsevier.com)
  • PTCA caused the disappearance of the collaterals from the RCA to the LAD, decreased coronary flow, and restoration of coronary flow reserve in the right coronary artery. (elsevier.com)
  • For the subgroup of patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD), the RR for restenosis with 'good collaterals' was 1.64 (95% CI 1.14 to 2.35) compared to 'poor collaterals' ( P = 0.008). (biomedcentral.com)
  • As the size of the coronary artery's blockage increases, collateral circulation may form in the narrowed coronary artery. (marijuanadoctors.com)
  • Has unacceptable collateral circulation from the ulnar artery. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Association of statin pretreatment with collateral circulation and final infarct volume in acute ischemic stroke patients: A meta-analysis. (aace.com)
  • Collateral circulation affects the prognosis of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) treated by thrombolysis. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Collateral status is an important factor determining outcome in acute ischemic stroke (AIS). (nih.gov)
  • In the Interventional Management of Stroke (IMS) III trial, we sought to demonstrate evidence of a differential treatment effect of endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke compared with intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator, according to baseline collateral status measured using computed tomographic angiography. (nih.gov)
  • Good collateral circulation is beneficial to improve the success rate of ischemic stroke reperfusion , and is associated with good outcome. (bvsalud.org)
  • Those with leptomeningeal collaterals evident on cranial angiography had a higher incidence of intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) after stenting. (wikipedia.org)
  • Collaterals at angiography and outcomes in the Interventional Management of Stroke (IMS) III trial. (springer.com)
  • Collateral status was rated on pre-treatment CT- or MR-angiography according to the Tan Score. (onmedica.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: The presence of well-developed coronary collaterals was associated with decreased frequency of CIN in patients with NSTEMI on the 48-72 hours following the coronary angiography. (minervamedica.it)
  • The easiest strategy is the visual assessment of collateral arteries by coronary angiography. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Outcome Prediction Using Perfusion Parameters and Collateral Scores of Multi-Phase and Single-Phase CT Angiography in Acute Stroke: Need for One, T. (nih.gov)
  • We applied different scoring systems on single- and multi-phase computed tomography (CT) angiography (spCTA and mpCTA) and compared them to CT perfusion (CTP) parameters to identify the best method for collateral evaluation in patients with AIS. (nih.gov)
  • Additionally, collateral flow was analyzed on three-phase multi-phase CT angiography (3p-mpCTA) images (C, G) applying the multi-phase Menon score (mp Menon score). (nih.gov)
  • Differential Effect of Baseline Computed Tomographic Angiography Collaterals on Clinical Outcome in Patients Enrolled in the Interventional Managem. (nih.gov)
  • The authors' omission of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in the study precludes a definitive association with collateral status, but as the authors note, the HIR technique that was utilized has shown to have good correlation with DSA-assessed collateral circulation. (heart.org)
  • Therapies that attempt to optimize leptomeningeal collateral circulation appear to improve outcomes following acute ischaemic stroke. (wikipedia.org)
  • Collateral circulation and stroke. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Background and Purpose- No studies have determined the effect of differences in pial collateral extent (number and diameter), independent of differences in environmental factors and unknown genetic factors, on severity of stroke. (ahajournals.org)
  • We examined ischemic tissue evolution during acute stroke, as measured by magnetic resonance imaging and histology, by comparing 2 congenic mouse strains with otherwise identical genetic backgrounds but with different alleles of the Determinant of collateral extent-1 ( Dce1 ) genetic locus. (ahajournals.org)
  • Preexisting CAS was an independent predictor for favorable collateral status in multivariable models (Odds ratio: 3.3, p = 0.002), but post-interventional infarct size and functional 90-day outcome were not different between CAS and non-CAS patients.Preexisting CAS ≥ 50% was associated with better collateral status in LVO stroke patients. (onmedica.com)
  • Two-year risk of hemispheric stroke in medically treated patients with severe ICA stenosis was reduced in the presence of collaterals: 27.8% to 11.3% (P=0.005). (ox.ac.uk)
  • For surgically treated patients, the perioperative risk of hemispheric stroke was 1.1% in the presence of collaterals versus 4. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The 2-year stroke risks for surgical patients with and without collaterals were 5.9% versus 8.4%, respectively. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Collaterals are associated with a lower risk of hemispheric stroke and TIA, both long term and perioperatively. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Angiographic identification of collaterals assists in identifying patients with severe ICA stenosis at lower risk of stroke and TIA. (ox.ac.uk)
  • An spCTA collateral score discriminated best between favorable and unfavorable outcome as determined using the modified Rankin Scale 3 months after stroke. (nih.gov)
  • Collateral status is an independent predictor of stroke outcome. (jneurosci.org)
  • In contrast, an impairment of collateral recruitment was evident in the Type 2 diabetic db/db mice, which coincided with a worse stroke outcome compared with their normoglycemic counterpart db/ +, despite their equally well-collateralized leptomeningeal anastomoses. (jneurosci.org)
  • Similar to the wild-type mice, both db/ + and db/db mice underwent collateral growth 7 d after MCA stroke, although db/db mice still exhibited significantly reduced retrograde flow into the MCA territory chronically. (jneurosci.org)
  • Acutely induced hyperglycemia in the db/ + mice did not impair collateral flow after stroke, suggesting that the state of hyperglycemia alone was not sufficient to impact collateral flow. (jneurosci.org)
  • Our results suggest that the impaired collateral status contributes to the exacerbated ischemic injury in mice with Type 2 diabetes, and modulation of collateral flow has beneficial effects on stroke outcome among these subjects. (jneurosci.org)
  • Although the pathophysiological recruitment of the cerebral collateral circulation in the setting of chronic haemodynamic insufficiency has been explored, 3 relatively little attention has been devoted to the role of pretreatment collateral circulation in patients with acute ischaemic stroke who are candidates for recanalisation therapy. (bmj.com)
  • Veins and venules play extremely important roles in brain circulation especially during pathologies such as brain edema, BBB disruption, elevation of intracranial pressure during and after ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke events, traumatic brain injury, neurodegerative disorders, in adults and newborns. (springer.com)
  • So far, imaging studies aiming to demonstrate collateral blood flow augmentation due to SPG stimulation were not yet performed in human stroke patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • These patients presented with recurrent/progressive stroke in the posterior circulation despite aggressive medical therapy. (frontiersin.org)
  • Blood flow to the brain in humans and some other animals is maintained via a network of collateral arteries that anastomose (join) in the circle of Willis, which lies at the base of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is an extensive collateral circulation associated with the subclavian and axillary arteries, particularly around the scapula. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • With sustained treatment this increases collateral circulation to the coronary arteries as well as to the body as a whole. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • METHODS: Angiographic collateral filling through anterior communicating and posterior communicating arteries and retrograde filling through ophthalmic arteries were determined in all patients at entry into the North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial. (ox.ac.uk)
  • While the first clinical trials to therapeutically induce growth of collateral arteries have been unavailing, recent pilot studies using external counterpulsation or growth factors such as granulocyte colony stimulating factor G-CSF have shown promising results. (duhnnae.com)
  • To demonstrate the collateral circulation pathways that can be observed in pathological studies at color Doppler in territories of carotid and vertebral arteries. (netkey.at)
  • Some of the superior hypophyseal arteries form primary capillary beds in the hypothalamus and the veins draining those beds ramify again to form secondary capillary beds in the adenohypophysis (anterior lobe of the pituitary), thus forming a portal circulation (the hypothalamic-pituitary portal circulation). (tabers.com)
  • A thoracic CT scan diagnosed a type A interrupted aortic arch with very large aneurysms of collateral arteries. (biomedcentral.com)
  • After three months, a thoracic CT scan showed excellent graft position and regression of the collateral arteries. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mean platelet volume: an important predictor of coronary collateral development. (biomedsearch.com)
  • sought to investigate the association between timing of DWI/FLAIR mismatch and collateral circulation using hypoperfusion intensity ratio (HIR), a measurement of perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) severity that has been shown to be a good predictor for poor collaterals. (heart.org)
  • The extent of collateral circulation in 46 patients who had intracoronary thrombolysis within six hours of the onset of acute myocardial infarction was evaluated. (bmj.com)
  • We aimed to investigate the clinical features associated with development of coronary collateral circulation (CCC) in patients with acute non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and to develop a scoring model for predicting poor collateralization at hospital admission. (viamedica.pl)
  • The analysis result of Pearson correlation coefficient showed the degree of collateral circulation vascular display was negatively correlated with the NIHSS score in the patients with cerebral infarction. (alliedacademies.org)
  • 1 It was not until the 1960s that the existence of structural coronary anastomoses was unambiguously verified by William Fulton, who had developed a pathoanatomic imaging technique that enabled differentiation between vascular overlay and true connections between adjacent parts of the circulation. (bmj.com)
  • This article summarizes the factors that increase (1) intrahepatic vascular resistance and (2) the blood flow in the splanchnic and systemic circulations in liver cirrhosis. (nih.gov)
  • Moyamoya (Japanese for "puff of smoke") refers to the angiographic appearance of these abnormal vascular collateral networks. (washington.edu)
  • The random‑effects model was used to estimate the impact of good vs. poor collateral circulation, as well as baseline characteristics, on the outcome within the series presented as risk ratios. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The predictive value of time for rFLAIR intensity was moderate in patients with poor collateral circulation (R 2 = 0.28), but poor in patients with good collateral circulation (R 2 = 0.03). (heart.org)
  • 6 Furthermore, the relationship between diffusion-perfusion mismatch and collateral circulation has not yet been reported. (bmj.com)
  • FVH can be used as a proxy for slow leptomeningeal collateral blood flow, and may help reveal which areas of brain tissue are potentially salvageable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later studies [6,7,8,9,10] have demonstrated that the possible mechanism of action of omental transfer is an increase in local collateral circulation rather than any significant increase in blood flow. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Andeweg J. The anatomy of collateral venous flow from the brain and its value in aetiological interpretation of intracranial pathology. (springer.com)
  • The collateral blood flow and resistance remained unchanged during this period. (iastate.edu)
  • Methysergide and indomethacin treatments invoked a 2-3 fold increase in collateral and peripheral resistances, and collateral blood flow completely ceased during partial stenoses. (iastate.edu)
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Blood supply through collateral pathways improves regional cerebral blood flow and may protect against ischemic events. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The currently most accurate assessment method measures the so-called collateral flow index (CFI). (beds.ac.uk)
  • Collateral flow was evaluated on spCTA images (B, F) using the single-phase Menon score (sp Menon score),[] which compares collaterals within the symptomatic to the contralateral hemisphere. (nih.gov)
  • With progressive luminal encroachment of atheromatous plaque , collateral vasculature is remodeled to reduce overall resistance to the epicardial coronary flow which entails a decrease in the number of conduits and an increase in the caliber from 10-200 μm to 100-800 μm. (wikidoc.org)
  • There is no flow in the collateral. (wikidoc.org)
  • However, the spatiotemporal manner in which collateral flow maintains cerebral perfusion during cerebral ischemia is poorly understood. (jneurosci.org)
  • The knowledge of the main cranial collateral circulation pathways can assist the understanding and recognition of stenoses, occlusions and flow compensation pathways in patients with atherosclerosis and arteritis processes. (netkey.at)
  • Collaterals may sustain penumbra prior to recanalisation yet the influence of baseline collateral flow on infarct growth following endovascular therapy remains unknown. (bmj.com)
  • Its location in severe (≥70) stenosis associated with other factors (retrograde collateral flow, reduced fibrinolytic activity, etc, see text) justifies the concept that is a secondary phenomenon. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We studied the effects of coronary collaterals on exercise capacity in relation with the coronary flow reserve. (elsevier.com)
  • In patients without collaterals, peak to resting coronary flow velocity ratio was correlated with double product ratio (r = 0.94, p less than 0.01). (elsevier.com)
  • This lack of treatment success is probably a result of inadequate micro circulatory collateral blood flow in the involved brain tissue. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Treatment targeting collateral cerebral blood flow augmentation is a promising therapy, either as a stand-alone treatment, or as a complementary treatment post recanalization. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The augmentation of collateral blood flow is a result of stimulation of the Spheno-Palatine Ganglion (SPG). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Ischemia (loss of blood flow at the microvascular level) occurs when the collateral circulation is unable to compensate for the metabolic demands of the brain. (washington.edu)
  • The Functional Significance of the Human Coronary Collateral Circulation. (annals.org)
  • Vokonas PS, Helfant RH, Gorlin R. The Functional Significance of the Human Coronary Collateral Circulation. (annals.org)
  • 5 The term 'functional' in the context of coronary collaterals can not only be used in the haemodynamic but also in the prognostic sense: is the human coronary collateral circulation functional as a determinant of clinical outcome? (bmj.com)
  • Well-developed coronary collateral circulation usually results in fewer infarct size, improved cardiac function, and fewer mortality. (ovid.com)
  • We assessed the relationship between MRI diffusion and perfusion lesion indices, angiographic collateral grade and infarct growth. (bmj.com)
  • Among 32 patients who underwent day 3-5 post-treatment MRIs, the degree of pretreatment collateral circulation (r = −0.476, p = 0.006) and volume of diffusion-perfusion mismatch (r = 0.371, p = 0.037) were correlated with infarct growth. (bmj.com)
  • Greatest infarct growth occurred in patients with both non-recanalisation and poor collaterals. (bmj.com)
  • Multiple regression analysis revealed that pretreatment collateral grade was independently associated with infarct growth. (bmj.com)
  • Recently, a retrospective CT based volumetric analysis reported that infarct volume and clinical severity at discharge were lower for patients with better pretreatment pial collateral formation. (bmj.com)
  • RESULTS: The presence of collaterals supplying the symptomatic ICA increased with severity of stenosis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 4 Feldman and Pepine were the first to show functional coronary collaterals in patients during left anterior descending angioplasty with less ECG and haemodynamic signs of myocardial ischaemia in the presence versus the absence of angiographic collaterals. (bmj.com)
  • Excellent angiographic collaterals may prevent resting regional wall motion abnormalities but do not appear to protect against stress-induced perfusion defects. (elsevier.com)
  • Consequences of newly established venous collaterals arising from portal hypertension include esophageal varices and hemorrhoids (portocaval collateral circulation). (wikipedia.org)
  • Evaluation of portosystemic collateral circulation , other than esophageal varices was done ultrasonically. (bvsalud.org)
  • We conclude portosystmic circulation plays a decompressive role in portal hypertension and prevents formation of esophageal varices or prevents them from increasing in size. (bvsalud.org)
  • [5] However, further prospective studies are warranted to determine whether therapeutic promotion of coronary collateral growth translates into favorable cardiovascular outcomes. (wikidoc.org)
  • During this period, nutritional blood was supplied to the collateral bed from the partially obstructed femoral vessel. (iastate.edu)
  • Coronary collateral circulation confers a protective blood supply to the myocardium jeopardized by ischemia . (wikidoc.org)
  • Backgroundː Coronary collaterals (CC) are alternative sources of blood supply to myocardium jeopardized by Ischemia. (eujournal.org)
  • Smaller animals (e.g. arthropods and most molluscs) have an open circulation , i.e. the blood is pumped into the body cavity, in which the internal organs are suspended. (encyclopedia.com)
  • pulmonary c. circulation of blood between the heart and lungs. (encyclopedia.com)
  • systemic c. circulation of blood between the heart and all parts of the body except the lungs. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Venous circulation contributes to half of the brain circulation and about 70% of the blood in the brain is venous blood. (springer.com)
  • Circulation of blood outside the body. (tabers.com)
  • Conclusions A well-functioning coronary collateral circulation independently predicts lowered mortality in patients with chronic CAD. (bmj.com)
  • The present study performed a systematic assessment of the impact of the collateral circulation status on the outcomes of patients receiving thrombolysis treatment. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies was to explore the impact of the collateral circulation on the risk for restenosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For the purpose of evaluating the coronary collaterals, the Rentrop classification was used. (minervamedica.it)
  • Patients were divided according to the Rentrop classification: Group I had grade 1 or 2 (n = 25) and group II had grade 3 collaterals (n = 31). (elsevier.com)
  • The primary outcomes of this meta-analysis are well-developed coronary collateral circulation. (ovid.com)
  • We review the complex gross and radiological anatomy of collateral circulation found activated by the means of EchoColor-Doppler and selective venography in the event of CCSVI, focusing particularly on the suboccipital cavernous sinus (SCS), the condylar venous system, the pterygoid plexus, the thyroid veins, and the emiazygous-lumbar venous anastomosis with the left renal vein. (eurekaselect.com)
  • If the vessel anastomoses with another vessel classified as a collateral. (wikidoc.org)
  • Clinical contribution of the collateral circulation to myocardial protection. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The clinical importance of arteriographically demonstrable collaterals was studied in 61 patients and compared with 58 patients without collaterals. (annals.org)
  • To investigate and discuss the clinical value of Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI) in treatment of the collateral circulation of cerebral infarction. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Therefore, it is required to make early and accurate judgment on the establishment of collateral circulation of patients with cerebral infarction the clinical to guide clinical treatment [ 1 - 3 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Multivariable modeling was used to assess the effect of collateral status and treatment type on clinical outcome by modified Rankin Scale (mRS 0-2, mRS 0-1, and the ordinal mRS). (nih.gov)
  • These findings also provide valuable insight into the relationship between collateral status and the timing of DWI/FLAIR mismatch which will prove useful for clinical trials using this assessment as a substitute for last known well in cases where this is unable to be determined from history. (heart.org)
  • Provides important information from anatomy to pathophysiology and covers most neurological disorders that involve venous circulation. (springer.com)
  • Venous circulation has not been extensively studied and we know relatively little about cerebral venous circulation. (springer.com)
  • An example of the usefulness of collateral circulation is a systemic thromboembolism in cats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our patient presents a type A interrupted aortic arch with collateral aneurysms treated by an extra-anatomic aortic bypass that is an efficient surgical strategy for this particular type of presentation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The benefit of the coronary collateral circulation (natural bypass network) on survival is well established. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Conclusion: In the setting of single-vessel CTO and no prior MI, coronary collaterals appear to protect against resting perfusion defects. (elsevier.com)
  • Multiple infarctions and perfusion defects in the posterior circulation were demonstrated by diffusion-weighted imaging and arterial spin labeling, respectively. (frontiersin.org)
  • Collateral status was assessed on spCTA and mpCTA using four different scoring systems and compared to CTP parameters. (nih.gov)
  • Collateral status was assessed by consensus using 3 different ordinal scales and categorized as good, intermediate, and poor. (nih.gov)