Collateral Circulation: Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Collateral Ligaments: A number of ligaments on either side of, and serving as a radius of movement of, a joint having a hingelike movement. They occur at the elbow, knee, wrist, metacarpo- and metatarsophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, and distal interphalangeal joints of the hands and feet. (Stedman, 25th ed)Circle of Willis: A polygonal anastomosis at the base of the brain formed by the internal carotid (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL), proximal parts of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries (ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), the anterior communicating artery and the posterior communicating arteries.Kidney Calices: Recesses of the kidney pelvis which divides into two wide, cup-shaped major renal calices, with each major calix subdivided into 7 to 14 minor calices. Urine empties into a minor calix from collecting tubules, then passes through the major calix, renal pelvis, and ureter to enter the urinary bladder. (From Moore, Clinically Oriented Anatomy, 3d ed, p211)Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Coronary Occlusion: Complete blockage of blood flow through one of the CORONARY ARTERIES, usually from CORONARY ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Liver Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.Hypertension, Portal: Abnormal increase of resistance to blood flow within the hepatic PORTAL SYSTEM, frequently seen in LIVER CIRRHOSIS and conditions with obstruction of the PORTAL VEIN.Medial Collateral Ligament, Knee: The ligament that travels from the medial epicondyle of the FEMUR to the medial margin and medial surface of the TIBIA. The medial meniscus is attached to its deep surface.Angina Pectoris: The symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION.Ischemia: A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Balloon Occlusion: Use of a balloon CATHETER to block the flow of blood through an artery or vein.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Cineangiography: Motion pictures of the passage of contrast medium through blood vessels.Carotid Artery, Internal: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.Celiac Artery: The arterial trunk that arises from the abdominal aorta and after a short course divides into the left gastric, common hepatic and splenic arteries.Blood Circulation: The movement of the BLOOD as it is pumped through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary: Dilation of an occluded coronary artery (or arteries) by means of a balloon catheter to restore myocardial blood supply.Doppler Effect: Changes in the observed frequency of waves (as sound, light, or radio waves) due to the relative motion of source and observer. The effect was named for the 19th century Austrian physicist Johann Christian Doppler.Cerebral Arterial Diseases: Pathological conditions of intracranial ARTERIES supplying the CEREBRUM. These diseases often are due to abnormalities or pathological processes in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; and POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY.Coronary Stenosis: Narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Moyamoya Disease: A noninflammatory, progressive occlusion of the intracranial CAROTID ARTERIES and the formation of netlike collateral arteries arising from the CIRCLE OF WILLIS. Cerebral angiogram shows the puff-of-smoke (moyamoya) collaterals at the base of the brain. It is characterized by endothelial HYPERPLASIA and FIBROSIS with thickening of arterial walls. This disease primarily affects children but can also occur in adults.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Carotid Artery, External: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Angiography, Digital Subtraction: A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.Carotid Stenosis: Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Phlebography: Radiographic visualization or recording of a vein after the injection of contrast medium.Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Embolization, Therapeutic: A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Extracorporeal Circulation: Diversion of blood flow through a circuit located outside the body but continuous with the bodily circulation.Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.

The effect of cardiac contraction on collateral resistance in the canine heart. (1/1214)

We determined whether the coronary collateral vessels develop an increased resistance to blood flow during systole as does the cognate vascular bed. Collateral resistance was estimated by measuring retrograde flow rate from a distal branch of the left anterior descending coronary artery while the main left coronary artery was perfused at a constant pressure. Retrograde flow rate was measured before and during vagal arrest. We found that in 10 dogs the prolonged diastole experienced when the heart was stopped caused no significant change in the retrograde flow rate, which indicated that systole has little effect on the collateral resistance. However, when left ventricular end-diastolic pressure was altered by changing afterload or contractility, a direct relationship between end-diastolic pressure and collateral resistance was noted.  (+info)

Effect of coronary occlusion on left ventricular function with and without collateral supply during beating heart coronary artery surgery. (2/1214)

OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of coronary occlusion and collateral supply on left ventricular (LV) function during beating heart coronary artery surgery. DESIGN: Prospective intraoperative study, performed at baseline, during wall stabilisation, coronary artery occlusion, and 2 and 10 minutes after reperfusion. Transoesophageal M mode echocardiograms, simultaneous high fidelity LV pressure, and thermodilution cardiac output were measured. LV anterior wall thickening, thinning velocities, thickening fraction, regional work, and power production were derived. Asynchrony during the isovolumic periods was quantified as cycle efficiency. SETTING: Tertiary referral cardiac centre. PATIENTS: 14 patients with stable angina, mean (SD) age 62 (7) years, undergoing left anterior descending artery grafting using the "Octopus" device. RESULTS: Collaterals were absent in nine patients and present in five. Epicardial stabilisation did not affect LV function. Results are expressed as mean (SD). Coronary occlusion (15.6 (2) minutes) depressed anterior wall thickening (1.4 (0.6) v 2.6 (0.6) cm/s) and thinning velocities (1.4 (0.5) v 3.0 (0.6) cm/s), regional work (2.2 (0.8) v 4.6 (0.6) mJ/cm2), and power (21 (4) v 33 (5) mW/cm2) in patients without collaterals (p < 0.05 for all), but only wall thinning (3.5 (0.5) v 4.8 (0.5) cm/s, p < 0.05) in patients with collaterals. All returned to baseline within 10 minutes of reperfusion. Cycle efficiency and regional work were impaired at baseline and fell during occlusion, regardless of collaterals. Within 10 minutes of reperfusion both had increased above baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Coronary occlusion for up to 15 minutes during beating heart coronary artery surgery depressed standard measurements of systolic and diastolic anterior wall function in patients without collaterals, but only those of diastolic function in patients with collaterals. Regional synchrony decreased in both groups. All disturbances regressed within 10 minutes of reperfusion.  (+info)

Late massive haemoptyses from bronchopulmonary collaterals in infarcted segments following pulmonary embolism. (3/1214)

Massive, recurrent haemoptyses requiring blood transfusions occurred in a patient who had been diagnosed as having pulmonary thromboembolism 3 months earlier. To the authors' knowledge this is the first case report of this kind, in which massive haemoptyses were proved to be caused by large bronchopulmonary collaterals that had developed in the infarcted lung segments affected by embolism. Selective embolization of the collaterals proved to be therapeutic and life saving.  (+info)

Isolated femoropopliteal bypass graft for limb salvage after failed tibial reconstruction: a viable alternative to amputation. (4/1214)

PURPOSE: Femoropopliteal bypass grafting procedures performed to isolated popliteal arteries after failure of a previous tibial reconstruction were studied. The results were compared with those of a study of primary isolated femoropopliteal bypass grafts (IFPBs). METHODS: IFPBs were only constructed if the uninvolved or patent popliteal segment measured at least 7 cm in length and had at least one major collateral supplying the calf. When IFPB was performed for ischemic lesions, these lesions were usually limited to the digits or small portions of the foot. Forty-seven polytetrafluoroethylene grafts and three autogenous reversed saphenous vein grafts were used. RESULTS: Ankle brachial pressure index (ABI) increased after bypass grafting by a mean of 0.46. Three-year primary life table patency and limb-salvage rates for primary IFPBs were 73% and 86%, respectively. All eight IFPBs performed after failed tibial bypass grafts remained patent for 2 to 44 months, with patients having viable, healed feet. CONCLUSION: In the presence of a suitable popliteal artery and limited tissue necrosis, IFPB can have acceptable patency and limb-salvage rates, even when a polytetrafluoroethylene graft is used. Secondary IFPB can be used to achieve limb salvage after failed tibial bypass grafting.  (+info)

Relief of obstructive pelvic venous symptoms with endoluminal stenting. (5/1214)

PURPOSE: To select patients for percutaneous transluminal stenting of chronic postthrombotic pelvic venous obstructions (CPPVO), we evaluated the clinical symptoms in a cohort of candidates and in a series of successfully treated patients. METHODS: The symptoms of 42 patients (39 women) with CPPVO (38 left iliac; average history, 18 years) were recorded, and the venous anatomy was studied by means of duplex scanning, subtraction venography, and computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Successfully stented patients were controlled by means of duplex scanning and assessment of symptoms. RESULTS: The typical symptoms of CPPVO were reported spontaneously by 24% of patients and uncovered by means of a targeted interview in an additional 47%. Of 42 patients, 15 had venous claudication, four had neurogenic claudication (caused by dilated veins in the spinal canal that arise from the collateral circulation), and 11 had both symptoms. Twelve patients had no specific symptoms. Placement of a stent was found to be technically feasible in 25 patients (60%), was attempted in 14 patients, and was primarily successful in 12 patients. One stent occluded within the first week. All other stents were fully patent after a mean of 15 months (range, 1 to 43 months). Satisfaction was high in the patients who had the typical symptoms, but low in those who lacked them. CONCLUSION: Venous claudication and neurogenic claudication caused by venous collaterals in the spinal canal are typical clinical features of CPPVO. We recommend searching for these symptoms, because recanalization by means of stenting is often feasible and rewarding.  (+info)

Quantification of collateral flow in humans: a comparison of angiographic, electrocardiographic and hemodynamic variables. (6/1214)

OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of collateral vascular circulation according to hemodynamic variables and its relation to myocardial ischemia. BACKGROUND: There is limited information regarding the hemodynamic quantification of recruitable collateral vessels. METHODS: Angiography of the donor coronary artery was performed before and during balloon coronary occlusion in 63 patients with one vessel disease. Patients were divided into groups of those with an absence of collateral vessels (group 1, n = 10), those with recruitable collateral vessels (group 2, n = 23) and those with spontaneously visible collateral vessels (group 3, n = 30). During balloon inflation the coronary wedge/aortic pressure ratio (Pw/Pao) was determined as were collateral blood flow velocity variables, using a 0.014" Doppler guide wire. Myocardial ischemia was defined as > or =0.1 mV ST-shift on a 12 lead electrocardiogram at 1 min coronary occlusion. RESULTS: Myocardial ischemia was present in all patients of group 1, in 14 patients of group 2 and in 3 patients of group 3. Recruitable collateral flow without ischemia showed similar hemodynamic values as in group 3 while these values were similar to group 1 in regard to the presence of recruitable collateral vessels showing ischemia. Logistic regression analysis revealed both Pw/Pao and Vi(col) as independent predictors for the function of collateral vessels. CONCLUSIONS: Hemodynamic variables of collateral vascular circulation are better markers of the functional significance of collateral vessels than is coronary angiography. The total collateral blood flow velocity integral and coronary wedge/aortic pressure ratio are good and independent predictors of the function of collateral vessels producing complementary information.  (+info)

Recovery of contractility of viable myocardium during inotropic stimulation is not dependent on an increase of myocardial blood flow in the absence of collateral filling. (7/1214)

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine whether contractile recovery induced by dobutamine in dysfunctioning viable myocardium supplied by nearly occluded vessels is related to an increase in blood flow in the absence of collaterals. BACKGROUND: Dobutamine is used to improve contractility in ventricular dysfunction during acute myocardial infarction. However, it is unclear whether a significant increase in regional blood flow may be involved in dobutamine effect. METHODS: Twenty patients with 5- to 10-day old anterior infarction and > or =90% left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis underwent 99mTc-Sestamibi tomography (to assess myocardial perfusion) at rest and during low dose (5 to 10 microg/kg/min) dobutamine echocardiography. Rest echocardiography and scintigraphy were repeated >1 month after revascularization. Nine patients had collaterals to the infarcted territory (group A), and 11 did not (group B). RESULTS: Baseline wall motion score was similar in both groups (score 15.9+/-1.3 vs. 17.4+/-2.0, p = NS), whereas significant changes at dobutamine and postrevascularization studies were detected (F[2,30] = 409.79, p < 0.0001). Wall motion score improved significantly (p < 0.001) in group A both at dobutamine (-5.3+/-2.2) and at postrevascularization study (-5.5+/-1.9), as well as in group B (-3.9+/-2.8 and -4.5+/-2.4, respectively). Baseline 99mTc-Sestamibi uptake was similar in both groups (62.9+/-9.7% vs. 60.3+/-10.4%, p = NS), whereas at dobutamine and postrevascularization studies a significant change (F[2,30] = 65.17, p < 0.0001) and interaction between the two groups (F[2,30] = 33.14, p < 0.0001) were present. Tracer uptake increased significantly in group A both at dobutamine (+ 10.9+/-7.9%, p < 0.001) and at postrevascularization study (12.1+/-8.7%, p < 0.001). Conversely, group B patients showed no change in tracer uptake after dobutamine test (-0.4+/-5.8, p = NS), but only after revascularization (+8.8+/-7.2%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The increase in contractility induced by low dose dobutamine infusion in dysfunctional viable myocardium supplied by nearly occluded vessels occurs even in the absence of a significant increase in blood flow.  (+info)

Angiographic abnormalities associated with alterations in regional myocardial blood flow in coronary artery disease. (8/1214)

To evaluate the association between alterations in myocardial blood flow and angiographic findings, myocardial blood flow was compared in 26 patients with asymergy, 15 patients with a similar extent of coronary artery disease but without asynergy, and 10 patients without coronary artery disease or obvious myocardial or valvular disease. Myocardial blood flow was measured at rest with an Anger camera and PDP-11/20 computer after the intracoronary injection of 133xenon. In comparison with the normal subjects, whole heart blood flow was significantly reduced in patients with asynergy. In addition, myocardial blood flow in regions of anteroapical asynergy was reduced (85-7 +/- 7-0 ml/min per 100 g3 in controls to 65-4 +/- 4-5, P less than 0-05) and a similar reduction was noted in regions of posterolateral asymergy (91-5 +/- 8-8 in controls to 66-8 +/- 5-0, P less than 0-05). In general, regional myocardial blood flow was reduced distal to left anterior descending or left circumflex stenosis of less than 50 per cent, with a trend toward further reduction distal to less than 75 per cent stenosis. In these same patients, the presence of anteroapical or posterolateral asynergy resulted in a similar trend to even greater reduction of flow. The effect of collaterals was variable: 7 of 8 patients without asynergy but with less than 75 per cent left anterior descending stenosis and collateral circulation to the lower left anterior descending quadrant had minimally reduced flows. However, in the 17 patients with anteroapical asynergy, regional myocardial blood flow was very similar in the 9 patients with collaterals compared with the 8 patients without them. This study suggests that the degree of coronary artery stenosis and presence of asynergy are both important in evaluating alterations in myocardial blood flow in coronary artery disease, while the role of collaterals remains uncertain.  (+info)

*Middle cerebral artery

Leptomeningeal collateral circulation. References[edit]. *^ Moore KL, Dalley AR. Clinically Oriented Anatomy, 4th Ed., ...

*Duodenum

... so there is potential for collateral circulation here. The venous drainage of the duodenum follows the arteries. Ultimately ...

*Circle of Willis

... for collateral circulation in the cerebral circulation. If one part of the circle becomes blocked or narrowed (stenosed) or one ... "Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography of carotid-basilar collateral circulation in subclavian steal". Stroke: A Journal of ... The circle of Willis is a part of the cerebral circulation and is composed of the following arteries:[2] ... Lord, RS; Adar, R; Stein, RL (1969). "Contribution of the circle of Willis to the subclavian steal syndrome". Circulation. 40 ( ...

*Hepatic encephalopathy

"The neuropsychiatric syndrome associated with hepatic cirrhosis and an extensive portal collateral circulation". Q. J. Med. 25 ... incapable of metabolising the waste products or because portal venous blood bypasses the liver through collateral circulation ... Nitrogenous waste products accumulate in the systemic circulation (hence the older term "portosystemic encephalopathy"). The ...

*Great saphenous vein

This is known as collateral circulation. The saphenous nerve is a branch of the femoral nerve that runs with the great ... Removal of the saphenous vein will not hinder normal circulation in the leg. The blood that previously flowed through the ... a clot fragment can migrate to the deep venous system and to the pulmonary circulation. Also it can be associated with, or ...

*Capillary

... found only in the mesenteric circulation. They are short vessels that directly connect the arterioles and venules at opposite ... "Circulating Humoral Factors and Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Patients with Differing Coronary Collateral Support" (PDF) ... Circulation. 109 (24): 2986-92. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000130639.97284.EC. PMID 15184289.. ...

*Capillary

Circulation. 109 (24): 2986-92. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000130639.97284.EC. PMID 15184289.. ... "Circulating Humoral Factors and Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Patients with Differing Coronary Collateral Support" (PDF) ...

*Iliolumbar artery

"The collateral arterial circulation in the pelvis. An angiographic study". American Journal of Roentgenology. 102 (2): 392-400 ...

*Cyanotic heart defect

The result being the development of collateral circulation. Clubbing The patient assuming a crouching position Cyanosis - ... Mathematical models are used to address the issue of pressure level alterations of circulation after the procedures. The ... lungs and entering the systemic circulation or a mixture of oxygenated and unoxygenated blood entering the systemic circulation ... and these models permit clear analyses of the pressure increase allowing doctors to avoid possible venous circulation ...

*Allen's test

"Assessment of digital blood flow and palmar collateral circulation". Int J Clin Monit Comput. 2: 29. doi:10.1007/bf02915870. ... Allen's test looks for abnormal circulation. If color returns quickly as described above, Allen's test is considered to ... demonstrate normal circulation. If the pallor persists for some time after the patient opens their fingers, this suggests a ...

*Thromboangiitis obliterans

Collateral circulation gives "tree root" or "spider leg" appearance. Angiograms may also show occlusions (blockages) or ... The main symptom is pain in the affected areas, at rest and while walking (claudication). The impaired circulation increases ... The King's doctors prescribed complete rest and electric treatment to stimulate circulation, but as they were either unaware of ... Piazza, Gregory; Creager, Mark A. (2010-04-27). "Thromboangiitis Obliterans". Circulation. 121 (16): 1858-1861. doi:10.1161/ ...

*Macula of retina

This selective sparing is due to the collateral circulation offered to macular tracts by the middle cerebral artery.[9] ...

*Subclavian steal syndrome

"Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography of carotid-basilar collateral circulation in subclavian steal". Stroke. 19 (8): 1036-42. ... Lord R, Adar R, Stein R (1969). "Contribution of the circle of Willis to the subclavian steal syndrome". Circulation. 40 (6): ... This is because of collateral vessels. As in vertebral-subclavian steal, coronary-subclavian steal may occur in patients who ... SSS is a consequence of a redundancy in the circulation of the brain and the flow of blood. SSS results when the short low ...

*Vorticose veins

There is usually collateral circulation between the superior and inferior orbital veins. The blood-vessles of the eyeball ( ...

*Collateralization

Schaper W, The collateral circulation of the heart, New York, N.Y.: Elsevier, 1971. Kolibash AJ, et al., "Coronary collateral ... Cohen M and KP Rentrop, et al., "Limitation of myocardial ischemia by collateral circulation during sudden controlled coronary ... Fujita M, "Importance of angina for development of collateral circulation," British Heart Journal 1987; 57: 139-43.. ... collateral circulation, and, in any case, sometimes precedes, and often prevents, infarction by relieving the critically ...

*Moyamoya disease

... the fine collateral circulation that it supplies is obliterated. Patients often survive on the collateral circulation from the ... A collateral circulation develops around the blocked vessels to compensate for the blockage, but the collateral vessels are ... This is also the case when the arterial constriction and collateral circulation are bilateral. Moyamoya syndrome is unilateral ... Circulation. 2006;114:681-687. Killory BD, Gonzalez LF, Wait SD, Ponce FA, Albuquerque FC, Spetzler RF (Jun 2008). " ...

*Scapular anastomosis

... providing a collateral circulation. This collateral circulation allows for blood to continue circulating if the subclavian is ...

*Tracheoinnominate fistula

Pulsatile back-bleeding from distal innominate artery stump should be checked to insure collateral circulation. In patients ... Innominate artery ligation leaves the carotid and subclavian circulations intact. ... and the carotid artery or the opposite carotid artery and the subclavian artery may be performed to restore normal circulation ...

*Esophageal varices

This means that collateral circulation develops in the lower esophagus, abdominal wall, stomach, and rectum. The small blood ...

*Coarctation of the aorta

It is associated with notching of the ribs (because of collateral circulation), hypertension in the upper extremities, and weak ... Long-term follow-up and prediction of outcome after surgical correction". Circulation. 80 (4): 840-5. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.80.4. ... Circulation. 111 (5): 622-628. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000154549.53684.64. ISSN 0009-7322. Ntsinjana, Hopewell N; Hughes, Marina L ...

*Lidoflazine

Stimulation of the coronary collateral circulation by lidoflazine (R 7904), Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Exp Pathol Pharmakol. ...

*Patellar network

The genicular anastomosis provides collateral circulation to supply the leg when the knee is fully flexed. When the knee ...

*Cryptorchidism

In these cases, the supply may be divided, some vessels sacrificed with expectation of adequate collateral circulation. In the ...

*Arterial embolism

However, it takes time for sufficient collateral circulation to develop, making affected areas more vulnerable for sudden ... Individuals with arterial thrombosis or embolism often develop collateral circulation to compensate for the loss of arterial ...

*Internal carotid artery

Circle of Willis Diagram of the arterial circulation at the base of the brain. Carotid endarterectomy Carotid body This article ... The internal carotid artery can receive blood flow via an important collateral pathway supplying the brain, the cerebral ...
Collateral growth and coronary angiogenesis are chronic adaptations to myocardial ischemia. Collateralization helps to restore blood flow and as a result salvages myocardium in severely ischemic myocardial regions. Thus, good collateral development in patients with severe coronary artery disease (CAD) improves ventricular function and prognosis (1-3).. However, coronary collateral development is different among patients even with similar degrees of coronary artery stenosis. Several factors, such as diabetes mellitus (4) and duration of myocardial ischemic symptoms (5) have been reported to effect coronary collateral development. At the cellular level, inflammatory cells, especially monocytes have an important role in collateralization. In a series of experimental studies with animals, it has been shown that monocytes are important elements for development of collateral vessels (6-7). In a recent study, it has been demonstrated that increased circulating monocyte count is related to good ...
AbstractBackground:Well-developed coronary collateral circulation usually results in fewer infarct size, improved cardiac function, and fewer mortality. Traditional coronary risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, and smoking) have some effects on coronary collateral circulation. However, the associat
The possibility that variation in the extent of native collateral circulation is an important determinant of variation in ischemic injury when acute arterial occlusion occurs or disease becomes manifest has historically been overlooked or minimized-, with the exception of those who study or treat acute ischemic stroke7-14 (and references therein), some coronary investigators4-6,69 (and references therein), and among vascular surgeons who frequently encounter or perform arterial occlusions.70,71 This presumably extends, in part, from the small diameter typical of native collaterals in most healthy individuals that is beyond the resolution of digital angiography (,0.2 mm), from the misconception that such minute vessels cannot mediate significant flow in the acute setting until remodeling has occurred, and from the inability to experimentally change native collateral extent to test its importance. The latter restriction has begun to yield in recent studies in which collateral extent was found to ...
Since the first description of the coronary collateral circulation in 1958,15 extensive investigations have been performed to elucidate the mechanisms that stimulate coronary collateral growth. Buschmann and colleagues16 were able to show a significant increase in collateral formation after 7 weeks of intermittent external counterpulsation in 23 patients with stable CAD in comparison with an inactive control group. An increase of collateral blood flow was detected by Zbinden in a nonrandomized clinical trial in 40 patients10 following regular physical exercise, performed 3 times a week over 3 months. However, PCI of the diseased vessel was performed before exercise training was initiated, which eliminated any possible ischemic trigger of collateral formation.. The underlying mechanism for increasing collateral blood flow has been the center of considerable debate.17 There are 2 distinct mechanisms that can be activated in the presence of ischemia caused by a flow-limiting lesion in an epicardial ...
Collateral circulation affects the prognosis of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) treated by thrombolysis. The present study performed a systematic assessment of the impact of the collateral circulation status on the outcomes of patients receiving thrombolysis treatment. Relevant full‑text articles from the Cochrane Library, Ovid, Medline, Embase and PubMed databases published from January 1, 2000 to November 1, 2016 were retrieved. The quality of the studies was assessed and data were extracted by 2 independent investigators. The random‑effects model was used to estimate the impact of good vs. poor collateral circulation, as well as baseline characteristics, on the outcome within the series presented as risk ratios. Subgroup analyses explored the potential factors that may interfere with the effects of the collateral circulation status on the outcome. A total of 29 studies comprising 4,053 patients were included in the present meta‑analysis. A good collateral circulation status ...
The assessment of adequate ulnar collateral supply to the hand is mandatory prior to the harvest of the radial artery as a conduit for coronary artery bypass grafting. However, there is currently no one test which is widely used in all centres. We report a new and objective method of assessing ulnar collateral supply to the hand prior to harvest of the radial artery. This technique involves assessing the presence of a hyperaemic flow response to occlusion of the radial artery using an intraoperative transit time flowmeter. We found this technique to be objective and reliable, and would advocate its use in patients with a positive Allens test ...
Coronary collateral circulation from the cardiac lumen was studied in 36 anesthetized, open-chest dogs with hearts beating in situ. The coronary arteries were cannulated and perfused from an isolated, nonradioactive blood source while 131I-labeled blood circulated through the cardiac lumen for 2 minutes. Ventricular fibrillation was then produced, and luminal blood samples and myocardial tissue samples were obtained for radioactive assay and calculation of the amount of luminal blood appearing as a part of the myocardial blood volume. These volumes were obtained from both ventricles and the atria under (1) normal antegrade coronary flow conditions, (2) myocardial ischemia, (3) left and right ventricular hypertension, and (4) coronary occlusion. Small quantities of luminal blood appeared in the left ventricular myocardium under normal coronary flow conditions while considerably larger amounts were found in the right ventricle and atria. There was no significant increase of the luminal ...
Besides severity of coronary obstruction [37, 38], numerous factors that could possibly attenuate the development and biological function of coronary collaterals have been reported such as old age [39], traditional risk factors for coronary artery disease [40-44], hyperlipoprotein (a) [45], hyperuricemia [46] and elevated serum levels of CRP [47], TNF-a [48], N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide [38] and mimecan [49], and high neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio [50]. In contrast, higher plasma levels of MCP-1 [51] or apelin [52] were associated with better coronary collateral development. The presence and extent of spontaneously visible coronary collaterals was also affected by plasma chemokine concentrations, as higher collateralization was associated with increased concentration of the angiogenic ligand and decreased concentrations of angiostatic ligands, and interferon-c [53]. It is known that diabetes mellitus aggressively induces atherosclerosis and may be more susceptible to myocardial ...
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a major health concern for Americans and people worldwide. Arteriogenesis, an adaptive remodeling process in which pre-existing collateral arterioles remodel to form large diameter conductance arteries, has received recent attention for its therapeutic potential in treating CHD, but the mechanisms regulating the process remain incompletely understood. In particular, little is known about how collateral flow, and the resulting effect of shear stress acting along the collateral vessel wall, regulates coronary collateralization. This Thesis combines a series of experimental systems to define the responses evoked in endothelial cells exposed to hemodynamic waveforms characteristic of coronary collateral vessels and the subsequent paracrine effects on smooth muscle cells. Initially, a lumped parameter model of the human coronary collateral circulation was used to simulate normal (NCC) and adaptive remodeling (ACC) coronary collateral shear stress waveforms. These ...
Further analysis of the IMS-III cohort of patients show that collateral status influence outcomes and those with intermediate collaterals seem to benefit the most from endovascular therapy. With the ESCAPE trial, collateral status was used as an inclusion criteria (patients with poor collaterals being excluded from the trial) and outcomes improved significantly in the endovascular group vs the IV tPA group. MR-CLEAN which was a study that did not use collateral status as an inclusion criteria did not have as significant overall good outcomes as the other published endovascular trials. Possibly because they included patients with poor collaterals, who dont benefit from either endovascular or IV tPA treatments as the infarct grows too rapidly for recanalization to have an effect. Had IMS-III recruited patients based on collateral status as in ESCAPE, we may have had a positive trial three years earlier. As we continue to understand the pathophysiological reasons for the success of the recent ...
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death in industrialized countries. Current therapies for restoration of coronary flow are percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or surgical revascularization. However, inherent to them are procedure-related risks and the fact that CAD progression is not prevented. Additionally, up to one fourth of all CAD patients are not amenable to standard revascularization therapies. Thus, there is a need for alternative therapies. Coronary collaterals as natural bypasses are anastomoses without an intervening capillary bed between portions of the same coronary artery or between different coronary arteries. The coronary collateral circulation is prevalent in humans and in CAD the amount of collateral flow is directly related to infarct size, all-cause- and cardiac mortality. Thus, the goal is to promote collateral function in the sense of prophylactic myocardial salvage.. Coronary (collateral) blood flow occurs almost entirely during diastole. Fluid ...
Coronary collateral circulation plays an important role to protect myocardium from ischemia, preserve myocardial contractility and reduce cardiovascular events. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with poor coronary collateral development and
Previous clinical studies showed that the coronary wedge pressure is increased in the presence of collateral vessels, presumably as a consequence of a reduced collateral vascular resistance, resulting in a reduction of signs of ischemia during brief coronary occlusion ([3, 4, 6]). Our current understanding of the collateral circulation is limited, partly due to the lack of methods capable of expressing the development of the collateral vascular bed in terms of flow and resistance. The dynamic behavior of collateral vessels as seen angiographically before and during balloon coronary occlusion can be examined by blood flow velocity analysis in the contralateral donor coronary artery ([6, 7]). These studies demonstrated that a balloon coronary occlusion results in a transient 10% to 70% increase in coronary blood flow velocity in the contralateral artery when collateral vessels are present, although this phenomenon is marked in the absence of collateral vessels. Blood flow velocity changes in the ...
Conventional methods for qualitatively assessing human coronary collaterals include postmortem coronary angiography (5), patients history of a walking-through angina pectoris (30), nuclear cardiology techniques (31), recording of IC and surface ECG (19)and coronary wedge pressure (32)during PTCA and angiographic grading during vessel patency or occlusion (9). Positron emission tomography has been demonstrated to provide quantitative data of collateral flow to a vascular region of interest (31). However, this can be achieved only in the presence of a naturally occurring coronary artery occlusion of the ipsilateral vessel. The PTCA model for collateral assessment can be used in every patient with a stenotic lesion to be dilated. The presence of ECG ST-segment changes as a sign of myocardial ischemia is regarded to be quite sensitive in studies on collaterals (30). An ECG obtained during PTCA from an IC guidewire with its tip distal to the occluded stenosis can be used even more effectively. For ...
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Current knowledge of the collateral circulation remains sparse, and a noninvasive method to better characterize the role of collaterals is desirable. The aim of our study was to investigate the presence and distal flow of collaterals by using a new MR perfusion territory imaging, vessel-encoded arterial spin-labeling (VE-ASL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-six patients with internal carotid artery (ICA) or middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis were identified by sonography, VE-ASL was performed to assess the presence and function of collateral flow. The perfusion information was combined with VE maps into high signal-intensity-to-noise-ratio 3-colored maps of the left carotid, right carotid, and posterior circulation territories. The presence of the anterior and posterior collateral flow was demonstrated by the color of the standard anterior cerebral artery/MCA flow territory. The distal function of collateral flow was categorized as adequate (cerebral blood flow [CBF] >= ...
RESULTS: A total 269 patients were participated in the study population (55 in CIN(+) group, 214 in CIN(-) group). The blood creatinine levels were significantly higher in the CIN(+) group on the 48-72 hours following the coronary angiography. In the studied population, 70 out of 269 patients had a good CCC according the Rentrop classification (64 patients [30%] in the CIN(-) group, six patients [16%] in the CIN(+) group). The frequency of the well-developed coronary collaterals were significantly higher in the CIN(-) group ( ...
Background: We hypothesized that cerebral perfusion deficits are more severe in acute stroke patients with poor collaterals and that the severity would increase over time if reperfusion does not occur.. Methods: This is a substudy of DEFUSE 2. Collaterals were assessed on conventional angiography and dichotomized as poor vs. good flow. DWI and PWI were performed before and within 12 hrs after endovascular therapy; PWI lesion volumes were determined using a Tmax,6sec threshold. The hypoperfusion ratio (HR) was calculated by determining the proportion of the PWI lesion that had severe Tmax delay (,10sec). Acute lesion growth was defined as the difference between the baseline and follow-up DWI volume.. Part 1: In patients with an ICA or M1 occlusion we compared the HR to the collateral score. An ROC curve assessed whether the HR predicts the collateral score.. Part 2: Among patients who did not experience early reperfusion, the difference between the baseline and follow-up HR was assessed and ...
The extent of collateral circulation in 46 patients who had intracoronary thrombolysis within six hours of the onset of acute myocardial infarction was evaluated. Patients who had had a previous myocardial infarction (4 cases) or who had spontaneously recanalized infarct related coronary arteries (5 cases) were excluded from the analysis. Collateral development was graded during coronary cineangiography according to the extent of opacification of the collateral and epicardial arteries distal to the site of occlusion (collateral index 0 to 3). Angina was considered to be present before myocardial infarction if it had occurred more than one week before acute myocardial infarction. Collateral channels were visible in only two of 19 patients without angina before infarction and nine of the 18 patients with angina before infarction. The prevalence of angina and the collateral index were not significantly influenced by the extent of coronary vessel disease. It is concluded that myocardial ischaemia is ...
Rentrop et al. researched collateral filling of stenotic coronary artery during inflation of the PTA balloon. Contrast dye was injected as soon as the patient developed ST-T changes on ECG or angina, but no later than 90 seconds after inflation of the balloon.
The differences in the extent of collateral circulation among patients with seemingly similar clinical characteristics raise the possibility that genetic and molecular differences may play a role in collateral development. Because circulating monocytes are considered the key element in the development of collateral circulation, we set out to uncover novel transcriptional determinants of human coronary collateralization using a combination of established and newly developed microarray bioinformatics analysis techniques. The principal finding of this study is that the monocyte transcriptome of closely matched patients with CAD who possess abundant collateral circulation is significantly different from the transcriptome of collateral-poor CAD subjects. Interestingly, many of the observed changes in gene expression in this study parallel prior observations in a mouse model of hind-limb ischemia.37. The key differences include significant alterations in transcriptional regulation of specific ...
Background: Collateral grade on cerebral angiography has great predictive significance for patient outcome, which is important to determine indication for endovascular therapy in acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Distal hyperintense vessels (DHV) on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery imaging (FLAIR) is a noninvasive and useful imaging marker that reflects leptomeningeal collateral flow. We investigated whether DHV in patients with AIS was associated with collaterals grade on cerebral angiography and clinical outcome after endovascular therapy.. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed patients with AIS who had internal carotid artery or middle cerebral artery occlusion in three comprehensive stroke centers from August 2011 to July 2015. We selected those who underwent FLAIR sequence before endovascular therapy. Presence of DHV was evaluated using a previously-published method. Collateral grades on pre-treatment cerebral angiography were assessed with the American Society of Interventional and ...
Obesity is associated with impaired coronary collateral vessel development. Yilmaz, M.B.; Biyikoglu, S.F.; Akin, Y.; Guray, U.; Kisacik, H.L.; Korkmaz, S. // International Journal of Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders;Dec2003, Vol. 27 Issue 12, p1541 BACKGROUND:: Chronic myocardial ischaemia due to coronary artery stenosis or occlusion has been shown to increase the growth of coronary collateral circulation. Collateralization leads to increased oxygen delivery to the area at risk and hence may reduce ischaemia, prevent infarction and... ...
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a global problem - over 202 million people worldwide are estimated to have PAD. In the United States alone, PAD results in $21 billion in annual costs and is the leading cause of lower limb amputation. PAD arises when atherosclerotic plaques block arteries in the lower limbs, thereby limiting blood flow to the distal tissue. A promising therapeutic approach to restore distal blood flow is to stimulate the lumenal growth of the patients own pre-existing collateral arteries that bypass the occlusion(s) (i.e. arteriogenesis). Unfortunately, large clinical trials have had limited success to date, highlighting the critical need to better understand the basic mechanisms regulating arteriogenesis.. Arteriogenesis occurs in response to increased blood flow through the collateral arteries that bypass an occluded artery. We have recently demonstrated that arteriogenesis varies along collateral artery pathways due to differences in regional hemodynamics (Heuslein and ...
No. Wellens T-waves are always AFTER an episode of pain, and when no ECG was recorded DURING the pain. But we know from reperfusion trials that this is exactly the same kind of T-wave inversion we get after reperfusion. So, extrapolating backward in time, those who have Wellens had upright T-waves with ST elevation at the time of their pain. They had spontaneous reperfusion (which is very common in STEMI) and when the were pain free with open artery (or good collateral circulation), then the ECG was recorded and showed T-wave inversion. In Wellens study, all 180 patients had EITHER an open LAD or good collateral circulation to the anterior wall.. ReplyDelete ...
RESULTS: Factors associated with good outcome on univariable analysis were younger age, female sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, small infarct core (ASPECTS ≥8), vessel recanalization, lower pre-tPA NIHSS scores, and good collaterals according to Tan methodology, ASPECTS methodology, and Miteff methodology. On multivariable logistic regression, only lower NIHSS scores (OR, 1.186 per point; 95% CI, 1.079-1.302; P = .001), recanalization (OR, 5.599; 95% CI, 1.560-20.010; P = .008), and good collaterals by the Miteff method (OR, 3.341; 95% CI, 1.203-5.099; P = .014) were independent predictors of good outcome. Poor collaterals by the Miteff system (OR, 2.592; 95% CI, 1.113-6.038; P = .027), Maas system (OR, 2.580; 95% CI, 1.075-6.187; P = .034), and ASPECTS method ≤5 points (OR, 2.685; 95% CI, 1.156-6.237; P = .022) were independent predictors of extremely poor outcomes. ...
Our ability to link amplified arteriogenesis to a unique hemodynamic stimulus (ie, reversed flow with increase shear stress magnitude) was facilitated by the development of a LSF approach for mouse hindlimb collaterals.18 We developed that approach because, despite the known importance of hemodynamic stimuli in driving collateral development, there was a surprising lack of quantitative data on the hemodynamic changes within these arteries. This is likely because both the small size of the arteries (,100 μm) and the fact that different surgical models elicit arteriogenesis along different collateral pathways.2 Using LSF,18 we determined the occurrence of at least 3 distinct hemodynamic conditions in these collateral vessels: a nonreversed increase in shear stress near the feeding entrance to the collateral loop, an increase in shear stress from low/oscillating flow to sustained high shear stress at the central anastomotic region, and an increase in shear stress but in a reversed direction at the ...
Methods and Results-We screened for signaling components that are activated in response to administration of FGF-2 to cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and detected a significant increase of Rap2 but not of other Ras family members, which corresponded to a strong upregulation of Rap2 and C-Raf in growing collaterals from rabbits with femoral artery occlusion. Small interfering RNAs directed against Rap2 did not affect FGF-2 induced proliferation of VSMC but strongly inhibited their migration. Inhibition of FGF receptor-1 (FGFR1) signaling by infusion of a sulfonic acid polymer or infection with a dominant-negative FGFR1 adenovirus inhibited Rap2 upregulation and collateral vessel growth. Similarly, expression of dominant-negative Rap2 blocked arteriogenesis, whereas constitutive active Rap2 enhanced collateral vessel growth.. ...
Results and Discussion: Receiver Operating Characteristics demonstrated no improvement using frequency dependant impedance compared to the constant part of the collateral impedance. The functional parameters aCon and cIMP were better than the total blood flow for the characterization of collateral function. The collateral function improved significantly during occlusion time (aCON in one= 0.20+/-0.17, two=0.22+/-0.25, three and more month= 0.28+/-0.18 cm*s-1*mmHg-1). A predominant systolic, diastolic or combined collateral flow profile was not correlated to the collateral function. Considering the anatomic location of Levin 17 patients had one, 15 two and 24 three different collateral pathways. In the majority of cases (63 of 91 patients) a septal pathway was included. In all patients the comparison of the Rentrop grading, the anatomic location classification and the collateral connection grading showed only for the latter an independent and significant relation with the collateral function. In ...
Collateral blood flow plays a pivotal role in steno-occlusive internal carotid artery (ICA) disease to prevent irreversible ischaemic damage. Our aim was to investigate the effect of carotid artery disease upon cerebral perfusion and cerebrovascular reactivity and whether haemodynamic impairment is influenced at brain tissue level by the existence of primary and/or secondary collateral. Eighty-eight patients with steno-occlusive ICA disease and 29 healthy controls underwent MR examination. The presence of collaterals was determined with time-of-flight, two-dimensional phase contrast MRA and territorial arterial spin labeling (ASL) imaging. Cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular reactivity were assessed with ASL before and after acetazolamide. Cerebral haemodynamics were normal in asymptomatic ICA stenosis patients, as opposed to patients with ICA occlusion, in whom the haemodynamics in both hemispheres were compromised. Haemodynamic impairment in the affected brain region was always present in
We previously showed that prompt reperfusion and angiographic collateral vessels may impact myocardial salvage and infarct transmural extent among patients with an occluded IRA. In the current investigation, we found that in addition to time to reperfusion and collateral vessels, the angiographic area at risk and the initial TIMI flow grade at the time of PCI are independent predictors of myocardial salvage by multivariate analysis. The novel index of myocardial salvage described here compares favorably with infarct transmurality to predict wall motion recovery after an acute STEMI.. Previous experimental studies have shown that the final infarct size closely correlates with the mass of jeopardized myocardium within the territory of the IRA (9). It is known that reperfusion of an occluded artery results in greater improvement in regional LV function when collateral vessels are present in the acute phase of myocardial infarction (10). However, the adjunctive effect that collateral flow might have ...
CONTRAST-ENHANCED CARDIAC COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY (CT) is being increasingly used for the investigation of patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Recent technological developments have allowed the reliable diagnosis of both coronary stenosis and occlusion with this modality. In addition to the identification of luminal stenosis, CT has the potential to visualize coronary plaque, collateral circulation, myocardium, and left ventricular function. Although the typical CT appearance of chronic coronary occlusion (extensive calcification and negative remodeling within the artery, potential presence of collateral coronary circulation and, in most cases, impaired left ventricular function associated with thinned myocardium) is well known, characteristics of acute occlusion have not been well described. The distinction between acute and chronic coronary occlusion has particular importance for the management of patients presenting with acute chest pain. In this series of cases, we highlight some ...
In patients with acute ischemic stroke attributable to large-vessel occlusion, selecting a candidate who will benefit most from endovascular revascularization therapy to optimize the practice of endovascular treatment is important for improving clinical outcome.24 In consideration of that point, defining the optimal timeframe for reperfusion based on collateral-flow adequacy is crucial in averting further ischemic injury.25,26 Our study demonstrated that the evaluation of the collateral-flow status before the initiation of intra-arterial treatment could be a key marker to determine a timeframe for reperfusion with a probable favorable clinical outcome.. The effect of the quality of collateral flow on clinical outcome has been examined in previous reports, which show that good collateral flow is associated with favorable outcome.5⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓-11 Also, the ORT in intra-arterial treatment was a main determinant factor in predicting favorable outcome.3,4 Regarding collateral flow and ORT as ...
OBJECTIVES. The aim of this study was to evaluate myocardial blood flow regulation in collateral-dependent myocardium of patients with coronary artery disease. BACKGROUND. Despite great clinical relevance, perfusion correlates of collateral circulation in humans have rarely been estimated by quantitative methods at rest and during stress. METHODS. Nineteen patients with angina and isolated occlusion of the left anterior descending (n = 14) or left circumflex (n = 5) coronary artery were evaluated. Using positron emission tomography and nitrogen-13 ammonia, we obtained flow measurements at baseline, during atrial pacing-induced tachycardia and after intravenous administration of dipyridamole (0.56 mg/kg body weight over 4 min). Flow values in collateral-dependent and remote areas were compared with values in 13 normal subjects. RESULTS. Flow at rest was similar in collateralized and remote myocardium (0.61 +/- 0.11 vs. 0.63 +/- 0.17 ml/min per g, mean +/- 1 SD), and both values were lower than ...
INTRODUCTION Stimulation of coronary collateral vessel growth by therapeutic angiogenesis (TA) offers an alternative treatment option for patients with refractory angina. Several TA modalities, including delivery to the heart of angiogenic growth factors (proteins or genes) and cells have been tested in clinical trials in the past two decades, but so far none of them resulted in significant therapeutic efficacy in large scale studies. This review attempts to identify the main obstacles hindering clinical success and recommends measures to overcome them in the future. AREAS COVERED After stating the medical need and rational for TA, and listing and briefly discussing past and current TA clinical trials, three main areas of obstacles are described: conceptual questions, technical limitations and clinical design uncertainties. Based on scientific and technical advances and lessons learned in past clinical trials, potential solutions to overcome some of these obstacles are proposed. EXPERT OPINION
A collateralized debt obligation is an investment that is backed by a collection of several different assets. While collateralized...
Definition Myocardial infarction (MI) is defined as death of myocardial tissue. The extent and location of the infarction depend on the degree of ischemic burden, the availability of coronary collateral blood flow, the rapidity of reperfusion, and the location of the afflicted coronary artery.[1] Pathophysiology
Available in: Hardcover. Collateral blood vessels develop by growth of pre or newly formed structures in almost all vascular provinces as a consequence of
We demonstrated that the leptomeningeal collateral anastomoses provided rapid and persistent perfusion to ischemic territories following MCAO. Furthermore, the collateral blood flow continued to increase over 7 d after MCAO with a considerable degree of vascular remodeling as evidenced by the increased diameter of collateral vessels in wild-type mice. In contrast, db/db mice had impaired collateral flow recruitment after MCAO compared with db/+, particularly at proximal MCA where the retrograde flow failed to reach, despite the similarity in baseline flow velocity and vascular anatomy between the two genotypes. The slower flow velocity from ACA to proximal MCA observed in db/db mice following stroke likely contributed to the inadequate retrograde filling of the MCA closest to the site of occlusion, where it was needed most. Consistent with this finding, db/db mice sustained a larger stroke size and poorer neurological outcome 7 d after MCAO. Despite the chronic collateral remodeling in both ...
Principal Investigator:ENDO Masahiro, Project Period (FY):1995 - 1996, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), Section:一般, Research Field:Thoracic surgery
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accelerated account acquisition actively acts address adenine adhesion allows anatomically angiography animal artery assessed blood branching cascade clearly collateral collaterals compensated confirmed considered controls corkscrew course covered datasets days demonstrating derived detected determined developed development direct displayed distal dual early energetics enhanced equipped established extent extracellularly faster femoral flow formation formed frequencies geometry gradient green growing growth histology important improved in vivo induced inflammatory initial involving issue lack lacking length ligation like matrix metabolic mice micro mouse muscle mutant newly normalized nucleotide occlusion operating part phenotype plays post potent previously processes processing product projection promotes protocol proximal quadriceps quantification quantified quantitative reaching receptors reconstruction recorded recovery reflected regulation reported resolution resonator restoration reveals ...
Definition of collateral sulcus in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is collateral sulcus? Meaning of collateral sulcus as a legal term. What does collateral sulcus mean in law?
Definition of Collateral facts evidence in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Collateral facts evidence? Meaning of Collateral facts evidence as a legal term. What does Collateral facts evidence mean in law?
The authorities are investigating loans based on collateral of metals at a Chinese port, with implications for Western banks and the Chinese credit market.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Early collateral and microvascular adaptations to intestinal artery occlusion in rat. AU - Unthank, Joseph L.. AU - Nixon, J. Craig. AU - Burkhart, Harold M.. AU - Fath, Steven W.. AU - Dalsing, Michael. PY - 1996/9. Y1 - 1996/9. N2 - The technique to repeatedly observe exactly the same vessels in the rat intestine was used to investigate vascular compensation during the 1st wk after abrupt arterial ligation. A collateral-dependent tissue region was created by ligation of three to four sequential intestinal arteries. At the center of the collateral-dependent region, arterial pressure decreased from 96 ± 3.7 to 29 ± 2.5 mmHg, and intestinal blood flow fell ∼80% during maximal dilation initially postligation. One week later, pressure and blood flow at the center had increased 31 and 250%, respectively. Relative to preligation values, the only compensatory adaptation was an enlargement (31 ± 11%) of the collateral arteries located between normal tissue and the center; no ...
Lipomas, lumps and bumps, from the perspective of PetMassage canine massage. This discussion is part of the preparation for the continuing ed workshop I will be facilitating, at the IAAMB/ACWT - NBCAAM Conference this September, in Seattle. In the 4-hour workshop titled, "Canine Myofascial Release: Techniques to Discover and Track Movement," well be wrist-deep in…. Read More ...
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Looking for collateral innervation? Find out information about collateral innervation. The distribution of nerves to a part. The amount of nerve stimulation received by a part. the supply of nerves to organs and tissues, which provides for... Explanation of collateral innervation
The policy objective is to encourage forward planning by both the Bank and SMF members to ensure that borrowing capacity is maintained and that public money is appropriately protected against the risks of a disorderly LIBOR transition. The policy adopts a haircut glide path for all LIBOR linked collateral maturing after end-2021, that will be phased in from 1 October 2020 and result in haircuts being 100% by end 2021, at which point all LIBOR linked collateral will cease to be eligible for use in the SMF. Further, from 1 October 2020, newly issued LIBOR linked collateral will be ineligible for use in the SMF. The Bank considers that this approach should act as an additional incentive both to cease new LIBOR issuance in cash markets and to amend legacy LIBOR linked collateral ...
In our study, the success rate of A-PCI was 74.1% and the total PCI success rate was 87.0%. Both are higher than the rates reported in previous studies (1,12,17). Negative remodeling and lesion length ,31.89 mm on coronary CTA, and ostial or bifurcation lesions on CCA were independent predictors of failed A-PCI guided by coronary CTA and CCA. In the absence of these 3 risk factors, the success rate of A-PCI was 98.0%. In contrast, the success rate of A-PCI was especially low (20.0%) if 2 or more risk factors were present. Other signs, such as calcification and tortuous course, were not significantly different between the successful and failed A-PCI groups. R-PCI during the same procedure after failed A-PCI in patients with a satisfactory appearance of the occluded distal segment on coronary CTA and well-developed collaterals (score of 3) on CCA was feasible.. Similar to our results, Rolf et al. (3) reported that performing coronary CTA before PCI of CTO lesions was associated with a higher ...
Diabetes in the United States today is an explosive major public health issue that directly impacts cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. One major reason for...
For full functionality of ResearchGate it is necessary to enable JavaScript. Permanent vena cava-filters can induce various complications during the remainder of the patients life. A case of a year-old woman who became pregnant seven years after the implantation of a Kimray-Greenfield-Filter and gave birth to a healthy child is presented. During pregnancy and after the birth of a healthy child she suffered from two new thrombotic events.. After the delivery, a Journal for vascular diseases Request full-text Article: Treatment of a post-thrombotic spontaneous Palma by selective sclerosis N. Rudofsky Abstract: Typical sequelae of deep vein thrombosis of pelvic and leg veins are not only post-thrombotic changes with a tendency toward oedema, trophic skin changes trophischen Ulkus Beine ICD 10 ulcers, but also the formation of collateral circulation.. After pelvic vein thrombosis these collaterals may occur as subjectively displeasing suprapubic venous convolutions. The authors report on ...
Fig. 2. Differences in collateral growth and tissue recovery in animal models versus humans with arterial occlusive disease. (A) After an acute arterial ligation (shown here in a mouse), there is a strong pressure gradient between the proximal and distal sides of the occlusion (orange line). This redirects the blood flow into adjacent arterioles and causes a strong shear-stress-mediated opening of collateral channels, which restore blood flow into the hypoxic areas. In the hypoxic tissues, ischemic tissue damage (necrosis) occur if the blood flow is not restored within the first hours after the occlusion. Necrosis induces acute inflammation, and recruited inflammatory cells produce angiogenic cytokines such as VEGF. The hypoxia itself activates factors such as HIF that stimulate the production of VEGF among other factors, and angiogenesis. Distal angiogenesis, along with the growth of collaterals, contributes to the tissue recovery by the formation of connections between the collaterals and the ...
In the first part of the study we tested the model on a HC cohort based on medical history and a controversial US CCSVI screening [5, 19-27]. However, a recent meta-analysis clearly shows that the majority of HC are not affected by CCSVI [28]. Finally, also MRI data, more objective and less operator dependent with respect to US, are still controversial because there are confirmatory and not confirmatory studies [25-27, 29].. Our measurements of the inflow are definitively comparable with previously published data [17]. Same result was found for the evaluation of the outflow, because the Q value assessed in J3, J2 and in the VVs are similar to the values previously reported [3, 4, 19].. The novelty of the present study is the application of a complete model which takes into account the haemodynamics of cerebral venous return normalized to the HBinF. Our model, for the first time, also includes J1 and haemodynamic analysis of collaterals.. Furthermore, we confirm that the flow in the IJV increases ...
unless there is bacterial infection, or the infarct has caused necrosis of all the cells in a portion of the brain). Inflammatory cells enter the infarct by the first day, and become plentiful over the next several days. "Big Robbins" lists several observations about infarcts that are worth reviewing. Although they may seem obvious, they are important to remember in clinical medicine. (1) The effects of vascular narrowing or occlusion will probably be worse if the blood already lacks oxygen-carrying capacity (i.e., the patient is anemic) or the heart isnt pumping well (heart failure, shock). (2) Slowly-developing occlusion of an artery (i.e., over months or years) is well-tolerated in organs with collateral circulation, since it allows for development of more and bigger collaterals (3) Remember that different cells tolerate ischemia for different lengths of time. Because of their importance, its worth mentioning DECUBITUS ULCERS here once again. Body weight always prevents blood from flowing ...
Hydrogen, Artery, Blood, Cells, Collateral Circulation, Coronary Artery, Endothelial Cells, Gene, Growth, Human, Hydrogen Peroxide, Knowledge, Muscle, Placenta, Smooth Muscle, Arteries, Conditioned Medium, Gene Expression, Monocytes, Muscle Cells
So the good news is things compare well so far. However, this doesnt represent reality. In reality, you have to set aside a certain amount of your capital as collateral/margin. If you are trying to replicate SHY with futures and not use any leverage, you would fund an account with ~$200k (using this value for round number purposes), put ~$1k in collateral toward the 2-year futures contract, and put the remainder in an instrument that would earn you back the risk-free rate. The futures contract is 100% long the total return of 2-year treasuries and 100% short the risk-free rate (due to cost of carry). However, in this scenario, you would be able to offset ~99.5% of that short position on the risk-free rate by putting the cash not being used as collateral in an ultra-short bond ETF like MINT of JPST. These arent entirely risk-free, but they also earn a little more than the risk-free rate and make up for the fact that you have to have some of your capital sitting idle in margin ...
So the good news is things compare well so far. However, this doesnt represent reality. In reality, you have to set aside a certain amount of your capital as collateral/margin. If you are trying to replicate SHY with futures and not use any leverage, you would fund an account with ~$200k (using this value for round number purposes), put ~$1k in collateral toward the 2-year futures contract, and put the remainder in an instrument that would earn you back the risk-free rate. The futures contract is 100% long the total return of 2-year treasuries and 100% short the risk-free rate (due to cost of carry). However, in this scenario, you would be able to offset ~99.5% of that short position on the risk-free rate by putting the cash not being used as collateral in an ultra-short bond ETF like MINT of JPST. These arent entirely risk-free, but they also earn a little more than the risk-free rate and make up for the fact that you have to have some of your capital sitting idle in margin ...
Exercising often has the effect of lengthening your lifespan and improving your looks. As such, you do not have to wait for aging to catch up with you when you can add a few years to your life. A recent study on effects of exercises on the aging process shows that aging reduces the rates at which our cells age. As much as this occurs at a cellular level, it has a direct impact on the overall aging process. Also, improved blood circulation on the skin leaves you looking years younger.. ...
We discussed the comments from the previous meeting about usage of terms Independent Amount. We discussed whether more granular breakdown definitions i.e. VaR vs Portfolio Margin could be used. Takeaway was to come back with a couple of suggestions on how to represent this one being straight Independent Amount, being a summation of all IA values for the agreement i.e. trade level and agreement level the other being a more flexible and granular definition where it would be possible to specify IA amounts with a type or description. The sum of these values would equate to the equivalent of the Total Upfront Margin in the original ISDA requirements. An draft example is attached based on FpML type syntax ...
Aneurysm surgery: optic nerve often displaced superiorly by aneurysm, vs. falciform ligament (sharp tethering edge). Early opening of optic canal & falciform ligament to free optic nerve --, decrease risk of visual deficit. If clipped, orbit dependent on collateral supply from ECA (maxillary, facial arteries ...
Decreased collateral vessel formation in the diabetic peripheral limbs is characterised by abnormalities of the angiogenic response to ischemia. Hyperglycemia is known to activate protein kinase C (PKC) affecting the expression and activity of growth factors such as VEGF and PDGF. The present study investigates the role of PKCδ in diabetes-induced poor collateral vessel formation and inhibition of angiogenic factors expression and actions. Ischemic adductors muscles of diabetic Prkcd+/+ mice exhibited reduced blood reperfusion, vascular density and number of small vessels as compared to non-diabetic Prkcd+/+ mice. By contrast, diabetic Prkcd-/- mice showed significant increased blood flow, capillary density and number of capillaries. Although expression of various PKC isoforms were unchanged, activation of PKCδ was increased in diabetic Prkcd+/+ mice. VEGF and PDGF mRNA and protein expression were decreased in muscles of diabetic Prkcd+/+ mice and normalized in diabetic Prkcd-/- mice. ...
There is intense controversy as to the mechanisms underlying chronic but reversible left ventricular (LV) ischemic dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the physiology underlying this condition in a canine model of noninfarcted collateral-dependent myocardium. METHODS: Six mongrel dogs were instrumented with ameroid constrictors on the left circumflex and right coronary arteries and a partial occluder on the left anterior descending coronary artery. The animals were followed up for 6 mo. Every 6 wk, measurements of regional wall thickening (M-mode echo), myocardial blood flow ((13)N-ammonia PET), oxygen consumption ((11)C-acetate PET), and glucose uptake ((18)F-FDG PET) were obtained. After 6 mo, myocardial blood flow reserve (during adenosine infusion) and regional contractile reserve (during infusion of a low dose of dobutamine) were also investigated. RESULTS: Following ameroid implantation, regional thickening decreased in the posterior wall (to 34% +/- 13% of baseline; P , ...
Natural adaptation to femoral artery occlusion in animals by collateral artery growth restores only approximately 35% of adenosine-recruitable maximal conductance (C(max)) probably because initially elevated fluid shear stress (FSS) quickly normalize
Looking for online definition of Collateral estoppel in the Medical Dictionary? Collateral estoppel explanation free. What is Collateral estoppel? Meaning of Collateral estoppel medical term. What does Collateral estoppel mean?
Looking for online definition of collateral bundle in the Medical Dictionary? collateral bundle explanation free. What is collateral bundle? Meaning of collateral bundle medical term. What does collateral bundle mean?
Many collateral adjectives enter the language because English regularly substitutes attributive use of the noun itself (or of a verbal noun from a related verb) for use of an adjective, so true adjectives are often missing. Adjectives are then borrowed from Greek or Latin for technical and academic usage, where true adjectives are preferred over attributive use of nouns. Because of this, collateral adjectives tend to be more technical or academic in tone than their corresponding nouns. Some collateral adjectives have a related noun which may be a near synonym for the noun in question. For example, one adjective for business is commercial, which also has a cognate noun commerce. Because there is no one-to-one correspondence between adjective and noun in English, and there is no regular derivation that they upset, they are not actually suppletive. Some nouns have both collateral and derived adjectives. For example, for the noun father there is derived fatherly alongside collateral paternal, and ...
Hemorrhage: Trans-Arterial Embolization for Hemorrhage or Vascular Malformations. Veterinary patients occasionally suffer from hypovolemic shock secondary to severe hemorrhage from a number of different causes including neoplasia, coagulopathy, GI ulceration, and trauma. In the majority of cases, standard medical and surgical procedures can be used to stabilize these often severely debilitated animals. Occasionally, standard therapies fail and alternatives are necessary.. For example, severe epistaxis can typically be managed conservatively. However, once intractable, few options remain. Carotid ligation can be performed and although this may temporize bleeding, once collateral blood supply develops bleeding may resume and no further treatment options exist. This is an especially important consideration when the underlying cause of epistaxis persists because the patient remains at risk for bleeding. An alternative to carotid ligation that permits repeated treatments if necessary is ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - MR Perfusion to Determine the Status of Collaterals in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke. T2 - A Look Beyond Time Maps. AU - Nael, Kambiz. AU - Doshi, A.. AU - De Leacy, R.. AU - Puig, J.. AU - Castellanos, M.. AU - Bederson, J.. AU - Naidich, T. P.. AU - Mocco, J.. AU - Wintermark, M.. PY - 2018/2/1. Y1 - 2018/2/1. N2 - BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients with acute stroke with robust collateral flow have better clinical outcomes and may benefit from endovascular treatment throughout an extended time window. Using a multiparametric approach, we aimed to identify MR perfusion parameters that can represent the extent of collaterals, approximating DSA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with anterior circulation proximal arterial occlusion who had baseline MR perfusion and DSA were evaluated. The volume of arterial tissue delay (ATD) at thresholds of 2- 6 seconds (ATD2- 6seconds) and 6 seconds (ATD6seconds) in addition to corresponding values of normalized CBV and CBF was calculated ...
Arteriogenesis, the adaptive outward growth of pre-existing collateral arteries, is the most efficient endogenous rescue mechanisms in vertebrates against the occlusion of a major artery (biological bypass). Here, collateral growth was induced using the first model for cerebral arteriogenesis, the 3-vessel occlusion (3-VO) rat model. (I) 3-VO resulted in a significant diameter increase within 7 days in the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) and posterior communicating artery (Pcom), classifying the region of interest. Immunhistological staining demonstrated proliferative activation and macrophage invasion, already 24h post 3-VO within the PCA, confirming the arteriogenic phenotype. Furthermore, activation of the PCA endothelium was detected within 3 days post 3-VO by scanning electron microscopy. (II) For analysing the molecular mechanism of cerebral arteriogenesis, collateral tissue from the growing PCA was selectively isolated. Here, 24h post 3-VO 164 genes were detected to be significantly ...
A method of delivering an arteriogenic factor. The factor is delivered in a medically effective manner to structurally enlarge an existing blood vessel. A distal portion of a catheter can be advanced to an existing blood vessel to deliver the arteriogenic factor.
Formats for Collaterals: The formats, as per NSE Clearing, that are required for submission of documents for Trading Members operating in the Capital Market Segment. Know more about Formats for Collaterals Today, visit NSE India.
An arterial exam looks at the arteries in the body. Arteries carry blood to cells and organs. An upper extremity arterial evaluation examines blood flow in the arms and a lower extremity arterial evaluation examines arteries in the legs. Normally the inner wall of the arteries is smooth. When the inner lining becomes hard and thick, atherosclerosis ("hardening of the arteries") develops. This can cause an artery to narrow (called a "stenosis") or close off completely (called an "occlusion"). When this happens, blood must go through other blood vessels to get around the blockage causing alternate circulation called "collateral circulation". Atherosclerosis occurs in all arteries to some degree however the arteries of the neck, heart and legs are most commonly affected. Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) refers to the blockages in the arms or legs.. An arterial evaluation is done to examine the arteries in the arms or legs to look at the blood flow to locate stenosis or occlusion.. An arterial ...
An arterial exam looks at the arteries in the body. Arteries carry blood to cells and organs. An upper extremity arterial evaluation examines blood flow in the arms and a lower extremity arterial evaluation examines arteries in the legs. Normally the inner wall of the arteries is smooth. When the inner lining becomes hard and thick, atherosclerosis ("hardening of the arteries") develops. This can cause an artery to narrow (called a "stenosis") or close off completely (called an "occlusion"). When this happens, blood must go through other blood vessels to get around the blockage causing alternate circulation called "collateral circulation". Atherosclerosis occurs in all arteries to some degree however the arteries of the neck, heart and legs are most commonly affected. Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) refers to the blockages in the arms or legs.. An arterial evaluation is done to examine the arteries in the arms or legs to look at the blood flow to locate stenosis or occlusion.. An arterial ...
There is evidence of lateral STEMI with hyperacute T-waves in V5 and V6 and I and aVL. So this is consistent with circumflex occlusion. However, it is common for circ occlusions to show little on the ECG, at least in the literature. My experience is that there is nearly always evidence of it to an expert reader with a discerning eye. As for V1, RV involvement only happens with RCA ACS: with a proximal occlusion in which the RV does not get collateral circulation from the LAD, there can be RV STEMI with ST elevation in V1. These certainly can cause hypotension. In this case, the hypotension was due to poor LV function from LAD STEMI.. Delete ...
shows. The primary purpose of this device is to find out what processes are going on in our head at the moment. Assign a study of after a serious headache to prevent hemorrhage. The second useful action of REG is that determines the blood flow through the main, main vessels and the collateral circulation of the , that is, the flow of blood currents bypassing the main vessels, if for any reason they can not cope with their work. Before the invention of rheoencephalography, such ailments as neurocirculatory dystonia and migraine and diseases were not considered. To prove them from a medical point of view is almost impossible. A person is considered healthy. The organs function normally, which means that the person writhing with a headache,( and men are sick of migraines, too!) Is likely to be feigning. After all, amazingly, from the headache these people are helped only by those means that contain caffeine. And only the study REG regrouped everything in its place. She proved their presence in a ...
Depends: It depends if the vessel is an artery or a vein, the size of the vessel, collateral circulation, co-existing illnesses etc. Blood clot in a vein can travel to lung and cause lung infarction. Clot in an artery may damage the tissue/organ supplied by that artery. Heart attack is one example of clot in an artery. For good health - Have a diet rich in fresh vegetables, fruits, whole grains, milk and milk products, nuts, beans, legumes, lentils and small amounts of lean meats. Avoid saturated fats. Drink enough water daily, so that your urine is mostly colorless. Exercise at least 150 minutes/week and increase the intensity of exercise gradually. Do not use tobacco, alcohol, weed or street drugs in any form. Practice safe sex, if you have sex. ...Read more ...
The Arteriograph is a diagnostic instrument which is able to measure the severity of arteriosclerosis. This is the condition of arterial blockage caused by inflammation or damage within arteries followed by an over production of a compound known as plaque created by the body to repair the damage. Plaque is made up of cholesterol, minerals such as calcium, specialised red blood cells known as platelets and other clotting factors. The Arteriograph is a simple and painless, non invasive investigation that can diagnose arteriosclerosis at an early stage . Symptoms of arterial blockage include chest pain from blocking heart arteries, or the loss of sensation, numbness, or cramp in the lower limbs as the leg arteries block. These symptoms tend not to occur until a considerable amount of an artery is blocked and other arteries are no longer able to offer effective collateral circulation. Symptoms of cardiovascular disease leading to heart attacks and strokes usually appear only in the last and late ...
Each monthly episode will discuss recent publications in the fields of genomics and precision medicine of cardiovascular disease.
Annual precipitation in the largely agricultural South-Central United States is characterized by a primary wet season in May and June, a mid-summer dry period in July and August, and a second precipit
The Mammalian Phenotype (MP) Ontology is a community effort to provide standard terms for annotating phenotypic data. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated phenotype data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
NEW YORK - J.P. Morgan today announced that its Projections & Simulations service is now available globally. Part of the Securities Collateral Management product, Projections & Simulations provides se...
Collateral Damage - StarCraft II - Legacy of the Void: A Short Story By: MATT BURNS A crowd stands outside the safe house on Anselm, the people shifting and jostling and craning their necks for a chance...
March 12, 2001 (HedgeWorld.com) The Bank for International Settlements this week released a report on the use of collateral to manage counterparty risk in terms of creditworthiness and liquidity.
Meanwhile Open Europe looks at a proposal that was reportedly floated a day or so ago by the boss of the Eurozones bailout fund as a (partial) solution to the problem posed by the Finnish insistence that any funds advanced by Finland to Greece be adequately collateralized. The idea was that some or all of the collateral should take the form of yet-to-be nationalized chunks of Greek banks, a plan so evidently absurd that I thought it would be dead before I could post on it. I might have been wrong. Open Europe believes that it may survive long enough to be presented when Eurozone finance ministers meet on September 16. Open Europe notes that the plan "has one slight snag": ...
Update 24 September 2019: This Legacy Supervisory Statement (LSS) has been superseded. Insurers should refer to SS5/19 Liquidity risk management for insurers . For all banks, building societies and PRA-designated investment firms, since publication of this LSS, the PRA has developed other frameworks which provide information akin to that received through this LSS, including its approach to Pillar 2 liquidity (see PS2/18 Pillar 2 liquidity for more information).. Background. From its commencement on 1 April 2013 the Prudential Regulation Authority (PRA) has adopted a number of legacy Financial Services Authority (FSA) policy publications relevant to the advancement of its objectives. This document, initially issued by the FSA , has been adopted by the PRA as a Supervisory Statement as part of this process. The PRA may choose to review this legacy publication at a later stage.. ...
Banks have six months to design new trading models; EU urges U.S. to change course on swaps rules; and watchdog says SEC is better at cost-benefit analysis.
Banks have six months to design new trading models; EU urges U.S. to change course on swaps rules; and watchdog says SEC is better at cost-benefit analysis.
1. The Feds unusual step of buying the CDOs provided nearly $30 billion more in liquidity to a small number of banks. To put that in context, the first of the Feds emergency rescue programs, the Term Auction Facility, was at its outset a $40 billion program open to a much larger universe of firms and provided 28 day loans, not a permanent transfer.. 2. The insistence that the Fed was up against a hard deadline of November 10. In response to questions today, Baxter insisted that the Fed had to have a new program in place by November 10, because that was when AIG would announce earnings and a rating agency downgrade seemed inevitable, which would lead to more collateral calls. But that is misleading. First, even if the rating agencies issued their downgrades that very day, the collateral payment was not due that day. There would be some sort of time delay, not long, but I would guess 3-5 days (I assume expert readers will advise me and I will revise the post accordingly). Perhaps more important, ...
On Fri, 19 Dec 2003 04:13:27 GMT, k p Collins ,[email protected][----------]earthlink.net, wrote: } Doktor DynaSoar ,targeting at OMCL.mil, wrote in message } news:oue4uvsgfdqn37503bqc38f23ueh680b1p at 4ax.com... } , On Thu, 18 Dec 2003 11:21:22 -0500, r norman ,rsn_ at _comcast.net, } , wrote: } , } , } On Thu, 18 Dec 2003 12:49:39 GMT, Glen M. Sizemore } , } ,gmsizemore2 at yahoo.com, wrote: } , } [...] } } , My money says the autapses are a tuning mechanism which makes the cell } , tend to fire at a certain rate in the absence of other input. Think of } , the resting oscillations of visual alpha, motor mu, auditory tau, } , etc. I think this would probably be most evident in the GABAergic } , interneurons that drive the 40 Hz binding (used here in the sense of } , functional Hebbian assemblies, not that of experiential gestalt). } , Something tunes them very tightly, and all the work trying to pin this } , on some characteristic inherent in the cell membrane has been } , unsatisfying. } } ...
... are used to finance all or part of your procedure, require a minimum credit score of 620 & do not require collateral.
Going forward it just creates an awful lot of difficulty that we dont need to buy into," Roberts said. He said it was already difficult to sort out whether claims were appealable as part of the collateral order. "Now, what you want us to do is take that difficulty and continue it on in terms of when you can appeal and when you cant," Roberts said ...
Collateral Benefits of Fish Oil Therapy for Rheumatoid Arthritis. In a small study, the proportion of patients in remission at 3 years was greater in the Fis...
Major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (or MAPCAs) are arteries that develop to supply blood to the lungs when native pulmonary circulation is underdeveloped. Instead of coming from the pulmonary trunk, supply develops from the aorta and other systemic arteries. Major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (MAPCAs) develop early in embryonic life but regress as the normal pulmonary arteries (vessels that will supply deoxygenated blood to the lungs) develop. In certain heart conditions the pulmonary arteries do not develop. The collaterals continue to grow, and can become the main supply of blood to the lungs. Though it is usually associated with congenital heart diseases with decreased pulmonary blood flow like tetralogy of Fallot or pulmonary atresia it may be seen sometimes in isolation i.e. not associated with any congenital heart disease in that case it is termed as isolated aortopulmonary collateral artery. In these cases it may be one of the cause of congestive cardiac failure in neonates. ...
Two methods are described here using the radial artery, the most common site because of low complication rates. Methods can be adapted to other arteries. Another common site is the posterior tibial artery, as both the radial and posterior tibial arteries have good collateral circulation. Ulnar (to be used only in the absence of previous radial artery puncture attempt) and dorsalis pedis arteries are alternative sites. The temporal, brachial, and femoral arteries are not recommended. Axillary artery cannulation is very difficult and also not recommended. Temporal artery catheterization may have adverse neurologic sequelae. The brachial artery does not have good collateral flow and can have a lot of complications. Lateral or posterior wrist transillumination or Doppler/real-time ultrasound may be helpful in locating the artery in premature infants. Arterial catheterization requires patience ...
Our case can be classified as complex coronary arteriovenous fistulas with termination in the pulmonary trunk with multiple vessels of origin (LCA, RCA and anomalous coronary artery). The dilated costobronchial vessel of origin can be thought of as an extracardiac systemic-to-pulmonary artery collateral vessel or isolated aortopulmonary collateral artery (IAPCA), the coronary supply from RCA & LAD fits the MAPCA definition as well, although intersegmental arteries (typical tortuous posterior hilar vessels) are absent, drainage this proximal in the pulmonary trunk is odd and most isolated MAPCAs would have regressed. [5] Since no cardiac abnormalities were noted indicating an aetiological factor, this persistent left-to-right shunt is probably congenital. The exact aetiology remains challenging, patients history was unremarkable for patent ductus arteriosus or chronic lung disease. [6 ...
Olives mother, Robin said her daughter is, "funky and feisty. In the last two weeks, it seems like Olive is not - she cant seem to hold her own without high-flow oxygen. They pretty much told us there was nothing they could do. Weve heard that before, but we can physically see with our eyes that shes not able to support herself." The little girl was born with a myriad of heart and lung conditions including pulmonary atresia, major aortopulmonary collateral arteries and tetralogy of Fallot. If you combine all of these conditions, it makes her little heart and lungs unable to efficiently provide oxygenated blood to the rest of her little body.. Olive has undergone several procedures, include cardiac catheterization in order to widen her tiny pulmonary veins. However, her veins are scarring quickly and closing in fast. According to data provided by the Organ Transplant and Procurement Network, 21 people die each day waiting for an organ that never arrives. A new person is added to the ...
Systemic-to-pulmonary collateral flow in patients with palliated univentricular heart physiology: measurement using cardiovascular magnetic resonance 4D velocity acquisition : Systemic-to-pulmonary collateral flow (SPCF) may constitute a risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality in patients with single-ventricle physiology (SV). However, clinical research is limited by the complexity of multi-vessel two-dimensional (2D) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) flow measurements. We sought to validate four-dimensional (4D) velocity acquisition sequence for
1) The extent and severity of visual field loss has been compared in a series of 14 patients with occlusions of the posterior cerebral artery or its branches, all verified angiographically. Atheroma, embolism, and migraine were the commonest types of underlying vascular disease. (2) Occlusion of the main trunk of the artery was associated with severe and permanent field loss usually with some sparing of the central area and, in one case, of some field adjacent to the vertical meridian. It is suggested that this is due to collateral blood flow reaching the margins of the posterior cerebral territory from the adjacent middle cerebral territory via pial anastomoses. (3) Single or multiple occlusions of the main branches of the posterior cerebral artery gave variable amounts of field loss with considerable recovery in some cases. Collateral blood flow from the middle cerebral territory and from other branches of the posterior cerebral artery was demonstrated and the variation may be due to the size ...
Nutritionistt E may prevent non-enzymatic glycosylation of lens proteins, thus slowing aging of the lens. Axial fan features: simple structure, stable and reliable, low nturitionist, wide range calgary dietitians nutritionist functional options and so on. Nutrition Tips How To Effortlessly Cut Calories Not quite ready for a full-blown diet, but want to make progress where you can. A text (html) model can be available for on-line viewing. Many packaged foods contain totally different types of sweeteners which calgary dietitians nutritionist a similar metabolic impact as with dietitiwns types of sugar: they contribute to weight problems. Fat in food doesnt cause weight gain, excess calgary dietitians nutritionist causes weight gain. unsweetened cereal). Children with glucose deficiencies suffer a shorter inattentive phase. Advertising is about growing the tools and methods, equivalent to advertising, collateral supplies, public relations packages and promotions, to promote your calgary dietitians ...
Classically, chronic intestinal angina is caused by a reduction in mesenteric blood flow [1], and the pathophysiology of most cases is atherosclerotic stenosis of the celiac and mesenteric arteries. Arterial dissection, fibromuscular dysplasia, and vasculitis are included as rare etiologies of arterial narrowing, and the median arcuate ligament of the diaphragm can compress the celiac artery and disturb blood flow (median arcuate ligament syndrome) [5, 6]. Intestinal circulation consists of an abundant collateral blood supply, and chronic intestinal ischemia is associated with high-grade stenosis or occlusion of two or more of the three major vessels: the celiac artery, the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries [7, 8]. In our case, the arterial lesions were relatively mild compared with previous reports [9, 10]; thus, we hypothesized that our patients major symptoms were not due to his arterial lesions alone.. Specifically, our patients symptoms depended greatly on his hemodynamic ...
BACKGROUND Upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage is mainly caused by ulcers. Gastric varicosis due to portal hypertension can also be held responsible for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Portal hypertension causes the development of a collateral circulation from the portal to the caval venous system resulting in development of oesophageal and gastric fundus varices. Those may also be held responsible for upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. CASE PRESENTATION In this study, we describe the case of a 69-year-old male with recurrent severe upper gastrointestinal bleeding caused by arterial submucosal collaterals due to idiopathic splenic artery thrombosis. The diagnosis was secured using endoscopic duplex ultrasound and angiography. The patient was successfully treated with a laparoscopic splenectomy and complete dissection of the short gastric arteries, resulting in the collapse of the submucosal arteries in the gastric wall. Follow-up gastroscopy was performed on the 12th postoperative week and showed no
TY - JOUR. T1 - Branches of the petrous and cavernous segments of the internal carotid artery. AU - Tubbs, R. Shane. AU - Hansasuta, Ake. AU - Loukas, Marios. AU - Louis, Robert G.. AU - Mohajel Shoja, Mohammadali. AU - Salter, E. George. AU - Oakes, W. Jerry. PY - 2007/9/13. Y1 - 2007/9/13. N2 - Microsurgical approaches to the skull base require a thorough knowledge of the microvasculature of this region. Interestingly, most standard texts of anatomy do not mention the branches of the internal carotid artery as it travels through the temporal bone and cavernous sinus. Although small and with often conflicting descriptions, these arterial branches may be of significance when contributing to the vascular supply of such pathological entities as meningiomas and vascular malformations. Furthermore, multiple anastomoses exist between these branches and branches of the external carotid artery, thus providing a potentially important collateral circulation between these two systems and thus retrograde ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Splenic infarction after splenorenal arterial bypass. AU - Valentine, R. James. AU - Rossi, Matthew B.. AU - Myers, Stuart I.. AU - Clagett, G. Patrick. PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. N2 - Because of the spleens extensive collateral circulation, the risk of splenic infarction after splenorenal arterial bypass (SRB) has been considered negligible. We report four patients in whom splenic infarctions developed after SRB. Splenic infarction developed in one patient at the time of SRB, and symptoms of splenic abscess (fever, abdominal pain, and leukocytosis) that proved to be splenic infarctions at laparotomy developed in three patients 2 to 16 days after the operation. Factors possibly contributing to splenic infarction could be determined for three patients. These included interruption of collateral vessels, intraoperative hypotension and disseminated intravascular coagulation, and distal splenic artery ligation. Normal Doppler flow was detected in the splenic parenchyma during test ...

Traditional cardiovascular risk factors and coronary collateral circulation: Protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis...Traditional cardiovascular risk factors and coronary collateral circulation: Protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis...

Traditional coronary risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, and smoking) have some effects on coronary collateral circulation. ... Well-developed coronary collateral circulation usually results in fewer infarct size, improved cardiac function, and fewer ... The primary outcomes of this meta-analysis are well-developed coronary collateral circulation. Meta-analysis was performed to ... Traditional cardiovascular risk factors and coronary collateral circulation: Protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis ...
more infohttps://insights.ovid.com/medi/201804270/00005792-201804270-00022

Heart-Encyclopedia - collateral circulationHeart-Encyclopedia - collateral circulation

collateral circulation Collateral circulation is the process in which a system of small, normally closed arteries opens up and ...
more infohttp://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Encyclopedia/Heart-Encyclopedia_UCM_445084_Encyclopedia.jsp?title=collateral%20circulation

Collateral circulation - WikipediaCollateral circulation - Wikipedia

Collateral circulation is the alternate circulation around a blocked artery or vein via another path, such as nearby minor ... portocaval collateral circulation). Dictionary.com collateral circulation. ... An example of the usefulness of collateral circulation is a systemic thromboembolism in cats. This is when a thrombotic embolus ... Hepatic cirrhosis arising from congestion in the hepatic portal vein may give rise to collateral circulation between branches ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collateral_circulation

Leptomeningeal collateral circulation - WikipediaLeptomeningeal collateral circulation - Wikipedia

The leptomeningeal collateral circulation is a network of blood vessels supplying the brain that follows a diffuse course over ... The leptomeningeal collateral circulation allows a very limited degree of compensation for this. However, this mild ... This circulation is in the leptomeninges, the two deeper layers of the meninges - the pia mater and the arachnoid mater. If the ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leptomeningeal_collateral_circulation

Coronary Collateral Growth Induced by Physical ExerciseCLINICAL PERSPECTIVE | CirculationCoronary Collateral Growth Induced by Physical ExerciseCLINICAL PERSPECTIVE | Circulation

A, Hemodynamic assessment of the coronary collateral circulation. Example of assessment of the coronary collateral flow by ... Frequency distribution of collateral flow and factors influencing collateral channel development. Functional collateral channel ... Schematic diagram of the assessment of the coronary collateral circulation. Assessment of the coronary collateral flow by ... Assessment of the collateral circulation by pressure-derived CFI currently represents the gold standard and is calculated as ...
more infohttp://circ.ahajournals.org/content/133/15/1438

Impairment of Collateral Formation in Lipoprotein(a) Transgenic Mice | CirculationImpairment of Collateral Formation in Lipoprotein(a) Transgenic Mice | Circulation

Impairment of Collateral Formation in Lipoprotein(a) Transgenic Mice. Ryuichi Morishita, Minako Sakaki, Kei Yamamoto, Sota ... Impairment of Collateral Formation in Lipoprotein(a) Transgenic Mice. Ryuichi Morishita, Minako Sakaki, Kei Yamamoto, Sota ... Collateral Formation in Lp(a) Transgenic Mice. First, we used the hindlimb ischemia model to determine the effects of high ... Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Circulation.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person ...
more infohttp://circ.ahajournals.org/content/105/12/1491

Collateral Circulation: Heart, Brain, Kidney, Limbs / Edition 1 by Wolfgang Schaper | 9780792320128 | Hardcover | Barnes &...Collateral Circulation: Heart, Brain, Kidney, Limbs / Edition 1 by Wolfgang Schaper | 9780792320128 | Hardcover | Barnes &...

Collateral blood vessels develop by growth of pre or newly formed structures in almost all vascular provinces as a consequence ... Venous level collaterals in the coronary system; M.V. Cohen, J.M. Downey. Microvascular collaterals in the coronary circulation ... Collateral circulation of the brain; K.-A. Hossmann. Limb collaterals; W. Schoop. Neurohumoral and pharmacologic regulation of ... The role of growth factors in collateral development; E.F. Unger. Interactions of the coronary and collateral circulations; K.W ...
more infohttps://www.barnesandnoble.com/w/collateral-circulation-wolfgang-schaper/1101496191

Importance of angina for development of collateral circulation. | HeartImportance of angina for development of collateral circulation. | Heart

The extent of collateral circulation in 46 patients who had intracoronary thrombolysis within six hours of the onset of acute ... Collateral development was graded during coronary cineangiography according to the extent of opacification of the collateral ... Collateral channels were visible in only two of 19 patients without angina before infarction and nine of the 18 patients with ... The prevalence of angina and the collateral index were not significantly influenced by the extent of coronary vessel disease. ...
more infohttp://heart.bmj.com/content/57/2/139

Collateral circulation, artwork - Stock Image C008/4470 - Science Photo LibraryCollateral circulation, artwork - Stock Image C008/4470 - Science Photo Library

Artwork demonstrating the benefits of collateral circulation. Collateral circulation is the development of alternative blood ... Caption: Collateral circulation. Artwork demonstrating the benefits of collateral circulation. Collateral circulation is the ... collateral circulation, cut out, cut outs, cut-out, cut-outs, cutout, cutouts, illustration, medical, medicine, white ... Keywords: anastamoses, anastomosing, anastomosis, artwork, blockage, blocked, blood supply, blood vessel, circulation, ...
more infohttp://www.sciencephoto.com/media/147392/view

It cuts off collateral circulation to the whole appendage (Reply #70) - Democratic UndergroundIt cuts off collateral circulation to the whole appendage (Reply #70) - Democratic Underground

It cuts off collateral circulation to the whole appendage. causing tissue damage. It can lead to tissue necrosis and amputation ...
more infohttps://www.democraticunderground.com/?com=view_post&forum=1002&pid=2292524

Directional coronary collateral resistance. | Circulation ResearchDirectional coronary collateral resistance. | Circulation Research

Your Name) thought you would like to see the Circulation Research web site. ... Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Circulation Research. ...
more infohttp://circres.ahajournals.org/content/41/5/730

Collateral circulation financial definition of collateral circulationCollateral circulation financial definition of collateral circulation

What is collateral circulation? Meaning of collateral circulation as a finance term. What does collateral circulation mean in ... Definition of collateral circulation in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... collateral circulation does not always occur.. Collateral circulation and stroke. ... Huperzine a for memory. ... new drug for ... collateral. (redirected from collateral circulation). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Encyclopedia, ...
more infohttps://financial-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/collateral+circulation

The Functional Significance of the Human Coronary Collateral Circulation. | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of...The Functional Significance of the Human Coronary Collateral Circulation. | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of...

The Functional Significance of the Human Coronary Collateral Circulation. Pantel S. Vokonas, M.D.; Richard H. Helfant, M.D.; ... Vokonas PS, Helfant RH, Gorlin R. The Functional Significance of the Human Coronary Collateral Circulation.. Ann Intern Med. ; ... 26 of 33 subjects with collaterals had a positive two-step exercise test compared with 14 of 29 without collaterals (P , 0.05 ... A slightly but insignificantly (P , 0.2) higher prevalence of normal resting electrocardiograms occurred in the collaterals ...
more infohttp://annals.org/aim/article-abstract/685453/functional-significance-human-coronary-collateral-circulation

Collateral Circulation Archives · PetMassage™ Training and Research InstituteCollateral Circulation Archives · PetMassage™ Training and Research Institute

Lipomas, lumps and bumps, from the perspective of PetMassage canine massage. This discussion is part of the preparation for the continuing ed workshop I will be facilitating, at the IAAMB/ACWT - NBCAAM Conference this September, in Seattle. In the 4-hour workshop titled, "Canine Myofascial Release: Techniques to Discover and Track Movement," well be wrist-deep in…. Read More ...
more infohttps://petmassage.com/tag/collateral-circulation/

Role of Genetic Variation in Collateral Circulation in the Evolution of Acute Stroke | StrokeRole of Genetic Variation in Collateral Circulation in the Evolution of Acute Stroke | Stroke

Role of Genetic Variation in Collateral Circulation in the Evolution of Acute Stroke. A Multimodal Magnetic Resonance Imaging ... Role of Genetic Variation in Collateral Circulation in the Evolution of Acute Stroke ... Role of Genetic Variation in Collateral Circulation in the Evolution of Acute Stroke ... Role of Genetic Variation in Collateral Circulation in the Evolution of Acute Stroke ...
more infohttp://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/early/2017/02/10/STROKEAHA.116.015878

The Range of Adaptation by Collateral Vessels After Femoral Artery Occlusion | Circulation ResearchThe Range of Adaptation by Collateral Vessels After Femoral Artery Occlusion | Circulation Research

The Range of Adaptation by Collateral Vessels After Femoral Artery Occlusion. Inka Eitenmüller, Oscar Volger, Alexander Kluge, ... The Range of Adaptation by Collateral Vessels After Femoral Artery Occlusion. Inka Eitenmüller, Oscar Volger, Alexander Kluge, ... The Range of Adaptation by Collateral Vessels After Femoral Artery Occlusion. Inka Eitenmüller, Oscar Volger, Alexander Kluge, ... Your Name) thought you would like to see the Circulation Research web site. ...
more infohttp://circres.ahajournals.org/content/early/2006/08/24/01.RES.0000242560.77512.dd

Study of Luminal Coronary Collateral Circulation in the Beating Canine Heart | Circulation ResearchStudy of Luminal Coronary Collateral Circulation in the Beating Canine Heart | Circulation Research

Coronary collateral circulation from the cardiac lumen was studied in 36 anesthetized, open-chest dogs with hearts beating in ... Study of Luminal Coronary Collateral Circulation in the Beating Canine Heart. THOMAS W. MOIR ... Your Name) thought you would like to see the Circulation Research web site. ... Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Circulation Research. ...
more infohttp://circres.ahajournals.org/content/24/5/735

Impact of collateral circulation status on favorable outcomes in thrombolysis treatment: A systematic review and meta-analysisImpact of collateral circulation status on favorable outcomes in thrombolysis treatment: A systematic review and meta-analysis

poor collateral circulation, as well as baseline characteristics, on the outcome within the series presented as risk ratios. ... A good collateral circulation status was revealed to have a beneficial effect on favorable functional outcome (modified Rankin ... Collateral circulation affects the prognosis of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) treated by thrombolysis. The present ... Wufuer, A., Wubuli, A., Mijiti, P., Zhou, J., Tuerxun, S., Cai, J., Ma, J., Zhang, X.Impact of collateral circulation status ...
more infohttps://www.spandidos-publications.com/etm/15/1/707/abstract

Assessment of Intracranial Collaterals on CT Angiography in Anterior Circulation Acute Ischemic Stroke | American Journal of...Assessment of Intracranial Collaterals on CT Angiography in Anterior Circulation Acute Ischemic Stroke | American Journal of...

Assessment of Intracranial Collaterals on CT Angiography in Anterior Circulation Acute Ischemic Stroke. L.L.L. Yeo, P. Paliwal ... Assessment of Intracranial Collaterals on CT Angiography in Anterior Circulation Acute Ischemic Stroke ... Assessment of Intracranial Collaterals on CT Angiography in Anterior Circulation Acute Ischemic Stroke ... Assessment of Intracranial Collaterals on CT Angiography in Anterior Circulation Acute Ischemic Stroke ...
more infohttp://www.ajnr.org/content/early/2014/10/16/ajnr.A4117

New patterns of retinal collateral circulation are exposed by a retinal functional imager (RFI) | British Journal of...New patterns of retinal collateral circulation are exposed by a retinal functional imager (RFI) | British Journal of...

The findings of this study provide new information on retinal circulation and describe new patterns of collateral circulation, ... Four patterns of retinal collateral circulation have been recognised:. *. "Looped" collateral pattern. This arterovenous ... Four patterns of retinal collateral circulation have been recognised: (1) looped collateral pattern-this arterovenous ... Collateral blood vessels are particularly important in many organs, such as the coronary and skeletal muscle circulations. In ...
more infohttps://bjo.bmj.com/content/94/1/54

Collateral circulation in the hind limb of dog as influenced by vasoac by Bashir Ahmad Sheikh"Collateral circulation in the hind limb of dog as influenced by vasoac" by Bashir Ahmad Sheikh

Methysergide and indomethacin treatments invoked a 2-3 fold increase in collateral and peripheral resistances, and collateral ... During this period, nutritional blood was supplied to the collateral bed from the partially obstructed femoral vessel. This ... The collateral blood flow and resistance remained unchanged during this period. ... untreated animals did not show a significant variation in collateral and peripheral resistances following partial or complete ...
more infohttps://lib.dr.iastate.edu/rtd/6948/

The relationship between coronary collateral circulation and contrast induced nephropathy in patients with non-ST elevation...The relationship between coronary collateral circulation and contrast induced nephropathy in patients with non-ST elevation...

Yildirim T, Avci E, Kırıs T, Hasan K. The relationship between coronary collateral circulation and contrast induced nephropathy ... The relationship between coronary collateral circulation and contrast induced nephropathy in patients with non-ST elevation ... KEY WORDS: Kidney diseases; Collateral circulation; Non-ST elevation myocardial infarction; Coronary angiography ... For the purpose of evaluating the coronary collaterals, the Rentrop classification was used.. RESULTS: A total 269 patients ...
more infohttps://www.minervamedica.it/en/journals/gazzetta-medica-italiana/article.php?cod=R22Y2019N10A0749

Sabinet | The neuro-psychiatric syndrome -Associated with chronic liver disease and an extensive portal-systemic collateral...Sabinet | The neuro-psychiatric syndrome -Associated with chronic liver disease and an extensive portal-systemic collateral...

The neuro-psychiatric syndrome -Associated with chronic liver disease and an extensive portal-systemic collateral circulation, ... Associated with chronic liver disease and an extensive portal-systemic collateral circulation * Navigate this Journal ...
more infohttps://journals.co.za/content/CAJM/13/6/AJA00089176_3836

Computed tomography features of bronchial and non-bronchial collateral arterial circulation development in a dog diagnosed with...Computed tomography features of bronchial and non-bronchial collateral arterial circulation development in a dog diagnosed with...

Computed tomography features of bronchial and non-bronchial collateral arterial circulation development in a dog diagnosed with ... consistent with systemic bronchial and non-bronchial collateral arterial circulation development. These features of chronic ...
more infohttps://www.avmi.net/information/ct-concepts/computed-tomography-features-of-bronchial-and-non-bronchial-collateral-arterial-circulation-development-in-a-dog-diagnosed-with-multiple-chronic-pulmonary-thrombi/
  • However, the association between these risk factors and coronary collateral circulation are controversial. (ovid.com)
  • This study will provide a high-quality synthesis of current evidence of traditional risk factors on collateral circulation. (ovid.com)
  • 1 It was not until the 1960s that the existence of structural coronary anastomoses was unambiguously verified by William Fulton, who had developed a pathoanatomic imaging technique that enabled differentiation between vascular overlay and true connections between adjacent parts of the circulation. (bmj.com)
  • The clinical importance of arteriographically demonstrable collaterals was studied in 61 patients and compared with 58 patients without collaterals. (annals.org)
  • While the first clinical trials to therapeutically induce growth of collateral arteries have been unavailing, recent pilot studies using external counterpulsation or growth factors such as granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) have shown promising results. (beds.ac.uk)
  • To describe different patterns of retinal collateral circulation observed in normal subjects and in patients with a variety of ocular diseases during studies with the retinal functional imager (RFI). (bmj.com)
  • 4 , 5 Wiggers was unable to document functional collateral vessels in the dog heart and thought it unlikely that sufficient blood supply could result from the collateral circulation in the human heart. (bmj.com)
  • In this study, we examined collateral formation in peripheral arterial disease (PAD) model in Lp(a) transgenic mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • Methysergide and indomethacin treatments invoked a 2-3 fold increase in collateral and peripheral resistances, and collateral blood flow completely ceased during partial stenoses. (iastate.edu)
  • 0.2) higher prevalence of normal resting electrocardiograms occurred in the collaterals group (22 of 61 patients) compared with those without collaterals (16 of 58 patients). (annals.org)
  • Skinner and Strandness (3) claimed that exercise training increased collateral circulation to the ischaemic muscle. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Importance of angina for development of collateral circulation. (bmj.com)
  • Blood flow to the brain in humans and some other animals is maintained via a network of collateral arteries that anastomose (join) in the circle of Willis, which lies at the base of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later studies [6,7,8,9,have demonstrated that the possible mechanism of action of omental transfer is an increase in local collateral circulation rather than any significant increase in blood flow. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Hepatic cirrhosis arising from congestion in the hepatic portal vein may give rise to collateral circulation between branches of the portal and caval veins of the liver, or between the two caval veins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even though the main vessels to the leg are blocked, enough blood can get to the tissues in the leg via the collateral circulation to keep them alive. (wikipedia.org)
  • How can collateral function be measured? (beds.ac.uk)
  • This relation appears to be causal, because augmented collateral function by arteriogenic therapy is associated with prolonged survival. (bmj.com)
  • The leptomeningeal collateral circulation is a network of blood vessels supplying the brain that follows a diffuse course over the superficial surface of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The patient experienced no postoperative neurologic deficit, and postoperative CTA of the brain revealed adequate collateral circulation (figure 2). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Subgroup analyses explored the potential factors that may interfere with the effects of the collateral circulation status on the outcome. (spandidos-publications.com)